Tag: India

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India in the 1990’s

India in the 1990’s

The end of the Eighties marked a profound turning point in the life of the country, with a progressive fragmentation of political representation and the consequent establishment of coalition governments. While the credibility of the INC (I) as guarantor of the secular state accused the repercussions induced by the explosion of violent conflicts between different communities, by the accentuation of separatist tendencies and by the emergence of terrorist groups, the following of regional parties grew and formations with strong ethnic and religious references, often bearers of fundamentalist visions. In particular, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) became one of the protagonists of the political scene, rooted in the states of the Hindu belt in the north of the country, especially in Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of the Union. and proponent of a program based on the affirmation of Hindu culture and caste representation.

The caste system was undermined by the very exercise of democracy which, by its nature, was progressively opening up spaces even to previously excluded sectors of the population: in many regions governments that expressed low castes came to power, while free-market economic transformations introduced further changes in social stratification, leading the lower castes and the ‘outcasts’ to demand new forms of participation. For India democracy and rights, please check homeagerly.com. The trend towards polarization of caste identities emerged clearly, for example, on the occasion of the reform (1990-92) of the quota system, which provided for an increase in the quota reserved in public employment for the rural lower castes and which aroused violent grievances from students, mostly belonging to the middle-upper castes and the urban bourgeoisie. The disintegration, however slow and partial, of such a complex social stratification obviously represented a vehicle of crisis and imbalance for the whole system. With the elections of November 1989 the government passed to the National Front, a heterogeneous coalition united only by the opposition to Gandhi’s party, formed by the Janata Dal, of social democratic tendency and expression of the lower castes, and by three powerful regional parties, with the support outside the BJP and the two communist parties. The coalition, led by Vishwanath Pratap Singh, minister in the previous legislature and then passed from INC (I) to Janata Dal, already divided originally, it split in November 1990. The fall of an ephemeral government, led by Chandra Shektar, leader of a splinter faction of the Janata Dal, with the external support of the INC (I) made it necessary to call early elections in June 1991. The election campaign was marked by new outbursts of violence, culminating on 21 May, when R. Gandhi was killed in a terrorist attack. The elections saw the defeat of the Janata Dal and a rise in both the BJP and INC (I), whose new leader Narasimha Rao formed a minority government. The Rao government was faced with the escalation of ethnic and religious conflicts already at the end of 1992, when in Ayodhya, in the state of Uttar Pradesh, Hindu fundamentalists destroyed the Babur mosque, the center of bitter disputes. Clashes followed that shook almost the whole country, with more than 2000 dead, and rekindled ethnic and religious particularisms, even different from the traditional conflict between Hindus and Muslims. The government, uncertain and worried about losing consensus, then reacted by outlawing the oldest Hindu nationalist organization, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS, “National Volunteer Corps”), and by dismissing, with a much discussed measure, some local governed administrations. from the BJP. Divided internally, the executive, however, was unable to accompany the repressive measures with other broader initiatives. On the other hand, the Rao administration demonstrated greater incisiveness, as well as in an active foreign policy, in the management of the economy, where the liberalizing choice, initiated from the very first measures launched by the executive and which had effectively dismantled the centralized system, it produced regular GDP growth, even if it greatly accentuated regional differences. Despite the successes reported internationally and the moderate results achieved in economic policy, the popularity of the government, involved more and more often in episodes of corruption and the path of increasingly strong internal conflicts, suffered a sharp decline, confirmed by the heavy defeat of the INC (I) in the regional elections held in the main states between the end of 1994 and the beginning of 1995.

The general political elections scheduled for the spring of 1996 were preceded by a new wave of corruption accusations, which affected both the executive, in the the person of the prime minister, and the main opposition figures. The consultations marked the defeat of the INC (I), increasingly compromised by scandals, the defection of numerous prominent personalities and the crisis of some important local federations, and recorded the affirmation of two opposing political forces: on the one hand the National Front-Left Front, a heterogeneous coalition comprising social democratic parties such as the Janata Dal, communist parties such as the ruling West Bengal, regional parties and other smaller forces; on the other hand, the BJP in alliance with other small groups. After an attempt by the BJP, whose government remained in office for only 13 days, the mandate was given to Haradanahalli Dodde Deve Gowda, who emerged, after arduous consultations, as candidate for prime minister of the United Front, a new name assumed by the coalition of 13 parties of center-left. A politician of regional stature, not from the upper castes – very unusual among national leaders – Deve Gowda started an executive with external support from the INC (I). Support fell short in the early months of 1997 following the redefinition of the internal balance of the INC (I), with the resignation of Rao from the leadership of the party and the entry of Sonia Maino Gandhi, widow of R. Gandhi. With the resignation of Deve Gowda, a minority government formed by the United Front and led by Inder Kumar Gujral, a senior and esteemed intellectual and political leader welcomed by the INC (I), took office, who continued to support him until, in late 1997, Gujral refused to grant the request to expel from the coalition a party involved in the investigation into the death of R. Gandhi for having had contact with the Tamil Tigers.

