Tag: Mexico

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Mexico Society and Human Rights

Mexico Society and Human Rights

Population and society

Mestizo country par excellence, Mexico has made this characteristic a key element of its identity. Given its large size and its marked heterogeneity, the fact remains that the Mexican population retains vast and widespread pockets of true ‘Indianness’ under the patina of mestizo homogeneity. This is to a large extent true for its more southern offshoots such as Chiapas, which remains in many ways an Indian-majority region, ethnically much more similar to neighboring Guatemala than to the rest of Mexico. This also applies to other areas of the country, from the state of Guerrero to that of Sinaloa. For Mexico society, please check homosociety.com.

Mexico experiences important ethnic conflicts within it, which are sometimes the cause of violent uprisings, especially where they are welded to serious social marginalization, as happened in Chiapas in 1994, when the Zapatista movement rose up in arms. Overall, beyond the ethnic question, Mexican society remains furrowed by profound social and territorial inequalities, despite the economic development that has taken place in the last decade. The contraction in poverty has been largely the effect of growth, while distributional policies have been far less effective, although the fiscal measures adopted provide governments with considerable resources. Nonetheless, there have also been partial successes, as in the case of conditional assistance plans,

Finally, the peculiar Mexican religious history deserves a brief mention. Catholic devotion is particularly strong in the country and the influence of the Church in political affairs has had an exceptional historical weight. At the same time, Mexico has been the scene of violent anticlerical reactions, leading to a rigid constitutional separation between church and state. This separation created a long and solid tradition of secular statehood and prevented the existence of diplomatic relations with the Holy See until 1992. Since then, however, a constitutional amendment has allowed the Mexican state to normalize relations with the Church. Catholic and with other religious confessions.

Freedom and rights

Mexico can be included among those states that respect political and civil liberties, despite the fact that it remains a country afflicted by serious deficiencies in respect for human and civil rights.

Corruption remains a widespread scourge in economic life and in the national public administration. Social protests are frequent and often characterized in the past by violence and repression, culminating in some cases with a high number of victims, as occurred in the case of the Iguala massacre (September 2014), in which 43 students disappeared into thin air after being were stopped by the police while participating in a protest against government policies on education.

In the past, these violence have been fueled by the socio-economic backwardness of the southern regions compared to the more developed ones in the north-central and the indigenous question, which mestizo Mexico has long tended to neglect or consider a mere legacy of past.

However, the major cause of violence is linked to the proliferation of powerful cartels drugs, entrenched along the northern border (according to the Department of Justice U knows the turnover derived from drug trafficking is estimated at over 23 billion dollars a year). A phenomenon that exploded in all its vehemence in the last decade but that found a turning point in 2006 when the then president Calderón decided to tackle the drug trafficking cartels through the militarization of the territory. Since then, the murders in the northern states have grown at an exponential rate, now to the detriment of the same drug traffickers fighting each other, now to those of the defenseless civilian population. There was no shortage of victims of abuse by the security forces. In addition, a growing number of journalists and local politicians actively engaged in the fight against organized crime have paid for this commitment with their lives. According to data published annually by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (I negi) in 2014 there were just under 20,000 homicides (trend down from the peak recorded in 2011). As regards disappearances and kidnappings, however, according to the Encuesta Nacional de Victimización y Percepción sobre Seguridad Publica, in 2012 (latest data available) approximately 4000 and over 105,000 were recorded respectively. As for the kidnappings, the Coordinación Nacional Antisecuestro announced in March 2015 that in the first 27 months of the Government of Peña Nieto there were 5,389 cases, with an increase of 52.7% compared to the previous 27 months (final phase of the Calderón Government). On these crimes, the judiciary has not yet shown itself effective.

Finally, directly linked to the problem of drug trafficking is also that of weapons and their free circulation in the territory, following the question of the vigilantes. These are regularized self-defense groups that the army has registered by granting them the weapons to fight the cartels in the areas most affected. The risk, however, is that such a pact without adequate control by the authorities will lead to a free circulation of weapons, allowing the formation of autonomous paramilitary cells that are difficult to manage by the state.

