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History and Education of Singapore

History and Education of Singapore

History of Singapore

The first reliable sources for the early history of Singapore are a Javanese epic poem from the 16th century. “Nagarakertagama” and the Malay chronicle of the 17th century. “Sejarah Melayu”. However, in the 3rd c. the mention of the island (“Pulouchun Island”) is found in the Chinese chronicle. The Chinese name “Pulouchun” is consonant with the Malay “Pulau Ujong”, which means “island at the tip of the peninsula.” The name of the island in Sanskrit – Singapore (“City of the Lion”) was widely used in con. 14th c. Then he was involved in a fierce struggle between Siam (modern Thailand) and the Javanese Majapahit empire, which controlled the Malay Peninsula, part of Sumatra and other islands of the Indonesian archipelago. The settlement on the island had a Malay name – Tumasik. In the beginning. 15th c. became part of the Malacca Sultanate, founded by the Sumatran prince Parameswara.

Starting from the 16th century. Southeast Asia becomes the object of the colonial expansion of the European powers. The Portuguese were the first to appear on the Malay Peninsula and the adjacent islands. In 1511, they captured Malacca, turning it into the main stronghold, guarding trade dominance on the sea route from India to China, to the “Spice Islands”. Singapore came under the control of the Sultanate of Johor, a new Malay state that emerged after the fall of Malacca. The rulers of Johor waged a fierce struggle with the Portuguese. However, in 1587 the Portuguese managed to capture the capital of the Sultanate, and then destroy its port on the island of Singapore. The city fell into complete desolation, and the island became a haven for sea pirates.

In the second floor. 18th century the British, expanding their possessions in India and trade with China, felt the need to create strongholds in the East Indies region in order to ensure the interests of their merchant fleet and counteract the expansion of the Netherlands in this area. To this end, they created their own trading posts in Penang (1786), in Malacca, recaptured from the Dutch in 1796, and in Singapore (1819). In the beginning. In 1819, Stamford Raffles, the governor of Bengkulen, the British possession in Sumatra, arrived on the island; he concluded an agreement with the Sultanate of Johor to establish a trading post in Singapore. During 1820–24, British possessions were formalized: first by agreement with the Netherlands (1824), then by agreement with the Johor Sultanate, which ceded the island for a large financial reward and the payment of a significant pension to the sultan. In 1826 Singapore,

The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 gave Singapore a powerful impetus to develop as one of the world’s most important commercial ports. The island has become a major processing and export center for natural rubber produced in neighboring Malaya. At the same time, there was an intensive influx of population, it increased 8 times, amounting to approx. 80 thousand people in 1913.

During World War II, Singapore was occupied by Japanese troops. The British authorities returned to the island in September 1945.

In April 1946, Singapore received the status of a crown colony and was separated from Malaya, and in 1959 it was proclaimed a self-governing state. In May of that year, general elections were held and the first fully elected Legislative Assembly was formed. The People’s Action Party (PAP) won the election. Its leader, Lee Kuan Yew, became the first prime minister.

In September 1963, Singapore joined the Federation of Malaysia along with Malaya and the British possessions in North Kalimantan. However, sharp contradictions between the Malay and Chinese political elites on the problem of the socio-ethnic construction of a new state led to the fact that in August 1965 Singapore was forced to leave the Federation. On August 9 of the same year, it was proclaimed an independent state. He was accepted as a member of the UN and the Commonwealth of Nations.

Science and culture of Singapore

According to searchforpublicschools, the system of free primary and secondary education is designed for 10 years and is aimed at mastering English and native languages, as well as basic knowledge in the exact sciences, mainly in mathematics. Graduation classes provide for specialization in the exact and humanitarian areas. Primary and secondary education is free.

Institutions of higher education are the National University of Singapore (founded in 1980 through the merger of the University of Singapore and Nanyang University); Nanyang Technological University (founded in 1991); Singapore Institute of Management (founded in 1964 as a private university); Institute of Southeast Asia, a leading center for studying the problems of regional security, socio-economic development of Southeast Asia; Singapore Polytechnic (founded in 1954 to train mid-level engineering and management personnel).

Cultural life is patronized by the National Arts Council. The Council provides funding for creative teams, plans the repertoire of theaters and organizes relevant competitions. The National Council manages four theatres: the Victoria Theatre, the Drama Centre, the Kallang Theatre, and the Singapore Convention Centre. It also leases buildings and premises to various amateur creative groups and associations. The country has a professional Singapore Symphony Orchestra.

There are the National Archives, the National Museum and the National Library.

Festivals of national arts (Chinese, Malay, Tamil) are held annually, usually timed to coincide with traditional and religious holidays.

