Tag: Ethiopia

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Ethiopia Politics and Military

Ethiopia Politics and Military

Political order. – The new constitution was issued on November 4, 1955; in its drafting, developed by experts before Europeans then Americans, had begun to put its hands since 1948. It has been called “amended constitution” (Engl. revised c., Amharic Yata š Å lä h E GGA ??? Mang E st), at the suggestion of the experts themselves, so that it does not seem that the new constitutional act abrogates the rather rudimentary constitution of 1931, with respect to which, in reality, little or nothing it innovates in substance, while it is clear the intention to reiterate the power of supreme regulator of the state recognized to the sovereign. For the first time, the Ethiopian Church is institutionally framed in the structure of the state, entrusting itself to the sovereign with its temporal order and the appointment of its bishops. The parliament is composed of the Chamber of deputies (YaH and g mämriy  m and k and r b í and t “Council to initiate legislation”), elective, and the Senate (yah E g mawåssañ  m E k E r b ï ê t “Council for the decision of the laws”), imperial nomination. In accordance with the time limits set by the new constitution, from 11 September to 10 October (period corresponding to the month of maskarram with which the Ethiopian year begins) 1957 were held, for the first time, the political elections for the appointment of the members of the Chamber of Deputies, in number of 210 (of which 14 Eritreans). Political parties not being admitted, the candidates were independent; with the voluntary registration of the voters, the lack of a registry status was made up for; women were also allowed to vote, direct and secret. In relation to the number of elected deputies, the Senate was made up of 105 members (of which 9 Eritreans). For Ethiopia political system, please check cancermatters.net.

On the way to the establishment of the juridical instruments regulating the life of the modernized Ethiopian society, provision is also being made for the emanation of organic norms codes for the various branches of law. In 1957 the new penal code was promulgated (which entered into force in 1958), drawn up by a Swiss jurist, who was part of a committee that included other French jurists, charged with preparing the civil, commercial and maritime codes, promulgated in 1960.

The written rules, which the Ethiopian state is gradually giving itself to regulate the conduct of public life, made known in the Amharic and English languages ​​(the first, the official national language; the second, an official foreign language) have the form of aw ḡ ǧ (Engl. proclamation), t is ‘ and z  z (Engl. order), DANB (Engl. decree), m ā st ā wåqiy Å (Engl. notice), which, in turn, can also be T aql ā ll (Engl. general) and YaH and g (Engl. legal). The faculty to legislate is exercised, as well as by the sovereign and the parliament, by the executive power (ministers), as authorized to do so for matters on which the legislative power has already initially ruled; the executive power then issues all internal regulations (yäwus ṭ dänb). The formal structure of the provisions is that of the West, to which the experts with whose assistance they are developed belong belong. It is up to the sovereign or to several members of parliament to propose laws, but no law is actually proposed without the consent of the first.

Ministers and deputy ministers are chosen and appointed by the sovereign; the bills they propose pass to parliament after sovereign approval. The powers, functions and organization of the ministries are, formally, those of the West, from which, almost always, come the experts who are actually entrusted with the functioning of the administrative apparatus; in reality, the traditional customs of Ethiopian feudal society weigh on their functioning.

Administrative order. – The peripheral administration of the state takes place with the division of the territory into 12 provinces divided into 72 districts and these into districts and sub-districts. At the head of the provinces is a governor general of royal appointment, assisted by a director also of royal appointment, assisted by an advisory council.

The municipal order has been adopted in major city centers, whose administration presides over a mayor (käntib Å in Addis Ababa and Gondar, yäkatam  š um “end of town” elsewhere), dependent on the governor general of the province or, in Addis Abeba, by the Minister of Internal Affairs.

Armed Forces. – Public order and defense have their own military corps, whose education and organization have been entrusted to foreigners, mostly Europeans (including military aviation, with school in Debrä ??? Zäìt, formerly Bisoftu); elite troops form the body of the Sovereign’s Guard.

