Tag: Indonesia

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Indonesia Literature and Cinema

Indonesia Literature and Cinema

Literature. – In the Eighties, Indonesian literary life was characterized by a fruitful activity and by some events of primary importance. The greatest contemporary poet, Rendra (b. 1935), emphasizes the cutting character of his social criticism in the volume of verse Potret Pembangunan Dalam Puisi (“Portrait of evolution in poetry”, 1980), as well as in the recitals of his theater school, a true forge of high-level dramatic art, committed to the point that in 1980 it was forbidden to perform in public. Only in 1986 will the ban be lifted and its performances will attract large crowds.

Another distinguished poet, Sitor Situmorang (b.1923), who emigrated to Holland after his liberation (1973) from the concentration camp, where he was imprisoned for joining the Communist writers’ league in the Sukarnian era, returns to bookstores with Danau Toba (“The lake Toba”, 1981), a collection of short stories, and Angin Danau (“The wind of the lake”, 1982), in verse, both – as the titles say – inspired by the native land. Pengakuan Pariyem – Dunia Batin Seorang Wanita Jawa arouses considerable interest(“The confessions of Pariyem – The spiritual world of a Javanese”, 1981) by the young poet Linus Suryadi (b. 1951), who manages to summarize in the very singular form of a novel in rhythmic prose the essential features of the complex Javanese culture of the time current, recovering lines and narrative systems of the great didactic novels in verse of Javanese literature in the 18th and 19th centuries.

But the most important event of the Eighties – a novelty that goes beyond the literary sphere as it rises to an embarrassing political case for the state authorities – is the return of the narrator Pramoedya Ananta Toer (b.1925): long detained in a concentration camp For joining the League of Communist Writers, Toer wrote some extraordinarily happy historical novels during his captivity, which are greeted with warmth at first, but are then banned as the enormous success is interpreted as an indirect anti-government demonstration. The first of these novels, Bumi Manusia (“The land of men”, 1980) and Anak Semua Bangsa (“Son of All Nations”, 1980), are readily translated into English and Dutch. These two are followed by Jejak Langkah (“The footsteps”, 1985) and Rumak Kaca (“The glass house”, 1985), thus constituting a grandiose tetralogy carrying a great message: the degradation of human dignity under colonial tyranny. In 1985, Pramoedya also managed to publish Sang Pemula (“The initiator”), dedicated to the Javanese nobleman RM Tirto Adhi Soerjo (1875-1918), forerunner of the progressive journalists and writers of his country.

Cinema. – The first cinematographic activities began in the 1910s, sponsored by the Dutch, who held colonial power. The first feature film with an Indonesian subject is due to the pioneers G. Kruger and F. Carli, active in the documentary sector: Lutung Kasarung (“The loyal monkey”, 1926), inspired by a local legend. At the end of the 1920s, the Dutch entrepreneurs were joined by the Chinese ones: the Wong brothers, Tan Khoen Hian and Teng Chun who, in addition to being the director and producer of the first sound film (Cikenbang Rose, “The Rose of Cikenbang”, 1931), established in the 1930s as the main promoter of manufacturing on an industrial basis. For Indonesia 2002, please check commit4fitness.com.

The cinema of this period is dominated by the revival of Indian and Chinese commercial trends, and by the imitation of American genres. The efforts made by A. Balink in a realistic direction appear completely counter-current who, with the collaboration of the Dutch documentary maker M. Franken, made Pareh (“Rice”) in 1934 and Terang Boelan (“Moonlight”) in 1937. singular film scripted by an indigenous (Saeroen), in which the modules and actors of the Indonesian folk theater (toneel) are used.

After a period of stagnation during the Japanese occupation (1942-45) and the war of independence (1945-49), production resumed in the early 1950s with two significant directors such as Djamaluddin Malik, owner of the Persari company, and above all Ismail. Usmar, who made his debut before the liberation with a Dutch company and founded the Perfiri company in 1950.

Kotot Sukardi, Huyung and Basuki Effendi also work alongside these authors who are protagonists of the ” rebirth ” of an authentically national cinema. From the mid-1950s a new productive crisis, which reached its peak in 1957, dragged on until the Communists left the government (1965) in a climate of ” ideological warfare ” and a boycott of non-left-aligned directors such as Djamaluddin Malik, Ismail Usmar and Asrul Sani (author, in 1961, of Pagar Kawat Berduri, “Behind the barbed wire”, whose circulation is forbidden). Bachtiar Siagian, who is able to use the camera not for mere propaganda purposes, is worth mentioning among the authors of communist culture.