Education of Singapore

Singapore Politics and Economy

Singapore Politics and Economy


Singapore’s constitution is inspired by English parliamentarism. Members of the single parliamentary chamber represent the various electoral districts. Most of the executive power is in the hands of the Cabinet, led by the Prime Minister, currently Lee Hsien Loong. Although the Singapore presidency is a symbolic role, the President has been given the right to veto in certain matters, such as the use of financial reserves and the appointment of judges. The legislative body of the Government is Parliament. Parliamentarians bridge the gap between the community and the government and ensure that the views of their constituents are considered in Parliament. The current Parliament has 94 members, of which 84 are elected, nine are appointed and one appointed without an electoral district. See population of Singapore.

Although the country has minority parties, such as the Workers’ Party, the Singapore Democratic Party and the Singapore Democratic Alliance, the People’s Action Party or People’s Action Party has dominated the country’s politics since independence. The Economist Intelligence Unit describes the government system as “a hybrid regime” that has democratic and authoritarian features. The Freedom House describes Singapore as “partially free.”

Lee Kuan Yew, considered the father of the country, was the only prime minister from 1959 to 1990, when of his own free will he decided to leave office to make way for the next generation of politicians. When Goh Chok Tong took over as Prime Minister, he created a ministry without a portfolio for Lee Kuan Yew and appointed him Senior Minister. Years later, Goh Chok Tong made a similar decision and decided to leave the position to the replacement generation, and in 2004, Lee Hsien Loong, son of Kuan Yew, assumed the position of Prime Minister; at that time his father went from being called Senior Minister to Mentor Minister, and Goh Chok Tong became Senior Minister.

Economic development

According to abbreviationfinder, Singapore has a prosperous free market economy characterized by an open environment. It has stable prices and one of the highest GDP per capita in the world. Along with Hong Kong, South Korea and Taiwan, Singapore is considered one of the “ four Asian threes ”.

The economy depends mainly on exports and the refinement of imports, particularly those of the electronic and industrial sector. The manufacturing sector constituted 26% of the country’s GDP in 2005 and has diversified into the chemical, petroleum refining, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences sectors, among others. Specifically, the largest oil refinery in Asia is located in Singapore.

Singapore has the seaport that handles the highest volume of annual cargo, both in tonnage and number of containers, in the world. The country is also an important international financial center and has the fourth largest foreign exchange market in the world, behind London, New York and Tokyo. In addition, the economy of Singapore is considered one of the most welcoming economies in the world, for which there are thousands of expatriates in the country working in multinational companies.

In 2001, the global recession and the fall in the technology sector had a major impact on the country’s economy (GDP fell by 2%).


Singapore is a popular tourist destination, making tourism one of the largest economic sectors in the country. Approximately 7.8 million tourists visited the country in 2006 and that number rose to 10.2 million in 2007.

The Orchard Road shopping district is one of the most famous attractions that Singapore has to offer. To attract more visitors, the government decided in 2005 to legalize gambling and allow two integrated casinos or resorts to be built in the Marina South area and Sentosa Island. To compete with regional rivals such as Bangkok, Hong Kong, Tokyo and Shanghai, the government gave permission to use lights on the facades of public and private buildings to transform the central area into a more exciting place. Also, food has been promoted as an element of Singapore’s attraction, which is why the Singapore Food Festival is organized every July.

The country’s reputation as a center for medical tourism has grown in recent years. 200,000 foreigners visit Singapore a year to get medical care. It is estimated that one million tourists will visit the country for the same reason in 2012, while creating 13,000 new jobs. 2010 World Competitiveness Index and Ranking prepared by the Swiss Business School: Institute For Management Development (IMD), in its 2010 edition, places this nation as the most competitive above Honkong and the United States, respectively.

Singapore, Crescent Island

When sailor Thomas Stamford Raffles first hoisted the British flag in Singapore in 1819, he came across a small island whose space was shared by natives, fishermen and pirates.

In one of the great engineering projects ever undertaken, Singapore has expanded its territory meter by meter, ton of sand by ton of sand, increasing in size by the equivalent of two Manhattan New Yorkers in the last forty years, thanks to land reclaimed from the sea.

Some of the smaller islets of Riau have been flooded until they are submerged under the sea, and other larger islands have seen their beaches reduced in size:

“When you take the sand with you, smaller islands lose their ability to resist wave erosion and can eventually disappear”

, assures Nur Hidayati, coordinator of the campaign initiated by several Indonesian NGOs to stop the extraction of more sand from their territory.

Singapore used land from its mountains in the early 1960s until its territory was practically flat. The government then began to buy sand from Malaysia and Indonesia in quantities that have been increasing as the needs of the engineers did in their work to gain ground from the sea.

Secondary islands

The main island of Singapore is shaped like a diamond, but the territory includes sixty-four other nearby, smaller islands. Among the secondary islands, we find:

  • Jurong Island
  • Pulau Tekong
  • Pulau Ubin
  • Sentose
  • Brani
  • Bukon
  • Hantu
  • Jong
  • Serangoon
  • Subar Laut
  • Palawan
  • Kusu
  • Pedra Branca
  • Pawai
  • Sakijang bendera
  • Sekudu
  • Semakau
  • Senang
  • Sudong

Singapore Politics