Tag: United States

Study Abroad in University of California, Riverside

Study Abroad in University of California, Riverside

After I had already spent a student exchange in Minnesota, it was clear to me that I would like to spend another longer time in the USA during my studies and decided to do a semester abroad at UC Riverside (UCR).

It was very important to me that my achievements from abroad would also be recognized at my home university, which is why the UCR seemed particularly suitable to me, as its business school is accredited by the AACSB. In September, two weeks before the start of the semester, my fellow student from Munich and I made our way to Riverside.

If you book a flight early, look around to see if you can arrive directly at “Ontario” airport, which is even closer to Riverside than LAX. Back then, I booked a rental car online through Hertz early on and did not use the UCR pick-up option. You don’t need a navigation device under any circumstances, with a little sense of direction and a free map from Hertz you can easily find your way from LAX or Ontario Airport to Riverside.
For the first few days on site, I booked a hotel nearby and kept the rental car for a week so that I could take a look at a few apartments and check out car dealers for a used car.

As I said, I wanted to find my own apartment and not use the UCR dormitory. Dormitory is probably the wrong word here, the whole apartment complex is very chic and modern and is right next to the UCR, but the rooms are VERY expensive. For the same money you can easily get your own apartment near the university.

Invest a day and just drive down the streets near the university, there are tons of apartments. Back then, my fellow student and I opted for the “Boulder Creek Apartments” on Iowa Avenue. The price was perfectly okay, for a 1-room apartment that could easily be inhabited by two, we paid about $ 1000 per month and shared it. I can only recommend the residential complex – the most beautiful pool area of ​​all apartments in Riverside, seriously!

If you decide to have your own apartment, it is essential to have an internet connection. Some apartments offer free WiFi, ours unfortunately not. We decided on the Anbierter “Charter”. With this one can conclude a “contract” for Internet and television without a social security number and also borrow equipment such as WLAN routers and receivers; there is also no minimum contract period. As soon as you leave Riverside, you bring the borrowed equipment back and the “contract” is over. We bought a used television on ebay for $ 20 – it did its job without worries.

Many of the apartments are furnished, but unfortunately not ours, so we bought a piece of furniture from Ikea, which can be found about half an hour from Riverside in Covina.
My biggest tip I can give you: craigslist.com. There you can find everything from wardrobes to skateboards mostly very cheap.
In addition, we decided to buy a car. I really wanted to buy from a used car dealer in order to have a guarantee if something happened to the car.
I would NOT do the same thing again. You’d rather spend a few dollars more and rent a car over time. After a long negotiation I got a guarantee for the car, which then cost us $ 6000, but it was sorely needed. I stood at the dealer in the yard 12 (!) Times to have the car repaired, thank goodness everything was covered by the guarantee. Shortly before the return flight I wanted to sell the car back to the dealer, but they made me a lousy offer and so I had to sell the car to Carmax for $ 2000 (I had expected $ 4000) for better or worse.
But a car is an absolute must if you don’t always want to ask someone to drive you to go shopping. The California distances are definitely not to be underestimated.

Daily Life:

There are numerous supermarkets in Riverside, my tip: Food 4 Less, more of a kind of wholesale market and much cheaper than other supermarkets. There are also enough banks. To get cash free of charge, you either do one of the following: With cards from Deutsche Bank, you can get cash free of charge at Bank of America; alternatively open an account on site, it costs nothing and you get a soccer ball for free ;-); get a credit card. You definitely need it, because firstly in America you can easily pay for any chewing gum with a credit card, but it is also often irreplaceable for paying bills (internet, garbage,…) over the internet. With many free credit cards that are offered in Germany, you can withdraw cash from ATMs internationally free of charge.
Get a cell phone! Tip: Kmart, $ 30 including cell phone and free minutes. Don’t be surprised: even if someone calls you, you pay with American prepaid cards.


The great thing about Riverside is the location! It is an hour to downtown LA, 1.5 hours to the beaches and 1.5 hours to San Diego. San Diego is my all time favorite here! Pack a few people in the car on the weekend, rent a cheap hotel and go to a few clubs in the Gaslamp Quarter – great! Downtown LA is definitely a must-see, but the whole thing seemed rather dingy to me during the day and rather dangerous in the evening. Since having to party with San Diego much better. An absolute must, especially New Year’s Eve, but only if you are over 21: Vegas! As I said, it’s really only worth it if you are over 21, the bouncers understand their job, believe me.
Travel around, discover California (insider tip: Santa Barbara and the district “Isla Vista”: you haven’t seen anything like this before, what’s going on there on a Saturday evening!). Whatever you do: DO NOT go to Tijuana! It used to be a party hotspot for San Diego students, now it’s just dangerous and what’s there to see is not worth it.

Uni life:

You read again and again how difficult it must have been for some students from abroad to get their desired course at the UCR. There is a simple rule here: keep calm and speak genuinely and kindly to the right people. If you kindly explain that it is very important for you to come to this course, because you need it for your university at home, even the fullest course can be done at once with a little bit of negotiation skills. You hardly need to send emails, unfortunately they are rarely answered, go straight to the consultation hour.
After you have completed your course selection, studying at the UCR is a lot of fun. I had three courses – a business course and two economics courses. The schedule was put together just right. You will notice a difference to your German university: More homework and unannounced smaller tests, but slightly easier tests in the middle and at the end of the semester. My tip: If you have the chance and the interest: choose a course from Dr. Sean D. Jasso – the best professor I have ever seen!
Use the Recreation Center: The whole thing costs about $ 75 for a quarter, but you have a gym, tennis and squash courts, you can borrow equipment for free and, and, and… it’s worth it!


If you feel like studying a quarter at the UCR – do it! You will have incomparable experiences and have the fun of your life.
To recap: Craigslist.com should be your best friend, rent a car, meet as many people as possible and just have fun, but that’s almost guaranteed!

Many thanks to Aline Meyer for her always friendly and helpful support!

University of California, Riverside 1

Study Abroad in San Jose State University

Study Abroad in San Jose State University

Preparation for the stay abroad:

The application process via MicroEDU went like clockwork – if you can put it that way. The team is available to answer any questions at any time, and these tend to pile up at the beginning when putting together the application documents. CoCo also checks all documents and details again before the application is sent to the SDSU. With the help of the checklists provided, you always have an overview of the application process and which steps still need to be taken. Obtaining the F1 student visa , which I processed at the embassy in Frankfurt, is particularly important and also a bit time-consuming.

Arrival and accommodation:

I only flew to San Diego shortly before the beginning of the semester and therefore didn’t have the opportunity to get to know the whole city or to travel. In my opinion, that didn’t mean I had any disadvantage at all. Since I had already organized accommodation from Germany, I didn’t have to move into the hostel like many other students and look for an apartment on site.

Unlike most students, I live with a fellow student in a private house near the campus. We got the contact from a friend who previously lived there during her own semester abroad at SDSU. I was super satisfied with the accommodation. We both had our own, sufficiently large room and the rest of the house was well furnished. The landlord lived in the house himself, but only shared the kitchen with us. He has a separate bedroom with bathroom in a small annex in the garden. The location of the house was also ideal. The university was within walking distance and the “Boulevard63” dormitory, where most of the (international) students lived, was just seven minutes away on foot. There were also numerous supermarkets and restaurants nearby.

The typical question that everyone has to answer for themselves is. “Would I prefer to live close to the university or close to the beach?” Since the SDSU is inland, you have to weigh your preferences. Both choices definitely have their advantages. I decided to be close to the campus and I was really very satisfied with it. My fellow student and I rented a car from Dirt Cheap and so we were well equipped for trips to the beach after university. In addition, the majority of the international students lived in the student residences close to the campus, so that it was easiest to meet again on campus or at home for group work.


The San Diego State has a wonderful campus to offer, which invites you to linger and study in the park areas thanks to the almost consistently good weather. Every Thursday there is also a food market and a wide range of fast food / restaurant chains and small student supermarkets.

The courses:

BA350 – Multinational Business & Organizational Behavior:

Very interesting content, very good lecturer (Prof. Blue), interactive lectures.
There was a group project in which a country of our choice was to be presented in terms of culture, politics and economy. However, this presentation had to be embedded in a creative concept and be interactive. That took time to prepare accordingly. The exams each consisted of 50 multiple-choice questions. For the exams, 6-7 chapters of the course book had to be read or memorized. The reading and learning effort was accordingly high, but the content was very interesting and mostly very easy to understand. I would recommend this course to others.

MGT352 – Human Resource Management:

Very interesting in terms of content, you learn a lot about the rights of employees and the application and selection process of companies. The lecturer (Pro f. Del Castillo) is very competent and brings a lot of knowledge from his job as an HR expert. However, in my opinion, he lacks the skills to really prepare his course for the exams and exams. The three exams each consisted of 40 multiple choice questions and four short answer questions, whereby the expected answer length is by no means “short”. Some of the questions were asked very comprehensively, so that at least three quarters to a full page had to be answered, which in view of the time was sometimes quite tight. In addition, there were 5 unannounced inclass activities over the course of the semester, each of which brought 20 points and could not be made up in the absence (also excused). Overall, a very interesting course in terms of content, but which quickly caused frustration due to the lecturer and his expectations. Recommended only for people who actually see their future in human resources.

MGT357 – Multinational Business & Comparative Management:

A very interesting course format that I have never experienced before. In this special session the course founded its own company (a consulting company)and associated social media channels. Everyone from the course was assigned to a department depending on the focus of study and interests, so that at the end there was the departments Finance, HR, Marketing, IT and Operations, as well as a CEO and Vice President. In our course there was a girl who made bracelets from pearls as a hobby. We as a consulting company then helped her with the creation of the bracelets and the marketing. So this course was about practical work and a project that was supervised by everyone. The final exam consisted of a DIN-A4 page about what one had learned during the semester in this course. Attendance and the preparation of current news, which were presented and discussed at the beginning of each event, also flowed into the grade.I would recommend the course because of its uniqueness.

BA370 – Marketing:

A very good course with a great lecturer (Prof Haddock). Also very high reading effort for the exams, but easy to manage with only 50 multiple choice questions each. I would choose this course again.


San Diego and the university itself have a lot to offer for recreational activities. In addition to the numerous offers of the SDSU to student groups in the fields of sport, music, etc., the university offers its students a free membership in the campus fitness studio, as well as access to the Aztecs swimming complex, the Gaslamp Quarter in downtown, Point Loma, the Sunset Cliffs or even Coronado Island. The zoo, the USS Midway Museum, Seaport Village and Old Town are also highly recommended.

In addition, San Diego has three beaches to offer: Pacific Beach, also known as Party Beach, has numerous restaurants and bars. In any case, you have to have taken part in the “Duck Dive” on Taco Tuesday, where the internationals meet every Tuesday to eat taco and then party, when a DJ plays from 9 a.m. and the happy hour begins. This is located on Mission Beach Belmont Park, a small old amusement park, which can convince with its location on the beach and the view from the wooden roller coaster. Ocean Beach also has restaurants and beach stalls, but takes it easy. Particularly recommended for all dog lovers, because there is a whole stretch of beach here only for four-legged friends and their masters.

For day trips, Mexico, Los Angeles , the cities along the coast to LA or the beautiful little town of Julien, which is located in the mountains inland, are ideal.

If you have a few more days off, you should of course not forget San Francisco, Las Vegas, the Grand Canyon and other national parks.

Please make sure to use the free tickets to the games of the SDSU teams ! Don’t miss the tailgate before a football game.

Tips and conclusion:

I definitely recommend leaving plenty of space in your suitcase on arrival. In the first few days you may have a little less clothing to choose from than usual, but you can find such good bargains and prices in the outlets and shopping malls in the USA that you would look in vain in Germany.

However, it is best to take enough cosmetic products etc. with you. Contrary to my expectations, products such as deodorant, shampoo and so on were disproportionate and unexpectedly expensive (8 € for deodorant), so it is best to buy enough stock here at DM.

I had an amazing time in San Diego that I will remember fondly for a long time. I’ve met an incredible number of people and seen places that have all shaped me. The SDSU, as a highly regarded university, and the location of San Diego, located by the sea with many sunny days and a lot to experience, offer a great combination for a stay abroad. My English has also improved again through the stay and I am much more self-confident and become more independent.

I take a lot with me from my time in San Diego and can only recommend the semester abroad in California to every sun lover. It’s not for nothing that San Diego is also known as the “Americas finest City” !!

San Jose State University

USA People, Language and Religion

USA People, Language and Religion


US society can be roughly divided into 6 social classes.

According to sociologists, in 1998 there were about 1 percent prominent, wealthy citizens (upper class), about 15 percent highly qualified professionals such as doctors, professors, lawyers (upper middle class), about 32 percent well-trained professionals such as school teachers and craftsmen (lower middle class), about 32 percent Industrial workers, wage workers and simple employees (working class) and about 20 percent part-time poor or non-working who are dependent on public welfare.

Around 82 percent of the people living in the USA are white, around 13 percent black and mulatto, around 4 percent Asians and around 1 percent Indians. Visit handbagpicks for United States Tour Plan.

The United States is a popular immigration country, as can be seen in the more than 50 million immigrants who have immigrated since the beginning of the 19th century. These include Europeans, Central Americans and Asians. This ethnic diversity is still reflected today in the specific traditions that have been preserved and cultivated.

The descendants of the indigenous people are one of the socially weakest groups. More than half of them live in one of the approx. 300 reserves. In Alaska, the Indians and Eskimos make up around 16% of the population, the rest are whites.

And whites make up a third of the population in Hawaii. Otherwise, Japanese, residents of Polynesian descent and groups of Chinese, Koreans, blacks and Filipinos live there together.


The most widely spoken language is American English (it is slightly different from British English). There are many Spanish-speaking residents in the state of New Mexico who only speak their native language. That is why Spanish is the second official language there.

In addition to German, French, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese and Polish are also common in the USA. Many of the over one hundred Indian languages ​​are threatened with extinction.

English language courses

Among the multitude of language courses, I recommend multimedia language courses because you learn very quickly with this method. The link below provides you with a professional language course with which you can learn English quickly and easily:

  • American English language course


The government does not keep a register of the religious status of residents. Through the history of immigration, different religions are represented in a variety of ways.

A good half of the total population is committed to one of the more than 240 Protestant churches. The proportion of Catholics is tending to increase due to ongoing immigration.

Judaism and Islam are also major religions in the country. Buddhists, Hinduists, Mormons and others are represented on a relatively large scale.

Because of their tradition of non-interference (regulated by the constitution) in religious affairs, many smaller denominations have found refuge in the states, such as the Amish, who live mainly in Pennsylvania and the neighboring states. For generations they have been practicing the simple life without any modern technology.


Sport is very important in America. In addition to American football, the national sports include baseball, basketball, ice hockey and soccer.

The numerous immigrant groups have of course brought their cultures and traditions with them. That’s why American culture is quite diverse.


The film is one of the most important entertainment media in the United States. And who doesn’t know Hollywood films?

A very popular pastime for many Americans is to go to the movies. Walt Disney cartoons were also produced in the USA and are known worldwide.

The music is very important here. The music channel MTV was born in the USA.

The press plays an important role as the guardian of democracy, backed up by the first amendment to the American Constitution, which came into force in 1789. This article states that Congress cannot pass laws restricting the freedom of the press.


Education varies across states. There is general compulsory schooling from 6/7. Age up to the age of 16.

Under certain conditions one can also give one’s children home schooling (homeschooling). About 1-2 percent of parents choose this option for reasons such as religious views, special needs of the children or because of problems such as bullying or drugs.

Most parents send their children to state schools for which the parents do not have to pay school fees. Only about 10% of US students attend private schools. An annual fee must be paid for this.

Over 3,000 universities and colleges are available. The most famous private universities include Princeton, Harvard and Stanford. Half of them are in private hands.

Three percent of the population over the age of 15 cannot read or write.

The grades in the United States are not numbers, but letters from A – F. A is the top grade. F usually means ‘failed’. The grades can be further differentiated with a plus or a minus.


Elementary School from Kindergarten – Grades from Kindergarten to fourth, fifth or sixth grade (depending on the school district). The class size is around 18–24 children.

Junior High School and Middle School – include grades 5–8, but mostly only grades 6–8.

The high school is a kind of unified school with a course system. It covers grades 9 to 12 and is completed with the high school diploma.

USA People, Language and Religion

Manhattan Overview

Manhattan Overview

Manhattan. Name of an island belonging to the United States located at the mouth of the Hudson River in the north of New York Harbor. It is one of the five metropolitan districts (boroughs) that make up New York City. The metropolitan district has the same boundaries as New York County and includes the island of Manhattan as well as several smaller islands (Roosevelt, Randall, among others), as well as a small portion of mainland land (Marble Hill, which is geographically in the Bronx, but politically belongs to the county of New York).


The name Manhattan comes from the languages ​​of the primitive residents of the area. The story presents a popular interpretation that emphasizes how this island was bought by Dutch settlers from the natives for $ 24 on May 24, 1626 and the establishment of some 30 Dutch families two years later, when they founded the city of Niew Amsterdam where now downtown is. This city became the capital of the territory of New Holland, a short-lived Dutch colony. In 1664 it happened to the English administration after a relatively weak resistance of the Dutch, partly due to the discontent of the population with the governor Peter Stuyvesant.

The English changed the name of the city to New York, named in honor of the Duke of York, who would later become the Catholic King James II of England. New York County is one of the original twelve counties of the State of New York, created in 1683. At the time of its creation, it was the same size as New York City and occupied the entire island of Manhattan, the same area that occupies today. In 1873, the western part of present-day Bronx County was transferred to New York County from Westchester County and in 1895, the remaining part of the Bronx was also transferred to the county. In 1914, those parts constituted the new county of the Bronx. See topschoolsintheusa for LSAT test centers in New York.

