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The Sources of Polish Law up to the End of the 18th Century

The Sources of Polish Law up to the End of the 18th Century

The Polish law developed, up to the century. XIV, almost exclusively with a character of customary law; and although, starting from the century. XIV, the legislative activity increased significantly, customary law retained a great importance until the fall of the Polish state. This customary law is made known to us, first, from the documents, and later, from the registers of the courts. The originals of the documents have been preserved since the beginning of the century. XII, mainly in the ecclesiastical archives, as well as in the numerous collections of copies. Character of a large collection of copies of documents had the so-called Kingdom Metrics, that is to say, the registers of the royal chancellery, in which the documents issued by the sovereign were recorded; the numerous volumes of the Metric dating from the year 1447, held by the century. XVI onwards with great care. The formulas (the oldest ones are from the 15th century) do not have great importance for science in Poland. The registers of the Polish courts, kept with great care by the various courts of all kinds, were kept since the end of the century. XIV and include an immense number of volumes; they are kept, not only in the archives of Warsaw, Krakow, Poznań, Lviv, Vilna, Lublin, which are located on the territory of today’s Polish state, but also in Gdansk and Kiev. The collections of customary law were not numerous; the oldest comes from the second half of the century. XIII, and was written in German, on the territory subject to the Teutonic Order, in order to make known to the employees of the order the law in force for the Polish population, domiciled in the territories belonging to the order. Among the later collections the most important are: the Artyku ł y s ą dowe (Articles of the courts) of the century. XV (39 articles) and the Consuetudines Cracovienses (40 articles), which were sanctioned by the king in 1506. Apart from some minor earlier statutes, the Statutes of King Casimir the Greatthey were the first major legislative monument of Polish law. The date of their promulgation is not known (in ancient times it was erroneously fixed at 1347). They were promulgated by King Casimir (1333-1370) separately for Lesser and Greater Poland. Preliminary judgments and other dissolved statutes were later added to the oldest drafting of the statute for Little Poland, consisting of 59 articles, in a second draft (of 106 articles); the statute for Greater Poland consisted of 34 articles, to which another 17 articles of various juridical character were added later. In practice, during the century. XV, the two statutes in question were united in a single work; one of these redactions (of 151 articles) was printed in the year 1488, in a private collection, and later, in 1506, in an official collection of Polish laws, and, the latter version seems to have been in force until the fall of the ancient republic; this collection was considered (erroneously) as a homogeneous codification of Casimir the Great. In the century XV, the statutes were published in a fairly large number; among these the statute, published in Warta in the year 1423, which is nothing but a “short story” to the statutes of Casimir the Great, and the statute, published in Piotrków in the year 1447, are above all important. the Polish diet arose, the legislation passed for most of the subjects to it, but for some subjects it was reserved to the sovereign himself. The laws enacted by the diet bore the name of to the statutes of Casimir the Great, and the statute, published in Piotrków in the year 1447. From the day the Polish diet arose, the legislation passed for most of the matters to it, but for some matters it was reserved to the sovereign himself. The laws enacted by the diet bore the name ofconstitutions ; at the end of the diet, all the decrees issued by it were published together, in the form of a single collection. The publication of the first constitutions bears the date of the year 1493, the publication of the last ones, that of 1793. For Poland 1997, please check aristmarketing.com.

In the century XVI appear the first currents aimed at codifying Polish law. In the year 1523 the codification of the judicial process was published, under the title Formula processus iudicarii (101 articles). In 1532 a commission was set up for the codification of all Polish law; the diet, however, rejected the project, carefully compiled and containing 929 articles. In the same century, the particular law of a Polish region was also codified twice, namely that of Masovia, which formed a duchy a. part, demonstrating quite different legal peculiarities; this right was codified after the incorporation of Masovia to Poland in the so-called Masovian Statutesof the years 1532 and 1540, while a large collection of customary law and 25 antecedent statutes of the Masovian dukes were included in the codification in question. In the year 1598, the law in force in the Polish region, called Royal Prussia, was also codified, albeit insufficiently; this codification bears the name of Correctura Prussiae (158 articles). The codification work in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, united with Poland since the year 1386, was more successful; during the sec. XVI the law was codified there three times, and, more precisely, in the so-called Lithuanian Statutes, the first of the year 1529 (244 articles), the second of 1566 (368 articles) and the third of 1588 (1488 articles); these statutes were based on Lithuanian and Ruthenian customary rights. In the second of them, however, a considerable influence of Polish law can already be detected, in the third this influence appears even stronger. The later works for the codification of Polish law, both partial (procedural law in 1611 and 1642) and total (project compiled in the year 1778 by Andrea Zamoyski, on behalf of the diet), did not lead to any result. Only in the year 1775 was a small (49 articles) Code of Exchange Law (together with the exchange procedure) published, based on the work of Giovanni Gotlieb Heinecius, Elementa iuris cambialis, to which the character of auxiliary law had been attributed. It should be noted that, in the year 1519, the king promulgated the Armenian Statute (134 articles), based on the ancient Armenian law and mainly on the collection of it, made in Armenia around the year 1184 by Mechitar Gosh; this right was in force for the Armenians, who settled in very large numbers in the cities of eastern Poland.

