Tag: Afghanistan

The Afghans had asserted themselves as conquerors in India since the 11th century. When Mahmud of Ghazni established his empire in northern India, the Afghans stepped in. The warlike Afghans also played an important role in the conquests of Baboer and the establishment of the Empire of the Great Mogul. In doing so, they contributed to the foundation and maintenance of states that had their center of gravity in India instead of Afghanistan. It was not until 1747 that a specific Afghan monarchy was established. The Pathans — the main Afghan tribe — then elected Ahmad Shah as their ruler. At his death (1772) he left an empire that included the Punjab and Kashmir in addition to present-day Afghanistan. Since the last decade of the 18th century, the dynasty established by him has suffered from Sikh revolts and strife among the Pathans. Afghanistan was pacified under Emir Dost Muhammed in 1837, but the empire had shrunk considerably; the Sikhs had separated the Punjab and Peshawar, while the western part of Herat was given the status of an autonomous principality. Between 1839 and 1842, Afghanistan fell prey to military intervention by the British, motivated mainly by fear of Russian expansion. Yet it took until 1875 before the Russians pushed their empire to the Afghan borders. The Afghan Emir Shir Ali contacted the Russian administration in Turkestan, which led to renewed British interference: Afghanistan was forced in 1878 to admit a British resident and place diplomatic policy under British supervision. After the resident was assassinated in 1879, Britain sent troops again. They were withdrawn again in 1880. Emir Abdoer Rahman acquiesced in British foreign policy supervision, which was honored with an annual grant. See topmbadirectory for Afghanistan Politics and Known People.

Kabul, Afghanistan

Kabul, Afghanistan

According to abbreviationfinder, Kabul is the capital city of Afghanistan, framed by the Afghan provinces of Parwan, Kapisa, Laghman, Nangarhar, Logar and Vardak.

It is located 1800 meters above sea level and has a population of 2.08 million residents.


In the Rig-veda text (the oldest text in India, from the middle of the second millennium BC) the word Kubhā is mentioned to refer to the Kabul river.

The first written mention of this city affirms that in the year 328 a. n. and. suffered the invasion and conquest of Alexander the Great. Later it fell under the power of the Sassanids whose establishment lasted until well into the 7th century, a period in which the Arab and Muslim conquests began. After the arrival of Islam, the Mongol conquests began with Genghis Khan at the head and at the end of the Middle Ages, that is, well into the sixteenth century, it was named capital of the Mughal Empire by the conqueror Baber (1504-1525). Later, Delhi replaced it as the imperial capital in 1526 But Kabul remained an important Mughal center until it was conquered in 1738 by the Persian king Nadir Sha. In 1747, with the emergence of a modern Afghanistan, Kabul became part of an Afghan state with independent characteristics and in 1776 it replaced Kandahar as the state capital.

“According to ancient sources, Karabakh has the following borders: the Araz river from Khudaferin bridge to Sinig Korpu in the south. Today Sinig Korpu is located between Gazaj Shamsaddin and Demirchi-Hasanli communities… The Kura River in the east, which merges with the Araz River in Javad village, empties into the Caspian Sea. The Goran River, to the Kura River in Elizavetpol (Ganja – K.Sh.) in the north. The high mountains Kusbek, Salvarti and Erikli of Karabakh in the west »

Mirza Yamal Yavanshir (1773–1853). Karabakh history

In 1822, the Karabakh Khanate was dissolved and it became a province. In Obozrenie published in Saint Petersburg in 1836, he reported on the borders and territory of the Karabakh province, noting that a significant part of the territory is covered by mountains. [1]

In his article titled Caucasus Crisis, A. Skibitsky, son of the famous researcher MA Skibitsky, writes:

«[…] the whole mountainous part of Karabakh Khanate was called as Nagorno Karabakh. This territory includes the Karabakh mountain range in the East, the lands between the Zangazur Mountains in the West, also the Karabakh Plateau that separates Upper Karabakh from Lower Karabakh.


Kabul is located on a plateau, next to the river of the same name, from which the Khyber pass is overlooked. To the old part of the city, located to the south of the river, they were added, first a traditional neighborhood north of Kabul (19th century); later a new city was built, about eight kilometers from the old town. Between one nucleus and another more recent neighborhoods have developed that follow geometric lines.

Province data

Kabul province occupies a surface area of 4685 km 2 and has a population of 2.85 million.

Territorial organization

The province is divided into districts, which are:

  • Bagrami
  • Chahar Asyab
  • Dih Sabz
  • Guldara
  • Istalif
  • Acceptance
  • Kalakan
  • Khaki Jabbar
  • Mir Bach the Cat
  • musayi
  • Paghman
  • Qarabagh
  • Shakar Dara
  • Surobi


Kabul’s products include Afghan coats and leather goods. Blankets of artisan designs and lapis lazuli jewelry are also made.


The most popular dishes in the country are Kebabs, made of lamb or chicken and Pilau, served with rice, and the delicious Afghan bread, called “nan”. Another well-known dish is the pilau zarda or norang is made with chicken seasoned with orange, and the pilau gaubili with lamb. Nuts, grapes and spices are usually added to these types of dishes. A little stronger is the pilau qurma. The most typical is the tea called chai that you can taste in the tea houses called chai khanas.


Despite being the capital of Afghanistan, Kabul is one of the smallest cities in the country. With an approximate population of just over three million, it is also the most densely populated. See population of Afghanistan.


Any person who wishes to enter Afghanistan must apply to the consulate closest to their country of origin for a visa. To do this, you must pay the amount indicated according to the time of stay in Afghanistan and present a passport valid for at least three months. In Kabul, the tourist has options such as the Intercontinental Hotel and numerous guest houses. The national airline is Ariana Afgan airline that carried out international flights and some local ones.


Afghanistan shows a very backward economy based on transhumance cattle ranching and very archaic agriculture. Kabul is little industrialized, the most important factories, which emerged from 1940, are dedicated to leather, glass, plastic and footwear.

Upper Karabakh

Nagorno Karabakh region. It is a territory officially recognized by the United Nations as part of Azerbaijan, illegally occupied by Armenia. Located in the South Caucasus region, about 270 kilometers west of the Azerbaijani capital, Baku. Its name means ” the mountainous part of Karabakh “. The region includes the major cities Jankendi and Shusha.

Kabul, Afghanistan