In 1898, Manhattan was united with the four remaining districts forming the second largest city in the world, and from there it became the Mecca of culture, entertainment and finance for all of North America. The city benefited from the arrival of thousands of immigrants who were looking for improvements in their living conditions. This caused a cultural miscegenation that has enriched the city, transforming it into an incomparable point for the visitor. Currently 80 different languages ​​are spoken.

New York City now encompasses four separate, though not from a distinct geological view, areas, namely the City of Manhattan (Manhattan), the Borough of the Bronx, the City of Richmond (Staten Island), and the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens (Brooklyn, Jamaica, Flat Bush-and Long Island City). Of these, the District of Manhattan and the Borough of the Bronx have a common geological expression, the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens are identical in geological character, and carry their most typical boundary to the drift zone so greatly reduced in the island of Manhattan by municipal changes, while the Richmond district has an individual geological structure imply peculiar characteristics not observed in the others.

In geological affinities, if the term can be used, Manhattan and the Bronx have allied themselves in the north or primordial, even arching structures; Richmond, kings and queens of the south and the last, however, in fact, in Richmond there is a problematic core similar to those on the island of Manhattan. In view of this diversity of features, the discussion of the topographical conditions and geological nature of New York City naturally fall into three sections: first, that of Manhattan Island, with an appendix briefly covering similar construction of the borough of the Bronx, in second place, that of Brooklyn and Queens, and in third place, that of Richmond.


The borough of Manhattan and New York County have the same boundaries (they are coextensive). As part of New York City, the county has no other political subdivisions. It occupies the entire island of Manhattan, surrounded by the East River, the Harlem River, and the Hudson River. It also includes some smaller islands such as Roosevelt Island(formerly Welfare Island, and previously still “Blackwell Island”), U Thant Island (officially known as Belmont Island), and a small portion of the North American mainland (Marble Hill ) adjoining the Bronx. Marble Hill was originally part of Manhattan Island; but the Harlem River canal, excavated in the 19th century To improve navigation on the Harlem River, he separated it from Manhattan.

Manhattan Island is approximately 22 km long and 3.6 km wide at its widest point and less than 1.6 km at its narrowest point. With the exception of the large green rectangle that is Central Park, it is almost entirely covered by buildings and streets.

Manhattan is connected by bridges and tunnels to New Jersey in the west and to three New York boroughs: The Bronx in the northeast and Queens and Brooklyn on Long Island to the east and south. Its only direct connection to the city’s fifth district is the “Staten Island Ferry,” whose terminal is in Battery Park at its southern end.

Every May 28 and July 12, both at sunrise and sunset, the sun is visible on the horizon from street level as it is aligned with its path.


The most densely populated county in the United States is New York, with a total of 1,537,195 people, 738,644 heads of household, and 302,105 families residing in 2000. The population density is 25,835.21 residents / km². With a figure of 798,144 houses with a density of 13,414.18 dwellings / km². The county’s ethnic makeup is 54.36% White, 17.39% Black, 9.40% Asian, 0.07% Oceanic, 0.50% Native American, 14.14% other ethnicities, and 4.14 % mestizos. 27.18% of the total population are Hispanics, who can be of any ethnicity.

There are 738,644 heads of households, of which 17.1% have minors in their care, 25.2% are married couples who live together, 12.6% are single women, and 59.1% are not families In the county, 16.8% of the population is under 18, 10.2% is between 18 and 24, 38.3% is between 25 and 44, 22.6% is between 45 and 64, and 12.2% are over 65 years old. The average age is 36 years. For every 100 women there are 90.3 men and for every 100 underage women, there are 87.9 men.

The average annual income of a head of household is $ 47,030, and the average income per family is $ 50,229. Men have an income of around $ 51,856 compared to $ 45,712 for women. The median per capita income for the county is 42,922. 20.0% of the population and 17.6% of families are below the poverty line. Of the total number of people living in this situation, 31.8% are minors and 18.9% are over 65 years of age.

Spoken languages

In Manhattan there are registered speakers of dissimilar origin, being an approximate of 96 different languages. The majority of the population is English-speaking, this being the predominant spoken language with 59.1% of the speakers; while Spanish is the second language, with 24.9% of speakers. Chinese has 5% and the rest of the languages ​​do not reach 1% of speakers.

Government and legislation

As in other counties in New York City, there is no county government, but there are county courts and other authorities, such as the county attorney. Each metropolitan district in New York elects a President but this office does not have much power, de facto. The office of the District President (Borough President) was created with the consolidation of the five counties, to balance the balance of these, with respect to the central municipal government. Each district president had an important role, having a vote in the New York City Board of Estimate, presenting and approving municipal budgets and making proposals for spatial planning. In 1989, the United States Supreme Court declared this Board unconstitutional, because Brooklyn, the most populous county in the borough, it had no more votes than Staten Island, the county with the smallest population. This constituted a violation of the Equality Protection Clause, according to the Fourteenth Amendment (or addition) to the United States Constitution, passed in 1964 according to the rule that each person has the right to one vote.

The powers of the Board of Estimate were transferred to the Board of Councilors (City Council, with 51 members, in charge of the legislative power in the city), thus increasing the centralized power in the New York municipality. Manhattan has ten councilors on the New York City Council. Since 1990, the District President has served as an advocate for the county’s interests with the mayoral agencies, city councils, New York state government, and corporations. The President of the District of Manhattan is Scott M. Stringer. The District Attorney for the New York District (known as District Attorney or simply DA, in the original English) is Robert M. Morgenthau. It also has 12 administrative districts, each served by a local Community Board. These Boards are the representative bodies that collect citizen complaints and serve as defenders of the residents of their area, before the City Council. New York is officially designated as the county seat of New York, which is totally irrelevant for all practical purposes since there are no other cities or towns in the county.

Manhattan Overview

American History: from Jackson to Lincoln

American History: from Jackson to Lincoln


The “era of good feelings” ended in 1829, when it was replaced by the “reign of Jackson”, so called by the name of A. Jackson, president from 1829 to 1837. Western man, the first typical representative of the ” American America ”to take office in the White House, Jackson definitively democratized the United States, placing the “common man” at the forefront, but under his own strong personal leadership. He had been elected as the representative of the Democrats-Republicans (or more simply Democrats, as they are still called), supporters of a liberal-progressive orientation, as opposed to the conservative address of the Republicans-nationals: an opposition that was concretely articulated around some big problems posed by the development of the United States itself. Thus for the communication routes, roads and even more channels, it was debated whether it was up to the Union or the states to equip them; as regards customs tariffs, the contrast between the North advocating protectionism and the opposite South persisted; as for the National Bank, reconstituted in 1816, J. Calhoun (vice-president with Adams and then with Jackson) in the thesis of the nullity of federal laws that invade the field of “state rights”.

According to usaers, the crisis culminated in 1832: in contrast to the “Nullity Ordinance” issued by South Carolina Jackson threatened the use of force, choosing to protect the cause of the Union rather than that of the freedom of states, he who was also a Democrat. During Jackson’s second presidency, while the question of tariffs alienated the southerners from the president, the conflict for the National Bank (whose “charter” was not renewed) pitted him against the republicans-nationals, now bearers of the interests of the industrial East and financial. These two very different groups, united only by their common aversion to Jackson, since c. 1834. they began to call themselves Whigs, analogous to the English Whigs who opposed George III’s personal rule. If in the elections of 1836 they failed to present a single candidate, so that M. Van Buren (1837-41), Jackson’s heir, was elected, in 1840 the only Whig candidate B. Harrison (who died just a month after took office; he was succeeded by Vice President Tyler, 1841-45). During the 1940s, the thrust to the west resumed vigorously, as far as the Pacific, then on territories that belonged to Mexico. Texas, where the residents of Anglo-Saxon origin were more numerous than those of Spanish origin, had already proclaimed itself independent in 1836, then annexed, in 1845, to the United States. The war between the United States and Mexico (1846-48) ensued, won by the former, who with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (February 2, 1848) obtained the cession of Texas, California and all the intermediate territory, New Mexico. Meanwhile, in 1846, a treaty with Great Britain had resolved the condominium on Oregon, giving the United States the territory up to the 49th parallel. Thus was fulfilled the Manifest Destiny, that “continental” destiny that the United States had pursued since its very foundation.

By 1850, rapidly populated for the “gold rush”, California was already admitted to the Union as a state. In the middle of the century XIX (between 1845 and 1861 James Knox Polk, Zachary Taylor, Millard Fillmore, Franklin Pierce, James Buchanan succeeded each other as president) not only territorial expansion marked the development of the United States. The population increased, which in 1850 had exceeded 23 million; economic activities flourished, favored by the construction of railways, by the introduction of steam navigation, by the application of new technical discoveries. In the same 1850 for the first time the annual value of industrial production was higher than that of agricultural production. And with industrialization, democratization progressed, even on the cultural level (popular newspapers, public and free schools, that is, non-denominational). Yet a crisis loomed over the United States, the largest in its history, aggravated by some of the same fundamental aspects of progress. L’ industrialization widened the gap and consequently the contrast between the agricultural South and the industrial North, including that part of the West, around the Lakes region, which was being industrialized. The further expansion to the west, then, acutely posed the problem of whether or not slavery was extended to the new territories and states. Set aside, rather than truly resolved, with the “Missouri compromise” of 1820, postponed with yet another compromise, of 1850, this problem broke out in all its gravity in 1854, when the “Kansas-Nebraska law” was passed, two territories located north of the line marked as the limit of slavery by the “Missouri compromise”. Once the compromise was revoked, the law established the principle of “popular sovereignty”, entrusting the decision of the residents of a territory if it, becoming a state, should he be a free-market or a slaveholder. The law provoked violent reactions from the adversaries of slavery; locally, in Kansas, there was bloody clashes. On the national level, by far the most important consequence was the founding (1854) of the Republican Party (the one that has continued to exist over the centuries), in which theanti- slavery whigs united with some democratic elements and with the followers of the Free-Soil Party. The Democrats still managed to win the presidential elections of 1852 and 1856, but in 1860 they did not agree on a single candidacy and so was elected the Republican A. Lincoln (1861-65).

American History - from Jackson to Lincoln

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Philadelphia (in English Philadelphia, also nicknamed Philly) is the largest city in the state of Pennsylvania, located in the northeast of the United States, between New York and Washington DC. It is the fifth city in the country by population, Philadelphia County has 1,450,000 residents in its commune (Philadelphia City) and 5,950,000 in its metropolitan area. It is the largest historical, cultural and artistic center in the United States, and in the same way an important industrial port on the Delaware River, which extends to the Atlantic Ocean. Founded in 1682, it was during the 18th century the most populous city of the Thirteen colonies and the third most populous city in the British Empire (after London and Dublin), before temporarily becoming the capital city of the United States. It was quickly overtaken by New York and gave its capital status to the brand new city of Washington DC Today, Philadelphia is the main metropolis of Pennsylvania, whose capital is Harrisburg, and also the seat of the government of Pennsylvania. The name of the city, chosen by William Penn, means “the city of brotherly love”, as it was desired to be a haven of religious tolerance. See topschoolsintheusa for high school codes in Pennsylvania.

Established in 1682, it is one of the oldest cities in the country, and as the original capital and largest colonial city, it enjoyed greater political and social importance than Boston, Massachusetts, or New York. In 1776, the Continental Congress of the 13 colonies met in Philadelphia and on July 4 of that year, declared independence from Great Britain. Perhaps the most famous citizen of Philadelphia was Benjamin Franklin, writer, scientist, and politician.

The American Revolution

The Carpenters’ Hall hosted the First Continental Congress in 1774

In the 1770s, Philadelphia became one of the major centers of the American Revolution. The Sons of Liberty, an organization of American patriots, were very active in the city: they resisted the fiscal measures imposed by the metropolis and incited the colonists to boycott English merchandise.

Philadelphia was chosen, because of its central position within the Thirteen Colonies, to host the First Continental Congress which met from September 5 to October 26, 1774 in Carpenters’ Hall. The Second Continental Congress lasted between 1775 and 1781, the date of the Declaration of Independence and the ratification of the Articles of Confederation. During the war of independence, this assembly organized the continental army, issued paper money, and dealt with the country’s international relations. The delegates signed the Declaration of Dependence on July 4, 1776 In this city. However, in response to the American defeat of Brandywine in 1777, Congress had to leave the city, as well as 2/3 of the population. The residents must have hidden the ” liberty bell “.

Many battles between the US forces commanded by George Washington and the Redcoats. Having conquered the city in September of 1777, the British concentrated 9,000 soldiers in the German district, Germantown. In June of 1778, the British left Philadelphia to protect New York, exposed to the French ships. In July, Congress returned to Philadelphia. A constitutional convention met in the city in 1781 to draft a constitution. This text, organizer of the institutions of the new country, was signed in Independence Hall in September of 1781. It was in Congress Hall that the Bill of Rights was produced in 1790, the first ten sections of the American constitution. The Continental Congress was installed in New York City in 1785, but, under pressure from Thomas Jefferson, it returned to Philadelphia in 1790, which was made the provisional capital of the United States, while Washington DC was being built. Philadelphia ceased to be the capital of the colonies in 1799.


Baldwin Locomotive Works plaque

Philadelphia’s maritime trade was disrupted by the Embargo Act of 1807, which led to the War of 1812 against England. After this event, New York surpassed the city and the port of Pennsylvania.

At the beginning of the 19th century, Philadelphia experienced significant economic growth thanks to its agricultural and mining wealth (coal) present in its territory; the construction of roads, canals and railways allowed the city to maintain its position in the Industrial Revolution. The textile industry, the clothing industry, the metallurgy, the manufacture of paper and railway material, the shipbuilding in shipyards and the agricultural industry were the main industries of the 19th century. Philadelphia was at once a major financial center. During the Civil War, the factories of the city supplied the armies of the Union. Hospitals also played an important role in accommodating many wounded as a result of the conflict.

Due to the mechanization of agriculture in the South of the United States, thousands of African Americans began to migrate north and Philadelphia became one of the privileged destinations of these tributaries. As in other American cities, the years preceding the Civil War were marked by violence against immigrants, such as the anti-Catholic riots of May and June 1884.
The riots of 1844 in Philadelphia

With the Act of Consolidation of 1854, the city of Philadelphia annexed many districts, settlements, and outlying neighborhoods. This decision made it possible to align the city limits with those of the county and improve the management of urban problems. However, the republican municipality continued its corruption and fraud and intimidation in the elections were frequent.

In 1876, Philadelphia was the site of the first universal exhibition organized on American territory (The Centennial International Exhibition for its name in English). It commemorated the first centennial of the American Declaration of Independence and was located above Fairmount Park, near the Schuylkill River. It attracted 9,789,392 visitors.. The vast majority of the exhibition buildings were preserved by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. Among the innovations that were shown to the public, we can mention the Alexander Graham Bell telephone, the Remington typewriter, the Heinz Ketchup or even the Root beer.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

New Mexico Overview

New Mexico Overview

According to Abbreviationfinder, New Mexico is one of the states with the most personality in the United States. Its geography, its history and the variety of its cultures and its residents give it a unique character within the set of states that make up this huge country.

It is a state in the southwestern United States of America. It limits to the north with the state of Colorado, to the northeast with the state of Oklahoma, to the east and southeast with the state of Texas, to the southwest with the states of Chihuahua and Sonora (Mexico), to the west with the state of Arizona and to the northwest with the state of Utah being one of the so-called “Four Corners States”.


The total population of the state is about 2 million residents. 47.5% of the population is of Hispanic origin. Most of the Hispanic residents are descendants of the Spaniards who, coming from Mexico, arrived in the 16th and 17th centuries. There are also immigrants who arrived from Mexico more recently. It is a migratory flow that still continues.

Another 9.1% of the residents are Native Americans, descendants of the primitive settlers of these lands. This is the state with the largest indigenous population in the United States. The New Mexico Indians belong to one of the following tribes: Navajos, Pueblo Indians, spread over 21 independent towns, and Apaches. A large part of the Indians live on reservations scattered throughout the state. The Pueblo Indians are the ones who became the most Hispanized and the most mixed with the descendants of the Spaniards. Most of the rest of the state’s residents are Anglo-Americans, descendants of those who arrived after 1848, the year in which New Mexico became a territory of the United States.

According to CountryAAH.com,the most populated cities in the New Mexico are Albuquerque (450,000 residents), Las Cruces (80,000 residents) and Santa Fe (66,000 residents). These figures refer only to the urban area, not including the rest of the residents of each county. In the case of Albuquerque, the metropolitan area is 750,000 and that of Santa Fe, 150,000.


The type of flora of the state is nearctic and neotropical, in the higher areas there are species that survive snowy rains and droughts such as blue spruce, stiff cone pine and shrubs; in the Hudsonian zone of mountain ranges and gorges are the spruce, the trembling pine and the ponderosa pine. Going down in height you can find oaks, junipers, oyameles, Douglas pines, alamillos, Canadian poplars., the columbine, the pennyroyal and the horse grass, maple and wild flowers due to the humidity that descends from the snowy mountains having a great color during the fall. In much more arid areas, the following stand out: grasslands or zacatales; the stone pine; the oak; the Alamo; the olive; the cedar; the huizache; the chollas or biznagas; the nopales or prickly pears; the cardones; the magueys or agaves; and great variety of cacti.


The American black bear is a symbol of the state of New Mexico. The fauna of the state is very diverse, here are species typical of the high mountains that predominate in Canada or animal species that predominate in subtropical regions of Mexico. Among the mammals, you can find the American black bear that is a symbol of this state; Other mammals that inhabit here are mountain lions, bighorn sheep, mountain goats, deer, marmots or smaller rodents such as the kangaroo rat and endangered species such as the Mexican wolf, the American bison and the pronghorn. . Among the birds we have the colorful wild turkey, the roadrunner, wild ducks, quail, centzontles, woodpeckers, etc. Among the reptiles, rattlesnakes and coral snakes stand out, among others.