Mexico Society

Mexico Population and Economy

Mexico Population and Economy


The first residents of today’s Mexico, around the first millennium BC. C., were probably the Olmecs, followed by Xilanchi, Otomí, Mixtec and Zapotec who allied themselves then in a vain attempt to repel the Aztecs, Huaxtecos and Totonac who managed in part to resist subsequent invasions until the arrival of the conquistadors who killed them. Further south the Maya – Quiché, arrived around the VII century a. C. in Yucatán and on the border with Guatemala, after a long period of splendor followed by a violent and sudden decline, they merged in the eighth century with the powerful Toltecs, who had occupied Anáhuac; the two peoples were later defeated and subjugated by the Chichimechi. Belonging to the ethno-linguistic group of the Nauha, the Aztecs came instead from the north-western regions, the mythical Aztlán (“land of the heron”), starting from the 11th century, imposing themselves on the peoples previously settled in the plateau. The Anáhuac has remained, as in the past, the most populous part of the country. Deep transformations took place between 1518 and 1521 with the Spanish conquest and this in function of the different forms of exploitation. Among these, the breeding of livestock was immediately imposed, in relation to which the first large haciendas arose on vast lands assigned to the encomenderos, the Spanish landowners. Even more decisive was the mining exploitation that enriched the country in a prodigious way, giving birth to new and beautiful cities,, Guanajuato, Zacatecas etc. Already at the end of the seventeenth century there were 35 lively cities in Mexico, which included haciendas, ranchos (small properties) and villages, the latter more numerous in the traditional areas of Indian population, the former prevailing in the areas of colonization. At the same time there was an increasingly deep and extensive process of interbreeding, although large areas of intact Indian population were preserved, especially in the North.

Parallel to economic prosperity there was a significant demographic increase especially among the white and mestizo population, while the Indians were reduced, decimated by epidemics and by harsh economic exploitation. Throughout the nineteenth century. the Mexican population did not register strong increases, and this was due to the poor conditions in which the peón lived, the peasant, subjected to the colonial regime. Independence improved the situation, but the landed oligarchy gradually strengthened its regime, especially in the time of Porfirio Díaz. The campaigns did not yield enough for the masses of peons subject to the interests of the haciendados. The civil war of 1910-17 was the result of an unsustainable situation, which was followed by land reform, and the establishment of the ejidos, the rural communities that became owners of the plots and within which each peasant had his share of land in usufruct. From then on, the life of modern Mexico began and the first strong demographic increases took place; however, the civil war had caused heavy losses and it took a few decades for the population to reach the figure of 1910, when 15 million residents were registered. The most tumultuous increase took place starting from the 1940s, when mortality underwent significant reductions, while the birth rate kept the traditional values, very high, equal to 40-45%. In 1940 the population was 19 million and in 1960 already 38 million, while at the 1990 census there were over 81.2 million residents, which rose to over 103 million in 2005.

According to extrareference.com, the population of Mexico is made up of 64% of mestizos, 18% of Amerindians, spread especially in the North and South, while the Creoles, Mexicans of Spanish origin, and other whites, many of them recently immigrant North Americans, are the 15%; the other groups, including Chinese, Malays, etc. Along the southern coasts there are black and African minorities zambos, derived from the cross between Indios and black Africans. The population density (the average is 60 residents / km²) varies from area to area. In Anáhuac, in the part that belongs to the capital, there are the highest densities, well above 500 residents / km²; in the rest of the central band there are more than 150-200 residents / km2 everywhere. These values ​​decrease considerably in the North and in Baja California, where there is a density of 24 residents / km².


Mexico occupies a leading position among developing countries (in general it ranks second in economic importance among the states of Latin America, preceded only by Brazil), but still suffers from very marked social and territorial imbalances despite the State has intervened with multiple initiatives in order to remedy the heaviest inequalities and to eliminate the greatest pockets of backwardness. The most radical transformations of the Mexican economy began with the revolution; it set itself as its primary objective the elimination of the land oligarchies, which have always dominated the country; with the 1930s, under the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas, the land reform process was accelerated with the subdivision of millions of hectares into small plots, which were established in state-owned peasant communities, the ejidos. It was also Cárdenas who nationalized in 1938, as part of a systematic nationalization of the main Mexican economic activities, the entire oil sector (managed by PEMEX, Petróleos Mexicanos), while already in 1937 the ownership of the main railway lines had been transferred to the State. After the war, government policy aimed at the continuation of this process, trying however to reconcile the never dormant socialist demands with the “technocratic” ones, in order to incentivize higher productivity and stable economic developments, requirements imposed by the very strong demographic growth of the Village. In this way, the energy sector and basic industry in general were boosted, by strengthening the infrastructural equipment (roads, ports, irrigation works, etc.), and at the same time the creation of new enterprises was favored by the State, also through an opportune protectionism, which allowed the affirmation of the industries producing consumer goods and the consequent attenuation of dependence on foreign countries. The rate of growth of production was, especially between 1965 and 1973 (period of maximum growth), among the highest in Latin America. The state, which was now responsible for over 40% of total investments, assumed an increasingly decisive role in the transformation of economic structures. Among the most decisive state initiatives implemented by the government, the nationalization of private banks, implemented in 1982 and the law of “Mexicanization” (1973), were of strategic importance, by which foreign capital was forbidden to have majority stakes in Mexican companies, thus also subjecting the private sector of the economy to state control. However, starting from the second half of the seventies Mexico accused in an increasingly macroscopic way the repercussions of the very serious international economic crisis.

