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Bulgaria Literature of Yesterday and Today

Bulgaria Literature of Yesterday and Today

The literature of yesterday. – With Vazov and Penčo Slavetkov, who have now acquired the right of European citizenship, Bulgarian literature is therefore already in full development. Moreover, even if no one rises to their height, the ranks of other Bulgarian writers, their contemporaries and their successors, are long, among which more than one stands out for originality and artistic value.

Aleko Konstantinov (1863-1897) gives national literature the first example of a satirical novel in his Bai Ganiu, which delightfully ridicules, through the narration of the fantastic events of a kind of Bulgarian Tartarin, naivety, ignorance and the gullibility of certain popular, rather common types. Very original is the art of Petko Todorov (1879-1916), author of some short stories, sketches and dramatic works, who, in a completely new and unusual prose, presents, in his Idylls, a series of fantastic scenes, allegories, visions, popular legends, art studies. Even satirical poetry finds a worthy representative in Stojan Mihailovski (1856-1927), whose art, although moving from the beginning, when the homeland was still enslaved, by the ideal of national redemption, gradually developed under the particular influence of Aristophanes., French satire and Krylov’s fables.

There are numerous operas. Among the best known, after the major ones already mentioned, the name of Konstantin Veličlgov (1856-1907), author of melancholic poems and sentimental lyrics (some about Italy), is particularly linked to his mediocre poetic version of Dante ‘s Inferno and to a series of Pisma ot Rim (Letters from Rome) in prose. Dimco Debelianov (1887-1916), a poet with a sensitive and painful soul, matured in the school of his Russian and French contemporaries, who died in the world war, left lyrics and elegies vibrant with sentiment and gloomy despair. Above all others, after Vazov and Penjo Slavejkov, by the unanimous judgment of the Bulgarian critics, the unfortunate poet Pĕju K. Javorov (1877-1914), troubled soul of a dreamer and idealist, tormented by the reality of life in contrast with the indefinite needs of the restless spirit, haunted by an adverse fate, which drove him to a tragic premature death.

Literary criticism has finally had authoritative representatives as well, among whom the names of K. Krăstev and Bulgaria Penev stand out individually. In the work of these writers, and of many other minors, are found expression the various literary genres hitherto established in Bulgaria. For Bulgaria 2006, please check computergees.com.

The literature of today. – All these writers already belong to history. But no less numerous are the representatives of Bulgarian letters also in the two generations of the living: the old and the new, in whose art a growing Western influence is noted, hand in hand with the progress of cultural relations between Bulgaria and Western Europe.

The names of Elin-Pelin (pseudonym of Dimităr Ivanov) and Jordan Jovkov emerge in the field of short stories, the first having established itself for many years as an excellent descriptor of national country life, the second revealed already before the world war through a series excellent stories that draw on Bulgarian life and customs; Dobri Nemirov, who wrote and writes novels against a background in part similar to that of the two previous writers; by Georgi Stomatov, author of good stories, mainly drawn from Bulgarian city life.

In the lyric field, the poets Nikolai Liliev, Teodor Trajanov, Ljudmil Stojanov, Emanuil P. Dimitrov, are among the best representatives of Bulgarian symbolism, which developed under French and German influences, while Kiril Hristov tackles (partly also under Italian influences) erotic themes, new to the Bulgarian letters. A place to himself can be assigned to the very fruitful Nikola Rajnov, a poet also in his prose, indeed especially in this one, which stands out for its very special rhythm, for the accurate refinement of the form, for the extraordinary wealth of similes and metaphors, where the author’s profound mysticism finds particular expression. Discreet stories from life can be found in the copious collections of TG Vlajkov by Anton Strašimirov, which have been known for many years. Good overall, especially for the fluid harmony of the verse, In the first place (The eternal and the holy) vibrate notes of high lyricism and deep feeling. Modern Expressionism has also found some followers: the best known of these is Čavdar Mutafov. Stojan Čilingirov, a very fertile polygraph, Ivan Kirilov, Damjan Kalfov, and above all Georgi Rajčev, still belong mainly to the old group of storytellers and storytellers, in which, alongside Dimităr Šišmanov, Angel Karaliičev gradually acquires notoriety among the representatives of the new generation., Vladimir Poljanov, and numerous others, on whose work, as on that of a long line of young poets (Atanas Dalčev, Dimităr Pantaleev, etc.) any judgment is still premature. In the dramatic field, despite the tenacious and continuous efforts of many writers, the most backward has remained Majstori (Mastri) by Račo Stojanov and in the comedy Golemanov by St. Kostov. But these are still attempts.