Primary and secondary education

There are important efforts for the recovery of the Spanish language in the state of New Mexico, bilingual education is essential for the population due to its linguistic diversity. Not only Spanish is in recovery, but also the native languages ​​of the state such as Navajo, Zuñi, Comanche among others.

Spanish and bilingual education

Virtually all New Mexicans speak and communicate normally in English. Only part of the recently arrived immigrant population from Mexico or Central America, and some elderly native Hispanic New Mexicans, speak only Spanish. Some indigenous groups living in New Mexico still speak their own languages. You can also find very old people who only speak some of the Indian languages ​​of the state. According to the 2000 Census data, 28.76% of the population over 5 years old spoke Spanish at home, while 4.07% spoke Navajo.

Although the New Mexico Constitution of 1912 reflects the intention to protect the languages ​​and cultures of New Mexicans, the use of Spanish as a medium of instruction in public schools, as well as its social use, declined dramatically throughout the years. throughout most of the rest of the 20th century. There were some institutional efforts by the Senate to have the Spanish language taught in all public schools in the early 1940s. However, it was in 1968 when the first statement in support of bilingual education was produced by the “State Board of Education”. That declaration materialized with the signing of the “Bilingual Multicultural Act” in 1973.

Neo-Mexican Spanish is a unique variety within the Hispanic linguistic panorama due to the isolation of New Mexico since the early times of the colony and for this reason it has been able to preserve traits of medieval Spanish, in addition to making use of a large number of indigenisms (from Nahuatl first and of local languages ​​later) and Anglicisms (after American annexation in 1848).


The rodeo is par excellence the favorite sport of the New Mexicans, its colonial origin has made it a tradition that it shares with other neighboring states and in the same way with the Mexicans, the lot of mounts and ropes are essential elements among the participants. In the state of New Mexico you can practice snow skiing and it also has an excellent infrastructure that allows the practice of this sport almost most of the year where national tourists and Mexican tourists come due to the proximity to the alpine ski areas. Ice hockey is another of the sports that is practiced in this state, mountain biking, fishing, hiking, baseball, basketball and American football, whose state team is called Lobos de Nuevo México.

New Mexico Overview

New Jersey Overview

New Jersey Overview

According to Abbreviationfinder, New Jersey (short for NJ) is one of the 50 states of the United States, located in the Atlantic Coast and Northeast regions of the country. It is bordered to the north by the state of New York, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by the state of Delaware and to the west by the state of Pennsylvania.


Originally inhabited by tribes of the Lenape, New Jersey was colonized by the Dutch in the beginning of the seventeenth century, and was part of the Dutch colony of New Netherland, which included parts of which are Pennsylvania, New York and New Jersey today. Some Swedes also lived in southwestern New Jersey, which was part of the Swedish colony of New Sweden before the Dutch took it in 1655.

In 1664, the English took control of the colony, which was divided into several parts. Two members of the English nobility, George Carteret and John Berkeley, received the land from the Hudson River and from the Atlantic Ocean to the Delaware River, and the region acquired the name Jersey, in reference to the Isle of Jersey, a dependency of the Crown. British on the French coast of the English Channel. For 28 years, the area was governed as two separate territories: West Jersey with its capital at Burlington, and East Jersey with its capital at Perth Amboy.

In 1702, the two colonies were united into a single English royal colony of New Jersey with its capital at Perth Amboy. New Jersey was one of the Thirteen English Coloniesthat rebelled against the British government in the American War of Independence.

It was the third state to ratify the U.S. Constitution on December 18, 1787.

New Jersey today

The state of New Jersey is one of the wealthiest and most advanced in the United States. Its wealth is due to the proximity of the cities of New York and Philadelphia. Its 8.4 million residents are very diverse. It is an important destination for foreign immigrants to the United States. There is a large Hispanic population, and also many Chinese and Haitians. New Jersey is also home to one of the largest Italian communities in the nation. New Jersey has a reputation for being one of the most liberal and tolerant states in the nation. New Jersey revoked the death penalty in December 2007.


Currently the state of New Jersey has a population of 8,724,560 people, of which: 62.3% are white (European or of European descent).

  • 6% are Latino or Hispanic (among which Mexicans predominate).
  • 6% are black.
  • 5% are Asian.

The rest are made up of people of other ethnic groups. The population of Latino / Hispanic origin is the fastest growing, due to the high fertility rate of Latina women residing in the United States, and also due to legal and illegal immigration from Latin America and the Caribbean.

Government and economy

According to CountryAAH.com, the city of Trenton was designated the state capital in 1792. The state is divided into 21 counties and has 13 representatives and 2 senators in the United States Congress. Its current governor is Chris Christie. The Legislative Power is made up of two Chambers: a Senate and a General Assembly, with 40 and 80 members, respectively. Its headquarters are in the city of Trenton. As far as the Judiciary is concerned, there are 7 justices on the State Supreme Court who are currently: James R. Zazzali, Virginia Long, Jaynee LaVecchia, Barry T. Albin, John E. Wallace Jr, Roberto A. Rivera -Soto, Helen E. Hoens. Its agricultural products include vegetables and fruits (specifically eggplant and blueberries), seafood, and dairy products. Its primary industrial products are: pharmaceutical and chemical products, and tourism.


Atlantic, Bergen, Burlington, Camden, Cape May, Cumberland, Essex, Gloucester, Hudson, Hunterdon, Mercer, Middlesex, Monmouth, Morris, Ocean, Passaic, Salem, Somerse, t Sussex, Union, Warre.


New Jersey is the hub of several major highways and rail lines, especially the Northeast Corridor. The “New Jersey Turnpike” one of the best known and most used expressways in the United States. Commonly referred to as “The Turnpike” (pronounced “Ternpaik”), it is also known for its numerous rest areas, individually named after prominent natural citizens of the state, as diverse as inventor Thomas Edison; the Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, Alexander Hamilton; Presidents of the United States such as Grover Cleveland and Woodrow Wilson; writers James Fenimore Cooper, Joyce Kilmer among others.

The “Garden State Parkway”, or simply “The Parkway” (pronounced Parkuei), carries much more state traffic and runs through the state from the town of Montvale (in northern New Jersey), to the southernmost tip of Cape May by a total of 172.4 miles. It is the main road that connects New York with Atlantic City. Other freeways in New Jersey include the “Atlantic City Expressway”, the “Palisades Interstate Parkway”, Interstate 76, Interstate 78, Interstate 80, Interstate 195, Interstate 280, Interstate 287, and Interstate 295. There is also, a state corporation (NJ Transit) which runs many buses and trains throughout the state.

New Jersey Overview

New Hampshire Overview

New Hampshire Overview

According to Abbreviationfinder, New Hampshire is a United States state in the New England region. In the west it borders on the state of Vermont, in the east on Maine, in the south on Massachusetts and in the north on the Canadian province of Québec. With an area of ​​24,216 km², the state has around 1.3 million inhabitants. The majority of the population lives in the south of the state, the north is characterized by low mountain ranges. According to CountryAAH.com, the capital is Concord with almost 43,000 inhabitants, however, the largest city is Manchester with 110,000.

The first traces of human settlement go back over 10,000 years. The vast majority of the population is of European descent, there have only been a few Indians since the 1740s. From the 1630s onwards, contacts with Europeans led to severe population losses among the indigenous people, mainly due to the smallpox epidemics, and finally battles with the Iroquois and the English drove the survivors to Maine and Canada.

Since 1629 England appeared as a colonial power, the colony was named after the English Hampshire. According to the principles of English feudalism, the land was assigned and settlers appointed. From 1641 to 1679, New Hampshire belonged to Massachusetts, was then directly subordinate to the king for two decades and came back to Massachusetts from 1691 to 1741, whose governors were responsible for the northern neighbors.

In 1776, New Hampshire became the first colony to establish a government and constitution, and became independent with the newly formed United States. In 1808 Concord became its capital. An independent republic existed on the Canadian border from 1832 to 1835; Great Britain did not give up its claims until 1836. The state benefited economically from industrialization and the civil war, but major branches of industry collapsed with the global economic crisis. Only the connection to the economic area Boston brought new branches of industry, especially in the south of New Hampshire.

The state is due to its quarries and The Granite State ( ” Granite called -State”). At the same time, the nickname also reflects the preservation of traditions and the history of an economical government. There are no general VAT or income taxes, which corresponds to the state motto ” Live or die free “.


The Pennacooks, members of the Algonquian culture, were among the ancient Aboriginal groups that inhabited New Hampshire. The first European to explore the region was the English captain Martin Pring, who in 1603 anchored in the port of Piscataqua. Two years later, the French explorer Samuel de Champlain sailed along the coast and reached the Isles of Shoals.

In 1620, the region was granted to the Council of New England, the formerly known as the Plymouth Company, by James I Stuart, King of England. In 1629, the province was divided and the English colonist John Mason was granted the part between the Piscataqua and Merrimack rivers; the title of the concession was New Hampshire. In 1635, the Council of New England was dissolved and the British Crown confirmed Mason in all his concessions; in addition, it was given another 40,500 ha located west of the Kennebec River. In 1638, John Wheelwright, a clergyman who had been expelled from Massachusetts, founded the Exeter settlement. From 1686 to 1689, the province of New Hampshire was part of the Dominion of New England.

In 1776, New Hampshire became the first colony to adopt its own Constitution, and it became the ninth state in the country in 1788 upon ratifying the United States Constitution.

During the years before the American Civil War (1861 – 1865), movements that advocated the abolition of slavery gained strength in the state. After the civil war, the industry (especially textiles, transport and communications) expanded rapidly. During the second half of the 19th century The massive influx of French Canadians altered the ethnic composition of the population, which until then had been mostly English, Scottish and Irish. In the 1970s, industry remained the most important economic sector, but tourism, which had played a prominent role since the turn of the century, expanded rapidly during the 1970s and 1980s and gained weight in the economy of New Hampshire, thanks to measures taken by the state government against environmental pollution.

Territory and resources

84% of New Hampshire’s land area is covered by forest. The most common trees are white pine, oak, white birch, spruce, white ash, balsam fir, yellow birch, sugar maple, and other maple species. Common mammals that inhabit the state include white-tailed or Virginia deer, beavers, muskrats, chipmunks and other species of squirrels, foxes, rabbits, raccoons, porcupines, skunks, and the groundhogs of America. Some black and brown bears are found in the mountains.

New Hampshire has a small mining industry, which exploits salt, gravel, granite, and mica. The agricultural sector is also small; almost half of its income comes from the sale of livestock and livestock products. Forests provide significant amounts of wood and pulp. The state also has some fishing industry; Its main catches are lobsters, shrimp, cod and tuna.

The most prominent manufactures include industrial machinery, precision instruments, electronic equipment, rubber and plastic articles, printed matter, paper, primary metals, and textiles.


The prevailing winds from the west and northwest are mainly responsible for the continental climate of the state. For their part, the east and northeast winds cause the biggest rain and snow storms.

New Hampshire Overview

Wyoming Overview

Wyoming Overview

According to Abbreviationfinder, Wyoming is the 44th state of the United States, located in the Great Plains region. According to CountryAAH.com, the state capital is Cheyenne and the most important cities are Casper, Laramie, Rock Springs and Gillette. Its territory occupies an area of ​​253,337 km², occupying the tenth place at the national level, and it is the least populated state in the country, with 563,626 residents in 2010.


The peoples that lived in present-day Wyoming before the arrival of the Europeans were the Shoshone, the Crow, the Cheyenne, and the Arapajo. In 1830, the United States acquired from France the land located east of the Continental Divide or North American mountain range, as part of the territory that made up Louisiana. The first white man to enter the Wyoming region was John Colter, a fur hunter who in 1807 traveled up the Bighorn River.

In 1811, the region was explored by Wilson Price Hunt. The following year some members of the same expedition returned to the region and probably crossed the southern pass through the mountains; this pass later became an important part of the Oregon Trail. In 1834, when Fort Laramie was built in eastern Wyoming, the pass was used by numerous fur hunters and, in the 1840s, by immigrants and gold prospectors heading to Oregon, California, or Salt Lake City in Utah. In the wake of the Mexican-American War (1848), Mexico delivered southwestern Wyoming to the United States. In 1868, Wyoming, with a population of 60,000, became a territory.

The construction of the Union Pacific Railroad in 1867 and 1868, the discovery of gold, and the ease of obtaining cheap land legally stimulated their colonization. In the following years, Wyoming became a major cattle breeding region.

Admission as state

Wyoming was admitted to the Union as one more state on July 10, 1890. From the beginning, Wyoming’s vast, sparsely populated expanse produced an enormous amount of wood and oil, as well as other agricultural and livestock products. Its already flourishing economy enjoyed a marked development thanks to the discovery, after World War II, of trona and uranium minerals. In 1960, a major missile base was built in the Cheyenne region.

Natural resources

Wyoming has a generally cold and semi-arid climate; it is one of the driest states in the United States. Since the 1970s, water preservation has been one of the state’s biggest problems. A distinctive feature of its climate is the high and persistent winds of the Wyoming Basin.

Forests cover about one sixth of Wyoming’s total land area. The main tree species are lodgepole pine and spruce, which cohabit with ferns.

Animal life is varied and includes the elk, the mountain sheep, the mountain goat, the American black bear, the brown bear, the cougar, the antelope, the coyote, the badger, the rabbit and the prairie dog.

The most frequent birds are hawks, hawks and eagles, while trout is the most common species in rivers.

Mining contributes 23% of the gross annual product and has long been one of the most important activities in the state. The main minerals are oil, coal, natural gas, and sodium compounds. Wyoming is the nation’s leading producer of dairy and wool. Regarding livestock, the raising of sheep and cattle stands out, while agriculture is based on the crops of hay, sugar beets (beets), barley and wheat.

Manufacturing companies contribute only about 4% of gross annual product. The most prominent manufactured articles are petroleum derivatives, chemical products, industrial machinery, wood and its derivatives, food products and printed matter.


Wyoming’s Supreme Court, with five judges, is the highest judicial body at the state level. The state’s judiciary is unusual in that the relatively sparsely populated state of Wyoming lacks an intermediate level of appellate courts, and the Supreme Court is therefore the only higher instance.


Wyoming’s only university is the University of Wyoming in Laramie. Together with the private Wyoming Catholic College in Lander, it is one of two institutions that provide longer college education. In addition to these, there are also seven community colleges that provide shorter and preparatory higher education.


Wyoming is a sparsely populated state where agriculture and livestock farming have traditionally been important industries. Ever since the arrival of the railway, coal mining has also played an important role in the local economy. In modern times, the energy industry and the tourism sector have taken over the role of leading industries from the agricultural sector, although agriculture continues to play an important role in large parts of the state. Among US states, Wyoming has the largest coal mine, the second largest natural gas production and the fifth largest oil production. Wind power is also a growing part of the energy industry due to the favorable wind conditions in the state.

Wyoming Overview

Carson City, Nevada

Carson City, Nevada

According to CountryAAH.com, Carson City is a city of great natural beauty, with charm, history and typical western hospitality, it gets its name from a legendary hunter and explorer, Kit Carson. Visiting this city is like a live history lesson. Just follow the Kit Carson Trail, a path that passes old mansions, courthouses, a station and a brewery, to experience the life of the Wild West.

Also downtown, the Capitol, built in 1870, offers insight into the birth of Nevada as a state and Carson City as its capital. Other historical monuments, cultural heritage centers and museums dot the landscape that surrounds the city, not to mention its nightclubs.

The city is known for the Divine Nine, a group of premium golf courses designed by professionals such as Arnold Palmer, Johnny Millar and John Harbottle and nestled in the magnificent Sierra Mountains. After golfing, gambling, or visiting the many attractions, relax at the Carson City Hot Springs. You will feel relaxed, rejuvenated and ready to experience new emotions.


The eastern Sierra habitat must have been a welcome haven for explorers Kit Carson and John C. Fremont, as they traveled in Eagle Valley during their search to map the West in the 1840s.

To the east, long stretches of desert mark the difficult terrain settlers have had to endure to get here. To the west, the Sierra Nevada extends like a gate to the Pacific. During that time, northern Nevada saw its first wave of white settlers. The Bidwell-Bartleson part is believed to have made its way through the area in 1841. West traffic increased, fueled by the great boom of 1848 – 1849, when the discovery of California gold ignited the spirit and the frontier transformed Eagle Valley.

In 1851, Eagle Station, a small and trading post on the Carson Ranch of the California Trail Emigrants Branch, served as a stopover for weary trips for gold seekers. According to historical accounts, the station and its surrounding valley took its name from an eagle shot by Frank Hall with his Colt ball-and-cap and mounted on the back wall of trade. Frank, brother WL Hall and George Jollenshee run the ranch, located on the present site of Fifth and Thompson streets.

In 1858, Abraham Curry Eagle purchased the station when he found lots that were presented in Genoa, Nevada to be too expensive. Carson City’s future designation as a capital company was largely the fruit of Curry’s workforce. He left a ten-acre plaza in the center of the city for its planned location of the State Capitol and plans for the city of the future. In 1859, prospectors hit silver in the hills east of Carson City. The Comstock LODE, as it was called, was the largest silver find in the history of the world. Tens of thousands of miners will pour into Carson City and neighboring Virginia City.

In the 1860s, Carson City was a station for the Pony Express and overland mail under the Chorpenning, Butterfield, and Wells Fargo. In 1861, true to Curry’s prediction, and largely due to his shrewd maneuvering, Carson City became the capital of the Nevada Territory.

Despite its small population and expansive territory (Nevada is the seventh largest state), statehood was unavoidable. War was brewing in the East, Nevada, and wealth, as well as their Congressional votes, would prove vital to the Union war effort. Nevada was granted statehood on October 31, 1864. Every year Nevada “Battle of Birth” roots are celebrated in Carson City with the Nevada Day Parade.


