Tag: Lebanon

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Lebanon Presidents and Prime Ministers

Lebanon Presidents and Prime Ministers

National Flag of Lebanon

According to aceinland, the national flag of Lebanon is composed of two horizontal stripes, red and white. The red stripe is situated at the top, followed by a white one at the bottom. The flag also features a green cedar tree in its center. The green cedar tree is a symbol of resilience and strength, as it has been used by the Lebanese people to represent their country for centuries.

The colors and symbols of the flag are said to represent different aspects of Lebanon’s history and culture. The red stripe is said to represent the blood spilled in Lebanon’s many wars throughout its history, while the white stripe is meant to signify peace and purity. The green cedar tree in the middle is an important part of Lebanon’s culture and it also serves as a reminder that despite all of its struggles, Lebanon will always remain strong and resilient.

The current national flag was adopted on December 7th, 1943 after being approved by President Émile Eddé. It has remained unchanged since then and continues to be an important symbol for Lebanese people around the world. In addition to being flown on government buildings throughout Lebanon, it can also be seen flying proudly over homes and businesses as a way for Lebanese citizens to show their pride for their country.

The national flag of Lebanon serves as an important reminder that despite all its struggles, this small Mediterranean country will always remain strong and resilient in the face of adversity. Its colors represent both tragedy and hope, reminding us that no matter how difficult things may seem today, there will always be light at the end of every tunnel if we keep pushing forward together as one nation with one heart united under one banner -the beloved Lebanese Flag!

National Flag of Lebanon

Presidents of Lebanon

The President of Lebanon is the head of state and the highest ranking official within the country. This individual is elected by Parliament to serve a six-year term and is responsible for leading the government, representing the nation in international affairs, and overseeing legislative matters.

The first president of Lebanon was Bishara al-Khoury who was elected in 1943 after the country gained independence from France. He served until 1952 when he was replaced by Camille Chamoun who served until 1958. During this time period, major changes to Lebanon’s government structure were made, including the adoption of a new constitution in 1926 and the establishment of a national assembly in 1947.

After Camille Chamoun’s term ended in 1958, Fuad Chehab took over as president and held office until 1964. During his tenure, he implemented various reforms that helped improve Lebanon’s economy and strengthen its political system.

Following Chehab’s presidency, Charles Helou served as President from 1964 to 1970 before being replaced by Suleiman Frangieh who served from 1970 to 1976. During this time period, civil war broke out in Lebanon which led to political instability throughout much of the country’s history until 1990 when Elias Hrawi was elected president and held office until 1998.

After Hrawi’s presidency ended in 1998, Émile Lahoud took over as president for three consecutive terms between 1998 and 2007 before being replaced by Michel Sleiman who held office from 2007 to 2014. The current President is Michel Aoun who has been in office since 2016 but is due to end his term soon which will be replaced by Krišjānis Kariņš who has continued many of the same initiatives while also pushing for further economic growth and development within Latvia.

Prime Ministers of Lebanon

The Prime Minister of Lebanon is the head of government and the second-highest ranking official within the country. This individual is appointed by the President and approved by Parliament to serve a four-year term and is responsible for leading the cabinet, coordinating government operations, and developing policy initiatives.

The first Prime Minister of Lebanon was Riad al-Solh who was appointed in 1943 after the country gained independence from France. He served until 1952 when he was replaced by Sami al-Solh who served until 1958. During this time period, major changes to Lebanon’s government structure were made, including the adoption of a new constitution in 1926 and the establishment of a national assembly in 1947.

Following Sami al-Solh’s term ended in 1958, Saeb Salam took over as Prime Minister and held office until 1964. During his tenure, he implemented various reforms that helped improve Lebanon’s economy and strengthen its political system.

After Saeb Salam’s premiership ended in 1964, Rashid Karami served as Prime Minister from 1964 to 1970 before being replaced by Abdallah El-Yafi who served from 1970 to 1976. During this time period, civil war broke out in Lebanon which led to political instability throughout much of the country’s history until 1990 when Selim Hoss took office as Prime Minister and held office until 1998.

After Hoss’ premiership ended in 1998, Rafic Hariri took over as Prime Minister for three consecutive terms between 1998 and 2005 before being replaced by Fouad Siniora who held office from 2005 to 2009. The current Prime Minister is Hassan Diab who has been in office since 2019 but is due to end his term soon which will be replaced by Mustafa Adib who has continued many of the same initiatives while also pushing for further economic growth and development within Lebanon.

