Tag: Hungary

Hungary Politics and History

Hungary Politics and History

Political order. – The events preceding the Second World War and the first phases of the conflict (see below) allowed Hungary, allied with Germany and Italy, to recover a large part of the lost territories, as indicated by the attached table:

The enlargement of Hungary took place from 1938 to 1941 in four phases. With the first arbitration in Vienna (November 2, 1938, Hungary obtained a strip of territory from Czechoslovakia (from 2 to 65 km wide), located along the Hungarian-Slovakian and Ruthenian border. extended over 11,927 sq. km., counted 1,041,000 residents and included the centers of Komárom (Komárno), Kassa (Košice) and Munkács (Mukačevo). occupy Sub-Carpathian Russia, but since the borders of this region had never been precisely marked, following a Hungarian-Slovak agreement (4 April 1939), a strip of Slovak territory was added to protect the Ungvár area, with a total area of ​​12. 061 sq. Km. and a population of 588,000 residents With the second Vienna arbitration (30 August 1940), Hungary regained MaramureŞ, part of Crisana and that part of eastern Transylvania including the territory of the Székely, with a predominantly Hungarian population; Hungary thus recovered, without a shot being fired, a territory of 43,104 sq km. with 2,392,000 residents Finally, in April 1941, the Hungarian troops occupied the Bačka, part of the Baranja and the territory of the Mur (on the left of the Drava); this fourth enlargement made Hungary buy 11,301 sq km. with 1,518,000 residents

The peace treaty of 10 February 1947 brought Hungary back within the limits set by the Trianon treaty, with a slight adjustment in favor of Czechoslovakia near the triple Hungarian-Austrian-Czechoslovakian border. For Hungary government and politics, please check a2zgov.com.

History – On 1 and 9 July 1937 the two Chambers approved the new law concerning the election and powers of the regent, who is authorized, under the law, to propose names for his succession and cannot be called to answer by Parliament. In the months that followed, the intensification of the propaganda and action of groups with a National Socialist tendency was remarkable: on October 18 various right-wing organizations merged into the “Hungarian National Socialist Party”; a few days later 69 National Socialists were sentenced, to various penalties, by the court of Budapest, on the charge of having organized a military uprising to establish in Hungary a totalitarian regime with a National Socialist tendency. Other arrests and convictions followed in November 1937 and February 1938.

However, despite these repressive measures, an undoubted repercussion on public opinion and on the very work of the government of these new political trends has been felt in the fact that in Hungary too, in recent times, the “Jewish question” has arisen. The very large participation of Jewish elements in the commercial and financial activity of the nation, participation due to the fact that the Hungarian nobility, that is to say the ruling class of Hungary, had disdained trade; and, moreover, the fact that, thanks to the interest loans granted to the nobles, many Jews had been able, by means of mortgages, etc., to become de facto owners of part of the same landed property, constituted the premise for the anti-Semitic reaction, which in in recent times it has developed, as has been said, very quickly and intensely. A consequence of this movement was, in April 1938, the approval of the law of “quota”: for it the participation of the Israelites in the various professions is limited to 20%.

In addition to this, the intensification of work for national defense is also noteworthy (one billion pengö was made available to the government, with the law of 9 April 1938, for this purpose); and the accentuation of state intervention in economic life (decrees of 10 April 1938).

The most decisive right-wing orientation of Hungarian political life had its final expression in the change of ministry: in the Daranyi cabinet (who had already resigned for the first time on 9 March 1938, but reconstituted the same day), on 13 May, the cabinet chaired by B. Imredy, made up of men all belonging to right-wing parties.

Finance (p. 684). – Here are the figures, in millions of pengö, of the balance sheets since 1934:

At December 31, 1937, the external debt amounted to 1.1 billion and the internal debt to 0.5 (of which 0.1 is consolidated). Thanks to the exchange control introduced in July 1931, the nominal gold value of the pengo was maintained. From 1932, however, the bank began to pay premiums on bills which at the end of 1935 were unified around 50%.

As of December 31, 1937, notes in circulation amounted to 466 million and the reserve was 84 million in gold and 59 in foreign exchange.

Hungary Politics

Sightseeing in Hungary

Sightseeing in Hungary

Visit Hungary, a country in Central Europe, as part of a tour. In Hungary you can expect images of nature such as the vast Hungarian Puszta and the lovely landscape on the Danube Bend. Experience Budapest, the capital and at the same time the queen of the Danube cities. Stroll across the majestic Chain Bridge, visit the imposing parliament building on the banks of the Danube, Margaret Island, the Castle Hill, the Fisherman’s Bastion or the famous castle of Empress Sissi, Gödöllö. The major cities of Hungary such as Szeged with the Votive Church, the Ferenc Mora Museum, the New Synagogue, the Bishop’s Palace or the City Hall are also worth visiting; Debrecen with the Great Reformed Church, the Deri Museum or the thermal baths; the city of Miskolc; Pecs (Fünfkirchen) with the National Theater, the mosque Gazi Khassim or the Zsolnay fountain and the city of Györ (Raab) with the St. Ignatius Church, the episcopal castle, the Altabak house. You will find a wonderful place to swim and relax at Lake Balaton. Get to know Hungary on a study trip!

Castle Hill

According to topschoolsintheusa, the Hungarian capital Budapest is one of the most beautiful cities in Europe. One reason for this is the castle hill in the center of the city with its numerous famous sights in the baroque style. On the legendary castle hill is the historic castle district, which has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site for many years and attracts millions of locals and tourists from all over the world every year. From the altogether 168 meter high castle hill one also has a fascinating overview of the entire city.

