Tag: Azerbaijan

Baku, Azerbaijan

Baku, Azerbaijan

According to abbreviationfinder, Baku is the capital of Azerbaijan, and the main Azerbaijani port on the shores of the Caspian Sea. Founded in the 6th century, it has an area of 1000 km 2, the region is the source of an important oil industry. In 2000, the city was declared a World Heritage Site and, in 2003, included in the list of “endangered assets” established by UNESCO.

Location

It is located on the west coast of the Caspian Sea, on the southern side of the Abseron Peninsula, about 160 kilometers northeast of the border with Iran.

History

The origins of Baku date back to the 6th century; However, there is only written evidence of its existence since 885 ne. There are numerous theories about the origin of its name, but the most accepted are those that state that Baku comes from the Persian “bagh kuh” (the mountain of God) or from “bad kube” (the city of the winds. The city gained importance after the earthquake that destroyed the capital of the khanat of Xirvan, Xemakha (Shemakha or Samaxi), in the 12th century, when Ahistan I made Baku the new capital. In the early 19th century, the area was called Shirvan and was occupied by Russia ; from 1918 to 1920 it was chosen capital of the recently created Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan, of ephemeral existence; from 1922 it was the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic; and in 1991 it became the capital of the newly independent Republic of Azerbaijan.

In 1990 the so-called Black January occurs, a fact that consisted of a military invasion in the city of Baku, perpetrated by the so-called “Alpha” Special Forces of the once powerful Soviet Union, where one million Azerbaijanis were refugees [1] .

Characteristics

Humidity is high, both during its hot summers and in its harsh winters. Hurricane-force winds are produced during winter, driven by polar wind masses. Snowfalls are infrequent and it is rare for the temperature to drop below 0 ° C. Its average temperature is (14.2 ° C) is very similar to that of the Earth as a whole. The southwestern part of Greater Baku is much more arid, as annual rainfall is less than 150 mm. In the vicinity of the city there are several mud volcanoes (Keyraki, Bogkh-bogkha, Lokbatan and others) as well as salt lakes (Boyukshor, Khodasan etc.).

Economic development

The basis of Baku’s economy is oil, its existence was known since the 8th century. During the 15th century, the fuel for lighting was obtained by digging shallow wells. Commercial exploitation began in 1847 ; at the beginning of the 20th century the Baku oil field produced half the world’s oil. By the end of the 20th century, most of the onshore oil had been almost completely depleted, so prospecting was extended to the Cáspio Sea. Baku is one of the main centers for the production of equipment for the oil industry.

The Battle of Stalingrad, during World War II, was fought to determine who would control the Baku oil fields.

Social development

Education

Baku is the largest educational center in Azerbaijan and has numerous schools and universities. After becoming an independent republic, and the shift to capitalism, numerous private institutions emerged. Baku is also home to the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, founded in 1945.

Public universities

  • Azerbaijan Medical University (founded in 1930)
  • Azerbaijan State Economic University (1930)
  • Azerbaijan State Petroleum Academy (1920)
  • Azerbaijan Technical University (1950)
  • Azerbaijani Languages University (1973)
  • Baku Academy of Music (1920)
  • Slavic University of Baku (1946)
  • Baku State University (1919)

Private universities

  • Azerbaijan International University (1997)
  • Khazar University (1991)
  • Odlar Yurdu University (1995)
  • Qafqaz University (1992)
  • Western University (1991)

Town planning

The excessive growth of the modern city, has occurred south of the old city, has originated after the massive exploitation of oil had begun at the beginning of the 20th century. It is characterized by an architecture that connects with the Fine Arts, with a grid planning. The modern city extends outside the walls of the old city. Its streets and buildings rise to the top of the hills that delimit Baku Bay.

The agglomeration of Baku is divided into 11 districts (Azizbayov, Binagadi, Garadagh, Narimanov, Nasimi, Nizami, Sabail, Sabunchu, Khatai, Surakhany and Yasamal) and 48 municipalities.

Baku today is three cities in one: the old city (or İçəri Şəhər), the expansion and the city built in Soviet times. Modern Baku lies beyond the walls, with the streets and buildings that climb the hills that surround Baku Bay. Greater Baku is divided into eleven districts and 48 municipalities.

The Martyrs Cemetery, in front of the Kirov Park, is dedicated to the memory of those who lost their lives in the war against Armenia and, also, of the 137 people who died on January 19 and 20, 1990 when tanks and Soviet troops are going to take to the streets of Baku. Photographs of the victims are on each grave. Precisely January 20 has been declared a national day. See population of Azerbaijan.

Baku, Azerbaijan