Category: North America

For the complete list of nations in North America, please visit

Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah

Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah

According to timedictionary, Bryce Canyon was declared a National Park in 1928. It is named after the Mormon Bryce family, who lived here between 1875 and 1880. Bryce Canyon is located on the Paunsagunt Plateau in the south of the state of Utah, at an altitude of about 2500 m. The park is like a natural amphitheater around a horseshoe-shaped basin and is 146 km2 in size. The plateau has been eroded by water and wind and this has resulted in thousands of red, orange and yellow rock formations, interspersed with deep gorges and pillars in all shapes. These pillars are also called hoodoos. The whole area was formed between 144 and 63 million years ago.


The nearest town is Panguitch, located about 23 miles northwest of Bryce Canyon. Charter flights depart from several places, including Las Vegas, to Bryce Canyon Airport.


The climate in Bryce Canyon varies greatly. In the summer months, the temperature fluctuates around 30°C during the day: a cap and good sunscreen are no superfluous luxury. Due to the altitude, it can cool down to about 7°C at night. There are also many thunderstorms during this period. There may be snow from October to April; the average snowfall is 2.5 meters per year. The temperature is then around freezing point.

Entrance fees and opening times

The National Park is open all year round and 24 hours a day. In winter, the park may be temporarily closed due to bad weather conditions. Tickets are available at Ruby’s Inn, 1000 South Hwy 63, Bryce, Utah, among others. When you enter the park with your own vehicle, you pay $20 for a ticket that is valid for seven consecutive days. This includes all occupants. The park is also accessible by so-called shuttle from May 15 to September 30. You pay $ 15 for this, the entrance to the park is included. The shuttles depart every 15 minutes from 09:00 to 18:00. The boarding point is in front of the entrance to Ruby’s Inn.


You can spend the night in Bryce Canyon in different ways. Luxury rooms can be reserved in Bryce View Lodge. The view over the Canyon from here is, as the name says, overwhelming.

Ruby’s Inn is located a mile from the entrance to the National Park. With rooms starting at $52, this hotel also offers plenty of facilities, including an indoor pool, to relax at the end of the day.

You can camp at Sunset Campground for about $10 per night. This campsite is open from May to October and advance reservations are not necessary. Sunset Campground, Highway 63, box 17001, Bryce Canyon, UT 84717.
Food and Beverage There is a suitable restaurant for everyone in or near Bryce Canyon. Cowboy’s Buffet and Steakroom is located opposite the Bryce View Lodge. Here you can enjoy breakfast, lunch and dinner every day. For a quick bite, there is Canyon Diner, which includes pizzas, sandwiches, fish, meat, soup and salads.


Quite close together in the canyon are the viewpoints Sunrise, Sunset and Inspiration Point, which are definitely worth a visit. Further on you will find the Bryce Point and Paria View. There are several hiking and mountain biking trails in the park.
A special way to explore the canyon is on horseback. Children ages seven and up are welcome and prices range from $40 to $90. The horseback rides depart from Ruby’s Inn, reservations are required. For reservations, contact Canyon Trail Rides, PO Box 128, Tropic, UT 84776, +1 435 679 8665 or +1 435 834 5500.

For souvenirs, clothing, fruit and vegetables, you can go to Ruby’s General Store, near Ruby’s Inn.
Pets It is not recommended to bring pets to Bryce Canyon. Please note that pets must be leashed and supervised at all times.

Bryce Canyon National Park

Travel to Las Vegas, Nevada

Travel to Las Vegas, Nevada

This famous gambling city in America is literally a bright spot in the vast Mojave desert. When you drive towards the city in your rental car, the flashing neon lights meet you from a great distance. Because of the succession of luxury hotels, bustling nightclubs and cozy casinos, the city is nicknamed ‘Sin City’.

Of course you visit Las Vegas to experience these gambling palaces, wedding chapels and exuberant atmosphere for yourself. It is also a very special experience. But you’re selling yourself short if you don’t look beyond the dazzling pageantry and glamour. On the basis of this travel guide, we take you to Las Vegas and the state of Nevada, of course we take a look at all the splendor, but we also dive a little further into Vegas.

As soon as the plane lands at the Las Vegas airport, tensions begin to rise. Where to start your visit in the city? At the welcome sign ‘Welcome to Fabulous Las Vegas’, of course. To do this, you must drive to the south end of The Strip, and the sign is about 500 meters south of the Mandalay Bay hotel.

Anyone who thinks that Las Vegas is only for couples or groups of friends is wrong. It is also a nice destination for families. Children will probably appreciate the High Roller: the tallest Ferris wheel in the world. It is 167.7 meters high and the views are spectacular.

One of the most famous fountains that you probably know from the movies are the Bellagio fountains. They stand in front of the luxury hotel of the same name on The Strip and bring a romantic atmosphere with their iconic (light) shows.

The show also continues in Las Vegas

According to bittranslators, Las Vegas is known for its spectacular entertainment, and that includes the shows. One of the most beautiful theaters is the Colosseum at Caesars Palace where big names such as Elton John, Rod Stewart and Mariah Carey perform.

Cirque du Soleil also regularly performs in Las Vegas. The international group, originally from Canada, shows dramatic circus skills in beautiful costumes, combined with beautiful lighting and original music.