Judicial system. – A supreme court of the sovereign has been created, presided over by afa n ĕ gùs (traditional office inserted in the new structure) and usually also including a non-Ethiopian judge (belonging to the High Court), although many of the cases submitted to it pass to the personal decisions of the sovereign; a High Court (commissioned by the British government, with the 1942 treaty, to protect the judgment of Europeans), composed of a variable number of sections, also includes European judges, who preside over some sections, and temporary adjunct judges of imperial and has no limits to its jurisdiction (it can also act as a court of first instance), which extends to administrative justice and particular civil disputes of a public nature.There are, then, the provincial, district or regional, district and sub-district courts, where European judges do not sit and with jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters. An appeal is foreseen by the lower court than the higher one, and the judgment pronounced on the appeal is final. In 1947 the local judge was established with pre-eminent function of conciliator judge, appointed by the minister (Ministry of the Interior). The particular court is the State Security Court (established in 1947), with its related Court of Appeal; the ecclesiastical authorities, moreover, continue to exercise traditional jurisdictional rights, of limited extent. Muslims have their own courts competent in private matters.

Ethiopia Politics and Military

The Earliest History of Ethiopia

The Earliest History of Ethiopia

Ethiopia’s history goes back several thousand years. The country was once one of the first areas inhabited by humans, as a number of important finds by ancient people have proved. In 1974, the skeleton of an ancient man about three million years old was found in the Awash Valley in central Ethiopia. The skeleton turned out to be descended from a woman of the species Australopithecus afarensis, and later became known as “Lucy”. Since then, even older remains of the earth’s first humans have been found, even older than Lucy. The findings of the ancient people, Ethiopia’s very early transition to Christianity, and the fact that the country has almost completely escaped European colonial masters, make Ethiopia’s history completely unique compared to the rest of the continent. Except for a short period during the Italian siege, Ethiopia escaped colonization at a time when Europeans were fighting to turn most of the dark continent’s countries into European colonies. On the other hand, Ethiopians have been in close contact with other cultures for several millennia. Egypt, for example, has been a loyal trading partner since 1,000 BC, and the Roma, Greeks and Arabs have also been in active trade with Ethiopia. Something that has left a clear mark on the country’s culture. Visit smartercomputing for Eastern Africa Trade Unions.


Immigrant Arabs co-founded the Aksum dynasty, which ruled over a vast area of ​​land from 100 BC. to 700 AD The kingdom’s first ruler was the legendary Menelik I., which according to history was the result of a romantic encounter between King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. This would mean that he is the ancestor of all subsequent Ethiopian emperors. It is partly due to this high culture that Ethiopia became one of the world’s first Christian countries, when King Ezana 300 AD. made Christianity the official religion of Aksum. The ancient Coptic Church, also known as the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, is still the country’s official religion. Since 1974, it has been associated with Islam. For centuries, Muslim missionaries have been trying to convert Ethiopians, who have refused for almost as long. Neighboring countries quickly converted to Islam. As a result, Ethiopian Christianity has been quite isolated from Christianity in other parts of the world. The most obvious characteristic of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church is that Jesus is considered exclusively divine, and not a mixture of god and man, as in our own version of Christianity. In addition, Ethiopians boast that the very Ark of the Covenant (the casket containing the tablets of Moses) is found in the land. Menelik I. took the ark from King Solomon in Jerusalem, and placed it in a small chapel in Aksum. Although it is not possible to enter the chapel, there are no Christian Ethiopians who doubt that the casket is actually there yet. After a few centuries of a high culture that was fully comparable to the contemporary Roman Empire and the Persian Empire, the Aksum Empire split. The center of power was moved south, to the Zagwe dynasty with its capital in Lalibela. In the Zagwe culture, which flourished between 1150 and 1270, people believed that they descended directly from Moses, and Coptic Christianity continued to be the main religion. A large number of churches were built, in the form of monoliths, directly carved into the rocks.

Ethiopia’s modern history

When Europeans began to explore Africa, a group of Portuguese came past Ethiopia in the 16th century. The guests were initially welcomed as an aid in the fight against Islam, but the Portuguese missionaries eventually became too much for Emperor Fasilides, who expelled them in 1633. A couple of centuries later, the Italians became interested in the East African country, and were the first European the country that succeeded in turning Ethiopia into a colony in 1936. This meant that the emperor, Haile Selassie, eventually had to leave the country. In 1941, Allied forces expelled the Italians, and the emperor returned from exile in England. He resumed the modernizations he had begun during his first imperial period. Selassie’s last imperial year was marked by a violent famine that affected large parts of Africa, killing 200,000 people. The famine was followed by major political and social unrest. In 1974, the emperor was deposed, the monarchy was abolished and an attempt was made to establish a communist state. But the political chaos continued, and so did recurring periods of drought and famine, until the establishment of the Ethiopian Republic with uproar in 1995.

The Earliest History of Ethiopia