Tag: Algeria

Algeria State Overview

Algeria State Overview

Algeria. Whose official name is the People’s Democratic Algerian Republic is a country in North Africa that borders the Mediterranean to the north, Mali and Niger to the south, Tunisia and Libya to the east, Morocco and the Saharawi Republic to the west, and to the southwest with Mauritania and Mali. It has four regions: the coastal mountain range, called Atlas del Tell, the region of high plateaus before the Sahara, the Saharan Atlas mountain range and the Sahara desert.

Algeria is one of the most important countries in the Arab world. He served as a mediator in the negotiations between Iran and Iraq during the war that these countries held between 1979 and 1988 ; He was one of the fundamental architects in the creation of the Union of the Arab Maghreb, a regional grouping with Tunisia, Morocco, Libya and Mauritania to promote political and economic cooperation. It is also one of the founding African countries of the Non-Aligned Movement.

The climate is Mediterranean, in the mountainous region of the coast, dry in the region of high plateaus and semi-desert and desert in the rest. Temperatures range from -15ºC in the high mountains to 58ºC in the desert.

The country achieved independence from France in 1962. Then the FLN (National Liberation Front), chaired by Ahmed Ben Bella, came to power. Following the deposition of Ben Bella by his defense minister, Houari Boumedienne, he assumed the leadership of the government, a position he would hold until his death in 1978. Since then, Abdelaziz Bouteflika has presided over the country.

History

The current borders of Algeria, as well as those of Tunisia and Libya, were established when the region was still part of the Ottoman Empire, creating then, with each of these three countries an administrative subdivision. The arrival of the Ottoman Empire supposed the withdrawal of the Spanish from the coastal strip that until then they had retained. In 1830, the French managed to establish a firm position in North Africa, from where they began to expand and colonize a large part of the region.

After a bloody war of liberation against French colonialism, the independence of Algeria arrived in 1962 and the FLN (National Liberation Front) assumed power, chaired by Ahmed Ben Bella. Following the deposition of Ben Bella by his defense minister, Houari Boumedienne, he assumed the leadership of the government, a position he would hold until his death in 1978.

Presidents of the People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria

  • Ahmed Ben Bella (1962-1965)
  • Houari Boumedienne (1965-1978)
  • Chadli Bendjedid (1978-1992)
  • Ali Kafi (1992-1994)
  • Liamine Zéroual (1994-1999)
  • Abdelaziz Buteflika (1999 – present) in his fourth consecutive term.

According to localcollegeexplorer, Algeria is one of the most important countries in the Arab world. He served as a mediator in the negotiations between Iran and Iraq during the war that these countries held between 1979 and 1988 ; He was one of the fundamental architects in the creation of the Union of the Arab Maghreb, a regional grouping with Tunisia, Morocco, Libya and Mauritania to promote political and economic cooperation. It is also one of the founding African countries of the Non-Aligned Movement.

Economy

Algeria is one of the richest nations in Africa. Agriculture plays a declining but prominent role in the Algerian economy, while mineral production accounts for the largest item of gross domestic product.

Since the late 1990s the government has initiated large industrialization programs. Annual GDP for 2006 was $ 114,727 million (World Bank figures), which is equivalent to $ 3,440 per capita. Average inflation is 2.50% above the consumer price index (CPI).

The greatest natural wealth resides in its large mineral deposits, mainly oil, natural gas, phosphates and iron ore. Other important minerals are coal, lead, and zinc. The cultivated land area comprises only 3.4% of the total area and is located mainly in the valleys and plains of the coastal region.

Education

Primary education is free and compulsory for ages 6 to 15; more than 95% of school-age children receive this basic education. The Algerian educational system, with a French tradition, has given way to a program of Arabization that began shortly after independence.

The government introduced new teaching methods, began training Algerian teachers and bringing in Arabic language teachers from abroad. In 1976 all private schools were closed and a compulsory nine-year educational period was introduced. In 1996, some 4.72 million students attended the 15,426 primary schools in the country and some 2.99 million were enrolled in secondary education.

The government also maintains vocational and teacher training schools. Algeria has eight scientific and technological universities; the total number of students enrolled in higher education institutions is 682,775. The University of Algiers (1879) has faculties of Law, Medicine, Science and Humanities. Seven of the universities and most of the 20 specialized university colleges have been founded after independence.

Culture

French tradition previously dominated Algerian cultural life. Already before independence, however, a growing movement developed among rebirth artists and intellectuals of national interest in Arab-Berber origins, a movement that, since 1962, gained official support.

In Algeria there are the Museum of Prehistory and Ethnography, the National Archaeological Museum and the National Museum of Fine Arts that are located in the capital. The Cirta Museum in Constantine houses collections of art and archeology.

Algeria State Overview