Visit fun sights with the whole family

The old neon signs of the city’s casinos, among others, are not simply thrown away. They take them to the Neon Museum where you can now admire them up close on Las Vegas Boulevard. It is very special to walk between the life-size and original signs, some of which light up again at night.

Seven Magic Mountains is a colorful piece of art that you will find in the south of Las Vegas. The colored stones stand out nicely against the neutral background and it is completely free to admire.

The Hoover Dam is an impressive dam in the Black Canyon. It crosses the Colorado River. It is one of the best constructions in the world and well worth getting in your rental car for.

Las Vegas is one of the most colorful cities in America. The contrast with its direct and neutrally colored surroundings could not be greater. To get a good picture of Las Vegas and the beautiful nature around the city, get into the rental car to start your journey of discovery.

Seven Magic Mountains

Huntsville, Alabama

Huntsville, Alabama

According to Electronicsmatter, Huntsville is one of the fastest growing cities in the Southeastern US, Alabama . Huntsville seamlessly blends the rich history of Southern hospitality with innovative high-tech enterprises and cultural diversity. The Rocket City, famous for the US Space & Rocket Center and its part in the race to the moon, is growing fast. This beautiful city continues to attract the best scientists and engineers in the country and is also experiencing a renaissance. Restaurants, shops, craft breweries and other social hotspots are popping up and thriving everywhere.

6 Attractions in Huntsville, Alabama that you can’t miss

1.US Space & Rocket Center

Spend a day at the US Space & Rocket Center. Explore the history of space exploration or get hands-on with the interactive exhibits. People of all generations can feel like an astronaut for a day or a week! See the National Historic Landmark – an authentic Saturn V moon rocket – one of only three on display in the world! Explore the development and evolution of the Space Shuttle program to the International Space Station and learn about NASA’s latest innovations. Enjoy incredible artifacts from our nation’s space program, hands-on interactive exhibits, space travel simulators, and INTUTIVE planetarium shows. The USSRC is also home to week-long Space Camp®, Aviation Challenge® Camp, and Robotics Camp programs. Additional amenities include free parking, restaurants, gift shops, strollers and dog kennels. Stay for an hour or stay for a week… there is something for everyone!

2.Huntsville Botanical Garden

The Huntsville Botanical Garden is open year-round and contains diverse ecosystems to explore within its 112 acres. From grassy meadows to forest trails, aquatic habitats to beautiful collections of flowers, the garden invites guests of all ages to discover the beauty and wonder of the natural environment. Hike along the nature trails as you admire collections of Alabama’s native plants. Unlock the Children’s Garden after meeting the fluttering butterflies in the country’s largest open-air butterfly house. Find peace in the cool shade of the trees, surrounded by the sounds of nature. With additional events, exhibits, and programs throughout the year, the garden is a source of plant conservation, education, and celebration for all.

3.Monte Sano State Park

Monte Sano, Spanish for “Mountain of Health”, rises more than 500 meters above sea level. The mountain has attracted visitors since the mid-1820s with the establishment of the town of Viduta, a derivative of the Spanish word “Vida”, meaning life. Viduta was home to a sanatorium and hotel resort, Hotel Monte Sano, which opened in 1887 and closed in the early 1900s due to a declining economy. Located in downtown Huntsville, 2,500 acres of nature offers 14 vacation homes, camping grounds, picnic areas and pavilions, hiking and biking trails, playgrounds, and flower gardens.

4.Twickenham Historic District

Did you know Alabama’s largest Antebellum district is in the heart of Huntsville? Take a step back in time as you pass through rows of pre-Civil War homes built in the beautiful architectural style of early America. If you’re an architecture enthusiast or just enjoy looking at historic homes, a tour of the Twickenham District is a must-do activity on your next trip to Huntsville.

5.Historic Huntsville Depot

Climb on locomotives, see Civil War graffiti, and listen as guides talk about working on the railroads. It is home to Rocket City BBQ Cook-Off and Whistle Stop Festival. The Huntsville Depot was used as a hospital, Union prison, and residence for both black and white Union soldiers, who left graffiti on the walls of the third floor.

6.Big Spring International Park

Big Spring International Park lured settlers to Huntsville more than 200 years ago, and the city has been celebrating it ever since – growing up around this green space and preserving it for its citizens. The park hosts numerous events including Panoply Arts Festival, Concerts in the Park and many more. Kids will love the famously friendly ducks, geese and koi that call the Big Spring home. As you explore, keep an eye out for the famous red bridge and cherry trees that were gifts to the city from Japan.

Huntsville, Alabama

Ironton-Russell Bridge, Kentucky

Ironton-Russell Bridge, Kentucky


Ironton-Russell Bridge
Spans Ohio River
Lanes 1×2
Total length ~800 meters
Main span 274 meters
Bridge deck height ? meter
Opening 21-08-1922 / 23-11-2016
Traffic intensity 3,700 mvt/day
Location Map

According to transporthint, the Ironton-Russell Bridge is a cable- stayed bridge in the United States, located on the border of the states of Kentucky and Ohio. The bridge spans the Ohio River between Ironton, Ohio and Russell, Kentucky.