The first edition of the Polish laws, private and very insufficient, was published in Leipzig in the year 1488 and is known under the title of Syntagmata ; in 1506, Chancellor Giovanni Łaski published, on behalf of the Diet, a large collection of Polish laws, entitled Inclyti Regni Poloniae commune Privileium, which remained in use until the end of the existence of the ancient Polish state. From that time on, the constitutions issued by the diet were usually given to the press when the diet was closed. In the years 1732-1739, under the title Volumina Legum, an unofficial collection of Polish laws was published in six volumes, later completed by two other volumes, which contain the further constitutions, up to the year 1782.

From the century XVI onwards, the norms of Polish law began to be collected in the so-called Compendiums, both systematically (Przyłuski 1553, Zierakowski 1554, Palczowski 1555, Herburt 1563, Sarnicki 1594, Januszowski 1600, Trembicki 1789-1791, etc.), and alphabetically (Herburt 1570). The whole of Polish political law was compiled by the following authors: Dresner (1613), Chwałkowski (1676), Hartknoch (1678), Zalasżowski (1700-1702, also private and criminal law), G. Lengnich (1742-1756, the most complete), Skrzetuski (1782-1784). They devoted themselves especially to the process: Dresner (1601), the Czaracki (1614) who wrote in Polish, and above all, in a broader form the Zawadzki (1612), who expanded the numerous subsequent editions (up to the year 1647) and lastly, Nixdorff (1655). The compilation of private, procedural criminal law, in the last times of the existence of the ancient Polish republic, is due to the

Polish Law

Poland Overview

Poland Overview

Poland, officially Polish Rzeczpospolita Polska [ ʒ εt ʃ p ɔ s p ɔ lita -], German Republic of Poland, State in Central Eastern Europe (2018) 38.0 million residents; The capital is Warsaw.

National symbols

The national flag comes from the Duchy of Warsaw (1772) and was legally established on November 11, 1918 for the newly established Republic of Poland. The flag is divided into two equal stripes of white over red.

The coat of arms can be traced back to the 13th century. It shows a gold armored and crowned white eagle on a red shield. On December 29, 1989 it was decided that the crown removed under communist rule would be added to the heraldic animal again.

National holidays: Since 1990 (as in 1918–39), May 3rd commemorates the first constitution of 1791. November 11th, Independence Day, commemorates the regaining of independence in 1918.

Parties

Since the democratic transformation of Poland and the self-dissolution of the communist Polish United Workers’ Party (PZPR), which had supported the state until then, in January 1990, a broad spectrum of political parties, groups and alliances has emerged. Important parties are the Civic Platform (PO; founded 2001, conservative-liberal), the Law and Justice party (PiS; founded 2001, conservative-national), the Kukiz’15 party (K; founded 2015, populist), the Modern Party (N; founded in 2015, economically liberal), the Polish People’s and Peasants’ Party (PSL; founded in 1990 from predecessor organizations), the Alliance of the Democratic Left (SLD; emerged in 1999 as a party from the movement of the same name, founded in 1991, which comprised almost 30 left-wing groups and above all by the successor organization of the PZPR, the Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland [SdRP], which existed until 1999). The Alliance of the Democratic Left joined forces with other groups on the United Left (ZL) for the 2015 parliamentary elections. – The German minority, which has no party of its own nationwide, relies on ethnic group organizations and is exempt from the electoral threshold.

