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Peru Agriculture, Fishing and Forestry

Peru Agriculture, Fishing and Forestry

According to BUSINESSCARRIERS, Peru is a country located in South America bordered by Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia and Chile. It is home to over 32 million people and has a great diversity of cultures, languages and climates. The capital of Peru is Lima and the official language is Spanish.

The geography of Peru can be divided into three regions: the coastal region which makes up the western part of the country; the highlands which make up the central area; and the Amazon rainforest which make up the eastern part. Peru’s coastline stretches for 2,400 kilometers along the Pacific Ocean and contains some stunning beaches as well as many islands such as Islas Ballestas. The highlands are home to some spectacular mountain ranges including Cordillera Blanca which contains some of South America’s highest peaks. Finally, Peru’s Amazon rainforest covers over 60% of the country making it one of largest areas of tropical rainforest in South America.

Peru is known for its incredible cultural heritage with many ancient sites such as Machu Picchu being popular tourist attractions. Other famous sites include Cusco which was once an Incan capital city and Arequipa which is home to some beautiful colonial architecture from Spanish rule. As for cuisine, Peru has many delicious dishes ranging from ceviche (seafood marinated in lime) to lomo saltado (stir-fry beef).

In terms of economy, Peru has seen a steady growth in recent years due largely to its booming tourism industry as well as its rich natural resources such as minerals like gold and copper. The Peruvian government has also been taking steps towards economic diversification in order to reduce its reliance on these resources.

Overall, Peru offers an exciting blend of culture, history and nature that makes it one of South America’s most interesting countries to visit!

Agriculture in Peru

Peru Agriculture

Agriculture is a major sector of Peru’s economy, employing over 10% of the population and contributing 16.7% to the country’s GDP. The country is divided into three distinct agricultural regions: the coastal region, the highlands and the Amazon rainforest.

The coastal region is known for its production of cotton, sugar cane, rice, coffee and bananas. It also produces some of Peru’s most famous exports such as avocados, mangoes and limes. The highlands are home to some of Peru’s most important crops such as potatoes, maize and quinoa which are grown in terraced fields at high altitudes. Finally, the Amazon rainforest produces a variety of tropical fruits such as papaya, pineapple and acai berries as well as some lesser-known crops like yuca root or maca root.

Peru also has a thriving livestock industry with sheep farming being particularly popular in the highlands due to its cold climate. Cattle farming is more widespread in the lowlands where there is more available grassland for grazing animals.

In recent years, Peru has become an important exporter of agricultural products with exports reaching US$6 billion annually in 2018. This includes products like organic coffee from smallholder farmers which have become increasingly popular in international markets due to their higher quality standards compared to traditional coffee production methods.

The Peruvian government has taken steps to improve agricultural productivity by introducing policies such as tax incentives for farmers who use sustainable practices like crop rotation or soil conservation techniques. They have also increased access to credit for small scale farmers so that they can invest in new technologies or expand their operations.

Overall, Peru’s agriculture sector is an important part of its economy and offers many opportunities for growth in both traditional and modern sectors!

Fishing in Peru

Fishing is an important sector of the Peruvian economy, accounting for around 5% of the country’s GDP. The country has over 3,000 kilometers of coastline and a wide range of fishing opportunities from small boats to large vessels. Peru is also home to the largest fishmeal production in the world, making it a major global supplier of this commodity.

Inshore fishing is by far the most common type of fishing in Peru and includes activities such as artisanal fishing, small-scale commercial fisheries and even recreational angling. Inshore fisheries typically target a wide variety of species such as anchovies, sardines, mackerels, flatfishes and crustaceans.

Offshore fishing is also popular in Peru with many vessels targeting large pelagic species such as tuna and swordfish. These fish are typically caught using longlines or purse seine nets which can be set up to span hundreds of meters in length.

The Peruvian government has introduced several measures to improve the sustainability of its fisheries including regulations on mesh size for nets used in trawling operations as well as limits on bycatch (unwanted fish caught while targeting other species). They have also implemented a Vessel Monitoring System which allows authorities to track vessels that are operating illegally or breaking other regulations.