The bridge is a concrete cable- stayed bridge with two A-shaped pylons. The entire bridge is approximately 800 meters long and is located in a bend from the Ohio side and crosses the Ohio River obliquely. The actual main bridge is 501 meters long and has a main span of 274 meters and two side spans of 113 meters. The bridge deck is 9.8 meters wide. The bridge is an extension of 2nd Street in Ironton, Ohio and opens to an intersection with US 23 in Kentucky, just east of Russell. The bridge also spans a railway line on both sides of the river. It is only one of two bridges over the Ohio River that are also operated by the Ohio Department of Transportation.


The original Ironton-Russell Bridge (1922-2016).

The original bridge at this location was a truss bridge with a length of 731 meters and a main span of 221 meters. The bridge was opened on August 21, 1922 and was one of the first bridges over the Ohio River in the region. At the time, it was the first road bridge over the Ohio River between Parkersburg and Cincinnati. The bridge was an extension of Main Street in Russell and Vernon Street in Ironton, although the connecting roads led to Willow Avenue in Russell and Adams Street in Ironton. The bridge was a toll road for some time. The bridge was reinforced in the 1970s.

Construction of the new bridge in 2015.

The 1922 bridge was in poor condition and had the status of ‘structurally deficient’. In addition to the poor condition of the bridge, the bridge was also outdated in design requirements, with a narrow 4 mile road and a sharp bend on the Ironton side. In 2000, a study was carried out to replace the bridge. In 2003 the design was chosen, a concrete cable-stayed bridge, which comes about 1 kilometer upstream from the old bridge. The project was originally scheduled to start around 2006, but the high demand for concrete after Hurricane Katrina resulted in an inflated cost of $110 million. The project has since been scaled down slightly from three to two lanes and cost $81 million. The new bridge is a cable-stayed bridge with two A-shaped pylons. The new bridge is 501 meters long with a main span of 274 meters and two side spans of 113 meters. The bridge deck is 9.8 meters wide, more than three meters wider than the old bridge. The pylons are 91.6 meters high. The bridge was constructed between March 2012 and November 2016. In June 2016, the last concrete was poured and the bridge deck closed on both sides. The bridge opened to traffic on November 23, 2016. On May 17, 2017, the old bridge from 1922 was blown up.

Traffic intensities

Approximately 3,700 vehicles use the bridge every day. The bridge is primarily used by local traffic between both banks of the Ohio River.

John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge

John A. RoeblingSuspension Bridge
Spans Ohio River
Lanes 1×2
Total length 659 meters
Main span 322 meters
Bridge deck height ? meter
Opening 01-12-1866
Traffic intensity 9,200 mvt/day
Location Map

According to travelationary, the John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge is a truss structure suspension bridge in the United States, located on the border of the states of Kentucky and Ohio. The bridge spans the Ohio River in Cincinnati.


The John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge is a total of 659 meters long, with a main span of 322 meters in length. The bridge has two sandstone pylons, with a half-timbered construction hanging from cables. The bridge deck is 7.6 meters wide, with one lane in each direction. The bridge connects downtown Cincinnati with downtown Covington in Kentucky. The bridge is toll-free.



In the mid-19th century, Cincinnati flourished as a port and trading city on the Ohio River. This created the need for a fixed bridge connection. One problem was that the Ohio River in Cincinnati is wide, wider than, say, the Wheeling Suspension Bridge in West Virginia, opened in 1849. In 1846 the Covington and Cincinnati Bridge Company was created to carry out the construction.

The first plans of engineer John A. Roebling envisaged a bridge of 370 meters in length with a vertical clearance of 30 meters. This one had one major drawback, a large pylon in the middle of the Ohio River. A bridge with a span of 430 meters was later planned, but the collapse of a suspension bridge in Newport over the Licking River meant that no investors could be found. In 1856 sufficient funds became available and the span plans were shortened to a more feasible 300 metres.


Construction began in September 1856 with the foundation of the pylon on the Covington side. On the Cincinnati side there were problems with the soil conditions and a hole was dug down to the hard soil under the Ohio River. Construction was halted for a long time in the winter and spring and was not resumed until July 1857. Later that year there was the “panic of 1857” and people ran out of money, so that construction was halted for a year. Work on the pylon resumed in July 1858, but work was halted again in 1859-1860 due to the death of the chairman of the Covington and Cincinnati Bridge Company.

In 1861 the American Civil War broke out. A pontoon bridge was hastily built near Cincinnati to defend the city from Confederate troops. It became clear what advantages a fixed bridge had, so that money became available again for construction. Work on the bridge resumed in the spring of 1864. The tethers were manufactured in Manchester, England. This is because the English cables were considered to be of better quality than the American ones. In 1865-1866 the cables over the river were installed between the pylons. Then the bridge deck was installed, which consisted of iron girders and wooden planks. On December 1, 1866, the bridge opened to pedestrians. When opened, it was the longest suspension bridge in the world.


The bridge deck was of inferior quality due to the inflation of the American Civil War, but the pylons were built to support a much heavier bridge deck. In 1896 the bridge was significantly modified, the bridge deck was reinforced with steel and the bridge on the Cincinnati side was modified.

