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Turkey Government and Political Parties

Turkey Government and Political Parties

According to Politicsezine, Turkey is located in the eastern Mediterranean region and borders eight countries. To the north, it shares a border with Bulgaria and Greece, while to the northwest it has a border with Georgia. To the east is Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran, while Iraq and Syria are to the southeast.

Each of these countries has unique characteristics that make them distinct from each other. Bulgaria is a Balkan country with a long coastline along the Black Sea, which provides access to many ports of call for ships from Turkey. Greece is an ancient Mediterranean country with beautiful islands and stunning beaches. Armenia is mountainous, with spectacular mountain views that have been home to many ancient civilizations throughout history. Azerbaijan has vast oil reserves which provide it with much of its wealth, while Iran has a rich cultural heritage and many historical sites to explore. Iraq is known for its deserts but also has lush green mountains in its northern regions. Finally, Syria is home to some of the oldest cities in the world and holds important religious sites for both Christianity and Islam.

Government of Turkey

According to programingplease, the government of Turkey is a unitary presidential republic, with the President as both head of state and head of government. The executive branch is headed by the President, who is elected by direct popular vote for a five-year term. The legislative branch consists of the unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey, which has 600 members. These members are also elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms. The judicial branch is made up of the Supreme Court and other lower courts. The Supreme Court is composed of 15 members appointed by the President with parliamentary approval.

The President wields significant power in Turkey’s government, including authority to appoint senior public officials and judges, veto legislation, declare states of emergency or martial law, and dissolve Parliament if it fails to pass a budget or other important laws within three months. The President can also call for early elections at any time during his or her tenure. In addition to these powers, the President has authority over foreign policy decisions as well as control over military appointments and promotions.

The Prime Minister serves as head of government in conjunction with the President and is responsible for carrying out laws passed by Parliament and implementing policies approved by Parliament or the president. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President from among members of Parliament who command a majority in that body; however, he or she must still be approved by Parliament before taking office.

The Constitution guarantees a range of civil liberties for citizens such as freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention, freedom from torture or cruel treatment, freedom from involuntary servitude, freedom from interference in private life except when necessary for public safety and order; protection against arbitrary interference with correspondence; protection against arbitrary search; protection against deprivation of property without due process; protection against ex post facto criminal laws; freedom from censorship; free speech rights; free press rights; free assembly rights; free association rights; religious liberty rights; political participation rights (including voting); labor union formation rights; privacy rights including prohibitions on discrimination based on race or gender as well as certain economic protections for Turkish citizens.

Recent Heads of Government of Turkey

The current head of government of Turkey is Recep Tayyip Erdogan. He assumed office on August 28, 2014, after being elected in the 2014 general elections. Erdogan has served as Prime Minister since 2003, and previously served as Mayor of Istanbul from 1994 to 1998. Erdogan is a member of the Justice and Development Party (AKP), which he co-founded in 2001. He is a prominent advocate for conservative social values and increased government involvement in the economy. His views have been controversial due to his stance on some issues such as freedom of speech, press censorship, and the status of minorities in Turkey. He has also been criticized for his authoritarian rule and alleged corruption scandals involving his family members. In addition to domestic issues, Erdogan has also taken a strong stance on foreign policy matters such as relations with Europe, Syria, Iraq, Iran, and Israel. Under his leadership Turkey has become increasingly involved in regional affairs and has sought to strengthen its ties with countries such as Russia and Qatar. As head of government, Erdogan has sought to increase Turkish influence abroad while maintaining stability at home through economic reform initiatives such as increasing foreign investment in the country’s infrastructure projects and introducing tax cuts to stimulate economic growth.

Major Political Parties in Turkey

The Justice and Development Party (AKP) is the leading political party in Turkey. It is a center-right, conservative political party founded in 2001 by Recep Tayyip Erdogan. The AKP has a strong base of support among the rural population, who are attracted to its promise of economic and social reforms. In addition to its conservative platform, the AKP also supports a moderate version of Islam and advocates for Turkey’s integration into Europe. The AKP has held a majority in Parliament since 2002 and has won every election since then.