Unions

In the early 1990s around three quarters of the workers were union members, now only around 10% are unionized. In addition to the NSZZ Solidarność (Independent Self-Governing Trade Union Solidarity; founded in 1980), the OPZZ (All-Poland Trade Union Alliance; founded in 1984) and Forum FZZ (founded in 2002) there are numerous small local individual trade unions.

Military

The total strength of the professional army (2010 abolition of compulsory military service) is around 100,000 men. The army (48,200 soldiers) is divided into two army corps with three mechanized infantry divisions, one armored division, two artillery, engineer and airmobile brigades, three reconnaissance regiments, two army aviation regiments, one engineer regiment and one regiment for anti-C weapons. The Air Force has 16,600 and the Navy 7,700. Around 3,000 soldiers belong to the special forces, 14,300 paramilitary units.

Administration

At the regional level, there have been 16 voivodeships since the administrative reform that came into force in 1999, headed by the voivode appointed by the head of government. In October 1998, regional parliaments (with their own budget law) were elected for the first time for the voivodships to shape independent local politics; its executive body is the management with a marshal. On the second regional level, there are 380 districts (powiaty), the local political body of which is the district council. The local level of municipal self-government is represented by 2,478 municipalities.

Administrative division in Poland

Administrative structure (December 31, 2018)
Voivodeship Area (in km 2) Population (in 1,000) Residents (per km 2) capital city
Warmia-Masuria 24 173 1,429.0 59 Olsztyn
Greater Poland 29 827 3,494.0 116 Poznan
Holy Cross 11 711 1,241.5 106 Kielce
Lesser Poland 15 183 3,400.6 224 Krakow (Kraków)
Kuyavian Pomeranian 17 971 2,077.8 116 Bydgoszcz 1), Toruń 2)
Lebus 13,988 1,014.5 73 Gorzów Wielkopolski 1), Zielona Góra 2)
Lodz 18 219 2,466.3 135 Lodz (Łódź)
Lublin 25 122 2,117.6 84 Lublin
Mazovia 35 558 5,403.4 152 Warsaw
Lower Silesia 19 947 2,901.2 145 Wroclaw (Wroclaw)
Opole 9 412 986.5 105 Opole
Podlaskie 20 187 1,181.5 59 Białystok
Pomerania 18 322 2,333.5 127 Gdańsk
Silesia 12 333 4,533.6 368 Katowice
Subcarpathian 17 846 2 129.0 119 Rzeszów
West Pomerania 22 897 1,701.0 74 Szczecin
1) Seat of the voivod.2) Seat of the Parliament (Sejmik) of the Voivodeship.

Education

In 2017, Poland implemented an educational reform. Compulsory schooling was reduced by one year. It lasts from 8 to 16 years of age. According to topschoolsintheusa, the eight-year primary school follows the well-developed, non-compulsory elementary area. Afterwards, either the four-year lyceum (general higher education entrance qualification), the five-year technical college (technical college) or the three-year vocational school can be attended. Graduates of the vocational school have the opportunity to acquire the higher education entrance qualification after completing the two-year supplementary lyceum. The grammar schools introduced in 1999, which had to be attended after a six-year primary school, were abolished in 2017. This means that the school system is only two-tiered.

In the higher education sector there are 19 universities as well as numerous other public, church and private academies and higher education institutions. The oldest universities are the Jagiellonian University in Krakow (founded in 1364) and the Universities of Wroclaw (founded in 1702, re-established as a Polish university in 1945) and Warsaw (1818).

Media

The media landscape is diverse and reporting is free. Foreign media groups have a strong presence, including Axel Springer SE, Bauer Media Group and Verlagsgruppe Passau (regional newspapers).

Press: Among the 45 daily newspapers with the highest circulation, in addition to various free papers, are the tabloids »Fakt« (founded in 2003) and »Super Express« (founded in 1991) as well as the »Gazeta Wyborcza« (founded in 1989), which emerged from the Solidarność trade union movement, the conservative » Rzeczpospolita “(founded in 1982), the business newspaper” Dziennik-Gazeta Prawna “(founded in 2002) and the Warsaw newspaper” Życie Warszawy “. News magazines are “Newsweek Polska” (founded in 2001), “Polityka” (founded in 1957), and “Wprost” (founded in 1982).

News agencies: Polska Agencja Prasowa (PAP), Katolicka Agencja Informacyjna (KAI, founded in 1992).