The bridge was originally a toll bridge. The bridge was originally privately owned until 1953, when the state of Kentucky took over the bridge. The toll was scrapped in 1963, when the Brent Spence Bridge off Interstate 75 opened. The bridge got its current name in 1983. Between 2006 and 2008 the bridge was renovated. The maximum permissible weight was also reduced to 11 tons. A renovation followed in 2021, during which the bridge was closed for almost the entire year.

Traffic intensities

9,400 vehicles cross the bridge every day. This makes it the busiest non-motorway bridge in the region.

John A. Roebling Suspension

US 31 in Michigan

US 31 in Michigan


US 31
Get started Niles
End Mackinaw City
Length 356 mi
Length 573 km

Buchanan / Niles


South Berrien Springs

Berrien Springs

Eau Claire


Benton Harbor

Benton Harbor – Holland:


Grand Haven

Spring Lake


Van Wagoner Street

fruit port

Sternberg Road

Muskegon Heights


Downtown Muskegon

North Muskegon

North Muskegon





New Era




Bass Lake

South Ludington




Traverse City



Mackinaw City

According to foodezine, US 31 is a US Highway in the US state of Michigan. The road forms a north-south route along the entire west coast of Lake Michigan and is a highway on some stretches. The total route is 573 kilometers long and runs from the Indiana border to Interstate 75 in Mackinaw City.

Travel directions

US 31 at Pentwater.

Just north of South Bend, Indiana, US 31 crosses the border between the two states and is immediately a freeway here. The highway heads north here and crosses US 12 at Niles. East of Benton Harbor, US 31 terminates at a junction with Interstate 94 and then continues over Interstate 196 to Holland. In Holland the road branches off from I-196 and then runs through the city to the north, as a 2×2 divided highway to the town of Muskegon. From Grand Haven, the road becomes a freeway again and one crosses Interstate 96, which begins here and heads toward Grand Rapids and Detroit.

One then passes along the east side of the 40,000 inhabitants town of Muskegon. US 31 here is a highway for 110 kilometers that runs parallel to the shoreline of Lake Michigan to the north. To the north, the area becomes increasingly forested. The highway section lasts until Ludington, after which it crosses US 10. US 31 continues north and passes through the town of Manistee. Along the route are several smaller lakes that are a stone’s throw from Lake Michigan. US 31 then jumps a little east and passes through Traverse City, which sits on Grand Traverse Bay, an estuary of Lake Michigan. One passes over several isthmuses along lakes. One passes through Petoskey, where US 131ends. US 31 then continues a little further north, to Interstate 75 at Mackinaw City. This is the northern end of Michigan’s Lower Peninsula.


US 31 at Muskegon.

According to bittranslators, US 31 was created in 1926 and originally ended just a little further north at St. Ignace. Since 1940, the route has ended in Mackinaw City and was shortened to I-75 in 1960 just south of Mackinaw City.

St Joseph Valley Parkway

The St. Joseph Valley Parkway is the highway stretch from the Indiana border to Benton Harbor in southwestern Michigan.

Already in the early 1950s there were plans for a highway in southwest Michigan, especially to relieve the town of Niles. Progress on the plan was slow, and it wasn’t until 1967 that studies began to extend the bypass from South Bend, Indiana, into Michigan. It was not until 1977 that construction began on this section, the first section of which was opened in 1979 from the Indiana border to US 12 south of Niles. The Niles bypass opened in 1987 and was extended north of Berrien Springs in November 1992 as a divided highway with at-grade intersections. In 1996-1997 this part was made grade-separated. It was originally planned to direct US 31 into Interstate 196to flow at Benton Harbor, but environmental problems caused US 31 to terminate just a few miles south. The last section from Berrien Springs to Benton Harbor opened on August 27, 2003.

Near Benton Harbor, the US 31 freeway had been interrupted for four kilometers for decades. The interstate from South Bend ended 2.5 miles south of the interchange between I-94 and I-196, requiring traffic to exit and enter I-94 via a five – lane center turn lane. Traffic between South Bend and Holland/Grand Rapids had to make three turns to follow the route.

Construction of the interstate highway between Niles and I-94/I-196 at Benton Harbor stems from the adoption of an environmental impact statementin 1981. This provided for the phased construction of the 30 kilometer long freeway. The highway was then opened in phases up to Benton Harbor, but with a missing link of 4 kilometers to I-94/I-196. In 2003, the penultimate section opened to Napier Avenue east of Benton Harbor. In more recent years, several alternatives have been studied, including a deflection from the freeway to an interchange with I-94 at Main Street. Only one alternative followed the original plan directly north to the interchange between I-94 and I-196. Ultimately, it was decided to turn to the west where US 31 connects to Exit 33 (Main Street) of I-94 as an interchange.

Construction of the missing link began in September 2020 and opened 2 years later on September 26, 2022.

Opening history
From Unpleasant Length Date
Indiana state line Niles (US 12) 5 km 00-00-1979
Niles (US 12) Niles (Walton Road) 6 km 00-00-1987
Niles (Walton Road) Berrien Springs 14 km 00-11-1992
Berrien Springs Benton Harbor 14 km 27-08-2003
Benton Harbor I-94 4 km 26-09-2022

Grand Haven – Ludington Freeway

Construction of the freeway from Grand Haven to Ludington started quite early. The first section to open was a six-lane bridge between Grand Haven and Ferrysburg in 1959 and later that year to downtown Muskegon. In 1964 another fairly long section opened up to Montague, further north. Construction then slowed, and the remainder of the route to Ludington was opened from south to north in phases between 1975 and 1990.