According to Abbreviationfinder, the city limits of Carson City cover 155.7 square kilometers, making it one of the largest cities in terms of area in the state. Downtown Carson City is located in Eagle Valley, which is surrounded by the Sierra Nevada to western Virginia and the range to the East. Snow Valley Peak, rising 9214 feet from the Sierra Nevada, is the highest point in the city. The border city limits Lake Tahoe to the west and the Carson River passes through the city to the east.


Carson City is located in the high desert valley approximately 4730 feet above sea level. There are four quite distinct seasons, all of which are relatively mild compared to many parts of the country. Winters see snow, however it is rarely heavy. Most of the precipitations take place in winter and spring, summer and fall being extremely dry, like neighbors of California. Typically high mid-summers in the upper 90s, however temperatures of 100 degrees and above do occur from time to time. Low humidity and high altitude generally make even the hottest and coldest days quite bearable. Julyaverage high and low temperatures at 91 and 51, respectively, while in January this drops to 45 and 22.


As of the 2000 census, there are 52,457 people, 20171 households, and 13,252 families residing in the city. The population density is 141 / km² (366 / mi²). There are 21,283 housing units at an average density of 57 / km² (148 / mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 85.30% White, 1.80% Black or African American, 2.40% Native American, 1.77% Asian, 0.14% Pacific Islander, 6.46% Other races, and 2.12% from two or more races. 14.23% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.


Western Nevada Community College is a regionally accredited, two-year institution that is part of the Nevada System of Higher Education. The college has an enrollment of approximately 6,000 degrees-seeking students attending classes on campuses in Carson City, Fallon, and Douglas County and teaching centers in Dayton, Fernley, Hawthorne, Lake Tahoe, Lovelock, Smith Valley, and Yerington. It has an extensive prison education program, which offers undergraduate classes to search for five inmates in correctional institutions (four men and one woman).

The University of Nevada is also in the area, located 30 miles north of Reno. Carson City has six public elementary schools: Bordewich / Bray, Empire, Fremont, Fritsch, Mark Twain, and Seeliger.


Carson City is one of five state capitals not served by an interstate (Dover, Delaware; Jefferson City, Missouri; Juneau, Alaska, and Pierre, South Dakota are the other four). This soon change as Interstate 580, also known as the City of Carson Freeway, is currently under construction. The Washoe County Regional Transportation System (RTC) provides public transportation service between Reno and Carson City, and on October 3, 2005, Carson City’s first bus system, Explore Carson (JAC) opened its doors to the public.

Carson City, Nevada

Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Milwaukee, Wisconsin

According to CountryAAH.com, Wisconsin is a state in the Midwest of the United States . The state’s economy was originally based on fur, then logging, farming, and cattle raising. Industrialization began in the late 19th century in the southeast, with Milwaukee being a major centre. In recent decades, service industries, especially education and medicine, have grown quite rapidly.

Since the founding of the state, Wisconsin has been a multiracial community. The Americans were the first group of people to migrate here from New York and New England . They dominate in heavy industry, finance, politics, and education. Later, many Europeans arrived, including Germans, mostly between 1850 and 1900, Scandinavians (mostly Norwegians) and a small number of Belgians, Dutch, Swiss, and Finnish, Irelandand other ethnicities. By the 20th century, a large number of Poles and descendants of slaves arrived, most of which settled in Milwaukee.

Milwaukee is the capital city of the state of Wisconsin, in the United States. It is a commercial and industrial center and one of the main ports of entry to the Great Lakes system – San Lorenzo canal. The city is number 22 in terms of population in the United States, and is located in the southwestern sector of the state, on the western shore of Lake Michigan.


First settlers

Various Native American groups lived in this place; French missionaries, who arrived at the end of the 17th century, encountered people of the Sauk, Ojibwa, Menomini, Fox, Mascuten and Potawatomi ethnic groups in the lands formerly occupied by the Winnebago. In 1818, the French Solomon Juneau settled in the area. He bought his father-in-law’s business and in 1833 founded a town on the east side of the Milwaukee River.


In 1846, the town of Juneau merged with two nearby towns to become the city of Milwaukee: Kilbourntown in the west, founded by Byron Kilbourn, and Walker’s Point in the south, founded by George H. Walker. Juneau was the first mayor of Milwaukee. The immigration German helped increase the population of the city from the early 1840s. To this day Milwaukee has a considerable German-American population.

Late 19th century

From the late 19th century to the 1950s, Milwaukee, like many other northern industrial cities, received large numbers of immigrants from Germany, Hungary, Poland, and other central European countries, as well as a significant number of African-Americans from the states. from the south. This helped Milwaukee become one of the 15 largest cities in the country, and by the mid-1960s the population reached 750,000. However, beginning in the late 1990s, Milwaukee, like many other cities in the Great Lakes area, saw its population decline due to several factors.


In recent times the city has made an effort to improve its economy, its neighborhoods and its image, resulting in the revitalization of sectors such as Third Ward, East Side and, more recently, Bay View, along with attracting new businesses to its downtown area.. While the city still faces a declining population, it continues to make plans to improve its future through various projects.

Economic development

According to Abbreviationfinder, Milwaukee manufactures non-electrical machinery, metal and food products, printing materials, electrical and electronic equipment, and chemicals. Milwaukee is also the commercial center of the prosperous agricultural region in which it is located and in which dairy products are made and wheat and fruits are grown; it also has an important beer production.

Social development


The population of Milwaukee, estimated in 2005 is 578,887 residents.


The Milwaukee area contains many cultural facilities and several historical sites. Cultural centers include the Milwaukee Public Museum, featuring exhibits on natural history and Milwaukee history, and the Milwaukee Museum of Art. The Basilica of Saint Josaphat (1897-1901) is the only one of Polish origin in North America.


Among its institutions of higher learning are Marquette University (1864), the University of Wisconsin Milwaukee (1955), Concordia University of Wisconsin (1881), the Wisconsin School of Medicine (1970), the Institute of Arts and Milwaukee Design (1974) and Milwaukee School of Engineering (1903).

Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Fun facts

  • Milwaukee is the hometown of William Harley and Arthur Davidson, creators of the Harley Davidson motorcycle brand.
  • In Milwaukee, Jack Finney was born in 1911, a famous author of works of, among other narrative genres, science fiction and horror.
  • In 2003, the centenary of the factory’s creation was celebrated. On that date, the city of Milwaukee hosted the largest Harley-Davidson event in history.
  • Milwaukee Mile is the oldest active racetrack in the world.
  • Milwaukee is where WWE Diva Candice Michelle lives
  • The Kinto Sol group is based
Nebraska Overview

Nebraska Overview

According to Abbreviationfinder, Nebraska is a state of the United States, is located in the middle region west of the nation. Its state capital is the city of Lincoln. Bounded by the state of South Dakota to the north, with the state of Iowa to the east, with the state of Missouri to the southeast, with the state of Kansas to the south, and with Colorado to the southwest, and with Wyoming to the west. It is located in a geographical position between coordinates 40 o to 43 north latitude and 95 or 25 ‘to 104 west longitude. It has a population of 1 774 571 (2010) residents in an area of ​​200 346 km 2. The state was founded on March 1, 1867.


In 1803, Nebraska became a possession of the United States as a result of the Louisiana Purchase. Between 1804 and 1806, the Lewis and Clark expedition recognized a part of the territory. In 1807, the Spanish Manuel Lisa established the area’s first permanent white settlement.

The Oregon and California routes to the West, which crossed Nebraska, allowed a gradual settlement of pioneers in the region, despite the fact that, in 1834, the federal government had declared Nebraska part of Indian Territory, which meant the exclusion of all the white settlers. In 1854, it became the Nebraska Territory.

Immigration to this area increased with the passing of several federal laws; in 1867, Nebraska achieved statehood and the capital was established at Lincoln. In the last decades of the 19th century, powerful agrarian organizations emerged.

During the Great Depression of the 1930s, many farmers, unable to meet their mortgage payments, lost their properties. Agricultural production increased again after World War II, thanks to the construction of reservoirs promoted by the federal government to control floods, which favored Nebraska and other states irrigated by the waters of the Missouri River.


Nebraska, a state in the central United States; It borders South Dakota to the north, Iowa and Missouri to the east, Kansas to the south, Colorado to the southwest, and Wyoming to the west. The Missouri River forms the eastern border. According to CountryAAH.com, Nebraska most important cities are Lincoln (the capital), Omaha, Grand Island, Bellevue and Kearney.

With an area of ​​200,346 km², Nebraska is divided into three major geographic regions: the dissected plains of Till, which, as the name suggests, are composed of deposits of till (a mixture of clay and other rocks as a result of glacial action), the Great Plains and the plains of loes. The eastern sector of the state was in the past covered by glaciers, which deposited a thick layer of till on which fine silts accumulated that had a wind transport (loes).

Four-fifths of western Nebraska falls within the Great Plains region; the surface of this region was formed mostly by water currents from the Rocky Mountains to the west, which deposited sand, gravel, silt and mud on its beds. In the southern area of ​​the state are the fertile plains of the loes; north of the Platte River lie low hills, which are ancient sand dunes.

The Missouri River and its tributaries drain the waters of the entire territory. The state’s main river, the Platte, is formed by the confluence of the North Platte and South Platte rivers.


Nebraska has a continental climate, with hot summers and harsh winters. During the summer, the warm and humid masses from the Gulf of Mexico cause frequent storms, hailstorms and occasional tornadoes.

Flora and fauna

The vegetation original Nebraska are grasslands, and only 3% of the total area is covered by forest.

Among the wildlife include the presence of coyotes, antelope, deer, foxes, badgers and prairie dogs. Just over a hundred years ago, the Nebraska prairies were the grazing grounds of millions of bison; at present the bison is found only in isolated reserves.

Economic development

Nebraska’s main mineral resource is oil, although small amounts of natural gas are also extracted.

More than 95% of the total area of ​​the state is dedicated to agricultural activity, accounting for almost two-thirds of annual agricultural income from livestock products. Nebraska is among the top three beef producing states in the country, although pigs, sheep and poultry are also an important source of income.

The main crops are corn, sorghum, soybeans (soybeans), hay, barley, rye, oats, millet, sugar beets, kidney beans (beans) and potatoes (potatoes).

The main industry focuses on the production of processed foods, especially meat.

Social development


Nebraska had 1,774,571 residents in 2010. Most of the population is concentrated in a corridor that borders the eastern border and in a strip that runs along the Platte and North Platte rivers. 89.6% of the population is made up of whites, while blacks account for 4%. 94,425 residents are considered to be of Hispanic descent.

The chief executive is a governor, elected by the people for a period of four years; their mandate is limited to a maximum of two consecutive elections. Nebraska is the only state that has a unicameral legislative body. It is represented by two senators and three representatives in the United States Congress.

Nebraska Overview

West Virginia Overview

West Virginia Overview

According to Abbreviationfinder, West Virginia is the northeastern state of the United States; It borders Ohio and Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the northeast, Virginia to the east and south, and Kentucky and Ohio to the west. The Potomac River shapes the northeast border of West Virginia; the waterways of the Tug Fork and Big Shandy establish almost the entire southwestern boundary, and the Ohio River does the same for the western and northwestern boundaries. According to CountryAAH.com, West Virginia main cities are Charleston (the capital), Huntington, Wheeling, Parkersburg and Morganton.


Archaeological remains show that the Adena culture (c. 1000-100 BC) flourished along the Ohio and Kanawha rivers, and that West Virginia was occupied by Aboriginal peoples in the mid-17th century. The state territory became the scene of wars when the Shawnee of neighboring Ohio tried to stop the advance of the white settlers.

East and West Virginia could have settled their differences amicably, as it seemed they were doing in the 1850s, had it not been for the outbreak of the American Civil War.. The unionists opposed the separation of Virginia and, before their military conquests in June and July 1861, the separatist leaders organized first the so-called restored government of Virginia (whose headquarters was in Wheeling), followed, later, by a state government independent, which entered the Union as West Virginia on June 20, 1863.

The bituminous coal industry — which lies under roughly two-thirds of the state — has shaped West Virginia’s history since the 1870s. The development of mining unions and the resistance of mine owners to their demands led to sporadic fierce fighting. between 1912 and 1954. Later, West Virginia tended to diversify its economy.

Territory and resources

West Virginia has an area of ​​62,755 km². The altitude of the territory varies from 73 m, along the Potomac River, to 1,482 m at the top of the Spruce Knob.

The entire western part of the state lies on folded sedimentary rocks. Two are the physiographic regions of West Virginia: the Valley and Ridge region and the Allegheny Mountains. In the first, to the east, the limestone rocks are strongly folded, creating narrow and jagged mountain ranges. The Allegheny Mountains straddle the eastern edge of the Appalachian system. The main rivers are the Ohio, the Monongahela and the Kanawha.

West Virginia has a humid continental climate. Summer storms sometimes cause severe flooding. About three-quarters of West Virginia is covered with forests. Dominant tree species are beech, tree tulip, the maple sugar, the chestnut, the red oak, the white oak, the hemlock, the hickory, the Virginia pine and pitch pine.

In terms of fauna, large mammals include the white-tailed or Virginia deer and the American black bear, and among the smallest, the red and gray fox, the badger, the raccoon, the cottontail rabbit, the gray squirrel and the American marmot.

Mining is focused on the extraction of bituminous coal. The state has remained in the top two or three for the nation’s annual coal production since the early 1900s. Besides coal, other important minerals are oil and natural gas. Due to its rugged topography, West Virginia does not have significant agricultural production. The most prominent agricultural products are: cattle (veal), poultry and turkey breeding, dairy products, and the cultivation of apples, corn and hay; the production of eggs, the raising of pigs and sheep, as well as the cultivation of oats, wheat, tobacco, peaches (peach trees), cherry trees and mulberry trees are equally important. Wood from second-growth oak, yellow poplar, beech, and other hardwoods are exploited in large quantities.

The most prominent manufacturing industries are primary metals (especially iron, steel,and aluminum), glass, ceramics, industrial machinery, printing materials, wood products, processed foods, electronic equipment, textiles, and clothing.

The chief executive is a governor popularly elected for a period of four years and who cannot serve more than two consecutive terms. At the national level, West Virginia sends two senators and three representatives to the United States Congress.


West Virginia is one of the poorest states in the United States. Due to its strongly unionized political tradition, it was traditionally associated with the Democratic Party , which is why it was mostly represented by Democratic senators, governors and representatives, such as Robert Byrd , who died in June 2010 , the doyen of the Democratic Senate faction and senator with the longest term in office to date . Representatives in the United States Senate until 2014 were Jay Rockefeller and former Governor Joe Manchin . At the midterm elections in November 2014, Rockefeller’s Senate seat fell to the Republican Shelley Moore Capito . This means that West Virginia will be represented by a woman for the first time and again by a Republican senator in 55 years. The Democrat Manchin was re-elected in 2018 and is thus elected to the Senate until 2024 ..  In presidential elections , West Virginia was also considered to belong to the Democratic camp until 2000; it was one of only six states to vote for Jimmy Carter and against Ronald Reagan in 1980 . However, the state, the inhabitants of which, in addition to the economically political left, also largely represented a conservative position in socio-political matters and evangelicals ,are close to free churches, have always voted for the candidate of the Republican Party in presidential elections since 2000 and can therefore now be counted among the Red States.

In the 2016 US presidential election , 67.9% of West Virginia voters voted for Republican candidate Donald Trump. This was the highest proportion nationwide.

West Virginia Overview

Montana Geography

Montana Geography

With an area of ​​376,978 km², according to Abbreviationfinder, Montana is the fourth largest state in the United States(after Alaska, Texas and California). In the north, Montana has an international border with Canada – 877 km of border, the longest border in the world without defense -, bordering the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan, more provinces than any other US state. In addition, Montana borders the states of North Dakota and part of South Dakota to the east; with Wyoming to the south and Idaho to the west.


The relief of the state is diverse, but very defined by the continental divide of the Americas, which runs through the state in a diagonal direction crossing it from the northwest to the center-south, and dividing it into two different areas: the eastern regions, and the regions of the West. Montana is well known for its mountainous western part, most of which is geologically and geographically part of the Rocky Mountains. However, about 60% of the state is actually prairie, part of the northern Great Plains. Despite this, to the east of the Continental Divide and the Rocky Mountain Front, there are numerous microclimate areas where grasslands are abundant.

Between the mountain ranges there are numerous valleys, rich in agricultural resources and rivers, and possess multiple opportunities for tourism and leisure. Among the best known areas are the valleys of Flathead, Bitterroot, Great Hole and the Gallatin Valley.

The east and north of this transition zone is commonly known as the northern plains, with prairies and plateaus, with some mountains and badlands, and it spans the Dakotas, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Wyoming.

The small and rare mountains that are organized east of the continental divide are:

  1. The Crazy Mountains,
  2. The Little Belt Mountains,
  3. The Snowy Mountains,
  4. The Sweet Grass Hills,
  5. The Bull Mountains and, in the southeastern corner of the state, near Ekalaka, the Long Pines and the Short Pines.

The eastern part of this area, in the north central area of ​​the state, is known as Missouri Breaks. Here, near Great Falls, you can find three buttes (in Spanish, “volcanic neck”, mountain or small hill with vertical walls), in addition to impressive cliffs. These three, Square butte, Corona butte, and Shaw’s butte, are made of very dense magmatic rock and have resisted erosion for a very long time. The fundamental surface is composed of slate. Many areas around these buttes are covered by clay. These lands are derived from the Colorado Formation. In the far east, areas such as Makoshika State Park, near Glendive, and Medicinal Rocks State Park near Ekalaka are also prominent badlands in Montana.


Montana also has many rivers, many of them known as the “blue belt”, which are suitable for trout fishing, but they also supply water to most of the residents, as well as hydraulic power. Montana is the only state that has rivers that will flow into the three great American watersheds: the Pacific Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Hudson Bay, which are divided by the Triple Division Peak, in Glacier National Park.