Mexico Population and Economy

Mexico Brief History

Mexico Brief History

According to Computerannals, Mexico, Central America, has a lot to offer its visitors; historic sites, an interesting people’s life, beautiful mountain ranges, snow-capped volcanoes, tropical beaches and the world’s largest city, the capital Mexico City with more than 20 million inhabitants. In Mexico you can stay a long time and still not have time for all the interesting things to experience.

My almost four-week tour of southern Mexico offered many interesting and fascinating experiences.

The trip took me via the capital Mexico City to the old colonial mountain town of Oaxaca and on to Puerto Escondido on the Pacific Ocean, I visited the dramatic Canon del Sumidero with its exciting bird and animal life and the old town of San Cristobal de las Casas. I had the opportunity to visit the small village of Oventic and meet some of the Zapatistas who, under the leadership of Subcomandante Marcos, are fighting to improve the conditions of the poor Native American population. I was fascinated by the colorful markets with many colorfully dressed Native American peoples and I came to the small town of Chamula with its beautiful church in which visitors sit and belch to get rid of evil spirits. I visited historical sites such as Teotihuacan, Monte Alban, Palenque, Chichen Itza, Tonina and Tulum.

Mexico history in brief

Mexico’s history is long, interesting and often bloody. Here, several different Native American high cultures have developed. Aztec culture reached its peak when the country was conquered by the Spaniards under the leadership of Hernán Cortés in 1521 AD. The Spanish conquest became a disaster for the indigenous people, who were oppressed and severely affected by the diseases brought by the Europeans.

The indigenous people did not live a happy life before the arrival of the Europeans either. War and the capture of people were part of everyday life. Most of the prisoners were later sacrificed to the gods, who could only be appeased with the help of human hearts torn directly from the body while the victim was still alive! The Spaniards forced the Indians to stop their human sacrifices and so far some got better than before their arrival.

In 1821, the country becomes independent. The radical constitution that was introduced in 1917, and which largely still applies today, has affected the country’s development since then.

Mexico history, older


25,000 – 20,000

The first settlers, hunters and gatherers, arrive in the Mexico Valley where they settle in caves. They belong to the group of migrants who immigrated to the North American continent from Asia via the passage we today call the Bering Strait.


At that time, people lived in primitive settlements and farmed, rather than anywhere else on the American continent. The Indians grew corn, beans, peppers and squash. Crops that later spread around the world.

1 500

The first Olmec settlements are established and thus the first high culture of Mesoamerica (Mexico) is founded. This then becomes the basis of all other high cultures that develop in the country

900 The Olmec city of San Lorenzo is destroyed


The first major Mayan communities began to be built along the border between Mexico and Guatemala


The first settlers come to Monte Albán, which is developing into the largest of the Zapotecs’ cities. Monte Albán has a maximum population of 25,000


The city of Teotihuacán is founded, which came to dominate the region for more than 500 years. At most 125,000 people lived here

100 The Maya settle in Palenque, which develops into an important center of power

Mexico history, older

615 – 683 The Mayan king Pakal reigns in Palenque

650 Teotihuacán falls and is abandoned. The city may have been destroyed by its own inhabitants

799 The city of Palenque is destroyed

900 A Toltec state is formed with Tula as its capital

1100 Tula, the capital of the Toltecs, falls


The mighty Mayan city of Chichen Itza falls. The city had at most 35,000 inhabitants


The Aztecs founded the city of Tenochtitlán, which will develop into today’s capital Mexico City

1426 -1440

The Aztecs become the ruling ethnic group in the Mexico Valley. Their empire, which expands due to conquests and the oppression of other ethnic groups, becomes the last great empire of Mesoamerica.