In addition to commercial fisheries, Peru also has a thriving recreational fishing industry with thousands of anglers visiting each year from all over the world to take advantage of its abundant resources. The country offers some great opportunities for deep sea game fishing with many species such as marlins, sailfish and even sharks being caught off its coastlines!

Forestry in Peru

Peru is home to a wide variety of forests and woodlands, ranging from tropical rainforests to temperate forests. The country has an estimated 12 million hectares of forest cover, making it one of the most important countries in terms of global forestry.

The majority of the Peruvian forests are located in the Amazon Basin and the Andes Mountains. These forests are home to a wide variety of flora and fauna, including many endangered species. The Amazon rainforest is particularly important due to its role in regulating global temperatures and providing essential habitat for many species.

Forests play an important role in Peru’s economy, providing timber for construction and fuelwood for cooking and heating. They also provide an important source of income for rural communities through non-timber forest products such as nuts, fruits and medicinal plants. In addition, forests are essential for watershed protection and soil conservation as well as providing habitat for wildlife that support tourism activities.

The Peruvian government has taken several steps to protect its forests including establishing protected areas such as national parks, implementing sustainable forestry practices such as selective logging and reforestation projects, and setting up a system of payments for ecosystem services which rewards landowners who protect their forests.

Despite these efforts, deforestation remains a major problem in Peru with illegal logging being the most significant cause of forest loss. In response to this issue, the government has introduced stricter enforcement measures against illegal loggers but much more needs to be done if Peru’s forests are to be adequately protected into the future.

Peru Culture

Peru Culture

Like Ecuador and Bolivia, Peru is one of the most »indigenous« countries in South America. Quechua, the language of the Inca, is the country’s second official language. On the territory of pre-Columbian Peru there were since 2500 BC. Chr. Settlements with houses. State organizations developed such as the Nazca culture, the Huari culture, the Tiahuanaco empire and, in the middle highlands, the Inca empire from around 1200 AD.

The high-ranking Inca civilization had a road network (Qhapaq Ñan) that was larger than that of the Romans. The fortress-like city complex of Machu Picchu in the Andes, built around 1450, is evidence of its architecture. Characteristic of her art are figures made of gold or silver, which mainly represent people and llamas. On the hunt for the legendary treasures of the golden land Pirú, the conquistador Francisco Pizarro conquered in 1532with a small army the Inca state weakened by internal turmoil. According to physicscat, Peru became the political and cultural center of the Spanish colonial empire on the South American subcontinent. This is still reflected today in the impressive colonial buildings of the conquerors, 600 of which have been preserved in the capital Lima alone. In them, European building forms merge with indigenous style elements to create an artful colonial baroque (Peruvian art, Latin American art).

The most important writer is M. Vargas Llosa , who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2010. He is one of the most important representatives of the boom in Latin American literature that began in the 1960s, in which he played a major role with his novel “La ciudad y los perros” (1963; German “The city and the dogs”). Vargas Llosa’s works are often based on real events or autobiographical experiences and give a picture of Latin American society (Peruvian literature) through detailed observation.

The country’s music is influenced by the Inca heritage with its pan and queña flutes and ancient trumpets. It mixes with Hispanic influences and modern pop music to create a distinctive style. Puno on Lake Titicaca is a folklore capital. Many typical dances come from this region and are performed by dancers in colorful costumes. The colorful weaving products from the highlands are well known. The traditional clothes of the women are colored skirts, the Peruvian poncho is used to protect against rain and indigenous people in particular wear the typical hats made of wool.

Peru Culture

The national sport is football, but equestrian sports and surfing are also very popular. Mountaineering in the Andes is mainly practiced by tourists.