The Republican People’s Party (CHP) is the main opposition party in Turkey. Founded in 1923 by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, it is seen as a secularist and nationalist party that seeks to protect Turkey’s secular identity and promote Turkish nationalism. The CHP currently holds around one-third of the seats in Parliament and has recently sought to move away from its traditional secularist platform towards more progressive policies such as LGBT rights and environmental protection.

The Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) is another major political party in Turkey. Founded in 1969, it is an ultranationalist right-wing populist party that emphasizes Turkish nationalism, conservative values, and Euroscepticism. The MHP has traditionally been popular among working-class voters who are attracted to its anti-establishment stance and support for traditional values. In recent years, however, it has become increasingly associated with far-right ideologies such as xenophobia, racism, and Islamophobia which have caused it to lose some of its popular support.

Turkey Government

How to Get to Side, Turkey

How to Get to Side, Turkey

According to cachedhealth.com, the nearest airport to Side is in Antalya, but for those who do not like to fly or are not in a hurry, there are other travel routes – by land and sea.

By plane

Air communication connects Antalya with Rostov-on-Don, Magnitogorsk, Omsk, Sochi and other cities. The schedule of the capital’s airports Domodedovo, Sheremetyevo and Vnukovo has direct flights from Aeroflot and Turkish Airline. You can fly cheaper, but longer and with transfers in Istanbul and Ankara – from 445 USD, the journey will take 5.5-18 hours. The flight is organized by Pegasus Airlines and Turkish Airlines. Prices on the page are for August 2022.

Aeroflot, Airfrance and Belavia run from Pulkovo in St. Petersburg. All flights with 1-2 transfers in Moscow, Paris, Istanbul and Minsk. Time spent – 10-14 hours.

From Antalya Air Gate to Side is about an hour drive. Taxi drivers are on duty at the exit from the terminals, a trip to the hotel will cost 370-450 TRY. From the bus station near the airport, regular minibuses – dolmushi – run.

By bus

You will have to spend more than 3 days on the way. There are many options – through Bulgaria, Greece, Georgia and other countries. You can get to the Georgian resort of Batumi – from Moscow, the journey will take 48 hours. Then you need to transfer to the bus to Antalya of the Turkish carrier Metro (off. site in English), spending another 26 hours. And from there – in Side by taxi or dolmush.

Traveling by bus in Turkey is comfortable – all cars are equipped with air conditioning, TVs, and Wi-Fi is available on some routes.

On a ferryboat

From the sea passenger port of Sochi every Tuesday and Friday, high-speed ships depart for Trabzon (off. website of the carrier “Olympia Line”). The cruise lasts 4.5 hours. Then you have to take a bus to Antalya – 21 hours and 170 TRY one way.

Side district

The resort of Side stretches for 20 km along the Turkish Mediterranean in both directions from a small cape – the historical center of the ancient Greek city. It is there that most of the attractions are concentrated. Those wishing to combine beach and sightseeing holidays are better off staying nearby.

To the west of the center is a popular tourist area. It is distinguished by clean and beautiful, but in the high season – very crowded beaches. There are many hotels and hotel complexes here. A large selection of housing on the first coastline, prices for a double room range from 370 to 2000 TRY.

There are also several hotels to the east of the peninsula. The beaches here are less lively, this area is usually chosen by adherents of secluded relaxation. However, it is easy to get to the historical center from here, so there will be no problems with excursions.

For those who want to relax on a budget, it is better to look for accommodation near the historical center. A 5-15 minute walk from the coast you can find rooms for 350 TRY per day.

On both sides of Side there are several settlements, which are sometimes included in this resort area. In Cholakly there are beaches convenient and safe for children, in Kyzylagach there is a market with a large selection of souvenirs and resort hotels for families, in Kumkoy there are youth clubs and parties until the morning.

Side hotels

Most of the accommodation options in Side are represented by hotels, there are also apartments and guest houses, but there are very few of them. Almost all hotels are within walking distance from the sea and operate on an all-inclusive basis, some have their own beaches. The resort has many 5 * hotels – large complexes with an appropriate level of service, swimming pools, water parks and various additional options. The range of prices is large – from 300 to 32,000 TRY per night in a double room.