Developed over the course of a few decades, Bulgarian literature already has as a whole an artistic heritage that is anything but negligible. The intensity of production from the time of liberation to today partially compensates for the late start. Literary genres have all been more or less treated, but not all with equal intensity or with equal success. The greatest and most numerous affirmations are found in the poetic field and in the novella. There are few good novels to date. Even the dramatic attempts were mediocre or failed. As a general feature the realistic note prevails in prose writers, the sentimental lyric note in poets. The content is usually purely national and, until liberation, almost exclusively patriotic. Predominant influences on writers exercise, as has been said, on the one hand the Russian letters, well known to all, on the other the popular songs, transmitted from generation to generation. Only later and to a much lesser extent, alongside the ever prevalent Russian, some beneficial Western influence, especially French and German, is noted. On these foundations the writers of today create, in fervent competition, almost animated by the desire to recapture to the homeland letters the long centuries lost in servitude, the Bulgarian literature of tomorrow.

Bulgaria Literature of Yesterday and Today

Bulgaria Brief History

Bulgaria Brief History

Bulgaria is almost always associated with beautiful beaches on the Black Sea by holidaying Swedes. But the country has much more to offer a traveler than this.

According to Aristmarketing, the country we today call Bulgaria has a very long, and often dramatic history. In the 6th century BC, parts of the country were inhabited by Thracians, an Indo-European people. Then it was taken by Greeks, Macedonians, Romans and Turks. The first Bulgarian kingdom was founded as early as the 680s AD and the country is thus one of Europe’s oldest. Bulgaria therefore has many historically interesting places and monuments to visit. There are also scenic places and an interesting folk life, especially in the countryside.

My journey in Bulgaria began, and ended, in the capital Sofia.

For almost three weeks I visited different regions and places around Bulgaria. I had access to a rental car for fourteen days and drove 2,680 kilometers with it, which gave me the opportunity to visit places off the beaten track; to mountain villages with several hundred year old wooden houses where life seemed to stand still. Donkey carts are still used here as a means of transport, in the villages the geese often walked peacefully on the cobbled village streets and from the villages the shepherds went out with their herds to graze in the early morning hours. In southwestern Bulgaria are the mountain areas of Rila, Pirin and Rhodopi, with good hiking opportunities. In the mountains are beautiful monasteries, several of which are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. In the cities, Western consumer society is pushing harder, for better or worse.

Driving a car in Bulgaria is a challenge, often with life at stake, every time you get in the car!

Bulgaria has a very interesting offer to offer a committed traveler, much more than just the bathing life on the Black Sea! Unfortunately, many people miss this out of the almost 5 million tourists who visit Bulgaria every year.

Bulgaria – History in brief

Older history

Traces of humanity have been found in Bulgaria dating to 6,000 BC. At this time, it was people who engaged in hunting and fishing and were nomadic. Later, more permanent residents came to the region, which affected future development.

At the end of the fourth millennium BC, ethnic groups migrated from Central Europe, merging with the people already living in the region.

The first ethnic group known by name to inhabit parts of the area we today call Bulgaria were the Thracians, an Indo-European people. The most famous remains after them are several famous burial sites. The foremost tomb has been found in the city of Kazanlak and is more than 2,000 years old. Other interesting remains are the palace ruins at the cities of Plovdiv, Pliska and Veliko Tarnovo.

