History and Education of Singapore

History and Education of Singapore

History of Singapore

The first reliable sources for the early history of Singapore are a Javanese epic poem from the 16th century. “Nagarakertagama” and the Malay chronicle of the 17th century. “Sejarah Melayu”. However, in the 3rd c. the mention of the island (“Pulouchun Island”) is found in the Chinese chronicle. The Chinese name “Pulouchun” is consonant with the Malay “Pulau Ujong”, which means “island at the tip of the peninsula.” The name of the island in Sanskrit – Singapore (“City of the Lion”) was widely used in con. 14th c. Then he was involved in a fierce struggle between Siam (modern Thailand) and the Javanese Majapahit empire, which controlled the Malay Peninsula, part of Sumatra and other islands of the Indonesian archipelago. The settlement on the island had a Malay name – Tumasik. In the beginning. 15th c. became part of the Malacca Sultanate, founded by the Sumatran prince Parameswara.

Starting from the 16th century. Southeast Asia becomes the object of the colonial expansion of the European powers. The Portuguese were the first to appear on the Malay Peninsula and the adjacent islands. In 1511, they captured Malacca, turning it into the main stronghold, guarding trade dominance on the sea route from India to China, to the “Spice Islands”. Singapore came under the control of the Sultanate of Johor, a new Malay state that emerged after the fall of Malacca. The rulers of Johor waged a fierce struggle with the Portuguese. However, in 1587 the Portuguese managed to capture the capital of the Sultanate, and then destroy its port on the island of Singapore. The city fell into complete desolation, and the island became a haven for sea pirates.

In the second floor. 18th century the British, expanding their possessions in India and trade with China, felt the need to create strongholds in the East Indies region in order to ensure the interests of their merchant fleet and counteract the expansion of the Netherlands in this area. To this end, they created their own trading posts in Penang (1786), in Malacca, recaptured from the Dutch in 1796, and in Singapore (1819). In the beginning. In 1819, Stamford Raffles, the governor of Bengkulen, the British possession in Sumatra, arrived on the island; he concluded an agreement with the Sultanate of Johor to establish a trading post in Singapore. During 1820–24, British possessions were formalized: first by agreement with the Netherlands (1824), then by agreement with the Johor Sultanate, which ceded the island for a large financial reward and the payment of a significant pension to the sultan. In 1826 Singapore,

The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 gave Singapore a powerful impetus to develop as one of the world’s most important commercial ports. The island has become a major processing and export center for natural rubber produced in neighboring Malaya. At the same time, there was an intensive influx of population, it increased 8 times, amounting to approx. 80 thousand people in 1913.

During World War II, Singapore was occupied by Japanese troops. The British authorities returned to the island in September 1945.

In April 1946, Singapore received the status of a crown colony and was separated from Malaya, and in 1959 it was proclaimed a self-governing state. In May of that year, general elections were held and the first fully elected Legislative Assembly was formed. The People’s Action Party (PAP) won the election. Its leader, Lee Kuan Yew, became the first prime minister.

In September 1963, Singapore joined the Federation of Malaysia along with Malaya and the British possessions in North Kalimantan. However, sharp contradictions between the Malay and Chinese political elites on the problem of the socio-ethnic construction of a new state led to the fact that in August 1965 Singapore was forced to leave the Federation. On August 9 of the same year, it was proclaimed an independent state. He was accepted as a member of the UN and the Commonwealth of Nations.

Science and culture of Singapore

According to searchforpublicschools, the system of free primary and secondary education is designed for 10 years and is aimed at mastering English and native languages, as well as basic knowledge in the exact sciences, mainly in mathematics. Graduation classes provide for specialization in the exact and humanitarian areas. Primary and secondary education is free.

Institutions of higher education are the National University of Singapore (founded in 1980 through the merger of the University of Singapore and Nanyang University); Nanyang Technological University (founded in 1991); Singapore Institute of Management (founded in 1964 as a private university); Institute of Southeast Asia, a leading center for studying the problems of regional security, socio-economic development of Southeast Asia; Singapore Polytechnic (founded in 1954 to train mid-level engineering and management personnel).

Cultural life is patronized by the National Arts Council. The Council provides funding for creative teams, plans the repertoire of theaters and organizes relevant competitions. The National Council manages four theatres: the Victoria Theatre, the Drama Centre, the Kallang Theatre, and the Singapore Convention Centre. It also leases buildings and premises to various amateur creative groups and associations. The country has a professional Singapore Symphony Orchestra.

There are the National Archives, the National Museum and the National Library.

Festivals of national arts (Chinese, Malay, Tamil) are held annually, usually timed to coincide with traditional and religious holidays.

Education of Singapore

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