India democracy and rights

New Delhi, India

New Delhi, India

According to abbreviationfinder, New Delhi is the capital of India. It is located at a crossroads between the trade routes that came from Europe and circulated through the Ganges plains to the farthest East. Uncompromising city in every way. It stretches over a huge expanse of the Iamuna River plain and the growing population, poverty and high levels of pollution are distinctive symbols. Regardless of these factors, historical, architectural and culinary wonders prevail at every step in the tour of the city called also of the great contradictions.


It is considered one of the oldest cities in the world because its origins date back to approximately 1,200 BC. Up to seven different cities have been successively built on it, one on top of the other. Founded by the Mughal emperor, Shahjahan, who gave it the name of Shahjahanabad (Old Delhi) and made it the capital of the country.


Delhi has been the capital of India since its independence in 1947. It emerged as a planned city, built capital south of the old urban area and named after the English rulers moved the capital of British India from Calcutta in 1911 to this city. It continues to be the capital of independent India. The architect Edwin Lutyens was in charge of planning the city. He designed a spectacular administrative area, a legacy of British imperialism.

The modern capital is actually the sum of two cities: Old Delhi, huddled within the dirty and narrow streets of the enclosure, surrounded by the walls of the Red Fort, and New Delhi, the opposite pole, site of the great Imperial Citadel, tree-lined boulevards and spacious bungalows designed by Lutyens and Baker in the 1920s. After decolonization, starting in 1947, the city experienced spectacular development, especially in the sub-urban area. A new city, New Delhi, was born and officially declared the seat of the Indian Government and Parliament.

Today Delhi is the most important city in India in terms of culture, commerce and politics. Despite its long history, Delhi is a very young city. With the partition of 1947, the city underwent enormous changes that radically transformed it overnight. India became predominantly Hindu, while Pakistan became a fully Islamic country.

There were massive migrations between the two countries and there were large-scale bloodbaths. After being predominantly Muslim for centuries, Delhi became after 1947 a Hindu and Sikh city whose official language is Panyabi. At the same time, the population doubled, despite the mass exodus of Muslims. This surprising and artificial demographic change largely explains the harshness and insecurity of the city. In a way, it is a city only half a century old.


The municipality of New Delhi has a population of over 340,000. In 2003, the National Capital Territory of Delhi – of which New Delhi is a part – had a population of 14.1 million making it the second largest metropolitan area in India after Bombay. There are 821 women for every 1000 men and illiteracy is 81.82%. See population of India.


New Delhi has a total area of 1483 km². Most of the territory is located on the west bank of the Yamuna River, and the Ganges and Aravali rivers are nearby.

The city is located at an altitude between 65,421 and 305 meters above sea level. Geographically it is located in the northern part of the country. It borders the states of Uttar Pradesh and Haryana.


The climate is monsoon. It has two seasons, a wet one, in the summer, from the end of June to the end of September, and a longer dry one that lasts the rest of the year. Starting in mid-April, temperatures rise inexorably. During most of the months of May, June and July the thermometers stay around 45 ° C (113 ° F) until the arrival of the monsoon.

The rainiest months are July and August, the rest of the year the rains are scarce and occasional with abundant sunny days with fog and smoke from air pollution. Snowfall is scarce. Temperatures are mild in winter although contrasted between day and night as there is hardly any cloudiness. The highest temperatures occur in the spring months, as there is hardly any rainfall (April, May and June), exceeding 37 ° C almost every day, and can reach 45 ° C. Summer is warm although not as warm as spring; the fall as the winter are milder.

Most representative places

The city offers multiple places of interest and a rich architectural history, among which the former residence of the British viceroys and the current presidential palace, Rashtrapati Bhavan, the Gateway of India, a memorial erected in honor of soldiers who died during various wars; Humayun’s Tomb, said to be the forerunner of the well-known Taj Mahal in Agra; the Raj Ghat or memorial of Mahatma Gandhi; the Lotus Temple or the remains of the ancient city of Purana Quila.

Of its monuments, the Qutab Minar and Humayun’s tomb, have been declared a World Heritage Site.

Significant cultural events

Important events of a patriotic nature, such as Gandhi Jayani (Gandhi’s birthday), Republic Day and Independence Day, are celebrated annually in New Delhi and the rest of India. Most citizens of New Delhi celebrate the day of the independence of India (on August 15) flying kites, which are considered a symbol of freedom. That day the Prime Minister of India addresses the nation from the Red Keep.

The Republic Day parade is a large cultural and military parade that showcases the cultural and military diversity of India. Religious festivals include Diwali (Festival of Lights), Durga puya, Holi, Lohri, Maha Shivaratri, Eid ul-Fitr, Eid ul-Adha, and Buddha Jayanti.

The Qutub Festival is a nightly cultural event during which musicians and dancers from all over India perform, with the Qutub Minar in the background.

Other events such as the Flying Kite Festival, the International Mango Festival and Vasant Panchai (Spring Festival) take place annually in Delhi.

New Delhi, India