Tag: Jordan

Amman, Jordan

Amman, Jordan

According to abbreviationfinder, Amman is the Capital of Jordan and of the homonymous governorate, in addition to being its commercial, industrial and administrative center. Its population is about 2 million residents (2008), it is located in the north of the country, near the city of Jerusalem.

History

It was the capital of the Kingdom of Ammon in times of the Iron Age. It became, respectively, a Helinistic, Roman, Byzantine city; then, in the heart of the Umayyad province of Al-Balqa´; in an abandoned ruined site and, in the late 19th century, in an Ottoman town. Today, it is the capital of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

The first settlements took place in Jabal el-Qala’a, supplied with water from a pool dug into the rock. Rabbath Ammon, or Rabbah, is first referred to in the Bible as the place where King Og of Bashan’s massive iron bed frame was moved as spoils of war (Deut. 3). 3). Later, when King David’s troops attacked the city’s water supplies (2 Sam, 12:27), he ordered Uriah the Hittite to die on the front line of battle, so that he could marry his beautiful widow, Bathsheba. At the beginning of the 6th century BC, the prophecies of Jeremiah (49: 2) and Ezekiel (21: 2; 25: 3-5) about the destruction of Rabbah at the hands of King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon were not fully fulfilled although, it is true that Rabbath Ammon, like the entire region, became a province more of the Kingdom of Babylon and, later, of the Persian.

In the Hellenistic period, during which the Middle East was divided between the successors of Alexander the Great, pitted against each other, the Egyptian Ptolemaics and the Syrian Seleucids periodically took control of the city. Ptolemy IIPhiladelphus (238-246 BC) rebuilt the city, which he named Philadelphia. The Nabataeans also had control of the city for some time.

The time of greatest prosperity of the city was experienced under the control of the Romans, becoming part of the Decapolis. The result was new buildings such as the theater, the odeon and the forum in the lower part of the city that were connected to the new temples, located in the citadel, by means of a monumental staircase. Philadelphia boasted wealth during the Byzantine period, when it was named the seat of the Bishopric, as well as after the Arab conquest in 636, which is witnessed by the remains of a beautiful 8th-century Umayyad palace and an administrative complex. From this period on, the city recovered its original name, of Semitic origin: Amman

The time of the city’s decline came when the Abbasids moved the center of the Islamic world from Damascus to Baghdad in the mid- eighth century. By the 15th century, Amman was an abandoned city in ruins. And that way it remained until 1878, when the Ottomans settled a group of Circassians in the area, who had fled Russia for practicing the Islamic faith. It kept its small size (in 1918, IE Lawrence called it “town”) and only began to grow after the Emir Abdullah of Amman made the capital of his Emirate in 1921., expanding from one hill to another in a dizzying way in the form of concrete or light honey-colored stone. In 1946, the Emirate of Transjordan became a kingdom with Amman as the capital, seat of government, commercial, legal and administrative center of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

Amman today

Amman is currently a modern city, welcoming both Muslims and Christians. In it, modern-style buildings coexist in the new urbanizations to the west of the city with the traditional souk in the center. Very close to about 45 minutes by car you can find the place where, according to tradition, Jesus was baptized, in the waters of the Jordan River.

Geography

The city is located in the northern part of Jordan, and is built on nineteen hills. Therefore, the maximum height recorded in Amman is more than 900 meters above sea level. These hills serve to delimit the neighborhoods and trace the communication nodes.

Location

Amman is in the north of Jordan, an Asian country located in the area known as the Middle East. Jordan is bordered to the north by Syria, to the south and southeast by the Red Sea and Saudi Arabia, and to the east by Iraq. The City of Petra is around 200 km south of the Jordanian capital.

Climate

Ammám enjoys a pleasant temperature for most of the year, with an average of 23º between the months of May to October, while between November and April it is 12º. The country’s climate is Mediterranean.

Natural inventory

If you visit Amman, it is essential to go see the Dead Sea and the Jordan River. Both natural enclaves are a very short distance from the capital.