The cost of living in Side is highly dependent on location. It is cheaper to settle on a cape, in the area of ​​​​the historical center, or away from the beaches.

The cheapest option is motels. An inexpensive hotel can be found for 200 TRY, without “stars” and food, some may include breakfast in the price. There are fewer middle-class hotels, “triples” and “fours”, in Side than “fives”. Prices start from 420 TRY per night in a double room, with all-inclusive offers starting from 1100 TRY.


You can move around Side by local minibuses – dolmushes – or taxis. There are no special tourist passes, as well as tickets – the fare is paid to the driver upon landing. A trip around the city and to nearby settlements will cost 4-5 TRY. Minibuses run from 5:00-7:00 to 22:00-1:00, the network is well developed – it is easy to get to the center even from the most remote areas. In the high season, transport is crowded.

The city has an official taxi – yellow cars with an inscription on the ceiling. Drivers willingly stop on the street, but you can also order a car at the hotel reception. The cost depends on the distance – 3 TRY per landing and 4.5 TRY per km. Recognizing a tourist as a passenger, taxi drivers sometimes overestimate it. The same is true with foreign currency – dollars and euros are accepted for payment, but the exchange rate is unfavorable. You can protect yourself by demonstrating your awareness. All taxi fares are fixed, cars are equipped with meters. When landing, it is better to remind the driver to turn it on. You should also carefully check the change from a large bill.

Many hotels in Side offer bicycles for rent, and there are specialized rental shops in nearby Manavgat. They cost from 70 to 180 TRY per day.

Rent a Car

Those who plan to visit many attractions in the vicinity of Side, Antalya and Manavgat should consider renting a car in order to travel in comfort and not depend on the schedule.

The roads are quiet, but the locals drive quite aggressively. There are almost no serious traffic jams, but often only one car can pass through the narrow streets. Drivers take turns driving away, reversing and letting each other pass. There are practically no parking lots in the central part of the city, closer to the outskirts there are free and paid parking lots (5-10 TRY for 2-5 hours, depending on the area, can reach 20 TRY per hour). At night, the car can most likely be left near the hotel.

Branches of large international companies are located at Antalya Airport – Bedget, Avis, Hertz and others. There are many small local offices in Side, in addition, sometimes you can rent a car right at the hotel. In small firms, prices are lower, but there is a high risk of running into unscrupulous distributors and overpaying. In large proven companies, an economy class car costs from 920 TRY per day.

Side, Turkey

Turkey Arts and Music

Turkey Arts and Music


According to TOPSCHOOLSINTHEUSA, the most ancient products of Turkish art are goldsmiths and gold trimmings, already in use before the Christian era among the populations of the regions close to the Altai: they are generally called Scythians (fibulae etc., in the shape of stylized animals, worked cantilever). Textile art soon reached artistic level, both in the canvases for the decoration of the curtains and in the carpets. It is in these two fields that Turkey has made the greatest contribution to Islamic art, bringing a strong tendency to decoration since the 9th century. and with greater force from the 11th (➔ islam). In the Ottoman period, art and architecture were able to merge the experiences of previous eras by expressing themselves in original ways (➔ Ottoman, Empire).

The opening towards the West began in the 19th century. with the development, in painting, of new genres for Turkish culture (landscape, still life, study of the human figure): to remember Ahmet Paşa and S. Seyyit and above all O. Hamdi, director since 1881 of the Ottoman Imperial Museum and of Academy, founded in 1883 in İstanbul, the city leads even after the creation of the republic. The Association of Ottoman Painters, since 1917 Association of Turkish Painters, of which N. Güran was a member, with the magazine Naşir-i Efkâr («Promoter of ideas»), organized exhibitions, from 1923, also in Ankara. In 1933, group D, founded by N. Berk, was at the forefront of the avant-garde in Turkey while an interesting project sent artists to the various provinces.