Broadcasting: Public broadcasting consists of Telewizja Polska (TVP) and Polskie Radio (PR). TVP broadcasts three full programs nationwide and, in addition to several special interest channels, also operates »TV Polonia« for Poland abroad; »TVP Regionalna« is the cover for 16 regional studios. The largest private television stations are »Polsat TV«, »TVN« (with news channel »TVN 24«) and the Catholic »TV Puls«. Pay TV is very important. Polskie Radio includes four national radio stations, 17 regional companies and “Polskie Radio dla Zagraniczy” (Polish radio for foreign countries). The most popular private radio stations are “Radio Muzyka Fakty” (RMF FM) and “Radio Zet” as well as the Catholic “Radio Maryja”.

Poland Overview

Shopping and Eating in Gdansk

Shopping and Eating in Gdansk

Eating in Gdansk

The culinary traditions in Poland are not different from those you find in, for example, Germany, the Czech Republic and the Baltic countries, but of course with their own twists and specialties. The dishes are often strong and tasty, and it does not save on calories. The basic ingredients are sauerkraut, beets, cucumber, kohlrabi, mushrooms, sausages, pork, and the Poles use a lot of herbs such as parsley and dill, as well as a lot of pepper.

Like the rest of the central and eastern parts of Europe, Poles also eat a lot of dumplings (kopytka or pierogi in Polish). These can be simple, as an accompaniment to meat dishes, or elaborate, with, for example, bacon pieces, vegetables, cheese, or something else as a filling. There are also dessert varieties. In Gdansk, kopytka is often served as an ingredient in good goulash.

The towns along the Baltic Sea naturally also offer seafood, and in Gdansk you will find many good fish restaurants.

In addition to very many restaurants with traditional food, you will find more than ok restaurants with international cuisine. If you want to eat French delicacies, Italian pizza, or American hamburger, you will easily find it too.

Prices are a good deal lower than at home in Norway, but somewhat higher than in the Czech Republic, for example. In any case, you will probably be left with the feeling that you got a lot of food and drink for your money.

Gdansk is located in the far north of Poland

Nightlife in Gdansk

One of the characteristics of the nightlife in Gdansk is that it does not seem to close. Here you will find nightclubs that are open until ordinary people go to work in the morning. Even the pubs seem to suffer from fear of sheets, and are often open until both 03:00 and 04:00 at night / in the morning.

Most of the nightlife is concentrated in the old town, and in the area on and around the marina.

If we are to recommend anything special, it must be that you visit one of the many and good bars located in Gdansk. Several of them are open until late at night, and are often converted into more music clubs at some point during the evening. In Gdansk you will also find several exciting beer bars, with good beer from local microbreweries. There are also several brewery pubs in the center, where it smells delicious, freshly brewed beer when you enter the door.

Shopping in Gdansk

According to DigoPaul, Gdansk is probably no Milan, London or Paris when it comes to shopping, but you can easily find everything you need of fashion clothes, shoes, and whatever it is you need. Prices are lower than at home, and the selection is much the same.

Shopping in Gdansk

The easiest way is to find your way around the large shopping centers in the city. Here are four of the biggest and best. Three of them are close together, so here you can get the shopping done in one go:

  • Galeria Baltycka– This is the most famous shopping center in Gdansk, and offers over 200 different shops. You will find the internationally known brands here, such as H&M, Zara and Benetton, as well as some Polish brands. The center also has many other types of shops, as well as many restaurants and cafes. You will find Galeria Baltycka right by the stop of the same name if you take tram number 6, 11 or 12.
  • Metropolia– The shopping center is right next to Galeri Baltycka. It’s a little smaller, but newer. Metropolia is a must if you are looking for toys or children’s clothes. You will also find many fashion stores, accessories stores and much more here.
  • Manhattan– The shopping center is located in Wrzeszcz, and you get there with the same tram routes as to Galeria Baltycka (6, 11 and 12). This is a good center, with a good selection, and it is also a little less stressful here.
  • Madison Shopping Gallery– This is located right next to Gdansk Glowny Central Station and within the boundaries of the Old Town. If you get your feet wet to get to Madison, Gnilna Street is the one you aim for. The center is large and goes over 4 levels. The shops are mainly those with fashion clothes, shoes, accessories, beauty and skin care, sports, as well as a number of restaurants and cafes.