Political division

It is divided into 27 districts:

· 1 Al Abdali· 2 Abu Nseir

· 3 Umm-Othaina

· 4 Al Qweismeh, Al Jweideh, Abu ‘Alanda and Al Raqim

· 5 Al Yarmouk

· 6 Al-Jezah

· 7 Al-Mowaqar

· 8 Al-Mqabalain

· 9 Badr

· 10 Badr Al Jadeeda

· 11 Basman

· 12 Husban

· 13 Jbeiha

· 14 Khraibet Essouq

· 15 Marj Al Hamam· 16 Marka

· 17 Medina

· 18 Nawoor (Na’our)

· 19 Ohud

· 20 Ras Al-ain

· 21 Sahab

· 22 Shafa Badran

· 23 Sweileh

· 24 Tariq

· 25 Tla ‘Al’ Ali

· 26 Wadi Al Seer

· 27 Zahran

Demography

Ammám has a population of over one and a half million residents. The official language is Arabic but English is used as a second language. Some minorities also speak French, German, Spanish and Italian. See population of Jordan.

Economic development

Amman is a city dedicated to services of all kinds. In fact, three-quarters of its GDP is related to this concept. The agriculture occupies a testimonial place, and the industry is dedicated mainly to the manufacture of chemicals. It is a commercial, administrative and industrial center based on the manufacture of textiles, batteries, leather goods, tiles, cement, flour and other food products. Other important industries are those dedicated to the extraction of phosphates and the refining of petroleum.

Sightseeing

The visitor will find in Ammám numerous monuments of artistic interest. The most important is undoubtedly the Al-Qasar Palace, which was built as the residence of the Umayyad governor. The temple of Hercules, a Byzantine church and other buildings are still preserved from the period of Arab domination. Among the civil buildings, the monument to the Fallen, the Palace of Culture and the Bank of Jordan stand out, and among the religious constructions the tourist cannot miss two of its many mosques: Malik Abdallah and Abu Darwish.

As for the museum offer, the Museum of Popular Traditions stands out, with objects still used by some Bedouin tribes, and the Folklore or Archaeological Museum. The citadel, dominating the city on the top of the hill, is an ancient Roman acropolis and very close to there is the Roman Theater, which is the largest in the entire East. Finally, very close to Ammám we can find numerous buildings, castles such as that of Qasr el-Kharana, as-Qastal or the fortress of Qasr el-Azraq, known because Lawrence of Arabia turned it into one of his barracks at the beginning of the 20th century..

Culture

Amman is marked by two fundamental influences: the Roman and Islamic heritage, present in its urbanism, crafts and architecture. The cultural life of the city is remarkable: it has numerous art galleries and its artists are renowned. The Al Hussein Cultural Center is the channel for all the cultural concerns of the city.

Crafts

In Amman you can buy everything. A visit to the souk is recommended, located between the al-Husseini mosque and the Citadel, where there are numerous shops with all kinds of objects, in which haggling is mandatory. The jewels are expensive, but other types of articles, such as pipes, daggers, rich ceramics, glass or even jugs with desert sand, although the tastiest souvenir of the city is its pastry.

Holidays and traditions

Official holidays are those of the Muslim countries, in addition to those related to local politics, such as Arab League Day (May 2), Independence Day (May 25) or the anniversary of the coronation of King Abdullah, June 9.

The Museum of Jordanian Folklore, together with the Roman Theater, and the Museum of Popular Traditions offer the visitor the option of knowing in detail the traditions of the city and the nation.

Places of interest

Amman offers great appeal for people looking for the trace of ancient civilizations. A visit to the Citadel is essential, since there are remains of fortifications from the Bronze Age to the Islamic period.

In terms of buildings, the Roman temple of Hercules, the Umayyad Palace, the Roman Theater (impressive for its capacity for more than 6,000 people) and the Great Mosque of Hussein stand out.

Transport

It has an airport and excellent communications by rail.

Amman, Jordan