Opening history
From Unpleasant Length Date
Grand Haven Ferrysburg 2 km 12-06-1959
Ferrysburg Muskegon Southeast 10 km 24-07-1959
Muskegon Southeast Downtown Muskegon 6 km 22-10-1959
Downtown Muskegon Montague 27 km 30-06-1964
Montague New Era 14 km 00-00-1975
New Era Heart 14 km 00-00-1976
Heart pentwater 8 km 00-00-1978
pentwater Bass Lake 6 km 16-10-1980
Bass Lake South Ludington 13 km 00-00-1989
South Ludington Ludington 5 km 00-00-1990

Traffic intensities

The highway section between Niles and Benton Harbor is not very busy with 12,000 vehicles per day. At Muskegon, it peaks at 47,000 vehicles, before declining to 7,000 vehicles at the north end of the highway at Ludington. After that, the US 31 forms a quiet tourist road with about 5,000 to 10,000 vehicles per day.

US 31 in Michigan

US 60 in Missouri

US 60 in Missouri


US 60
Begin Seneca
End Cairo
Length 348 mi
Length 560 km






Mountain Grove

Willow Springs


Poplar Bluff





According to bestitude, US 60 is a US Highway in the US state of Missouri. The road forms an east-west route through the south of the state, from the Oklahoma border at Seneca through Neosho, Springfield and Sikeston to the Illinois border at Cairo. The road is 560 kilometers long.

Travel directions

De freeway in Springfield.

At Seneca, US 60 in Oklahoma from Bartlesville enters the state of Missouri in the southwest corner of the state. The road then continues for about 20 kilometers to the east and crosses Interstate 49 at the town of Neosho. The area here consists of meadows and already quite large forests in a rolling landscape. After Neosho, US 60 runs remotely parallel to Interstate 44to Springfield, which is nearly 100 miles away. The road passes through a plain that lies between two parts of the Ozark Mountains. One passes through small towns like Monett and Aurora before reaching larger Springfield. Springfield is one of the larger cities in Missouri. US 60 then forms a highway south of the city and crosses US 160 and on the southeast side of the city US 65.

After Springfield, US 60 has 2×2 lanes for a fairly long distance, until Willow Springs, 140 kilometers to the east. This area is a bit more hilly, but one crosses very few major roads, the occasional state route. Around Mountain Grove, up to Cabool, US 60 is a freeway. At Cabool the US 63 merges from Rolla, both roads are then double-numbered for about 25 kilometers until Willow Springs. The road curves slightly to the southeast here and passes through the Mark Twain National Forest. US 63 then exits to West Plains and Jonesboro in Arkansas. The US 60 then continues as a single-lane road further east, through large nature reserves. This area is densely forested and forms one of the largest forest areas between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains. The route to Poplar Bluff is 160 kilometers long, and leads through a fairly sparsely populated area. Just before Poplar Bluff, US 67 merges from Park Hills and is then briefly double-numbered. US 60 is from here a freeway around Poplar Bluff, after which US 67 exits to Pocahontas in Arkansas. After this, US 60 is a main route with alternating 2×2 at-grade and highway sections. The transition from the mountain area to the Mississippi River plain is quite sudden around Poplar Bluff.

De Cairo Mississippi River Bridge.

You pass Dexter and then after about 80 kilometers you reach the town of Sikeston, where you first cross US 61, and merge US 62 from New Madrid. Shortly afterwards you cross the Interstate 55. US 60 then runs parallel to Interstate 57. At Charleston, it crosses I-57 and US 60 continues to the southern tip of the state of Illinois, around the town of Cairo, where the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers meet. US 60 in Illinois then continues through Cairo to Paducah in Kentucky.


According to biotionary, US 60 was created in 1926. The western starting point at the time was the city of Springfield, Missouri. In 1931, the route was required westward to Texas and the current route through Missouri was created. East of Springfield, the route is of more through importance and has therefore been doubled to 4 lanes since the 1970s. The first section widened ran from Springfield to Willow Springs, and then from Poplar Bluff to Sikeston. The middle section was mainly tackled after 2005, and was completely widened to 4 lanes on 9 July 2010.


The James River Freeway has been constructed along the south side of Springfield. Construction of the highway began in the early 1990s. The first section to open was between Kansas Expressway and Campbell Avenue which opened in or before 1990. Shortly thereafter, the eastward extension from Campbell Avenue to US 65 was constructed, which opened circa 1992. The third and final section was between US 60 and Kansas Expressway, which opened circa 1995-1996. Later, another section west of US 60 opened as State Route 360 ​​in 2002.

The interchange between US 60 and US 65 on the southeast side of Springfield was originally a cloverleaf without shunting lanes. This has been converted in phases between 2009 and 2011 with large flyovers for traffic from south to west and from west to north. The other connections still go through clover loops.