East of the divide, the Missouri River, formed by the confluence of the Jefferson, Madison, and Gallatin Rivers, crosses the central part of the state, flows through the Missouri Breaks, and enters North Dakota. The Yellowstone River begins in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, flows north to Livingston in Montana, where it turns east and runs through the state until it empties into the Missouri River, a few miles east of the North Dakota border. Other important tributaries of the Missouri River that flow through Montana are the Milk River, the Marías River, the Tongue River, and the Musselshell River. Montana also claims the title of having the “smallest river in the world,” the River Roe, just outside Great Falls. All these rivers end at Mississippi River, and therefore, to the Gulf of Mexico.

Water is of vital importance to this state, both for agriculture and for hydropower. In addition to rivers, this state is home to Lake Flathead, the largest natural freshwater lake west of the Great Lakes. Many reservoirs have been built, the largest being Fort Peck, built on the Missouri River.

Economic development

The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that the GDP of the state of Montana was 26 billion dollars in 2003. The income per capita in this same year was 25,406, 47th in the United States. However, this number is growing faster and faster. According to the Missoulian, the economy has grown rapidly since 2003. In 2005, Montana ranked 39th in the country with a per capita income of $ 29,387.

The economy is based mainly on agriculture – wheat, barley, beets, oats, rye, potatoes, honey and cherries – sheep farming and very significant extraction of wood and minerals (gold, coal, silver, talc and vermiculite.

Tourism is also very important to the economy with millions of visitors a year to Glacier National Park, Flathead Lake, the Little Big Horn battlefield and Yellowstone National Park.

Montana income tax rates range from 1% to 6.9%. This state does not have taxes on sales. In Montana, buildings are exempt from property taxes. However, these taxes apply to livestock, farm machinery, heavy equipment, cars, trucks, and business equipment. The amount of the property tax is not determined solely by the property value.


In 2005, Montana had an estimated population of 935,670, which represents an increase of 8,750 residents, or 0.9% over the previous year, and an increase of 33,475 residents and 3.7% since 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 13,674 (58,001 births minus 44,327 deaths) and another due to the immigration of 21,074 people to this state. Immigration from outside the United States has provided an increase of 2,141 residents, and immigration from the same country to this state is 18,933 people. 16,500 of the residents of this state were born abroad, accounting for 1.8% of the total population. According to CountryAAH.com, Helena is the state capital of the U.S. state of Montana and the county seat of Lewis and Clark County.

While German ancestry is the most numerous among the Euro-American groups, residents of Scandinavian descent predominate in the areas where there is farm, the north and the east, on the prairie. There are also several counties where Amerindians predominate, mostly around each of the seven Indian reservations.

Historically, mining oriented western Montana communities like Butte to have a wider range of ethnic groups, particularly people from Eastern Europe and Irish Americans, as well as people who migrated from English mining regions, such as Cornwall. Montana is the second state in the United States (only surpassed by South Dakota), with several colonies spread throughout the territory. Montana’s Hispanic population is mostly located around the Billings area, and in Beaverhead County, in the south-central and south-western part of the state, and the highest density of African Americans is located in Great Falls.

Montana Geography

Washington, DC History

Washington, DC History


According to Abbreviationfinder, the District of Columbia, founded the 16 of July of 1790, it is a federal, as specified by the Constitution of the district United States. The US Congress has the ultimate authority over the District of Columbia, even though the District of Columbia has delegated authority, significantly, to the municipal government. The area in which the original District is located came out of the state of Maryland, and the Commonwealth of Virginia. However, the area south of the Potomac River (approximately 100 km²) was returned to Virginia in 1847 and is now part of Arlington County and the city of Alexandria. Since 1847, the rest of the area that makes up the area now known as the District of Columbia was Maryland.

Its foundation is due to the fact that Thomas Jefferson received James Madison and Alexander Hamilton for a dinner in which they agreed that the capital of the new country should be in one of the so-called ” southern states.” This decision was made because of the debts of the War of Independence.

The site on the Potomac River was chosen by President Washington. Washington may have chosen the site for its natural scenery, believing that the Patowmack Canal would transform the Potomac into a large navigable waterway that would reach Ohio and the American interior. The city was officially called Washington on September 9, 1791.

The federal district was called the District of Columbia because Columbia was a widely used name in the United States at the time, which was near the 300th anniversary of Christopher Columbus’s first voyage to America in 1492.

XIX century

The 24 of August of 1814, Canadian forces under British command burned the city during the incursion of the Anglo-American War of 1812 in retaliation for the sacking and burning of York (the Toronto of today) during the winter months, which had left many Canadians homeless. President James Madison and other American forces were able to escape before British forces arrived and burned public buildings, including the Capitol, the Treasury building, and the White House.

During the 1830s, the District of Columbia was home to one of the largest slave trades in the United States.

In 1860 Washington was a small city, the census of that year gave it a population of just over 75,000 people, but this changed when the American Civil War began in 1861. The significant extension of the federal government to administer the war and its inheritances such as veterans’ pensions led to the remarkable growth of the city’s population. By 1870, the population of the District of Columbia had grown to nearly 132,000 people.

In July 1864, Confederate forces, under the command of General Jubal Anderson Early, made a brief raid on Washington, culminating in the Battle of Fort Stevens. The Confederates were stopped, and Early fell back into the Shenandoah Valley. This was the only battle where an American president, Abraham Lincoln, was present and under enemy fire.

In the early 1870s, Washington was granted territorial government, but the reputation of the governor, Alexander Robey Shepherd, led to Congress taking over the governance of the District of Columbia. Congress would run the District for the next century.

The Washington Monument was inaugurated in 1888. There were several projects to develop the monumental aspect of the city, which included architects such as Frederick Law Olmsted and Daniel Burnham. However, the construction of the Lincoln Memorial, the Jefferson Memorial, and the construction of the Potomac Park did not begin until the early 1900s.

Twentieth century

Many agencies created to alleviate the Great Depression through Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal led the city to a dramatic increase in population, which continued throughout World War II. The District’s population peaked in 1950, when that year’s census recorded a total population of 802,178 people. [3] At the time, the city was the ninth most populous in the country, just ahead of Boston and approaching St. Louis. In the following decades, the population declined, reflecting suburban emigration from many of America’s older urban centers after World War II.

The first 7.4 kilometers of the Washington Metro were inaugurated on March 27, 1976. Today this metro system links Washington and its suburbs with a network of 86 stations and 171.1 kilometers of tracks.

In 1973, Congress enacted the District of Columbia Home Rule and Government Reorganization Act, ensuring the election of a mayor for the District’s city council. Consequently, Walter Washington was the District’s first elected mayor, in 1975.

XXI century

The November of September of 2001, Flight 77 American Airlines a Boeing 757, was hijacked and deliberately crashed into the Pentagon at 9:37 am, on the other side of the Potomac River in Arlington County, causing a landslide part of one side of the building. There are a number of conspiracy theories about the origin and development of the attacks [4] , some of them even argue that the attacks were organized by the United States government itself. (Conspiracies of 9/11).

Washington, DC History

Kansas City, Missouri

Kansas City, Missouri

According to CountryAAH.com, Kansas City is the largest city in the state of Missouri (United States) with a population of 630,387 residents. The metropolitan area has about 2 million people and encompasses fifteen counties in two states: Kansas and Missouri. It is located at the confluence of the Missouri River with the Kansas River. The city is divided into two parts by an interstate border, for which there are two cities with the same name, Kansas City (Missouri) and Kansas City (Kansas). The city has two airports: Charles B. Wheeler Urban Airport and Kansas City International Airport.


The 2000 census indicates that there are 630,387 people, 183,981 households, and 107,444 families residing in the city. The population density is 543.7 hab / km² (1,408.2 / mi²). The city’s racial proportion is 60.68% White, 31.23% Black or (African-American), 1.85% Asian, 0.48% Native American, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 3.21% from other races, and 2.44% from two or more races. Of the 183,981 households, 28.1% have children under the age of 18 living at home, 38.0% are married parents in cohabitation, 16.0% have a female head of household without the presence of a husband, and 41.6 % are single-person families (see new definitions of family). There are 34.1% of households made up of individuals and 9.4% have someone to live with who is over 65 years of age or older. The average size of the family is 3.06 individuals.

In the city, the age curve, with respect to the population, would be 25.4% under 18 years, 9.7% between 18 and 24 years, 32.5% between 25 and 44 years, 20.6 % between 45 and 64 years old, and finally, 11.7% equal or exceed 65 years of age. The average age is 34 years. For every 100 women there are 93.3 men. For every 100 women of legal age (18 years or older), there would then be 89.9 men. The median income for each household in the city is $ 37,198, and the median income for a family is $ 46,012. Men have a median income of $ 35,132 as opposed to $ 27,548 for women. The city’s per capita income is $ 20,753. 14.3% of the population and 11.1% of families are below the poverty line. Of which 20.2% are under 18 and 10.5% are 65 or over.

Attractions and sports

According to Abbreviationfinder, Kansas City is home to an important museum, the Nelson Atkins Museum, which owes its name and origin to two city philanthropists. This museum features both ancient and modern paintings by artists such as Caravaggio, Rembrandt, Van Gogh, and Kandinsky. Kansas City ranks second in the world in the number of Sources (160), surpassed only by Rome. Kansas City has the following sports teams: Kansas City Royals (Major League Baseball), Kansas City Chiefs (NFL football), Sporting Kansas City (MLS football) and Kansas City Warriors (MLUSA). Kansas City is in the process of building a new stadium that is expected to host an NHL hockey team or NBA basketball team.

Twinning with Seville

From the 25 of March of 1969 it is twinned officially with the city of Sevilla, because in 1922, the real estate promoter (citizen of Kansas City) JC Nichols in his travels through Europe, he marveled at the sight he witnessed city Seville, decisive event for the construction of a commercial area (Country Club Plaza) in its American city, where a Sevillian could feel at home when surrounded by similar buildings in his town, such as the Giralda.

This fact is reflected in an equestrian monument showing an “Indian explorer” on horseback located on Avenida de Kansas City, one of the main entrances to Seville, overlooking El Greco Avenue. At first, the place exhibited a white stone monolith with an inscription that was erased over time. The sculpture is called “The Explorer”, the work of the American sculptor Cyrus Edwin Dallin, at first it was exhibited during the Universal Exhibition in the United States pavilion, once it was finished, it was donated to the city and was placed where it is now can watch. Shortly after it was placed, the vandalism kicked in and detached from her head the headdress – a unique bird feather she was wearing.

Twin Cities

1 City Lázaro Cárdenas (Michoacán, Mexico)

2 Flag of Mexico Guadalajara (Jalisco, Mexico)

3 Flag of Colombia Bogota DC, Colombia

4 Flag of Peru Lima, Peru

5 Flag of Mexico Morelia (Michoacan, Mexico)

6 Flag of Mexico San Nicolás de los Garza (Nuevo León, Mexico)

7 Flag of Chile Santiago, Chile

8 Flag of Spain Sevilla (Andalusia, Spain)

Missouri River (United States)

The Missouri River or Missouri River is a long river in the United States, the main tributary of the Mississippi River, it was discovered by the French explorer Étienne de Veniard.


This river is born in the southwest of Montana, at the confluence of three rivers, (Jefferson, Madison and Gallatin), which have their sources in the Rocky Mountains. It crosses the Great Plains of eastern Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota, marking the border between Nebraska and Iowa, and then between Kansas and Missouri before emptying into the Mississippi just north of St. Louis, Missouri.


With a length of approximately 4,130 km, it is the longest river in the United States and drains a 1,371,010 km² basin, approximately one sixth of the North American subcontinent.

Protected sections

Several stretches of the Missouri River have been declared a national wild and scenic river: on October 12, 1976 a 239.8 km long stretch, in Montana: on November 10, 1978 another 95 km stretch, from Nebraska and South Dakota; on May 24, 1991, a final 62.7 km stretch, also between Nebraska and South Dakota.

Kansas City, Missouri

Countries it crosses

  • USA
  • Mountain
  • North Dakota
  • South Dakota
  • Nebraska
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
Washington Government and Economy

Washington Government and Economy

According to Abbreviationfinder, Washington has huge coniferous forests, which have earned it the nickname The Evergreen State (evergreen state, or evergreen state). These forests make Washington a leader in the American lumber industry. Washington is cut by several rivers and dotted with several lakes, creating a favorable terrain for the installation of dams. Here is the largest in the country, the Grand Coulee Dam, on the Columbia River. The state is made up of 307 cities that are grouped into 39 counties [4] [5] . It contains an area of ​​184,666 km 2 with a population of 6,882,400 residents registered in April 2013. Its governor has been Democrat Jay Inslee since 2012, the twenty-third to hold this position


Existing powers

The government of the state of Washington has a division of powers: executive, legislative and judicial.

  • The chief executive branch official in Washington is the governor. He is chosen by the population through state elections, for a term of up to four years, and he can run for office as many times as he wants. The state governor has the power to elect more than 350 different officers. Since 2012, the current governor of Washington is Democrat Jay Inslee, the twenty-third to hold this position [1] .
  • The Legislative Branch of Washington is made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate is made up of 49 senators, while the House of Representatives has 98 representatives. Senators have a term of up to four years, while the term of the representatives’ term is a maximum of two years. Both senators and representatives can stand for reelection as many times as they wish.
  • The highest court in the Washington Judiciary is the Washington Supreme Court. The nine judges of this court are elected by the population of the state for a term of up to six years. Elections for Supreme Court posts are held every three years, in which three judges are elected. The second largest court in the state is the Court of Appeals of Washington, which consists of 22 judges, elected by the population of the state for a term of up to six years. No judge can stand for reelection in a given judicial court.


The current Washington Constitution came into effect in 1889, created prior to the elevation of Washington to the status of a state. The Legislative Branch of Washington can propose amendments to the Constitution, and to be approved, they need to receive at least two-thirds of the votes of the Senate and the State House of Representatives, and then another two-thirds of the votes of the electorate of Washington, through a referendum. Amendments can also be made through constitutional conventions, which are special political meetings. Amendments made in this way need to be approved by at least 51% of each Chamber of the Legislative Power, and then by at least 60% of the state’s electoral population, in a referendum.

This Constitution reflects the state’s membership of the United States through Section 1:

SECTION 2 SUPREME LAW OF THE LAND . The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the land.
SECTION 2 SUPREME LAW OF THE LAND. The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the land.

Administrative division

Counties that make up the State of Washington.

According to CountryAAH.com, the state of Washington is divided into 39 counties in which are the 307 cities that make up the state. Most of these 39 counties are governed by a 3-member council. Any city with more than 20,000 residents is free to choose its form of municipal government. Senior officials of the government of each of the counties make up the Association of Counties officials Washington (in English: Washington Association of County OfficialsWACO), these officials may be elected county assessors, auditors, clerks, coroners and medical examiners, prosecutorial attorneys, sheriffs, treasurers, and other officials designated by each county. WACO is a non-profit, non-partisan organization.

Washington Government

The counties that make up the state are:

  • Adams
  • Asotin
  • Benton
  • Chelan
  • Clallam
  • Clark
  • Columbia
  • Cowlitz
  • Douglas
  • Ferry
  • Franklin
  • Garfield
  • Grant
  • Grays harbor
  • Island
  • Jefferson
  • King
  • Kitsap
  • Kittitas
  • Klickitat
  • Lewis
  • Lincoln
  • Mason
  • Okanogan
  • Pacific
  • Pend Oreille
  • Pierce
  • San Juan
  • Skagit
  • Skamani
  • Snohomish
  • Spokane
  • Stevens
  • Thurston
  • Wahkiakum
  • Walla walla
  • Whatcom
  • Whitman
  • Yakima


Main entrance to Microsoft headquarters in Redmond, Washington.

Washington is a prominent agricultural state. The most important agricultural crop is corn; They are also important the hay, hops, potatoes, sugar beet, peas and flower bulbs. Washington, the nation’s leading apple producer, is also famous for its cherries, plums, grapes, pears, and blueberries. Livestock products (milk and derivatives, beef and sheep meat) contribute more than a third of the annual agricultural income. The forest industry is the most important in the state; the main commercial species are Douglas firand hemlock. The fishing industry is significant. In value, salmon contributes a third of the catch, followed by oysters, crabs, shrimp and other shellfish.

The most prominent industries are those in charge of manufacturing transport equipment, wood and derived products, such as paper, food products, industrial machinery, primary metals, printing materials and precision instruments. Washington’s economy is primarily focused on tourism and the aerospace industry.

The major industrialized products made in Washington are airplanes, ships, software, electronics, processed foods, and paper and wood products. The Boeing, the largest aircraft construction world, is headquartered in the state (in Seattle) and its main factories. Microsoft, Amazon.com, and Nintendo America are also headquartered in Washington.


Mississippi Administration and Politics

Mississippi Administration and Politics

According to Abbreviationfinder, Mississippi is one of the 50 states of the United States of America, located in the Southern Region of the country, east of Arkansas and Louisiana, south of Tennessee and west of Alabama. It owes its name to the Mississippi River, which runs along its western border.


The current Constitution of Mississippi was adopted in 1890. Other older constitutions were adopted in 1817, 1832 and in 1869. Amendments to the Constitution are proposed by the Legislative Branch, and to be approved, they need at least 67% approval of the Senate and House of State Representatives, and subsequently by 51% or more of the electoral population of Mississippi, in a referendum. The population of the state can also propose amendments to the Constitution through a petition. Amendments can also be made through a constitutional Convention, which needs to receive the approval of at least 67% of the votes of both houses of the Legislative Power and 51% of the state’s electors, in a referendum.

