Tag: Georgia

Tbilisi, Georgia

Tbilisi, Georgia

According to abbreviationfinder, Tbilisi (in Georgian, Tbilisi, in Russian Тифлис) is the capital and largest city of Georgia, it is located on the banks of the Kura River. During the Soviet Union it was the capital of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (RSS). The city has a registered population of 1,400,000 residents and an area of 726 km². Tbilisi has been known for the peaceful Rose Revolution, which took place in Liberty Square and nearby locations. As a result, the then president, Eduard Shevardnadze, was removed from power.

Name

The name “Tbilisi” (tbili- means hot), was given to the city because of the numerous sulphurous hot springs that the territory enjoyed and continues to have. In Spanish, it’s Tbilisi

History

Archaeological findings show that the territory of Tbilisi was inhabited since 4000 BC It is also known that the settlement of the area was during the second half of the 4th century AD when a fortress was built during the reign of Varaz-Bakur. Towards the end of the 4th century, the fortress fell to the Persians, then the area fell to the King of Kartli (Georgia) in the middle of the 5th century. King Vakhtang is primarily responsible for founding and building the city. The area in which ancient Tbilisi was built now corresponds to the districts of Metekhi and Abanotubani

At the beginning of the 6th century Vakhtang I Gorgasali was succeeded in power by King Dachi I Ujarmeli who transferred the capital from Mtskheta to Tbilisi. During his reign, Dachi completed the construction of the fortress wall and delimited the new borders of the city. At the beginning of the 6th century, Tbilisi began to notice a period of peace due to the favorable and strategic situation as a crossroads between Europe and Asia.

During the following centuries the city suffered frequent raids by Byzantines, Arabs, Persians, Mughals, Seljuk Turks, and tribes from the Caucasia region. It was the capital of the independent state of Georgia in the 12th and 13th centuries. The last major raid occurred in 1795, when Persian troops invaded and sacked the city. Tbilisi entered the Russian orbit in 1801 ; in 1936 it was named capital of the newly created Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (RSS).

During Soviet times the population of Tbilisi grew considerably, the city became quite industrialized and was an important political, social and cultural center of the Soviet Union. In 1991 it was designated the capital of independent Georgia after the collapse of the USSR,

From December 1991 to January of 1992 there was a brief civil war, Tbilisi was the scene of clashes between some mafia clans and illegal business entrepreneurs. During the Shevardnadze era (1993 – 2003) crime and corruption reached very high levels. Many strata of society became impoverished due to lack of employment due to the collapse of the economy. The citizens of Tbilisi began to be disappointed by the poor quality of life in the city. In November of 2003 Massive protests were carried out as a result of the falsified parliamentary elections that forced hundreds of thousands of people to take to the streets and that ended with the Rose Revolution as a result of which the then president, Eduard Shevardnadze, was displaced from power. Since 2003, Tbilisi has greatly increased stability, decreasing crime and increasing the economy.

In August of 2008, Russian planes bombed an airfield military located in Tbilisi, where Georgian aircraft were produced Skorpion, unreported victims in the context of the war in Ossetia South. The airfield suffered serious damage.

Geography

Location

It is located in the east of the country on the banks of the Kura River, in a valley sheltered by the Caucasus mountain range.

Climate

Its climate is continental, with cold winters and hot summers, although without reaching extreme temperatures.

Demography

The city has a registered population of 1,400,000 residents. Its demographics are diverse and historically it has been home to people of different ethnicities, religion and culture. There are many different ethnic groups in the city over 100. Approximately 80% of the population is ethnically Georgian, there are large populations of Russians, Armenians and Azerbaijanis, Ossetians, Abkhazians, Ukrainians, Greeks, Jews, Estonians, Germans and Kurds, among others, also live in the city. See population of Georgia.

Economic development

It is an important economic, industrial, social, cultural and transportation hub. It is an important passage route for global energy and trade as it is strategically located between Asia and Europe. The city has an international airport. Among the main industries include food and textile and machinery, railway equipment, printing materials, leather and elaboration of the wine

Sightseeing

Its main tourist places are Sameba Cathedral, Freedom Square, Sioni Cathedral, where there is a famous image of Jesus Christ as well as a very old cross, Metekhi, Narikala, the Parliament of Georgia, Rustaveli Avenue, the Opera and Ballet Theater, Anchiskhati Basilica, Mtatsminda Mountain, a holy mountain in which there is a church with a pantheon in which are the tombs of Georgian personalities. The Kashveti Church, near which are the National Museum, the Historical Museum and numerous art galleries. The statue of Saint George: This statue is in front of the town hall, killing the dragon. The statue has been the cause of a fight among the residents, as there are many people who are starving while the city puts expensive statues in its streets. The city was immortalized by painters Niko Pirosmani and Lado Gudiashvili.

Culture

It is distinguished by its ancient churches, among which the V-century Cathedral of Zion and the 6th-century Monastery of St. David stand out. Tbilisi is home to a university (1918) and the Georgian Academy of Sciences, as well as a number of theaters and museums.

Transport

Located at the southern end of the Georgian military highway, it is served by the Transcaucasus railway.