Landmarks in Lebanon

Landmarks in Lebanon

Go on a group tour through Lebanon, a country in the Middle East on the Mediterranean Sea. This country is divided into four landscape zones that run parallel to the coast: the narrow, steep coastline, the rugged Lebanon mountains, the fertile Bekaa plain and the dry Antilebanon mountain range and Hermon. Visit the most important cities of Lebanon, such as the capital Beirut with the Grottes aux Pignons, Martyrs Square and Grande Mosque or the Place de l´Etoile; the city of Tripoli, the capital of Northern Lebanon; Zahlé with the Wadi El-Aarayesh (Valley of Wine) or the city of Sidon with the sea fortress or the coast. Let yourself be enchanted by a study tour through Lebanon!

Deir el Qamar

a jewel of Arab architecture in Lebanon

45 kilometers southeast of the Lebanese capital Beirut, at an altitude of 850 meters above sea level, there is a jewel of Arab architecture and one of the most beautiful villages in the country: Deir el Qamar. It can be translated as “Monastery of the Moon” and was once the spiritual center of the Emirate of Mount Lebanon. The roots of the mosque, which is well worth seeing, go back to the middle of the 15th century.

Secluded parks and fragrant gardens

According to topschoolsintheusa, Deir el Qamar has kept the traditional style of the previous century. Probably also because it is remote on a mountain slope, embedded in the forests of the Chouf. The streets of the city are still paved with their original cobblestones and the residents pride themselves on their secluded parks and fragrant gardens. The respective governors of the country resided here between the 16th and 18th centuries.

Wax figures in an Arab palace

The most important buildings of the city are grouped around a central square in Deir el Qamar – including the mosque from the time of the former ruler Fakhr ed-Din I from the beginning of the 16th century. The historical palace of the Fakhr ed-Din II, which was influenced by Egyptian architectural styles and is reminiscent of Arab palaces, is worth seeing. Today a private museum with seventy wax figures is housed here.

A stroll through cultural history

A stroll through Deir el Qamar is synonymous with a stroll through the cultural history of Lebanon. Winding alleys and stairways lead up to the beautiful town houses of the town, which has long been known for its harmonious coexistence of different denominations. The synagogue, which was completed in 1638 but is closed today, is well preserved. One of the religious sights of Christianity in Deir el Qamar is the Saydet at-Tella church, which is dedicated to the miraculous Virgin. This place of worship was built on the ruins of a Phoenician temple for the goddess Venus.

Baalbek temple complex

Before Syria was hit by a bloody civil war, the temple complex of Baalbek was considered the largest archaeological attraction in Lebanon. But the Bekaa plain, lapped by the Asi and Litani rivers, is located in the vicinity of Syria, so that a visit to the monumental evidence of the Roman era was discouraged for a long period of time. The UNESCO World Heritage Site is one of the most important sacred monuments in the Middle East.

Heliopolis – the city of the sun god

Baalbek, the ancient Heliopolis, was the city of Baal and was probably a sacred place as early as the Babylonian and Phoenician times. The Greeks worshiped the sun god here. The ruins of the earlier temples were built in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD. The temple from Roman times dedicated to Baccus is an impressive structure and has withstood conflagrations and earthquakes surprisingly well. It was fifty meters long and a little more than 33 meters wide, but in ancient times it was exceeded in size by the neighboring Parthenon temple.

A fire destroyed the temple of Jupiter

The state of Lebanon once acknowledged two landmarks – the cedar tree and the six pillars of the Temple of Jupiter in Baalbek. The twenty meter high monument can be seen from afar, was built in the Corinthian style and was almost 70 m long and 35 m wide. Originally it was surrounded by 42 mighty columns. The Jupiter Heliopolitanus was apparently destroyed by a conflagration in the sixth century AD.

The gigantic “stone of the pregnant woman”

Scientists are still puzzling as to how it was possible at that time to move such huge stones to build the sanctuaries of Baalbek. The largest building block in the world was discovered not far from the temple complex a few years ago. The cuboid weighs around 1650 tons and thus exceeds the so-called “stone of the pregnant woman”, which protrudes from the ground like a halfway sunken ship and weighs around a thousand tons. Both stones were to be transported to the temple district, eight hundred meters away.

Baalbek temple complex, Lebanon

Beirut, Lebanon

Beirut, Lebanon

According to abbreviationfinder, Beirut is the capital and largest city of the Lebanese Republic. It has a population of more than a million and a half residents. It is the main seaport in the country.

The city was destroyed during the Lebanese Civil War and divided between western (Muslim) and eastern (Christian) Beirut.