World Heritage Sites in Peru

World Heritage Sites (K) and World Natural Heritage Sites (N)

  • City of Cuzco (K; 1983)
  • Ruins of the city-like Inca mountain fortress Machu Picchu (K / N; 1983)
  • Ruined city of Chavin (K; 1985)
  • Huascarán National Park (N; 1985)
  • Ruined city of Chan Chan (K; 1986)
  • Manú National Park (N; 1987)
  • Historic city center of Lima with the San Francisco Monastery (K; 1988)
  • Río Abiseo National Park (C / N; 1990)
  • Lines and floor drawings (scratches) from Nasca and Pampas de Jumana (K; 1994)
  • Historic city center of Arequipa (K; 2000)
  • Holy City of Caral-Supe (K; 2009)
  • Great Inca Road »Qhapaq Ñan« in the Andes (K; 2014)

Arequipa Old Town (World Heritage)

Arequipa is located in the south of Peru at an altitude of around 2400 m at the foot of the 5842 m high Misti volcano. The cityscape presents a mixture of European and indigenous building techniques. The most interesting complex besides Arequipa Cathedral is the spacious Santa Catalina Monastery from 1579, which has preserved its cultural and architectural heritage in a unique way.

Arequipa Old Town: Facts

Official title: Historic city center of Arequipa
Cultural monument: Historical center; Mixture of European and native building techniques by colonial masters and Creole or Indian masons; Colonial buildings, partly made of white tuff: La Compañía monastery with beautiful cloister, church with richly designed baroque facade (1698); Santo Domingo Church (around 1664), Santa Catalina Monastery (founded 1580); among other things arcades, vaults, inner courtyards, baroque facades
Continent: America
Country: Peru
Location: Arequipa
Appointment: 2000
Meaning: Masterpiece of the creative fusion of European and local architecture; impressive example of colonial settlements

Holy City of Caral-Supe (World Heritage)

Caral-Supe, 200 km north of Lima, is an outstanding monument of human cultural history. It shows that there was already a flourishing civilization in America 1000 years before the Egyptian civilization. It originated around 5,000 years ago and is considered the oldest urban settlement on the American continent. The ruins consist of six monumental pyramid-like complexes, temples and palaces. Settlement ended around 1200 BC. Chr.

Holy city of Caral-Supe: facts

Official title: Holy city of Caral-Supe
Cultural monument: Archaeological site of an area of ​​approx. 0.6 km² in a desert-like plateau above the fertile valley of the Supe River; one of the oldest known settlements in America with a proven age of over 4,500 years; monumental, ceremonial architecture made of stone and earthworks, in the center six pyramids (with gigantic monoliths on the Great Temple, the largest pyramid); urban structure (with upper and lower town) with accommodation, work houses, sophisticated irrigation systems, burial mounds, round buildings (such as amphitheaters from a later phase with finds of musical instruments) and public spaces; Finds of woolen knot cords, so-called »Quipus«, aids for documentation and transmission of numerical data;
Continent: America
Country: Peru
Location: about 190 km north of Lima
Appointment: 2009
Meaning: Unique testimony to an early American high culture, outstanding example of the development of civilization on the Peruvian coast; outstanding finds of early architecture and urban planning in the Andes; exceptional examples of early counting systems


Semester Abroad in Peru

Semester Abroad in Peru

Peru – the land of the Incas and the Andes, the Amazon rainforests and the alpacas. Hardly any other area offers such a diverse culture and landscape as the third largest country in South America.

The mysterious ruined city of Machu Picchu and the old Inca capital Cusco are impressive examples of the lost culture of the Incas. The legacy of the Spanish conquerors can still be felt in the former colonial cities with their baroque cathedrals and churches. And the mysterious, giant scratches in the Nazca desert are still a mystery today.

Peru: one country – four landscapes

The cultural treasures of Peru are embedded in a breathtaking landscape: behind the narrow and dry coastal region “La Costa” with its desert landscapes and fishing villages, the Andes rise majestically: “La Sierra”. Their plateaus are up to 4,000 meters high here. The highest mountain in Peru, Huascarán, is over 6,700 meters high. However, half of Peru is made up of “La Selva”, the rainforest, and “La Montana”, the cloud forest. The deep green Amazon basin in particular, with its numerous rivers and pristine jungle, is home to countless animal and bird species.