Castle Palace and Matthias Church

The biggest attraction on the castle hill is the huge castle palace. The largest building in the country, which towers over the city in the south of the castle hill, is one of the city’s most important landmarks. The impressive palace from the 13th century is mainly used as a museum today. The Matthias Church on Trinity Square, one of the most famous churches in Hungary, also belongs to the castle district. In the immediate vicinity of the impressive building, also known as the “Coronation Church”, there are several museums as well as other historical buildings and valuable monuments. With a leisurely stroll through the narrow streets, you can really enjoy the historical flair of the castle district and discover a lot of interesting things. The quarter on the Burgberg is characterized by numerous small art galleries, Souvenir shops and cozy cafes. The castle hill can be reached with the historic funicular railway, among other things.

Gerbeaud coffee house

Legendary, elegant and stylish: the Gerbeaud coffee house

At the end of the pedestrian zone, on Vörösmarty Platz, there is an architectural jewel, inside and out: the legendary Café Gerbeaud. It is one of the most traditional coffee houses in Europe and undoubtedly the most beautiful in all of Budapest. And of course the bakery was purveyor to the court during the Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy.

The charm of the fin de siecle

Whoever enters the coffee house is immediately enveloped by the incomparable atmosphere of the Wilhelminian era: thick carpets, stucco ceilings in the Rococo style, chandeliers, wall coverings made of fine woods, massive armchairs and dainty secession chairs from the era of Viennese Art Nouveau exude the elegant charm of the fin de siecle. If you travel through Hungary and stop in Budapest, you should not miss this coffee house. You just have to try the Gerbeaud slices or the Dobos cake.

A success story right from the start

The story of this famous coffee house began with Henrik Kugler, who, after completing his apprenticeship in major European cities, opened his pastry shop on Jósef-Nádor-Platz in Pest in 1858 and immediately gained an unparalleled reputation. His ice cream creations were hailed as the best in town. The guests particularly liked the fact that they could take cakes and chocolates home with them in stylish packaging. Even today, the packaging resembles real works of art and is known all over the world. In 1870 Kugler moved his coffee house to Vörösmarty Platz to be closer to the center. In 1884, Kugler made Emil Gerbeaud a business partner, who later gave the café its name. The enterprising Gerbeaud introduced new products such as Parisian creams, hundreds of new types of pastries, candies and confectionery. He even designed the popular packaging himself. And he equipped the bakery with the most modern machines. Quality and the art of baking, that’s what Gerbeaud stood for.

In 1995 the German entrepreneur Erwin Franz Müller took over the coffee house. After extensive renovations, the traditional house shines in new, old splendor. In 2009 a branch of the same name was even opened in Tokyo.

Danube arch

A little north of Budapest is the Danube Arch – Dunakanyar – which is considered by many to be the most beautiful part of the Danube on its 2800 km stretch from the Black Forest to the Black Sea.

The best time to travel here for a hike or a boat tour is spring or autumn. In summer there are not only many tourists in this wonderful landscape along the Danube, but also city-weary Hungarians from Budapest.

The most popular is Szentendre, right on the Danube. The medieval houses and the picturesque landscape in the area make this city an attractive destination 21 kilometers north of Budapest. Countless Orthodox churches, museums and galleries invite you to discover them. Esztergom is a little north about 64 kilometers from Budapest. As the center of the Hungarian Catholic Church, this city has an impressive cathedral that is well worth a visit.

Esztergom

Location and historical background

Esztergom, a town with 31,000 inhabitants, is located around 50 km west of Budapest in northern Hungary on the Danube. The city, which is called Gran in German, is one of the oldest places in the country and was settled long before Roman times. Esztergom gained historical importance between the 10th and 13th centuries as the capital of the Hungarian kingdom.

Sights in Esztergom

The two most important buildings of the city, the magnificent “Assumption of Mary and St. Adalbert” cathedral and the well-preserved castle, are enthroned on the castle hill, which is visible from afar. The classical style basilica is the largest Catholic church in Hungary and is even one of the largest churches in Europe. The elongated hall church was built between the years 1001 and 1869 and a visit is one of the most interesting things to do during a trip to the region. In the immediate vicinity is the extensive fortress, which played a decisive role during the Ottoman Wars and was the residence of the kings of Hungary around 1000. Today the imposing castle houses a museum with exhibits that document the history of Esztergom.

The Danube flowing through the city marks the border with the neighboring state of Slovakia. Esztergom is connected to the Slovak Štúrovo on the opposite side of the road by the Maria Valeria Bridge, which is more than 500 m long.

This area of ​​Hungary is interesting for both historically interested study travelers and spa vacationers. The Aquasziget beach and thermal baths include a health and wellness center as well as an adventure pool. The complex includes a sauna department and facilities for various massages and body treatments, which visitors to the city are happy to use.

Esztergom is definitely a worthwhile destination for a city or study trip.

Travel to beautiful cities in Hungary

Here you will find study trips and round trips through the metropolises of Hungary

Budapest

Take a round trip to Budapest, the largest city in Hungary and at the same time the ninth largest city in the European Union. Let yourself be seduced by the main sights of the city, which lies on the banks of the Danube. Visit the Gellért Hill with the Statue of Liberty and the Citadel, the Castle Palace, the Matthias Church, the Chain Bridge, the Buda Castle District, the Great Market Hall, the State Opera, the Fishermen’s Bastion, the Parliament, Heroes’ Square, the West and East Train Station, the Museum of the Beautiful Arts and much more, because a study trip to Budapest will leave you wonderful memories.

Sightseeing in Hungary