Tbilisi, Georgia

Georgia History

Georgia History

Independence proclaimed on April 9, 1991, Georgia effectively became autonomous with the definitive dissolution of the USSR (December 1991). The new state was, however, soon hit by a bloody civil war between the opposition and the supporters of President Zviad Gamsakurdia forced to flee (January 1992), while the South Ossetians proclaimed the secession to join the Russian Federation. Apparently resolved the internal crisis with the appointment of EA Ševardnadze, former foreign minister of MS Gorbačëv, as president of the State Council, Georgia obtained its first international recognition and was admitted to the CSCE. An agreement between Ševardnadze and BN Elcin (June 1992) favored a truce in South Ossetia, but the following month a new secessionist front was opened by the Abkhazians. In this way a new phase of instability was inaugurated, also characterized by the resumption of activity of the partisans of Gamsakurdia. In the impossibility of resolving the intricate situation and despite Russia having played a precise role in the secessionist events that had upset the life of Georgia, Ševardnadze, in the meantime elected president of the Parliament (October 1992), was forced to come to terms with Elcin and to sign Georgia’s membership of the CIS (October 1993). A new agreement in early 1994 sealed a sort of Russian protectorate over Georgia with the granting of military bases and border control without, however, the situation could really return to normal. In addition, a peace treaty was signed with the Abkhaz rebels. At the end of 1993 mriva Gamsakurdia and in October 1995 a new constitution came into force (approved by a large majority by the Parliament) which made Georgia a presidential republic by recognizing the head of state, elected by universal suffrage, broad powers, including the to appoint the head of government. The presidential elections of November 1995 were won by Ševardnadze, supported by the Union of Citizens party, which established himself as the first political force in the contemporary elections of the Legislative assembly.

According  to globalsciencellc, the Abkhazians, however, did not recognize the legitimacy of the consultations, like the South Ossetians, who on November 10, 1996 elected Ljudvig Chibirovcon as their president. The stipulation of a military cooperation agreement between Georgia and Russia was worth nothing to resolve the issue of secessionisms, stemming mainly from the latter’s intention to restore its authority in the region. Likewise, the negotiations started in 1997 with the South Ossetians and the Abkhazians were resolved in a failure. Adžaristan and the Samtskhe-Djavakhei, located along the delicate Turkish and Armenian border marks. Moreover, the undeniable economic progress of the country did not contribute to solving its structural problems, linked to the shortage of electricity and massive unemployment, nor to undermining its endemic mafia corruption. Ševardnadze had to foil in 1998 an uprising of troops loyal to the late president Gamsakurdia, suffer the downsizing of his party in local elections and escape, after the one in 1995, a second attack behind which the Moscow director was suspected, interested in maintaining control of the very rich energy reserves (gas and oil) of the Caucasian region, while Georgia, supported by the United States and Europe, Caspian to the West. The serious tensions with the Kremlin worsened between the end of 1999 and 2001, on the occasion of the Russian offensive against the rebels of neighboring Chechnya, which the Moscow government believed protected by the Georgians.

To this was added the setback suffered by Western investment projects for the exploitation of Caspian energy resources, due to the high costs necessary to carry them out. This penalized Ševardnadze’s pro-Western foreign policy, which nevertheless obtained Georgia’s entry into the Council of Europe (1999) and the World Trade Organization (2000), negotiating with good prospects that of NATO.. Between 1999 and 2000, Ševardnadze saw a decline in popularity but managed to win the elections again by defeating former Communist Dzhumber Patiashvili. In 2003 there was a violent protest against the government and the president resigned in order not to drag the country into a civil war (Revolution of the Roses); in his place was designated Nino Burdzhanadze with the task of calling new elections (2004); they saw a landslide victory by Mikheil Saakašvili, leader of the opposition in Ševardnadze. In the same year, elections were held in South Ossetia not recognized by the government and followed by several armed clashes. In early 2005, Prime Minister Zurab Jvania died under unclear circumstances. In November 2007, a popular protest against the president erupted, declaring a state of emergency and resigning. Parliament spokesman Nino Burdzhanadze was recalled to take over the country until January 2008, the year in which Saakašvili was reconfirmed as president. In the next elections, in May 2008, the president’s party the United National Movement (UNM) won with over 50% of the votes. In August 2008, riots in South Ossetia provoked the advance of Georgian military forces into the region. The Russian army reacted by causing the conflict to widen, siding with the secessionists in Ossetia and in August 2008 Riots in South Ossetia provoked the advance of Georgian military forces in the region. The Russian army reacted by causing the conflict to widen, siding with the secessionists in Ossetia and in August 2008 Riots in South Ossetia provoked the advance of Georgian military forces in the region. The Russian army reacted by causing the conflict to widen, siding with the secessionists in Ossetia and in Abkhazia, formally recognized by the Moscow government. In October 2012 the political elections took place which saw the victory of the political group Sogno Georgiano, led by the magnate Bidzina Ivanishvili and the defeat of the UNM, linked to President Saakašvili; in the following days, Parliament approved the birth of a new government headed by Ivanishvili himself. Presidential elections were held in October 2013, won by Giorgi Margvelashvili.

Georgia History