The kingdom of the Thracian reached its peak in the sixth century BCE

Some Thracian tribes established close contact with the Greeks who began colonizing the Black Sea coast in the 8th century BC.

At the end of the 600s BC. the Persians invaded the kingdom of the Thracians.

In the 300s BC, Thrace was conquered by the Macedonian king Philip II, father of Alexander the Great. Philip founded the city of Philipolis, which today is called Plovdiv. Remains remain after his city.

The Romans became the power factor in the region after they defeated the Macedonians in 168 BC. but it took almost two hundred years to defeat the rebellious Thracians altogether. The Romans founded two provinces in the ancient Thracian Empire, one in the north and one in the south. They came to rule the region for almost 400 years. When the Roman Empire was divided in 395, Thrace came under the Eastern Roman Empire Byzantium.

In the 6th century, a Turkish cavalry, the Bulgarians, invaded the country from the steppes north of the Black Sea. Within a couple of centuries, the Bulgarians had been integrated into the Slavic population that had invaded the area in the 5th century.

The first Bulgarian kingdom, founded in 681 and lasting until 1018, periodically posed a threat to Byzantium. In the ninth century, Orthodox Christianity was adopted as the official religion under King Boris I. Under his son, Tsar Simeon I, the kingdom was the most powerful. After Simeon’s reign, Bulgaria was weakened by recurring wars. In 1014, the country suffered a severe defeat in the battles against Byzantium. The Byzantine ruler Basileios II made himself known as Bulgaroktonos, meaning the Bulgarian killer, after ordering his soldiers to stick out the eyes of 14,000 Bulgarian prisoners of war. Four years later, all of Bulgaria was under Byzantine control and Byzantium came to rule the country for almost 200 years.

In 1185, the Bulgarians successfully revolted and formed a new kingdom based in Tarnovo. But the war continued; against Byzantines, Mongols, Serbs, Hungarians and Christian crusaders. In addition, the empire was weakened by internal strife and peasant uprisings.

The Turks took over the Bulgarian kingdom in 1396. It was the beginning of a hard and long occupation that lasted for almost 500 years and even today the Bulgarians call this period “the Turkish yoke”.

The almost 500 years, 1396 – 1878, of Turkish (Ottoman) rule meant a stagnation of Bulgarian culture.

During the 19th century, a nationalist revival grew strong in the country and a Bulgarian uprising against the Turks was answered with extensive massacres. The outside world reacted strongly to this.

In 1878, Russia invaded Bulgaria and expelled the Turks, who had been weakened by many wars. At the peace of San Stefano the same year, Russia decided that a Greater Bulgaria, under Russian protection, would be established. Other major powers, fearful of too much Russian influence in the Balkans, opposed the peace agreement. At the Berlin Congress in 1878, Greater Bulgaria was divided between five countries. The Bulgarians gained autonomy over an area, albeit formally under Turkish rule.

At the end of the 19th century, the first political parties in the country were formed. In 1891, the Social Democratic Party was founded, from which later the Bulgarian Communist Party arose.

History of Bulgaria, modern 1900 – 1999

1908

King Ferdinand proclaimed Bulgaria’s independence when a coup took place in Turkey

1912

In the First Balkan War, the country achieved great success.

1913

In the Second Balkan War, Bulgaria lost the lands it had won in 1912

1912 -1918

Hoping to recapture Macedonia, the country allied with Germany and Austria during World War I. When it became clear that the war would be lost, King Ferdinand resigned. He was replaced by his son, Boris III

1919

Aleksander Stambolijski, leader of the Agrarian Party, became Prime Minister. Under his authoritarian rule, a land reform was implemented and a progressive income tax was introduced

1923

Aleksander Stambolijski was overthrown and murdered by a right-wing group

1924

A communist coup attempt failed

1920s, late and 1930s, beginning

Bulgaria was governed alternately by coalition governments and military regimes. Farmers and communists were forced into exile