Of the 30 million people in Peru, more than half are of indigenous descent. Many of the indigenous people still follow their traditional way of life. They speak the indigenous languages Quechua or Aymara, which, along with Spanish, are the Peruvian national languages. In the big cities, the customs of the Indians have mixed with the Catholic traditions of the colonial powers.

According to searchforpublicschools, the capital Lima is the cultural and economic center of Peru. There you will find magnificent buildings from the colonial era, colorful markets, shady plazas, old churches and excellent museums. The beaches close to the city, a colorful nightlife and the warmth and hospitality of the residents ensure that there is no boredom in the noisy metropolis.

Semester in Peru: special semester programs

For students who want to see the countless cultural and natural wonders of Peru with their own eyes, some Peruvian universities offer special study opportunities. Programs like Semester in Lima International Program or Semester in Cusco International Exchange Program represent a unique opportunity to get to know this fascinating country during a semester abroad.

The state universities in Peru teach almost exclusively in Spanish. Private universities, such as the Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola, often have courses in English as well as courses in Spanish. These are not intended exclusively for international students. They are also aimed at local students who value perfecting their English skills as part of their studies.

This is of course very practical for international students whose knowledge of Spanish is not that advanced. At the same time, many Peruvian universities also offer Spanish courses. At some universities there is even the option of learning the basics of Aymara or Quechua as part of a semester abroad in Peru.

The exact structure of the semester programs in Peru differs from university to university. At some universities you can take courses from the university’s general range of lectures together with local students during your semester abroad in Peru. Other universities offer international students mainly country-specific courses on Peruvian history, nature, art and culture, as well as Spanish courses. These programs aim to provide international students with a deep understanding of Peruvian culture during their semester.

The study system in Peru is predominantly based on the Spanish system, with some universities also using the North American system as a model. The universities usually award credit points within the specially designed semester programs. This means that you can often have your academic achievements recognized during the semester in Peru easily recognized by your home university. However, you should clarify this in advance with your home examination office.

Requirements and application

The application process for a semester abroad in Peru is simple. To be able to participate in the semester program of a Peruvian university, you only need the (technical) high school diploma. In most cases, universities do not require formal proof of language skills. Nevertheless, you should of course have sufficient knowledge of Spanish or at least English for your semester in Peru.

Costs and financing options for a semester abroad in Peru

Peruvian universities are financed through tuition fees. These vary from university to university and can be up to US $ 5,500 per semester. The cost of living is far below the German level. Anyone who adapts to the Peruvian way of life gets along well with living expenses of EUR 450 per month. The cost of a room in a shared apartment in the capital Lima, for example, is around EUR 120-280 per month. You only have to plan around EUR 100 per month for accommodation with a host family. A warm meal is often available in Peru for the equivalent of three euros.

There are different ways to finance the semester abroad in Peru. On the one hand, many German students receive funding from the Auslands-BAföG. This includes a subsidy for tuition fees of up to EUR 4,600 and additional subsidies for living and travel expenses. Students who are not entitled to BAföG in Germany may also receive funding, as the assessment limits for BAföG abroad are higher. So it is definitely worth it to find out about the possibilities at the BAföG office in Bremen, which is responsible for Latin America.

For some students, a scholarship can also be considered to finance a semester abroad in Peru, for example from the DAAD or other foundations. Student loans are also a financing option.

Foreign students are also allowed to work during the semester break in order to top up their travel budget. To do this, you have to apply for a work permit at the Peruvian embassy in advance.

Semester Abroad in Peru

Visa and entry to Peru

Anyone planning to spend a semester abroad in Peru must apply for a student visa. However, these are not issued by the Peruvian consulates in Germany. There are two ways to get the visa anyway:

  • The university at which you are enrolled has the visa processed by the Ministry of Interior’s Immigration Service (DIGEMIN).
  • You enter Peru on a tourist visa and have this converted into a student visa at DIGEMIN.

For a student visa you have to

  • the certificate of enrollment,
  • proof of sufficient financial resources and
  • the return tickets

In any case, you need adequate international health insurance for your semester stay in Peru.