It is recognized as one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, along with Belgrade (Serbia), Byblos (Lebanon), Aleppo (Syria), Susa (Iran), Sidon (Lebanon), Luxor (Egypt) and Jericho (Palestine) .

Already from 3000 a. n. and. there were settlements of families. In 1400 a. n. and. it is referred to as Bairuth. In the 1st century BC. n. and. it was invaded by the Roman Empire, who named it Berytus. A century later it is mentioned by its original name (Beirut).


The Capital of the Lebanese Republic is an active city that conglomerates more than a million and a half residents. Its location, in the entire center of the country, makes it a strategic place without competition in the region, it is surrounded by mountains and at its feet the Mediterranean Sea extends, enriched with a trajectory of more than five thousand years of history, which turned it into the most imposing city on the Canaanite-Phoenician coast for many centuries.


The capital of Lebanon is located on the shores of the Mediterranean, in the Bay of Saint George, to the north of the triangular rocky promontory that emerges from the Lebanon mountain range.


The climate in Beirut is Mediterranean, characterized by hot and sunny summers, generally temperatures reach 30 degrees Celsius.

As an annual average, this coastal city reaches 300 days of sunshine. Winters in Beirut, however, are much colder. Unless you want to go skiing, the best time to visit Beirut is between April and November.


The Lebanese capital today has a significant number of newspapers and publications in 4 languages: Arabic, English, French and Armenian. Beirut’s five universities contribute to teaching the different branches of science and innovating intellectual production. The development of the arts, cinematography, music and plastic arts consolidates the cultural heritage that allows us to experience a continuous advance of the city. Among its natural conditions, the city makes it possible to create a favorable environment for regional and international conventions and congresses.

It is home to numerous international organizations, such as the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) which has its headquarters in the city center, the International Labor Organization (ILO) and UNESCO have regional offices. in Beirut, spanning the Arab world. The Arab Air Carriers Organization (AACO) also has its headquarters in this city.

Beirut has hosted summits of the Francophonie and the Arab League. It will be a candidate to host the Olympic Games of 2024.

Cultural heritage

Lebanon is a multicultural country, with strong groups of Muslims and Christians living within its borders, so the Lebanese people are used to ethnic diversity, and they are more tolerant than in many other Muslim countries. Therefore, in Beirut, also women can dress more freely than in most Middle Eastern countries.


Lebanon’s diverse cultural heritage is also reflected in the number of languages spoken in the country. In addition to Arabic and French, which are the two official languages, English is also commonly understood in Beirut. See population of Lebanon.

Economic development

Beirut is the commercial, banking and financial center of the region. The trade innately part of the residents of Beirut since discovered centuries ago, the importance of their city port as a link between East and West, for the realization of all types of businesses. It became a financial, commercial and industrial center of great resonance.

The port of Beirut was conditioned for the anchorage of dozens of ships and boats. Its strategic location makes it one of the safest ports in the area.

The project for the conditioning and modernization of the port was highlighted in the country’s reconstruction plan. Another organization, equipping and expansion project was the Beirut International Airport that served the air traffic of the Lebanese airline (MEA) and many other international airlines.

At the end of the internal war that Lebanon suffered in 1975, Beirut was rebuilt in an accelerated time, keeping its central helmet as a witness to the many centuries of history.


Attractions in the city

With its history dating back more than 5,000 years, Beirut is a city with deep roots buried in the soil of the Middle East. Although the city has been through difficult times, and is still not completely free from them, there are many attractions in Beirut, which are worth looking at. There are relatively well-preserved and impressive historical sites in the city, as well as theaters, concerts, and the exciting Beirut nightlife.

The nightlife in the Lebanese Capital is considered the most up-to-date in terms of services and contributions to international tourism, because between the high level of security and the excellent quality of service, the management of 3 basic and everyday languages, the culinary culture recognized worldwide, and the decision of their children to re-qualify as “Middle East Switzerland”, in 2009 Beirut won the first place as a tourist destination in the world.


Beirut is served by the Beirut Rafic Hariri International Airport, located south of the city. The Port of Beirut is the main seaport in the country. The city has bus lines that connect it with the rest of the country and the main cities of neighboring Syria. You can also travel by hiring the services of a taxi. Buses leaving for the north and Syria depart from the Charles Helou Station.