The chief executive officer of the Mississippi is the governor. This, together with the Lieutenant Governor, is elected by the electors of the state for terms of up to four years. Both are elected on an electoral list, and they do not have a term limit, but they cannot serve two in a row. Most of the officers of the different departments of the Mississippi Executive are appointed by the governor, with the consent of the Legislative, with the exception of the Treasurer, the Secretary of State and the Attorney General, who are elected by the state population for terms of up to four years of duration.

Mississippi State Capitol, Jackson. The Legislative Branch of Mississippi is made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate has a total of 52 members, while the House of Representatives has a total of 122 members. Mississippi is divided into 52 senatorial districts and 122 representative districts. Voters from each district elect a senator / representative, who will represent each district in the Senate / House of Representatives. The senators’ mandate is four years, and that of the members of the House of Representatives, two years. There is no limit for a person to serve as a senator or representative. The highest Court of the Judiciary in Mississippi is the Supreme Court of Mississippi, composed of nine justices, three from each of the three judicial districts of the State. The judge with the longest experience becomes President of the Supreme Court. All of these judges are elected for terms of up to eight years. The second largest court in Mississippi is the Court of Appeals, made up of ten judges, two from each of the state’s five congressional districts. The judges of this court are elected by the population of the congressional districts for terms of up to four years in duration.

According to CountryAAH.com,Mississippi is divided into 82 counties. Each county in the state is divided into five different districts. Each county is administered by a council of supervisors composed of five members, each elected by the population of each of the five districts of the county. Most of the cities of Mississippi are administered by a mayor and a municipal council. All the public administrations of the cities and counties of the state are subject to the control of the government of Mississippi.

About half of the revenue in the Mississippi government budget is generated by state taxes, with the rest coming from federally supplied budgets and loans. In 2002, the state government spent $ 12.05 billion, generating $ 11.05 billion. Mississippi government debt is $ 4.16 billion. Per capita debt is $ 1,451, per capita state tax value is $ 1,649, and per capita government spending value is $ 4,445. Mississippi, historically, has been dominated politically by the Democratic Party, mainly from the end of the American Civil War until the 1960s, mainly because of the great resentment of the population against the Republicans, who were responsible for the abolition of slave labor in the country. Most of the elected politicians in the state’s city and county administrations, as well as members of the Mississippi government and state representatives in the United States Congress, have been Democrats up to the present time. However, the Republican Party has gradually strengthened since the 1930s. Since 1948, for example, the majority of Mississippi’s four Electoral College votes in the US presidential election have been Republican. Since 1991, when Kirk Fordice became the first Republican governor of the state, the Republicans have politically dominated Mississippi.

Mississippi is one of the most conservative states in the United States, where religion is often an important factor in the political opinion of the residents of the state. The state has rigid laws against gambling and alcoholic beverages. In 2004, 86% of state voters amended the state Constitution to outlaw any kind of legal rights for gay couples — the highest level of support of any such initiative received in the United States.

Mississippi Politics

Virginia Politics and Economy

Virginia Politics and Economy

According to Abbreviationfinder, Virginia is one of the 50 states of the United States. Officially, it is called the Commonwealth of Virginia, in English.


Over the past century, Virginia has shifted from a fundamentally rural, politically southern, conservative state to a more urbanized and politically pluralistic environment. Rural areas in the southern and eastern parts of the state are GOP-like, while urban centers and outskirts of Washington, such as Fairfax and Arlington counties, are mostly Democratic-like. African Americans were effectively disenfranchised until after the passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s, which was one of the catalysts for the “Great Migration” of the early 20th century to the cities of the United States. North. The granting of the right to vote and the immigration of other groups, especially Hispanics, have demonstrated the growing importance of minority voting.

Regional differences play a big role in Virginia politics. Urban areas and increasingly politically moderate suburban areas, including Northern Virginia, are the base of the Democratic party. Rural Virginia moved its support for the Republican Party in response to its “Southern strategy” (in American politics, it refers to a Republican method of bringing racism among white voters to the Southern states). Parts of Southwest Virginia under the influence of unionized coal mines, college towns such as Charlottesville and Blacksburg, and southeastern counties in the “Black Belt” region have remained more favorable to the Democratic vote.

The strength of Virginia’s political parties has changed in recent years. In the 2004 US presidential election, Fairfax County in Northern Virginia voted for the Democrats for the first time in the past 40 years, joining the Democratic strongholds of Alexandria and Arlington. In 2006, Democrat Tim Kaine was elected Governor. and in the 2007 state elections, Democrats regained control of the state Senate and reduced the Republican majority in the House of Representatives to eight seats. But in the 2009 election, Republican Robert McDonnell was elected governor by a 17-point margin, and the Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General were also Republicans, regaining six seats in the House of Delegates.

In federal elections since 2006, Democrats have been more successful. In the 2006 Senate elections, Democrat Jim Webb won the Republican incumbent in a close election. The party won both US Senate seats after 2008, when former Governor Mark Warner replaced Republican John Warner. Of the state’s 11 seats in the US House of Representatives, Democrats won six and Republicans five. In Virginia, which has 13 electoral votes, Democrat Barack Obama won in the 2008 presidential election, when Republican candidates had won in the previous ten presidential elections. Virginia is considered a “swing state” in presidential elections.

Virginia Politics


Virginia’s economy is well-balanced and has varied sources of income, providing employment for 4.1 million civilian workers. In 2006, Forbes magazine named it the best state in the nation for business. Virginia’s Gross Domestic Product it was $ 382.964 billion in 2007. According to CountryAAH.com, it had the largest number of independent counties and cities, fifteen, ranked among the 100 richest counties in the United States by median household income. In addition, along with Colorado, it also has more counties, ten, among the hundred with the highest per capita income. As of 2007, seven Fortune 500 companies are headquartered in the greater Richmond area.

Virginia has seventeen companies in the Fortune 500, 10th nationally. Additionally, ten Fortune 1000 companies are in Northern Virginia, with a total of twenty-nine in the state. With only 1% Hispanic population, the state has 3.6% of the companies in the Hispanic 500. The Pentagon, the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense in Arlington County, is the largest office building of the world.

Virginia has the highest concentration of tech workers of any US state. One third of the state’s jobs are in the service sector. Chips became the state’s largest gross export in 2006, surpassing the top traditional coal and tobacco exports combined. Northern Virginia, once considered the state’s dairy capital, now produces software, communications technology, and consulting companies. The Dulles Tech Corridor, near the Washington-Dulles International Airport, has a large concentration of Internet companies, communications and software engineering. In 2006, Fairfax and Loudoun counties in Northern Virginia had the first and second highest median household incomes, respectively, of all counties in the United States.

Many of Northern Virginia’s highly educated people work directly for federal agencies. Many others work for government contractors, including security and defense. Famous government agencies established in Northern Virginia include the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the United States Department of Defense, as well as the National Science Foundation (NSF), the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The Hampton Roads area contains the largest concentration of military bases and ancillary facilities of any metropolitan area in the world. The largest of these is Norfolk Naval Base, the second state after Alaska, in defense spending per capita.

In southern Virginia, from Hampton Roads to Richmond to Lee County, the economy is based on military installations, such as beef cattle, tobacco and peanut farming. Approximately twenty percent of Virginian jobs are in the agricultural sector, with 47,000 farms, with an average area of ​​732 m². Tomato cultivation surpassed soybean cultivation as the most productive crop in 2006, with peanuts and hay being produced as other agricultural products. the oysters They are an important part of the Chesapeake Bay’s economy, but their populations and catches have declined, due to disease, pollution and overfishing. Northern Neck wineries and vineyards along the Blue Range have also begun to generate income and attract tourists.

Minnesota Geography

Minnesota Geography

Minnesota is the northernmost state outside of Alaska, and its isolated northwest corner at Lake of the Woods is the only part of the 48 contiguous states that lie north of the 49th parallel. Minnesota is in the US region., known as the Upper Midwest. The state shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and Wisconsin in the northeast, and the remainder of the eastern border is with Wisconsin. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota they lie to the west, and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba lie to the north. At 87.014 square miles (225,365 km²), or about 2.25% of the United States, it is ranked 12th in land area. According to CountryAAH.com, Saint Paul is the capital of the U.S. state of Minnesota.


According to Abbreviationfinder, Minnesota contains some of the oldest rocks found on earth, dating back about 3.6 million years. About 2.7 million years ago, basalt lava gushed from cracks in the floor of the primeval ocean, the remnants of this volcanic rock forming the Canadian Shield in northeastern Minnesota.

The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of the Precambrian seas formed the Iron Mountain Range in northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanic activity 1.1 million years ago, Minnesota’s geologic activity has been more moderate, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions from the sea that left multiple layers of sedimentary rock.

In more recent times, sheets of ice masses at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state’s landscape and sculpted its present terrain. The glaciation left Wisconsin 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and gullies that cut through the bedrock. This area is known as the Driftless Zone because of its absence of glacial drift. Much of the rest of the state outside of the Northeast is 50 feet (15 m) or more. 13,000 years ago the gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest; The lake’s outlet, the Warren River Glacier, carved out the Minnesota River Valley, and its bottom created the fertile lands of the Red River Valley. Minnesota is geologically quiet these days, even though it experiences earthquakes frequently,

Flora and fauna

The native fauna of the state: martens, deer, lynx and reindeer, has been considerably affected by the loss of their habitat, however the region has the largest population of gray wolves without counting Alaska, also harboring quite large populations of elk and white-tailed deer. Being on the Mississippi migration route, the state has populations of waterfowl such as geese and ducks, as well as other migratory birds, examples of which are the Uruguayan, pheasant and turkey. To the southeast can be found trout brook, brown trout and rainbow trout.


Minnesota is one of the most water-covered states in the United States. It makes good use of its nickname, The Land of 10,000 Lakes, counts: it has 11,842 lakes of more than 40,500 m². [3] The largest lake located within Minnesota is Red Lake, with 1,100 km². Counting the percentage of Lake Superior that belongs to Minnesota, the percentage of the area occupied by water in the state is about 8.4% of the total surface of the state.

Minnesota has 6,564 natural rivers and streams, totaling 111,000 kilometers in length. The longest river in the United States and the third largest in the world, the Mississippi, begins its 6,270 km journey at Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota. It joins the Minnesota River at the height of Fort Snelling, and to the southeast with many trout streams. The Red River of the North, on the bed of Lake Agassiz, drains the northwestern part of the state to the north, to flow into Lake Winnipeg in Canada.

The Mississippi River watershed covers about 57% of the state’s surface, followed by the Red River with 30%. For their part, the rivers that flow into Lake Superior, all located in the extreme northeast of Minnesota, cover the remaining 13% of the State.

Protected areas

Minnesota is home to a wide variety of wildlife, parks, and other open spaces. Minnesota’s first state park, Itasca State Park, was established in 1891, and is the source of the Mississippi River. Today Minnesota has 72 state parks and recreation areas, 58 state forests covering nearly four million acres (16,000 km²), and conserving state-like wildlife, all managed by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. To the west is the Voyageurs National Park, the only national park in the state.


The state has a temperate continental climate, with very cold winters and warm summers, and relatively unstable, where climatic conditions can change suddenly in a short period. Minnesota’s climate is typical of its continental location, high latitudes, and mild terrain, which allows rapid movement of air currents from any direction throughout the state. In general, the state’s temperatures rise as you travel south. However, most of the northeast of the State has lower temperatures than the northwest, due to its higher average altitude. For its part, the Minnesota coastline along Lake Superior has milder winters and summers than the other regions of the state.

Minnesota’s annual mean rainfall rate increases as you travel eastward. The western region of Minnesota receives less than 50 centimeters of annual rainfall per year, while the eastern region receives more than 80 centimeters. The snowfall rate, meanwhile, increases as one travels northward. Southern Minnesota receives about 50 inches of snow annually per year, while the north receives about 180 inches annually.

Minnesota Geography

Vermont Overview

Vermont Overview

According to Abbreviationfinder, Vermont is the second smallest state in terms of population, has 609,000 residents and the sixth smallest in terms of geographic area.

Geographically, Vermont is of interest primarily with the Green Mountains in the west and Lake Champlain in the northwest. It borders Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east, New York to the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north.

The lands of Vermont were originally inhabited by Indian tribes ( Iroquois, Algonquin peoples and Abnaki ). France later claimed Vermont, but today’s state became a British colony after France lost the French and Indian Wars. For many years it was ruled by the surrounding colonies, which met fierce resistance from the “boys of the Green Mountains”. After American independence following the Revolutionary War, Vermont became the 14th state to join the union.

Known for nature, dairy, and maple syrup, Vermont has long been associated with progressive politics and the Democratic Party.

One of IBM ‘s large microelectronics plants is located near Burlington. In 2015, the plant was handed over to GlobalFoundries. It takes over the mass production of some of the chips that IBM designs and uses in its computers. The plant provides thousands of jobs for residents of the small state.


Before the Europeans arrived, the Iroquois tribes of New York and the Algonquin tribes of New England fought for possession of the territory of Vermont. The first European known to have explored the region was the Frenchman Samuel de Champlain, who in 1609 reached the lake that was later named after him. The first British settlement was Fort Dummer or Brattleboro (1724), to the south.

In the 1760s, a wave of settlers came to this territory from Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts. These settlers, aided by Benedict Arnold, seized Fort Ticonderoga and drove British forces out of the Lake Champlain region months before American independence was declared. In 1777, the colonists adopted a separate Constitution and, after the war, formed an independent republic that lasted until 1791. In 1791, Vermont was admitted to the Union.

Vermont experienced a population explosion between the 1790s and 1820s. The railroad favored the creation of cities that served as stations and facilitated some economic development, which was offset by a lack of industrial facilities and a tendency to make agriculture the basis of the state economy.

Marble and granite quarries, specialized industrial machinery industries, and the growth of the tourism industry gained prominence in the late 1800s and early 1900s, providing a decisive new boost to the Vermont economy.


Vermont is famous for its long and snowy winters, when people from all over the world come to enjoy its wonderful winter resorts. Temperatures are almost always negative during the period December – February, sometimes falling below -20 ° C. Summers are short and cool, with an average daily temperature in July – August of the order of 22 ° C


In terms of climate, Vermont has long winters and short summers. Most of the state receives a lot of precipitation in the form of snow, reaching 3,175 mm a year in many mountain areas.

Vermont flora and fauna

About three-quarters of Vermont’s land area is covered in forests, consisting primarily of hardwood species such as ash, beech, birch, hickory, maple, and oak. The large coniferous forests to the northeast are made up of pines and firs.

The white-tailed or Virginia deer is, of the large mammal species, the most important game in Vermont. Bobcat and coyote are also common, as are beaver, muskrat, otter, rabbit, squirrel, groundhog, and raccoon. Traditionally, the state has had good mineral resources, with deposits of copper, tin, iron ore, silver, manganese and gold.

Vermont’s agriculture sector is small by comparison, but it makes up a significant part of the state’s economy. The most valuable product is milk; equally important are cattle, egg production, hay and apple farming, and maple syrup.

Manufacturing is the most prominent sector of the state economy, focused on electronic equipment, industrial machinery, printing materials, paper and its derivatives, articles of wood and stone, processed foods, precision instruments and aerospace and transportation equipment.


The state is known for its liberal politics and independent political thought, in this respect it is the only state that has had a Social Democratic governor, outside the Democratic and Republican parties. In April 2009, the law was approved that allows homosexuals to marry without any legal restriction. According to CountryAAH.com, Montpelier is the capital city of the U.S. state of Vermont and the seat of Washington County.

Vermont Overview

Lansing, Michigan

Lansing, Michigan

According to CountryAAH.com, Lansing is a city located in Ingham County, although small portions of the city extend into Eaton County. It is located in the US state of Michigan, and is the capital of that state. In the 2010 Census it had a population of 114,297 residents and a population density of 1,203.28 people per km². Template: Census data.


Lansing is located at coordinates 42 ° 42′35 N ° 84′33. According to the United States Census Bureau, Lansing has a total area of ​​94.99 km², of which 93.37 km² correspond to land and (1.71%) 1.62 km² is water. Template: Census data


Lansing has a humid temperate climate (Köppen Dfa climate classification), with four well-defined seasons. The state’s summers are mild due to the presence of large bodies of water in the region, while winters are cold. The temperature drops as you travel north. During the winter, the average temperature in the southern Lansing region is -6 ° C, -9 ° C in the central region, and -12 ° C in the Upper Peninsula. The average of the minimums in the state is -10 ° C, and the average of the maximums is -1 ° C. The minimums vary between -40 ° C and 8 ° C, and the maximums between -35 ° C and 15 ° C. The lowest recorded temperature in the state is -46 ° C, in Vanderbilt, on February 9, 1934.

In summer, the average temperature is 22 ° C in the extreme south, 20 ° C in the central region and 18 ° C in the Upper Peninsula. The average of the minimums is 14 ° C, and the average of the maximums is 26 ° C. The maximums can reach up to 40 ° C in the southern region, and 34 ° C in the Upper Peninsula. The highest temperature recorded in the state was 44 ° C, in Mio, on July 13, 1932.


According to Abbreviationfinder, Lansing’s annual mean rainfall rate is 80 centimeters, ranging from 95 centimeters per year in the Upper Peninsula and in the extreme southwest of the state, to 68 centimeters in the northeast of the state. Average annual snowfall rates range from 100 centimeters in the south to more than 400 centimeters in the north of the state.


According to the 2010 census, Template: Census Data there were 114,297 people residing in Lansing. The population density was 1,203.28 residents / km². Of the 114,297 residents, Lansing was made up of 61.23% White, 23.74% were African American, 0.77% were Amerindian, 3.72% were Asian, 0.05% were Pacific Islanders, 4.3% were of other races and 6.18 % belonged to two or more races. Of the total population, 12.5% ​​were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

Sister cities

  • Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico
  • Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico
  • Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico

Brother Town

  • Aporo, (Michoacán, Mexico)

Famous people

  • Basketball player Magic Johnson was born in this city
  • Actor Burt Reynolds was born in this city
  • Actor Steven Seagal was born in this city


The Lansing-Ishii Agreement was a diplomatic note signed by the United States and the Empire of Japan on Template: Date regarding their differences from China.