Springfield – Rogersville

Between September 2014 and November 2016, US 60 between Springfield and Rogersville was converted to a freeway. The project was called “Project Freeway” and involved 11 miles of US 60 between US 65 in Springfield and the east side of Rogersville. The project built three new connections, built parallel roads and removed existing intersections. The project was completed on November 1, 2016.


US 60 is planned east of Springfield in the distant future as part of Interstate 66. A number of bypasses are already freeway, namely around Mansfield, Mountain Grove, Cabool, Poplar Bluff and Dexter.

Traffic intensities

Every day, 7,700 vehicles drive near the Oklahoma border and the section to Springfield still has a fair amount of traffic with 6,000 to 12,000 vehicles. Up to 67,000 vehicles drive through Springfield, descending to 12,000 vehicles on the 2×2 section to Willow Springs. To the east of this is less traffic, about 5,000 vehicles. After Poplar Bluff, this increases again to about 11,000 vehicles. The section parallel to I-57 has 3,000 vehicles.

US 60 in Missouri

State Route 71 and 8 in Nebraska

State Route 71 and 8 in Nebraska

State Route 71 in Nebraska

Get started Kimball
End Crawford
Length 167 mi
Length 269 ​​km




South Dakota

According to ablogtophone, State Route 71 or Highway 71 is a state route in the U.S. state of Nebraska. The road forms a north-south route through the west of the state, from the Colorado state border near Kimball through Scottsbluff to the South Dakota border north of Crawford. Highway 71 is 269 kilometers long.

Travel directions

The 2×2 Highway 71 between Kimball and Scottsbluff.

Highway 71 is a continuation of State Route 71 in Colorado that comes from Brush and runs north over the barren High Plains and connects to Interstate 80 at the town of Kimball. There is a bypass around Kimball, and Highway 71 is a 2×2 divided highway from Kimball to Scottsbluff. South of Scottsbluff the road leads through a low ridge. Scottsbluff is the largest town on the route and has an east and north bypass. On the northern bypass, Highway 71 with US 26 is double-numbered.

North of Scottbluff, Highway 71 runs mostly through sparsely populated rangeland. There are only a few hamlets on the route and the village of Crawford. From Scottbluff the road first heads north for 45 kilometers before bending east. After 30 kilometers, Highway 71 turns north again at an intersection with Highway 2. Highway 2 and 71 are then double-numbered for the rest of the route. The road then leads through an area of ​​low hills with some wooded slopes in the otherwise barren undulating landscape. In Crawford you cross the US 20. North of Crawford it then takes another 45 kilometers before the border with the state of South Dakotareached, but the road no longer leads through other villages. There are some badlands and barren steppe. One then reaches the border with South Dakota, after which State Route 71 in South Dakota continues to Hot Springs.


The number Highway 71 has been used several times in history. In 1921, highways in Nebraska were first numbered when Highway 71 was assigned an east-west route from North Platte to Lexington. This was historically one of the main roads in Nebraska. Later this became US 30. In 1925, Nebraska’s highway network was renumbered, with Highway 71 being assigned to a one-mile route from the Kansas border to Haigler. This was a continuation of State Route 27 in Kansas. Circa 1957, this was renumbered Highway 27 to join the Kansas track.

In about 1963, Highway 71 was assigned a third time, on its current route from the Colorado border at Kimball through Scottsbluff and Crawford to the South Dakota border. This created a long route in Colorado, Nebraska, and South Dakota that shared one common number, Highway 71. The section between Kimball and Scottsbluff, in particular, was an important route to the North Platte River valley around Scottsbluff. In 1991 this section was designated as part of the Heartland Expressway. The widening of Highway 71 between Kimball and Scottsbluff began in the late 1990s, which was largely completed by 2005. The road was widened to a 2×2 divided highwaywith level crossings. Later, the Kimball bypass was built, which opened on October 4, 2011.

Traffic intensities

Every day, 800 vehicles drive along the Colorado border and 2,000 to 3,000 vehicles on the 2×2 section between Kimball and Scottsbluff. This increases to a maximum of 10,000 vehicles on the double-numbered US 26 on the north side of Scottsbluff. North of Scottsbluff, intensities quickly drop from 1,800 to 700 vehicles, holding steady on a long stretch all the way to Crawford. North of Crawford there are only 200 vehicles per day.

State Route 8 in Nebraska

Get started Superior
End Falls City
Length 149 mi
Length 240 km






Pawnee City

du Bois


Falls City

According to beautyphoon, State Route 8, also known as Highway 8 is a state route in the U.S. state of Nebraska. The road forms a fairly long east-west route through the extreme south of the state, from Superior through Fairbury to Falls City, parallel to the border with Kansas. Highway 8 is 150 miles long.

Travel directions

State Route 8 near Falls City.

Highway 8 runs from west to east through 6 counties bordering Kansas . The road begins in Superior on Highway 14 and heads east across the Great Plains, endless agricultural plains. Most places on the route are very small and in many cases are slightly set back from the road, reducing the number of village passages. Halfway through the route, you pass through the small town of Fairbury and the terminus is Falls City, the largest town in southeastern Nebraska. It crosses several north-south US Highways, such as US 73, US 75, US 77 and US 81. Highway 8 jumps several times in the grid to the north and south. The entire route is a two-lane road. The border with the state of Kansas is never more than 15 kilometers from Highway 8.