Nature and sports

Beirut is in many ways an open-air city. Sunbathing fills Beirut’s beaches from May to October, walks through the city’s parks add a touch of fresh air, sailboats fill the harbors, and diving in Beirut is a popular sport. Skiing around Beirut is also available from December to March. Shopping possibilities in Beirut are also good, with affordable prices and yet the high quality available, not forgetting the local Lebanese cuisine that is known all over the world.

Beirut, Lebanon

Children Education in Lebanon

Children Education in Lebanon

Lebanon, on the Mediterranean coast, has been hit hard by civil wars and there are still conflicts between different groups in society. The war in Syria has put further pressure on the country with millions of people fleeing. More than half of Lebanon’s Syrian refugees are children.

Since the outbreak of the war in Syria in 2011, around one million Syrians have sought refuge in Lebanon. Even before that, many Palestinian refugees lived in camps around the country. Children, and especially girls, are hard hit by conflicts and disasters. A total of 1.4 million children in Lebanon are expected to grow up in vulnerability, without access to the essentials such as protection and clean water.

Poor finances affect children

To cope with everyday life, families become dependent on the children contributing to their livelihood. Children are forced to work in agriculture, in a factory or as a street vendor in the middle of traffic. The most vulnerable children are at risk of being exploited in prostitution, falling victim to human trafficking or being recruited by armed groups.

Deteriorating situation for girls

Girls and women are negatively affected by the difficult economic situation and an unequal view of girls and women in particular, both among Lebanese and refugees. Among other things, girls are forced to stay at home to take care of the household and can therefore not go to school. Without education, their ability to control their own lives diminishes.

Six percent of children in Lebanon have been forced into child marriage. But for the girls who have fled Syria, it looks even worse, among them just over one in five has been forced to marry before they have turned 19 years old. Young girls are married off because someone is responsible for them or because the family is poor and needs money. Girls in child marriage are particularly vulnerable to violence.


This is what Plan International in Lebanon is doing

Plan International has been in place in Lebanon since 2016. Our highest priority in the country is to prevent children from being married off or forced to work, by focusing on the right to education and protection from violence. We work on several levels to increase girls’ power over their lives and opportunities to avoid child marriage and sexual violence.

In Tripoli, northern Lebanon, we work to support teenage girls’ schooling, which gives them a more stable foundation for the future and at the same time reduces the risk of them getting married early. We also work to ensure that the sexual and reproductive health and rights of girls and young women are met. We do this by informing, working to change attitudes and ensuring that girls have better access to health care and relevant products.

Plan International Lebanon informs and provides support to both children and adults to counter violence and to let them know where to turn if they are exposed. We also run preschools where both children and parents receive support. We educate young people so that they can support themselves and take a place and influence society in a positive way.

Plan International has a series of reports on the situation of teenage girls in humanitarian crises . One of the reports is about girls on the run in Lebanon and describes how violence is part of their everyday lives, that many are married off and how the economy affects their opportunities to go to school.

Together with girls of different ages, we discuss what their rights are and how they can take power over their lives.

Children Education in Lebanon

Youngest and strongest in the family

Ten-year-old Kholud was only three years old when the war broke out and her family was forced to leave Syria. The family sought refuge in the city of Tripoli in northern Lebanon, where they now live in poverty.

The difficult situation has forced Kholud’s family to marry off her older sisters. Her two brothers have also been forced to leave school to work.

Despite the challenges, Kholud is determined to follow his dream and train as a lawyer. She has joined one of Plan International’s programs that we run together with one of our partner organizations in the city where Kholud lives.

– I want to become a lawyer so that I can defend the rights of all people and make my voice heard in the society where I live, says Kholud.

The program that Kholud is part of is developed for children who are at risk of getting married or forced to perform harmful work. Together with the other children, she gets to learn more about her rights but also practice different skills. She also gets to learn basic reading and writing skills so that she can start studying and have better opportunities to support herself.

Kholud says that her sister is introverted and that their mother often underestimates her potential and says that she will soon be married off. But Kholud refuses to accept that her sister’s fate is already predetermined and urges her to decide for herself about her future.

– My sister can neither read nor write but I try to teach her everything I learn in the lessons so that she can become a stronger person, says Kholud.

Kholud’s stubborn struggle for his sister’s future has finally paid off. The family has agreed to let her sister take part in Plan International’s program.

– I can already see a difference in my sister’s personality and I am very happy about that, says Kholud.

Facts about Lebanon

Facts about Lebanon

Capital: Beirut
Population: 6 million
Life expectancy: 80 years
Infant mortality rate: 4.5 per 1000 births
Proportion of children starting school: 86.3%
Literacy: 91%
Proportion of women in parliament: 3%