In addition to cultural events such as the International Biennial of İstanbul and the Asia-Europe Biennial of Ankara, an important role in supporting contemporary art in Turkey has been played by both private galleries and institutions and exhibition centers such as the Center for Contemporary Art BM (1984) and the Museum of Contemporary Art (1992) in İstanbul. The attention to western expressive modes, from abstraction to pop art, from minimalism to conceptual art, and at the same time a recovery of tradition and the exploration of the border between East and West, have marked the research of the second half of the 20th century. . Influential personalities are A. Coker, A. Gürman. They have maintained a link with tradition, through the art of calligraphy, N. Okyay and H. Aytac, transmitted to the younger A. Alpaslan and H. Çelebi. K. Önsoy works in the field of material-gestural experiences; A. Öktem, E. Aksel, S. Kiraz are linked to conceptual researches, while M. Morova expresses himself through painting, collage and installation. H. Tenger creates committed installations, involved in contemporary reality; E. Ersen creates complex works, including photography, video, installation and action. He works in the field of video art Ö. Ali Kazma. In the use of advanced technologies and net art we remember G. Incirlioğlu, architect and photographer; xurban.net, an acronym born in 2000 as an Internet initiative, uses the world wide web for artistic projects, and is open to anonymous external contributions.

In architecture, the opening to modernism and avant-garde languages, also initiated by the presence of R. D’Aronco in İstanbul, was accentuated with the Turkish Republic through the activity of architects such as C. Holzmeister, H. Poelzig, B. Taut, P. Bonatz. Among the Turkish architects active at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, SH Eldem emerges who, despite being influenced by Western ways, felt the need for a national language. Of the following generations we remember Turkey Cansever and B. Cinici, while among the younger ones we can distinguish H. Tumertekin and Studio GAD.


Turkish musical theory is based on an articulated scale in a profoundly different way from the European one, which identifies within 24 sounds (derived from the 24 keys of the main Turkish instrument, a lute called tanbur) and distinguishes a hundred modes on this basis. Cultured secular music is closely linked to the Arab tradition. Sacred music is divided into three basic genres: Ilahi, the hymns for the various months of the Muslim year, Tevchic (praises of the Prophet), Ayni Cherif, repertoire of dervishes. A singular aspect of the relationship between Turkish and European music is the popularity it had in Europe towards the end of the 18th century. the music of the Janissaries (the bodyguards of the sultans), with its characteristic percussion instruments (triangles, drums, cymbals): called Turkish, was the object of imitation or at least of allusion by numerous composers, including WA Mozart and L. van Beethoven. The creation of a Turkish national school is mainly due to a series of composers born in the first decade of the 20th century. and mainly trained in Paris and Vienna, such as DR Rey, UD Erkin, AA Saygun, NK Akses, F. Alnar. More recently, N. Kodalli, F. Tüzün, I. Baran, M. Su. A national conservatory was founded in İstanbul in 1915, which was later joined by some major musical institutions such as the İstanbul Municipal Theater and the Ankara State Theater.

Turkey MUSIC

Turkey Major Cities by Population

Turkey Major Cities by Population

In relation to the great diversity of the natural environment are the significant differences that are noted in the rural settlement. The highest areas of the interior, wooded and grassy, ​​are crossed in summer by nomadic shepherds (called Juruchi, whose number is estimated at about 200 thousand), who live in mountain farmhouses (yaya), while in winter they they gather at the bottom forming villages of tents (kï Ş lak), which gradually become fixed.