In the text of the Agreement that was published – signed by the Secretary of State of the United States Robert Lansing and the Japanese special envoy Ishii Kikujirō – both parties pledged to maintain the open door policy in China regarding its territorial and administrative integrity.. However, the United States government also recognized that Japan had certain “special interests” in China due to its geographical proximity, especially in the areas of China closest to Japanese territory, which in practice contradicted the aforementioned open door policy..

In a secret protocol attached to the Public Agreement, both parties agreed not to take advantage of possible opportunities arising from World War I to try to obtain special rights or privileges in China at the expense of other allied nations in the war against Germany.

At the time, the Lansing-Ishii Agreement stood as proof that Japan and the United States had buried their increasingly bitter rivalry over China, and the agreement was celebrated as a milestone in US-Japan relations. However, critics realized the vague wording and the different possible interpretations of the Agreement, which meant that nothing had been decided after two months of talks. The Lansing-Ishii Agreement was superseded in April 1923 by the Nine Powers Treaty.

For the Japanese, while the Lansing-Ishii Agreement of 1917, which recognized Tokyo’s special interests in part of China, did not imply equality with Western powers, it was proof that Japan could no longer be ignored in international affairs..


According to the 2010 census of the United States Census Bureau, the population of Lansing in that year was 114,297 residents, a growth of 6.5% in relation to the population of the state in 1990, of 9,328. 784 residents.

The natural growth of the Lansing population between 2000 and 2010 was 182,380 residents, 691,897 births and 456,137 deaths, the population growth caused by immigration was 122,901 residents, while interstate migration resulted in a decrease of 165,084 residents. Between 2000 and 2010, Lansing’s population grew by 182,380 residents, and between 2004 and 2005, by 16,654 residents.

About 82% of Lansing’s population lives in 9 different metropolitan regions: Ann Arbor, Benton Harbor, Detroit, Flint, Grand Rapids-Muskegon-Holland, Jackson, Kalamazoo-Battle Creek, Lansing-East Lansing and Saginaw-Bay City- Midland.

Most of the population lives in the Lower Peninsula of the state. The average population density of the state is 17 residents per square kilometer. However, in the Lower Peninsula, this average is 230. In the Lower Peninsula, the average density is only 8 residents / km².

Lansing, Michigan

Salt Lake City, Utah

Salt Lake City, Utah

According to CountryAAH.com, Salt Lake City is the capital and the largest city of the state of Utah (United States). In 2008 its population was 181 698 residents in the city and just over 2 million residents counting the metropolitan area that it forms together with neighboring cities.


It was founded in 1847 by a group of Mormons, a church led at that time by its creator, Brigham Young).

It is located just south-east of the Great Salt Lake.

It is the headquarters of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (also known as Mormons). As the headquarters of the Mormon church, the city still preserves many buildings that were built when the Mormons arrived in this region in 1847, for example:

House of the Lion (Lion House) which was the nickname of Brigham Young (who also called himself “Young Prophet”).

The Deseret Village (Desert Village)

The Salt Lake City temple.

The Mormon church also maintains the largest family registration center in the world, with free services to the public.

Located at the foot of the Wasatch range to be a great recreation center and has one of the largest financial industries in the entire United States.

In the winter of 2002 Salt Lake City was the host city of the Olympic Games of Winter.


Before the settlement of Europeans around the 19th century, the Shoshone, Paiute, and other Native American tribes had already dwelt in the Salt Lake Valley for thousands of years.

The first known exploration was carried out by the Franciscan missionary Silvestre Vélez de Escalante and his men in 1776.

The first Mormon settlers settled in the valley on July 24, 1847.

It was built (Temple Square), in an area called the temple square located in the center of the city. It took 40 years to complete the temple, being dedicated on April 6, 1893. Today it is the best-known building in the entire city.

In 1911 the city elected for the first time a mayor who worked to improve the precarious infrastructures available to the city.

In 1929 the Great Crak hit the city hard and caused many of the 61,000 people who lived in the city at that time to lose their jobs and their homes and were forced to live on the streets.

During the Second World War, military bases were established in the city and at the end of the war the city grew rapidly, recovering a good economy.

The 20th century can be defined as a period of great economic and population growth for the city, since at the beginning of the century some 53,531 people lived in the city who had a per capita income of about $ 200 and at the end of the century lived in the city. city ​​159,936 people with a per capita income of $ 24,000, which meant tripling the population and multiplying the per capita income by 120.

During the 21st century the city continues to grow and change and the city council has arranged for a progressive renovation of the buildings in the Financial District to help improve the economy of the city.

Also in recent years, the increase in immigration is turning the city into a multicultural society in which 15% of Hispanics coexist, who are already the most important minority not only in the city but in the entire state of Utah.


According to Abbreviationfinder, Salt Lake City’s climate is defined as a semi-arid steppe climate with four distinct seasons. Summer and winter are long and spring and fall are short. Summers in the city are characterized by its hot and very dry climate.

The monsoon arrives from the Gulf of California from mid-July through September, producing several focused storms in the afternoons.

Winters are cold and with a lot of precipitation in the form of snow. Spring and fall are comfortable transition periods between winter and summer.

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s Study in Scarlet is described in popular culture as a dystopian colony ruled by Brigham Young’s autocracy and his armed wing, the Avengers Angels.


The population census of the year 2000 in Salt Lake City there are 180,651 people who live in 71,461 houses and that form 39,803 families.

This amounts to 8.1% of the total Utah population, 20.2% of the total Salt Lake County population, and 13.6% of the total Salt Lake metropolitan area population.

Salt Lake City has a population density of 643.3 residents per km2. The population of the metropolitan area of ​​the city amounts to more than 1,300,000 people who live in Salt Lake City and the neighboring cities of Salt Lake County.

23.6% of the city’s population is under 18, 15.2% is between 18 and 24, 33.4% is between 25 and 44, 16.7% is between 45 and 64 and a 11.0% of the city’s population is 65 years or older, which gives an average age of around 30 years. For every 102 men there are 100 women, 10.2% of the city’s population lives below the poverty line, and more than 50% of the city’s population is a member of the Mormon Church.

Salt Lake City, Utah

Boston, Massachusetts History

Boston, Massachusetts History

Boston was founded on 17 of November of 1630 by Puritan colonists from England, called the patriarchs pilgrims on the Shawmut Peninsula, named for the Amerindians who inhabited the region. The first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, John Winthrop, who gave a famous speech entitled “A Model of Christian Charity”, but popularly known as “The City on a Hill” that gave the feeling that Boston had a special covenant with God (Winthrop also promoted and signed the Cambridge Agreement that was instrumental in the creation of the city). The stability and structure of the city was mainly due to the Puritan ethic.

Between 1636 and 1698, six major smallpox epidemics caused significant deaths in Boston.

During the early 1770s, Britain’s intention to exert control over the Thirteen coloniesthrough taxation began the American War of Independence. Battles like the slaughter of Boston, the Mutiny of tea in Boston and many others, occurred on the outskirts of town or in your neighborhood, as the Battle of Lexington and Concord, the Battle of Bunker Hill and the Siege of Boston. It was during this period that Paul Revere he made his famous “night tours”. After the Revolution, Boston became one of the most prosperous international ports due to its seafaring tradition. The most common exports included rum, fish, salt, and tobacco. During this time, the descendants of the Boston families were considered the social and cultural elites of the nation, later called Boston Brahmins.

In 1822, Boston was elevated to the category of city and its citizens agreed, in that same year, to change the official name from “Town of Boston” (Town of Boston) to “City of Boston” (City of Boston). At that time, the city of Boston had 46,226 residents, while the area of ​​the city was only 12 km².

Between 1631 and 1890 the city tripled its physical size by land reclaimed from the sea by filling in swamps, marshes, and lagoons between the piers along the shoreline – a process that Walter Muir Whitehill called “shrinking the hills to fill in the hills. coves “. The largest land reclamation effort took place during the 1800s. After the Great Boston Fire of 1872, workers used building debris to fill in the downtown shoreline.

At the beginning of the 21st century, the city had become an intellectual, political and technological center. Despite this, it has experienced a loss of regional institutions, including the acquisitions of the Boston Globe by The New York Times, and the mergers and acquisitions of local financial institutions such as FleetBoston Financial, which was bought by Bank of America in 2004. Jordan Marsh and Filene’s department stores merged with New York’s Macy’s. Boston also experienced gentrification in the late 20th century, and house prices have risen significantly since the 1990s. The cost of living has risen and Boston is one of the most expensive cities in the United States, ranking as the 99th most expensive city in the world in a survey carried out in 2008 among 143 cities. Despite this, Boston is one of the cities with the best standard of living and is ranked 35th in the world after a survey carried out in 2009 with 215 participating cities.


The city of Boston is very compact. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of ​​232.1 km², being 125.4 km² of land (54.0%) and 106.7 km² (46.0%) of water. Boston is the fourth most densely populated city in the country among those that are the head of any major metropolitan area. According to CountryAAH.com, of the US cities with more than 600,000 residents, only San Francisco is smaller in land area.

Boston is surrounded by the region of “Greater Boston” (Greater Boston) and by the cities of Winthrop, Revere, Chelsea, Everett, Somerville, Cambridge, Watertown, Newton, Brookline, Needham, Dedham, Canton, Milton and Quincy.

The Charles River separates the city proper of Boston from the cities of Cambridge and Watertown, and the neighborhood of Charlestown, which does belong to Boston. To the east is Boston Harbor and the Boston WEINER Harbor Islands National Recreation Area. The Neponset River forms the boundary between the southern neighborhoods of Boston and the cities of Quincy and Milton. The Mystic River separates Charlestown from Chelsea and Everett; Chelsea Creek and Boston Harbor do the same between the east of the city and its center. Boston’s official height, measured at Logan International Airport, is 5.8 meters above sea level. The highest point is Bellevue Hill, 101 meters above sea level; while the lowest is at sea level.

According to Abbreviationfinder, Boston basically has a climate between the humid continental and humid subtropical, very common on the southern coast of New England. Summers are generally hot and humid, while winters are cold, windy and snowy. Offshore winds that affect Boston predominate, minimizing the influence of the Atlantic Ocean.

Spring in Boston can be warm, with temperatures surpassing 30 ° C with the coastal winds, although it may be possible that a day in late May will not exceed 5 ° C due to the cold winds from the ocean. The hottest month is July, with an average maximum temperature of 28 ° C and a minimum of 19 ° C, with humid conditions. The coldest month, meanwhile, is January, with average maximum temperatures of 2 ° C and minimum temperatures of -6 ° C. Periods of temperatures that in summer exceed 32 ° C and in winter -12 ° C are not common and are rarely prolonged seasons. The highest recorded temperature in Boston was 40 ° C on July 4, 1911. The lowest temperature was -18 ° C and was recorded on February 9, 1934. The month of February in Boston has seen 21 ° C only once in history since temperatures are recorded and it took place on February 24 from 1985. The highest temperature in March occurred on March 31, 1998.

Boston’s location on the North Atlantic coast, while moderating temperatures, also makes the city very prone to northeastern weather systems, which can produce a lot of snow and rain. The city receives an average of 108 cm of rainfall and 104 cm of snow per year. Most of the snow occurs from December to March. There is usually little or no snowfall in April and November, and snow is very rare between May and October. Fog is frequent, especially in spring and early summer, and occasional tropical storms or hurricanes can threaten the region, especially in early fall. Due to its location along the North Atlantic, the city is often subjected to the sea breeze, especially in the final stretch of spring.

Boston, Massachusetts History

Austin, Texas

Austin, Texas

According to CountryAAH.com, Austin is the capital city of the state of Texas (United States). In addition to its functions as the seat of state government, Austin is a commercial, manufacturing, educational, and convention center. Among its production, high-tech items such as electrical equipment, semiconductors and computer equipment stand out. It is the headquarters of the University of Texas at Austin (1883). It is known for being the capital of live music as well.


In 1730 Franciscan missionaries established three temporary missions in the area, then occupied by indigenous people from the Comanche, Tonkawa and Lipan groups. In 1838 a permanent community settled here, which was given the name of Waterloo.

From 1838-1850

In 1839 the Waterloo community was incorporated into the Republic of Texas, being designated its capital and renamed in honor of Stephen F. Austin, considered the father of Texas. Most Texans longed to separate from Mexican territory and aspired to union with the United States for commercial reasons. In 1842, in the time of Antonio López de Santa Anna, an incident occurred that forced the capital to be moved to Houston, but the citizens of Austin forced the return of the capital in 1844 when the annexation of Texas was already a fact. Then Texas joined the Union in 1845 and Austin became the state capital in 1850.

After the Civil War, Austin’s economic development was boosted with the arrival of the railroad in 1871. During the 20th century, Austin benefited from the use of hydroelectric power and irrigation from the Colorado River. Beginning in the 1920s and 1930s, Austin launched a series of civic development and beautification projects that created much of the city’s infrastructure and parks.

Economic development

After the Civil War, Austin’s economic development was boosted with the arrival of the railroad in 1871. During the 20th century Austin has benefited from the use of hydroelectric power and irrigation from the Colorado River. Many companies engaged in the production of high-tech items were established in its metropolitan area in the 1970s.


Its official name is Austin-Bergstrom International Airport. It was opened on October 14,1930. It is located 5 miles (8 km) southeast of Austin’s financial center.

Austin International Airport serves a good part of the state of Texas (United States). It has a large number of domestic flights and some international ones, mainly to Mexico. Around 9.5 million passengers circulated it during 2012.


Austin is located at coordinates 30 ° 18 ° 26 ° N 97 ° 45 22 W. According to the United States Census Bureau.


According to Abbreviationfinder, Austin has a total area of ​​790.11 km², of which 771.54 km² correspond to the mainland and (2.35%) 18.56 km² is water.

Social development


In the 2010 Census it had a population of 790,390 residents and a population density of 1,000.36 people per km².

Ethnic composition

Austin was composed of 68.29% white, 8.15% were African American, 0.87% were Amerindian, 6.31% were Asian, 0.07% were Pacific Islanders, 12.93% were of other races and 3.38% belonged to two or more races. Of the total population, 35.14% were Hispanics or Latinos of any race.


The Austin Independent School District operates public schools. In parts of the city, the Del Valle, Pflugerville, Round Rock, Leander, Manor, Lake Travis, Eanes, and Hays school districts operate public schools. Austin Community College operates community colleges. Austin Public Library operates public libraries.


The Formula 1 United States Grand Prix is ​​scheduled to take place in Austin from 2012 to at least 2021.

Austin, Texas

Places of interest

  • The Bob Bullock Texas State History Museum http://TheStoryofTexas.com – Recreate the myths, legends and reality of Texas in interactive exhibits, artifacts never before shown publicly. It has an IMAX theater and the multisensory Texas Spirit Theater.
  • Ann W. Richards Congress Avenue Bridge Bat Colony and South Congress Avenue http://batcon.org – From April to late September, Austin is home to the largest urban bat colony in the United States: 1 million bats migrate from downtown Mexico to the north, to his favorite place in the city, the lower part of the Ann Richards Congress Avenue Bridge. The show begins at dusk, when these creatures take flight in search of their nocturnal meal.
  • Circuit of the Americas http://circuitoftheamericas.com – COTA is the newest foundation for high performance motorsport. The track is the only facility in the country built especially for Formula 1TM racing and is the circuit for the United States Grand Prix between 2012 and 2021.
  • Harry Ransom Center University of Texas http://hrc.utexas.edu – The Ransom Center, one of the world’s most comprehensive cultural archives, contains 36 million literary manuscripts, 1 million rare copies, 5 million photographs, and more than 100,000 works of art. Notable highlights include Gutenberg’s Bible (circa 1450) and the world’s first photograph (circa 1826).
  • Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center http://wildflower.org – This native plant center is dedicated to educating people about environmental need, economic values ​​and natural beauty – the only establishment of its kind in the country.
  • Sixth Street and the Warehouse District http://6street.com – It is one of the most popular destinations in the city, with nightclubs, live music venues and bars. A few steps west, two blocks from the Fourth and Fifth Streets component Warehouse District, where warehouses were transformed into restaurants, clubs, and bars.
Baltimore, Maryland Geography

Baltimore, Maryland Geography

According to CountryAAH.com, Baltimore is located in the plain of the Atlantic coast, in north-central Maryland and on the banks of the Patapsco River, near its mouth in the Chesapeake Bay and approximately 150 meters above sea level and covers a total area of ​​239 km², of which 209 km² are on land surface and 29 km² of water.


According to the Köppen climate classification, Baltimore has a humid subtropical climate, with very humid summers and average maximum temperatures in the order of 33 ° C and an average low 23 ° C, July is the hottest month of the year and January is the coldest month with minimum average temperatures of -1 ° C, in winter there can be gusts of warm winds that soften temperatures, but with the arrival of the arctic winds they drop considerably, especially at night.

Rainfall is recorded throughout the year quite frequently, mainly towards the east coast with an average of 10.16 cm and except for the winter season where small showers are usually constant but weak, in the rest of the year hail rains usually appear. and storms, in winter occasionally there are some snowfalls with average values ​​of 53 cm per year.


Baltimore is officially divided into nine zones: North, Northwest, Northeast, West, Central, East, South, Southwest and Southeast, however the Baltimorians divide the city into East or West Baltimore, with Charles Street as the dividing line; and in North and South Baltimore, with Baltimore Street as the boundaries between these zones.

The central region of the city includes the main commercial area of ​​Baltimore and serves as the headquarters for several of the most important companies in Baltimore, it can be said that it is the financial and commercial heart of Baltimore, where the possibilities of residence have been limited but to Despite this, as of 2002 the population in this area increased in such a way that it has practically doubled.