Highway 8 was not one of the original state highways of 1921, but was introduced with the major renumbering of 1925, and was originally a long diagonal route from Spencer to Omaha in northeastern Nebraska. The US Highways were introduced in Nebraska in 1926 and the route has been double numbered for some time with US 281 between Spencer and O’Neill and US 275 between O’Neill and Fremont. Highway 8 was scrapped in 1957 due to the long double numbering, the section between Fremont and Omaha has been unnumbered ever since.

In 1960, the current Highway 8 was assigned. At the time, the route varied from a gravel road to a gravel road with chipseal pavement so that it was dust-free. The road almost never had a full asphalt pavement. Later the road was paved.

Traffic intensities

Highway 8 is a very quiet road. On many sections, no more than 400 to 800 vehicles per day, with occasional routes with just over 1,000 vehicles per day. The busiest section of Highway 8 is just east of Fairbury with 2,100 vehicles per day.

State Route 8 in Nebraska

Interstate 90 in New York

Interstate 90 in New York


Get started Ripley
End canaan
Length 386 mi
Length 621 km
Pennsylvania61 Ripley

60 Westfield

59 Fredonia

58 Silver Creek

57A Eden

57 Hamburg

56 Buffalo South

55 → Salamanca

55 Lackawanna

54 → East Aurora

53 → Buffalo / Niagara Falls

52A Buffalo-Southeast

52E Cheektowaga

51W Buffalo East

50 → Tonawanda / Niagara Falls

49 Buffalo Niagara International Airport

48A Corfu

48B Batavia

47 → Rochester

46 → Rochester / Elmira

45 → Rochester

44 Canadaigua

43 Manchester

42 Geneva

41 Waterloo

40 Weed Sports

39 → Syracuse

38 Liverpool

37 Syracuse-North

36 → Scranton / Watertown

35 Syracuse

34A → Syracuse Bypass

34 Canastota

33 Oneida

32 Westmoreland

31 → Utica

30 Mohawk

29A Little Falls

29 Palatine Bridge

28 Fonda

27 Amsterdam

26 → Schenectady

25A → Binghamton

25 → Schenectady

24 → New York

1N → Montreal

2 Roessleville

3 Albany West

4 → Delmar

5 Central Avenue

5A Corporate Woods Boulevard

6 → Albany

6a → Albany

7 Washington Avenue

8 West Sand Lake


10 East Greenbush



Berkshire Connector

Taconic State Parkway

New Lebanon


Interstate 90 or I -90 is an Interstate Highway in the U.S. state of New York. The highway provides an east-west connection along most major towns in Upstate New York. Large portions of the route are a toll road, and the road is called New York State Thruway because Interstate 90 crosses the entire state. It passes by the major conurbations of Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, and also by the state capital, Albany. Exit numbering runs within New York Statein the “wrong” direction, namely west, while the rest of Interstate 90 heads east. Exit numbering in New York is sequential and not distance-based. The New York State Thruway continues south to New York City, and is the longest toll road in the United States at nearly 800 miles. The Interstate 90 section in the state is 621 kilometers long.

Travel directions

Lake Erie & Buffalo

Interstate 90 in Pennsylvania merges into New York State just west of Ripley, running parallel and fairly close to the shore of Lake Erie. Just past the first exit comes the toll plaza, which consists of only 3 toll booths in each direction, as the route is fairly quiet here. The New York State Thruwayhas 2×2 lanes here and has a wide median strip. The toll system is closed, which means that you get a ticket when you drive up, and you have to pay again when you drive off. The exits are widely spaced, typical of a toll road. The landscape consists of an alternation of forests and hills with few major differences in height. The highway sometimes runs less than a mile from Lake Erie. You pass a few small towns and villages, and the highway parallels US 20. At the height of Hamburg one enters the urban area of ​​Buffalo.

According to Topschoolsintheusa, Buffalo is a large city with a population of 290,000 and 1.2 million in the metropolitan area of ​​Niagara Falls. At the interchange with US 219, a highway to Springville in the south, is the toll plaza. Within Buffalo, the road is toll-free. In Buffalo, the highway has 2×3 lanes. A little further on is a junction with the Aurora Expressway, which leads to the town of the same name. After this, the road widens to 2×4 lanes. A little further on, Interstate turns 190This is the bypass through downtown Buffalo to Niagara Falls. After this junction, the road has 2×3 lanes again, because a lot of commuter traffic goes to the center. At Buffalo Airport one crosses the Kensington Expressway, which leads to the center, and to some eastern suburbs. After this, I-90 turns east, and Interstate 290 continues straight toward Niagara Falls, and Hamilton and Toronto in Canada. Shortly after this interchange is the toll plaza for the second section of the New York Thruway.

Upstate New York

I-90 in Upstate New York.

The interchange between I-88 and I-90 near Rotterdam.

Upstate New York is a term for the part of the state that is not part of New York City or its suburbs. Interstate 90 and the New York State Thruway are the main access routes. Interstate 90 runs due east. The highway has 2×2 lanes immediately after Buffalo. The landscape here also alternates between forests and meadows, and there are no major differences in height. The first town on the route is Batavia. East of Batavia, Interstate 490 exits and leads to the large city of Rochester which is just north of I-90. The agglomeration has more than a million inhabitants. Interstate 90 passes through the southernmost suburbs. On the south side one also crosses Interstate 390, which leads to downtown Rochester, and to Elmira to the south. I-390 is quite a long way for a route that has 3 digits. I-490 terminates again on the east side of Rochester.