On the slopes of the hills bordering the plateau, where there are dejection cones and there is no shortage of water, Turkish horticulturists and farmers have gladly built their homes, who grow wheat, opium poppies, vegetables and live in villages. to houses side by side, built with sun-dried bricks and with a flat roof, with a terrace, generally with two floors, of which the lower is used for stable and shed, the upper for housing. In older houses, the part reserved for women (harem) is still separate from that reserved for men (selamlik) and walls block the view of the courtyards to outsiders. In the steppes, which were better suited to grazing than to cultivation when this was practiced extensively, a vast colonization by refugees from Macedonia, Bulgaria and Dobruja began a few years ago. The houses, arranged for the most part in a checkerboard pattern, are larger than among horticulturists, given the need to have stables to shelter the cattle used for the heavy work of the fields, and the roof, similar to European houses, is slightly sloping. sloping, built with tiles and reeds. The part of the steppe where rainfall is too scarce to be able to attempt cereal cultivation, is the undisputed dominion of the Kurds and Turkmen, dedicated to livestock, who live in rather large villages, located near the springs; the houses are spacious, built of stone and the roof is flat. In the warmer regions of Kurdistān, which look towards Mesopotamia, the high night temperatures push the residents to sleep in the summer on the terraces, where the beds are brought, sheltered from mosquito nets. For Turkey 1999, please check estatelearning.com.

The houses are low, often built with earth mixed with straw, or with stones of the same color as the surrounding land. In N., in the forest area, wooden houses prevail, with frequent footprints left by the Greeks. Then corresponds to our farm the çiftlik, very common in western Anatolia, which mostly consists of a large farmyard, around which are the low settlers’ houses, with 3 or 4 rooms. In 1927 a census of buildings was also carried out and 2,770,000 residential houses were counted, 89,000 buildings not intended for habitation, but inhabited, and 800,000 other buildings, with a minimum of 237 residents for 100 houses in the Bilecik vilâyet and a maximum of 723 in the Istanbul vilâyet.

Just under a quarter of the population (23.5%) lives in cities and the rest in rural municipalities. There are 403 cities in all, but only 80 have a population of over 10 thousand. and 21 over 25 thousand residents The latter are as follows:

It should be noted that only 5 cities are located on the coast: two overlook the Black Sea, two the Mediterranean and one is where Europe and Asia almost meet. Although Istanbul is no longer the state capital, it retains its economic and military importance, given its location at the intersection of land and sea routes. Among the cities of the Black Sea, Trebizond, which overlooks the sea from a rocky platform, is the outlet of a vast hinterland (partly beyond the border); Samsun is in considerable progress, after the opening of the railway that connects it to the Mediterranean; Smyrna is still intent on repairing the damage of the fire (1922) which largely destroyed it; Mersina is in a favorable position with respect to the hinterland, a short distance from Adana, market of the Cilician plain and traffic junction, but suffers from the lack of a good port. Among the centers of the interior, among which the most important is Angora (870 msm), which is losing its appearance as a market place near a fortress, to increasingly assume that of capital (from 13 November 1923), Brussa should be remembered. (180 msm), ancient capital, rich in monuments, a city where the textile industry has a long tradition, which is located between two terraces on the slopes of the Olympus of Misia and which looks from above towards a well-cultivated plain. A SE. di Brussa EskiŞehir (752 msm) is an obligatory point of passage for those who have to go from the old to the new capital. Conia (1028 msm) is in a region that constitutes a well-identified unit, so much so that it resembles an oasis, and, little damaged by the exodus of Greeks, it now benefits from the crops grown in the irrigated area of ​​Çumra. While Conia is located at the western limit of the Lycaonia plain, on the eastern side there is Caesarea (1070 masl), a short distance from Kïzïl Ïrmak, near the slopes of the Aegean, a large andesitic ulcano 3830 m high, at the foot of the which gush out of the springs which allow an intensive cultivation; instead everything around dominates the steppe. NE. there is Sïvas (1220 masl), once an isolated locality located in the upper valley of the Kïzïl Ïrmak, while now a railway section connects it to the Samsun-Cesarea line; towards the east the railway will have to reach Erzerum (2038 meters above sea level). A SE. there are numerous cities, Gazi Antep (940 masl), a large center between the Euphrates valley and the plain of Cilicia; Diyarbekir, road and caravan junction on the right bank of the Tigris; Maraş (720 msm), railway junction near the buttresses of the Antitaurus; Malatya (870 msm), a short distance from the Euphrates in the midst of intensive cultivation; Urfa (660 msm), cities all oriented towards Mesopotamia and in which Kurdish and Arab aspects prevail.

Turkey Brussa