From 1967 the government began to take an organic interest in national production by launching protectionist measures and creating bodies for reorganization and development (the DPFN, National Council of Film Production, in 1968; the DFN, National Council for Cinematography, in 1979). This paves the way for quality cinema represented in the 1970s and 1980s by three directors who trained in Moscow: Ami Prijono (Jakarta Jakarta, 1977; Roro Mendut, 1983), Wim Umboh (Pengantin Remaja, “Marriage between teenagers”, 1971) and Sjuman Djaja (Si Mamad, “Mother”, 1973; Opera Jakarta, 1985). Arifin C. Noer (Yuyun, Pasien Rumak Sakit Jiwa, “Yuyun, hospitalized”, 1980; Serangan Fajar, 1983) and Teguh Karya (November 1828, 1979; Ibunda, 1986) come from the Indonesian theater. While Asrul Sami is still active, new talents emerge, also largely linked to formative theatrical experiences: Franky Rorimpandey (Perawan Desa, “The girl from the village”, 1980), Ismail Subarjo (Perempuan Dalam Pasungan, “A woman in chains “, 1981), Edwat Pesta Siriat (Gadis Penakluk,” A girl who intimidates “, 1980) and finally Slamet Rahardjo, well-known actor of the Karya films (Rembulan Dan Matahari,” The sun and the moon “, 1981, and Kembang Kertas, “Paper Flowers”, 1985).

Indonesia Cinema

Jakarta, Indonesia

Jakarta, Indonesia

According to abbreviationfinder, Jakarta is the Indonesian political, industrial and financial center. Considered the capital and most populous city and the eleventh most populated city on the planet and its metropolitan area is known as Jabodetabek. Bahasa Indonesia is the official language. The people are predominantly Muslim, minority religious groups are Christians, Hindus and Buddhists.


Jakarta is located on the island of Java. The city sits above sea level, which favors the formation of the usual floods. The southern part of the city is more mountainous. Jakarta is geographically bordered by Java Barat province to the east and Banten to the west. Indonesia is an archipelago of 17,000 islands with an area of about 1.92 million square kilometers.

The Thousands of Islands (Kepulauan Seribu, in Indonesian, and Thousand Islands, in English), which are a part of the administrative region of Jakarta, are located in Jakarta Bay. The 105 islands that form them extend 45 km north of the city, although the closest island is only a few kilometers from the mainland.


There are approximately 13 rivers that flow through Jakarta, mostly from the mountainous southern parts of the city to the north and the Java Sea. The most important river is the Ciliwung, which divides the city into two areas: east and west.


Its climate is equatorial. Although Indonesia is hot and humid throughout the year, the official rainy season runs from October to August and is characterized by heavy rain storms. The city has high levels of humidity and the daily temperature ranges from 25 ° C to 38 ° C in the lowlands. Higher altitudes enjoy colder conditions Being located in the western part of Indonesia, its wettest season is January with average monthly rainfall of 350 mm, while its driest season is August, with an average of 60 mm.


A population of 8.49 million people is concentrated in an area of ​​650 km², adding up to 18.6 million in its metropolitan area. See population of Indonesia.

Economy and development

It maintains good economic development through its main connection links with the exterior, which are the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport and the Tanjung Priok seaport.

Under the Sutiyoso government, since 2004, and the city launched a new bus system called TransJakarta and in 2007 its monorail was abandoned.

In Jakarta you can find the Indonesian Stock Exchange, the Bank of Indonesia and the Monumen Nasional or Tugu Monas, the tower that symbolizes the independence of Indonesia.

Capital district

It obtained a status roughly equivalent to that of a state or province in 1966, when it was declared a capital district (Daerah khusus ibukota.

Lieutenant General Ali Sadikin served as governor from that time until 1977; he rehabilitated roads and bridges, encouraged the arts, built several hospitals, and a large number of new schools. It also empowered slum dwellers for new development projects and tried to remove the ban on rickshaws and street vendors. He also began to control migration to the city in order to curb overcrowding and poverty. Land redistribution and foreign investment contributed to a real estate boom that changed the face of the city.


Jakarta is not a city but a province with the special status of the capital of Indonesia. Its administration is like that of any other Indonesian city. For example: Jakarta has a governor (instead of a mayor), and it is divided into several regions with their own administrative systems. Jakarta as a province is divided into five cities (kota), formerly municipalities, each led by a mayor, and a regency (kabupaten) led by a regent. In August 2007, Jakarta held its first governor elections, which were won by Fauzi Bowo. The city governors are previously elected by the local parliaments. This is part of the Indonesian government’s drive to decentralize politics, holding direct local elections in some places.


As the political and economic capital of Indonesia, Jakarta is a cosmopolitan city with a diverse culture that attracts many foreign and domestic tourists. For this reason, many of the city’s immigrants come from different parts of the island of Java, bringing with them a mixture of dialects of the Javanese and Sundanese languages, as well as their own typical foods and products. It is a bustling urban metropolis, known for its overcrowding, traffic saturation, and income disparity.

The betawi (Orang Betawi, or Batavian people) is a term used to describe the descendants of the population living around Batavia and recognized as a tribe since the 18th-19th century. The Betawi are mostly descendants of South Asian ethnic groups drawn to Batavia for work needs and include people from various parts of Indonesia. The language and culture of these immigrants are different from those of Sundanese or Javanese. The language is more based on a dialect of the Eastern Malays and enriched by loanwords from Javanese, Mandarin Chinese and Arabic. Today, the Jakarta dialects used by the population in the city are loosely based on the Betawi language.

There is also a notable Chinese community in Jakarta that has been going on for several centuries. Officially they represent 6% of Jakarta’s population, although that estimate may be somewhat low.

Jakarta, Indonesia