1934

Through a military-backed coup, an authoritarian regime came to power

1935

Dissatisfaction with the regime was exploited by King Boris III and he himself took power

1940s, early

The Bulgarians give Germany permission to use the country as a base for attacks on Yugoslavia and Greece

1941

The Bulgarians occupy the Yugoslav part of Macedonia and take part in World War II on the side of the Axis powers, but refuse to take part in the war against the Soviet Union

1943

King Boris III dies. His six-year-old son Simeon II succeeds the
Foster Front, formed in 1942, fighting the Germans

1944

The Red Army occupies Bulgaria. The patriotic front, dominated by the Communist Party and supported by the Soviets, appoints a new government.

1946

Bulgaria is declared a People’s Republic and King Simeon II goes into exile The
Foster Front gets over 70% of the vote in the first elections and Communist Party Secretary Georgi Dimitrov was elected Prime Minister

1947

The new position is introduced after the Soviet model.
The multi-party system is abolished. Communist Party and Agrarian Party become only allowed parties
Major purges were carried out and over 2,000 people were sentenced to death

1954

Introduced collective leadership according to Soviet model. The post of party leader went to Todor Zhivkov. He came to dominate the country’s politics for over 30 years. Bulgaria becomes one of the most loyal allies of the Soviet Union. Planned economy was introduced, the earth was collectivized and heavy industry was built up

1980s, early

The country is suffering from economic stagnation, which leads to dissatisfaction with the regime

1980s, mid

Bulgaria was affected by the new openness in the Soviet Union.

1987

The country’s leader Todor Zhivkov launches a variant of Mikhail Gorbachev’s reform policy perestroika, called preustrojstvo.

1988

Allowed for the first time independent candidates in the local elections

1980s, late

Political awareness increased and new opposition groups were formed. The environmental movement Ecoglasnost and human rights associations played an important role
The Turkish minority openly protests against the regime’s repression

1989

A “palace coup” was carried out and Todor Zhivkov was overthrown. He is replaced by Petar Mladenov, who promised extensive political and economic change. The
Communist Party renounced the monopoly of power and gave opposition parties the right to operate freely.

1990

More than 200,000 Bulgarians demanded in a demonstration in Sofia in February that the Communist Party relinquish power. The government is forced to introduce multi-party systems and call elections. Communist Party changes name to Bulgaria’s Socialist Party
In the first democratic elections in June, the Socialist Party won a majority of parliamentary seats
President Mladenov is forced to resign after revelations he proposed military action against protesters 1989 The
Socialist government resigns in November

1991

In the September election, an anti-communist alliance won. Filip Dimitrov became Prime Minister

1992

In the first democratic presidential election, Zhelju Zhelev won.

1992-1994

The government was led by the non-partisan Ljuben Berov. Under his leadership, several former communist politicians were prosecuted for embezzlement of state funds, including former President Todor Zhivkov, who was sentenced in 1994 to seven years in prison.
In December 1994, parliamentary elections were held for the third time in five years. The BSP party, which was still dominated by former communists, returned to power through promises of economic recovery without major cuts in social welfare.

1990s, mid

Bulgaria is marked by demonstrations and social unrest. Inflation was up to several hundred percent, the currency floated freely and the central government debt increased sharply. The banking system was in acute crisis. Starvation occurred among the country’s inhabitants

1996

In the presidential election in November, Petar Stojanov from the UDF won a landslide victory over the government candidate Ivan Mazarov. Mass demonstrations took place across the country against the economic crisis.

1997

In January, protesters stormed parliament, injuring two hundred people. The
April parliamentary elections were won by the bourgeois alliance United Democratic Forces, which immediately launched economic reforms and privatizations, resulting in the stabilization of the economy. UDF leader Ivan Kostov was appointed Prime Minister

1999

Despite economic growth, unemployment rose, which contributed to dissatisfaction with the government for supporting NATO’s intervention in the Kosovo crisis. As a result of the war there, the EU wanted to accelerate membership for countries in the Balkans

Bulgaria Brief History