The northern region of the city is surrounded to the east by the Alameda and to the west by Pimlico Road, it is a residential area where most of the richest class of the city lives, this region is home to important universities.

The southern region is characterized by being a kind of mixture of industrial and residential zone, constituting in fact a mixed socioeconomic region that combines working-class neighborhoods of diverse ethnic groups, gentrified areas and less favored areas.

The eastern part of the city includes the Northeast, East and Southeast regions. The northeast is primarily a residential neighborhood that borders Sinclair Lane to the north, Erdman Avenue to the east, and Pulaski Highway and Alameda to the south on its western border. For many years it has remained populated, fundamentally, by the black community.

The eastern region is located below Erdman Avenue and Sinclair Lane, above Orleans Street, this area is almost exclusively for the most humble African-American community, which is why it is considered dangerous due to its high crime rate.

The southeast region is also a mixture between industrial and residential that is located below Orleans Street, bordering on the west with Inner Harbor, with the border of the city on the east and on the south with the port of Baltimore, in it coexist young workers and it is one of the most ethnically diverse areas characterized by being the center of the Hispanic community.

The western part of the city consists of the Northwest, West and Southwest regions. The Northwest region borders the city limits to the north and west, to the south with Gwynns Falls Parkway and to the east with Pimlico Road, it is a residential area that was formerly the center of the Jewish community but since 1960 with the decrease of the white population, blacks predominate.

The west region is the heart of the so-called “West Baltimore”, it is the center of African-American culture and is home to most of the most important monuments and neighborhoods in this community, it is a poor area marked by its high rate of criminality.

The southwest region of the city limits the west with Baltimore County to the north with Baltimore Avenue, it is a mixed area that combines industrial and residential neighborhoods, in it the white population predominates but with a current tendency to predominate in the near future the black.


The population was 636,919 residents in 2008, and in the Baltimore Metropolitan Area 2,668,056 million residents, however, there are around 8.3 million residents when counting the population that inhabits the combined statistical area associated with Baltimore.


According to Abbreviationfinder, the city of Baltimore has its streets organized in a hypodamic layout and many of its houses use an artificial stone cladding known as formstone, some of these houses date from the 1790s.

Baltimore has architectural examples of a wide variety of styles that date back more than two centuries and include works from all periods and by renowned architects, which together these works give the city extraordinary architectural importance among which stands out The Basilica of Baltimore dating from 1806, neoclassical building home to the oldest Catholic cathedral in the United States, we also find The Phoenix Shot Tower, built in 1828, for a long time it was the tallest building in the United States Standing over 71 meters tall until the Civil War, another work of great value is the Neo-Greek Lloyd Street Synagogue dating from 1845 and it is one of the oldest in the United States.

At present we can highlight the World Trade Center of the city that with its 123.4 meters stands as the tallest pentagonal equilateral building in the world.

Baltimore, Maryland

Memphis, Tennessee

Memphis, Tennessee

According to CountryAAH.com, Memphis is located in the southern state of Tennessee, on the banks of the Mississippi River, and is known throughout the world for being the most famous city in the world when it comes to rock and roll, since it is the birthplace of one of the great , Elvis Presley, and there is his Graceland mansion. However, its connection to art and music does not end with this character, since since its foundation it has been intimately linked to culture and all its manifestations.


The first residents of Memphis were the Native American Indians who lived along the Mississippi River. The first Europeans to see the river from Memphis were the Spanish Hernando deSoto, who crossed the Mississippi near Memphis in 1541. A century later the French explorers Marquette and Joliet. These were followed by others until in 1763, after the war between the French and the Indians, Europe gained control of the area. In 1790, Memphis became a territory of the United States and went on to have provided State in 1796.

Although in theory the land belonged to the natives, the colonizers gradually conquered it. General Andrew Jackson, General James Winchester, and Judge John Overton are considered the founders of the city. The city was designed in 1819. At that time, the city had a population of about 50 people. Marcus winchester, the general’s son, was named first best (mayor). The first immigrants to Memphis were Germans and Irish who built some of the first churches in Memphis and thanks to whom some of the first neighborhoods were formed, including the Pinch District. El Pinch is an area that years later has undergone a renaissance with the construction of some of the most emblematic buildings in the city, such as the Pyramid, the sports and entertainment palaces and the tram that connects the Pinch with other districts.


Geographic location

According to Abbreviationfinder, Memphis is located at 35º7’3 N, 89º58’16 W. According to the US Census Bureau, the city has 763.4 km², of which 5.24% is water surface.


Its population in 2000 was 650,100 people but this city began with only 364 residents in 1820 and by 1900 it already had more than 100,000.


The city of Memphis has an average annual temperature of about 16.6ºC

To get an idea of ​​temperatures in winter and summer, we can tell you that in January the average is approximately 5ºC and in July it is slightly over 27ºC. The highest temperature reached in the history of Memphis has been 42.2ºC. July 13, 1980 and the lowest, that of -25ºC on December 24, 1963.

Average annual rainfall is 48.6 inches.

Economic development

The economy of Memphis is diverse. Memphis-centric services include banking and finance (First Tennessee, National Commerce Bancorp, Union Planters), real estate (Belz Enterprises, Boyle Investment Co., and Weston Co.), the world’s largest non-profit including waterfowl and the wetland conservation organization (Ducks Unlimited), and a chain of restaurants (Hamburger Yard). Science and technology business is very well represented in Memphis; Brother Industries USA, Buckman Laboratories, Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Morgan Keegan-, Sharp Manufacturing of America, Smith & Nephew, and Wright Medical Technologies are all based there. Memphis is considered a commercial center in the mid- South and an attractive tourist destination. Its initial and continued role as a major cotton market makes agribusiness an economic mainstay in Memphis. Forty percent of the country’s cotton crop is traded in Memphis, home to three of the world’s largest cotton distributors: Dunavant Companies, Hohenburg Brothers (now Cargill Cotton), and the Allenberg Company. Memphis is important in other areas of agribusiness.

The city has always been established as a prime trading center for hardwood, as well as wood and paper products. Memphis also refers to the major processors of soy, meats, and other foods. Enhancing Memphis’s position in the center of agribusiness is AgriCenter International, a $ 8,000,000, 140,000-square-meter agricultural exhibition center exhibition, experimentation and information exchange. It brings together the most technologically advanced methods of agriculture and available farm machinery in one place.

The showroom, where independent companies related to agriculture- (refers to chemicals, irrigation companies, farm management companies, etc.) rental space, is fully computerized, allows farmers and consumers to request specific information from the computer and receive specific responses. The facility also includes about 1,000 hectares of farmland, 120 hectares of field of view, and a 600-seat amphitheater. AgriCenter, a non-profit entity operating under a management contract with the Shelby County AgriCenter Commission, was built amid 2,000 acres of old Shelby County penal farmland, in the eastern section of the province about 30 minutes from downtown Memphis.

Social development


It is the home of the NBA team, the Memphis Grizzlies. In it, two Spanish players, Pau Gasol, and Juan Carlos Navarro, came to play together, until Gasol was transferred to Los Angeles Laker

Tourist sites

The city also offers several places where you can enjoy live music and several theaters and companies that offer dance, opera etc., such as the Germantown Performing Arts Center, the Poplar Pike Playhouse, the Rodes College-McCoy Theater, the Orpheum Theater, among others.


Culture occupies an important place in the city that has several interesting museums for visitors, such as the Chucalissa Museum and its Indian village (Indian village), where you can see the archaeological remains of a Native American settlement dating back to from the 15th century and even participate in the excavations. On the other hand, the National Museum of Civil Rights, with an area of ​​more than 10,000 square feet, is located in a poor neighborhood of the city and allows to know the way through the history of the movement for civil rights and in close related to this, the old Lorraine Motel, where Martin Luther King was assassinated It was restored and is dedicated to making known the history of the civil rights movement.


Interstates I-40, I-240 and I-55 are the main highways in the area. Future I-22 and I-69 are expected to end in the city. Public transportation in the metropolitan area is run by the Memphis Area Transit Authority, and is made up of buses and streetcars.

Memphis, Tennessee

Louisiana Overview

Louisiana Overview

Louisiana. It is one of the states that make up the United States located in the southern region of the country, on the delta of the Mississippi River. The state borders on the west with the state of Texas, on the north with Arkansas, on the east with Mississippi and on the south with the Gulf of Mexico. Louisiana has a particular culture due to French colonization and, to a lesser extent, to the Spanish. The most widely spoken languages ​​today are English and Spanish. As for the dialect of French known as Cajun (a voice derived from the adjective Acadien, which designated the settlers from the French-Canadian colony of Acadia), this has today been reduced to 5% of speakers. Worse luck has fallen to the vestigial Spaniard, brought in the 18th century by Canarian and Andalusian emigrants, which today is practically disappeared. However, Spanish is constantly growing in number of speakers, due to Mexican and Central American emigration, especially in the city of New Orleans. According to CountryAAH.com, Louisiana capital is Baton Rouge, but the most important city is New Orleans. Other cities are Lafayette and Shreveport.


According to Abbreviationfinder, Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France (1643 – 1715). When René Robert Cavelier de La Salle claimed this territory watered by the Mississippi River for France, he called it La Louisiane, which means “The Land of Louis.” Louisiana was also part of the Viceroyalty of New Mexico, in the First Mexican Empire. Already part of the United States, the Louisiana Territory stretched from New Orleans to the current border with Canada.


In 2006, the state of Louisiana had a population of 4,287,768 people, of which:

  • 7% are white (European or of European descent), mainly British, French, Spanish and Italian.
  • 6% are black.
  • 9% are Latin American (among which Hondurans and Mexicans predominate).
  • 3% are Asian.
  • The rest are made up of people of other races.

Hurricane Katrina

On 29 August of the 2005, the Hurricane Katrina hit the state of Louisiana. This was a major hurricane that reached Category 5 on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. The winds reached more than 280 kilometers per hour and caused great damage in the littoral part of the southern United States, especially around the New Orleansmetropolitan area and in the parish of Plaquemines.

In New Orleans, as a result of the rains, Lake Pontchartrain overflowed, leaving more than 80% of the city flooded and around 200,000 houses under water. More than a million people had to be evacuated to other states in the country, mainly Florida, Missouri and Texas, while others were transported to more distant states, such as Washington, Ontario and Illinois. It took the city more than 3 months to completely pump the accumulated water into the sea, to find the bodies of the disappeared and to start living in the houses again.

Although the forecasts were that the houses could be reoccupied by the summer of 2006. A few days after the disaster, on the night of August 31, the mayor, Ray Nagin, declared martial law, subsequently the federal disaster area came under the control of FEMA and the National Guard. The interruptions in imports and exports, as well as the activities in this area of ​​the oil industry, not only affected the local economy, but also affected the economy of the entire country.

New Orleans. Located in the state of Louisiana (United States), it is one of the most important cultural centers of that country, and one of the populations that can boast of having the richest past within a country with a history as recent as yours.

In 2010, its population was 343,829 residents. After being partially destroyed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the population decreased considerably due to evacuation or death and in 2006 the population was approximately half, between 192,000 and 230,000 residents.


The French Quarter was the germ of what is now the city of New Orleans. Its style, a mixture of French, Spanish and Creole, preserves the most important characteristics of the area: the Caribbean colors and the festive style that permeates the entire city. For more than 300 years it has been the center of life in the city, especially around Plaza Jackson (Jackson Square), the former Plaza de Armas.


With the largest port in the United States, it welcomes more than 5,000 vessels from 60 different countries, increasing its trade. In this way, salt, agricultural products, oil, natural gas, etc. They pass through the port of New Orleans on their way to North or South and Central America.

The city extends over a surface of 360 square miles, of which 160 are water, and includes four parishes (parishes, equivalent in New Orleans of the traditional county or county): Orleans, Jefferson, St. Bernard and St. Tammany.

In New Orleans the cardinal points lose their meaning. The north becomes lakeside, the south in Riverside; the east, downtown; and the west, uptown.

New Orleans is divided into 16 historic districts, two of which, the French Quarter and the Garden District, are of national interest. Although the French Quarter, or Vieux Carré, is the one that is usually cited first.


The month of January, which is usually the coldest in New Orleans, has an average temperature of 10ºC. The month of April has an average of approximately 20ºC and the months of July and August, the hottest, have an average of slightly more than 26ºC.

Rainfall is uneven throughout the year but, curiously, the summer months register the highest rates.

Economic development

With the largest port in the United States, it welcomes more than 5,000 vessels from 60 different countries, increasing its trade. In this way, salt, agricultural products, oil, natural gas.

Social development

Art and culture

The first operas in America were performed in New Orleans in 1790, when the Spanish-style houses of the French Quarter and the exquisite Greek Revival mansions of the Garden District were built.

Since then, restaurants have offered food from many cultures, as well as distinctive Cajun and Creole cuisines. Before the “Civil War”, New Orleans was the birthplace of the nation’s music, so artists and artisans from around the world immigrated to this vibrant port.

Visitors of all classes enjoyed the luxury and perhaps decadence of “the city that worry forgot.” Residents enjoyed cultural and recreational opportunities beyond what the size of most New Orleans cities could offer. New Orleans was the cultural capital of the South.

The city is home to world-class museums, such as the D-Day Museum and the Ogden Museum of Southern Art. Artist studios and galleries line the streets of the French QuarterMarigny, the Warehouse / Arts District and Magazine Street. Art groups offer presentations and shows in various parts of the city. All over the city, historic neighborhoods are being revitalized through architectural and aristocratic restorations.

This city has seen the birth of personalities from the world of music, cinema and letters such as Louis Armstrong and the writers Truman Capote and Anne Rice.

Louisiana Overview

South Dakota Geography and Society

South Dakota Geography and Society

According to Abbreviationfinder, South Dakota (officially, and in English, State of South Dakota) is one of the 50 states of the United States of America. The name of the state comes from the American Lakota and Dakota (Sioux) tribes. On November 2, 1889, South Dakota became the 39th American state. Its capital is Pierre.


South Dakota, a state located in the northwestern part of the central United States; It limits to the north with the state of North Dakota, to the east with Minnesota and Iowa, to the south with Nebraska and to the west with Wyoming and Montana. The Missouri River forms part of its southeastern border.


South Dakota has an area of ​​199,732 km². Its altitude ranges from 294 m at Big Stone Lake in the northeast to 2,207 m at Harney Peak in the Black Hills.

The eastern third of South Dakota is part of the Central Lowlands of the United States Midwest. Between the James and Big Sioux rivers lies a higher area, whose dark, fertile soils make this area the most productive agricultural region in the state..

Mountains and elevations

The central lowlands give way in the west to an escarpment, from which the Great Plains region extends, covering all of central and western South Dakota. At the western end of the state are the Black Hills and, around their granite core, there are steep mountains formed by sedimentary rocks arranged in slopes


The Missouri River is the main tributary of the Mississippi River. It is approximately 4,130 km long, is the longest river in the United States and drains a 1,371,000 km² basin, approximately one sixth of the North American subcontinent. The James and Big Sioux Rivers irrigate the eastern area, located south of the Missouri River, except for the most northeastern section of the state, which is drained by the Red and Minnesota Rivers.


According to CountryAAH.com, the largest cities in the state are Sioux Falls, Rapid City, Aberdeen, Watertown, and Brookings.

Climate and Precipitation

In South Dakota the continental climate predominates. Average annual rainfall reaches 635 mm in the southeast and drops to 368 mm in the northwest.


When the first settlers arrived in South Dakota, most of the region was covered by grasslands. Today the forest occupies only 3% of the lands of the state, and the dominant species are pines, firs and junipers.


A century ago, large herds of bison grazed on the vast grasslands of South Dakota; currently there are only a few protected herds living in Custer State Park. White-tailed deer, also known as Virginia deer, proliferate in the Black Hills, and antelope and deer can be seen west of the Missouri River. Common small mammals include coyotes, badgers, bobcats, raccoons, prairie dogs, and American hares.

Social development


According to the 2006 census, South Dakota had 781,919 residents, with 88.7% white. In Dakota live 62,283 descendants of indigenous people, of which the Sioux are the largest group. 6.8% of the population of South Dakota are under 5 years of age, 26.8% represent those who are less 18 years of age, and 14.3% are 65 years of age or older. Females make up approximately 50.4% of the state’s population, and 49.6% comprise males.


Executive power in South Dakota rests with a governor, popularly elected for a four-year term and who cannot govern for more than two consecutive terms. South Dakota elects two senators and one representative to the United States Congress. The state of South Dakota has three branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial. The current governor is Mike Rounds.

Members of the Senate and House

There are currently 35 members of the State Senate and 70 members of the House of Representatives. The state is made up of 35 legislative districts. Voters elect 1 senator and 2 representatives from each district. The legislative branch meets once a year on the second Tuesday in January, and also when the governor calls a special session.

Supreme court

State Supreme Court it is the highest court in South Dakota and the court of final appeal for state actions. The Chief Justice and four justices comprise the South Dakota Supreme Court. South Dakota is divided into seven judicial circuits. There are 39 circuit judges serving on all seven circuits. Circuit courts are the state the trial courts of general jurisdiction. There are 12 full-time and 3 part-time magistrate judges on the seven circuits. Circuit Magistrates Courts assist in the removal in misdemeanor courts of minor criminal and civil cases. These courts of limited jurisdiction make the judicial system more accessible to the public, providing a means of court in direct contact for the average citizen.


South Dakota’s first public libraries were founded during the 1880s. Currently, the state has 126 different public library systems, moving an average of 8 books per capita annually. The first institution of higher education founded in the state was Yankton College, founded in 1881, and closed in 1984. Currently, the state has 27 higher education institutions, of which 14 are public and 13 are private. Of these institutions, 10 are universities and 17 are colleges. The largest university in the state is South Dakota State University.

South Dakota Geography and Society