16th century, beginning

The Aztecs wage war against the Tlaxcala people, who later become the Spaniards’ ally

1502 Montezuma II becomes the last emperor of the Aztecs


The Spaniards occupy Tenochtitlán, the capital of the Aztecs, and the Aztec empire falls

1546 Large silver deposits are made in Zapateca

1571 The Spanish Inquisition arrives in Mexico


Mexico City is hit by a major flood. It takes a full five years before the water recedes

1692 Revolt in Mexico City due to food shortages and ethnic differences

1765 Spain strengthens its grip on the country

1767 The Jesuits are expelled from Mexico


Miguel Hidlago starts a revolt against the Spanish government on 16 September. The uprising is put down and Hidalgo is imprisoned. He was executed in 1811


José Maria Morales makes a second attempt at rebellion against the Spanish government. This too is suppressed and Morales is executed in 1815

Mexico history, modern

1821 Mexico’s independence is proclaimed

1824 The Federal Republic of Mexico is formed

1836 Texas rebels against Mexican rule and wants to join the United States

1840 – 1846 Mayarevolt on the Yucatan Peninsula

1846 – 1848 War between Mexico and the United States


The peace treaty between Mexico and the United States leads to Mexico losing almost half of its land area

1857 A liberal democratic constitution is introduced

1864 – 1867

French occupation of the country. The occupation is supported by conservative forces. Emperor Maximilliam of Habsburg is installed as Emperor of Mexico


Emperor Maximilliam, who becomes the country’s last monarch, is executed. Republic is re-established under Benito Juarez

1876 ​​Porfirio Diaz seizes power and becomes President of Mexico

1894 The railway connecting the Gulf of Mexico with the Pacific Ocean is inaugurated


Francisco I. Madero starts a revolt in the country because Porfirio Diaz has been re-elected as President of Mexico seven times. Madero considered that the election was conducted in a dishonest manner

1911 Francisco I. Madero is elected president

1913 Madero is assassinated by the military in February


Introduces the liberal, revolutionary constitution, which, by and large, still applies. The abolished serfdom, state takeover of the large estates and distribution of the land to the small farmers, cuts the power of the Catholic Church, the inhabitants of the country were given the right to organize and strike, etc.

1913 – 1915 Civil War. Famous revolt leaders are Emilio Zapata and Pancho Villa

1919 Assassinated revolt leader Emilio Zapata

1920 A military revolt is carried out. President Carranza is deposed and executed

1923 Murder of the revolt leader Pancho Villa


Formed Partido Nacional Revolucinario (PNR) which becomes the forerunner of the party (PRI) that has ruled the country since then

1934 Lázaro Cárdenas is elected President of Mexico

1938 The country’s oil industry is nationalized

1940 The Russian revolutionary Lev Trotsky, who fled Russia, is assassinated in Mexico City


Torre Latinoamericana is being built, which at 182 meters is one of Mexico City’s tallest buildings

1968 The Olympic Games are held in Mexico City

1983 The opposition wins significant success in the municipal elections


Mexico City is hit by an earthquake, over 20,000 people die and over
300,000 become homeless


The fall in oil prices forced a shift in economic policy, during which protectionism was exchanged for free trade, and parts of the large state-owned industrial sector were sold to private owners.


Carlos Salinas becomes the country’s new president and implemented several neoliberal reforms. PRI loses power

1991 PRI regains power in congressional and gubernatorial elections


Presidential election won by Ernesto Zedillo
Thousands of zapatistas invade the city of San Cristóbal de las Casas in the state of Chiapas and demand land reform, democracy and social improvements for the poor. During the ensuing twelve-day battle, 145 people were killed

Five months before the presidential election, the PRI party’s presidential candidate Luis Donaldo Colosio was assassinated, and a few weeks after the election, the PRI’s secretary general José Francisco Ruiz Massieu was assassinated. It was assumed that they fell victim to conspiracies within the party leadership. The presidential election was won by Ernesto Zedillo, PRI’s candidate

In December, Mexico is hit by an acute currency crisis in the country, among other things due to the Chiapas uprising, various acts of violence and that foreign investors have been discouraged

1995 US grants Mexico billion-dollar credit to halt so-called “tequila crisis”


The economy began to recover and Mexico was able to repay large parts of the crisis loans fairly quickly


The PRI loses many seats in the parliamentary elections and thus loses for the first time its absolute majority in the Chamber of Deputies
2,000 The presidential election was won by Vicente Fox, leader of the opposition PAN party. In Congress, the PRI remained the largest party, albeit with a narrow margin
President Vicente Fox swear the oath of office on 1 December and therefore is the first president elected in free and fair elections in the country’s history

Mexico Brief History