South of Interstate 90 are the so-called “Finger Lakes”, eleven large elongated lakes that are a major tourist destination. The highway passes quite close to some of them, near the towns of Canandaigua, Geneva and Seneca Falls. The next major city is Syracuse, with a population of 150,000, quite a large conurbation with 750,000 inhabitants. On the west side, Interstate 690 exits, which leads to downtown Syracuse. Interstate 90 runs through the north side of Syracuse. In the city is Lake Onandaga, I-90 runs right past it. On the north side of the city, one crosses Interstate 81, which runs to Watertown and Montreal in Canada, and leads south to Binghamton and Scranton in Pennsylvania. One passes south of the Syracuse airport, and one crosses Interstate 481, Syracuse’s eastern bypass.

After leaving the city, the highway runs right past the large Oneida Lake. The landscape still consists of an alternation of forests and meadows. The highway runs south of Rome, a regional town, and passes Utica, a somewhat larger town with 60,000 inhabitants. It also crosses Interstate 790, which leads to downtown Utica. North of I-90 is the immense Adirondack Park, the largest park in the United States, which quickly takes half a day to drive through. Just east of Utica, the Mohawk River parallels the highway.

The next larger city is Schenectady with 60,000 inhabitants, with suburbs like Rotterdam and part of the larger conurbation with Albany. On the north side of town, Interstate 890 exits, which cuts right through Schenectady. A little further on, Interstate 88 ends at I-90, this highway comes from Binghamton. Interstate 890 ends again on the south side of Schenectady. The highway has 2×3 lanes here. The next city is New York’s capital, Albany. It crosses Interstate 87, the highway between New York City and Montreal. Albany has 90,000 inhabitants, and more than a million in the agglomeration with Schenectady. Crossing Interstate 787. via a 4-level stack interchange, a regional north-south highway. Then you cross the Hudson River. East of Albany the road is more hilly and wooded. After this one crosses the Berkshire Spur, the connection between I-87 and I-90 south of Albany. At East Chatham one crosses the Taconic State Parkway, a scenic highway to New York. Further to the Massachusetts border it gets a bit more hilly, with some ridges. Interstate 90 continues in Massachusetts at Canaan.


I-90 near Amsterdam.

The highway follows some older trade routes dating back to the 18th century. The highway was planned as part of a toll system in 1938. The route changed from time to time, but in 1942 the route was established by the New York State government. Construction started in 1946 but was initially very slow, in 1950 only 6 kilometers had been opened. After it was decided that the road should become a toll road, construction accelerated, especially after 1954. The highway was completed between Buffalo and Albany in 1954, to New York City in 1956 ( Interstate 87 ).), to Pennsylvania in 1957, and to Massachusetts in 1959. The toll-free section through Albany was constructed later. The route through Albany was completed in 1968 with the opening of the bridge over the Hudson River, but it wasn’t until 1977 before the highway joined the Berkshire Connector, a stretch of the New York Thruway between I-87 and the border with Massachusetts. I-90 crosses part of it east of US 9 to the Massachusetts border.

Opening history

From Unpleasant Length Opening
exit 33 exit 46 185 km 24-06-1954
exit 46 exit 53 101 km 25-08-1954
exit 32 exit 33 8 km 20-09-1954
Exit 24 exit 32 153 km 26-10-1954
exit 58 exit 61 66 km 21-08-1957
exit 53 exit 58 47 km 14-12-1957
Exit B1 Exit B3 27 km 08-10-1958
Exit B0 Exit B1 10 km 26-05-1959
Exit 24 Exit 5 6 km ~1965
Exit 5 Exit 7 5 km 1968
Exit 7 Exit 9 5 km ~1972
Exit 9 Exit 11 8 km ~1974
Exit 11 Exit B1 10 km ~1977

Traffic intensities

The cloverleaf between I-90 and NY-33 in Buffalo.

I-90 handles 18,000 vehicles at the Pennsylvania border, slowly increasing to 30,000 vehicles south of Buffalo. In Buffalo, 127,000 vehicles drive south of the I-190 interchange and 131,000 vehicles south of I-290. There are 49,000 vehicles east of Buffalo, dropping to 37,000 vehicles west of I-490 to Rochester and 27,000 to 30,000 vehicles south of Rochester. East of Rochester, 55,000 vehicles passed I-490 and 32,000 to 33,000 vehicles continued as far as Syracuse.

Up to 35,000 vehicles and 22,000 to 27,000 vehicles pass through Syracuse as far as Utica. Between Utica and Amsterdam, 21,000 vehicles and 28,000 vehicles drove north of I-88 at Schenectady. This increases to 42,000 vehicles after the interchange with I-88 and 75,000 vehicles west of I-87 for Albany. The section through Albany has 105,000 to 118,000 vehicles, plummeting to 21,000 vehicles south of Albany. The easternmost section between the Berkshire Connector and the Taconic State Parkway has 25,000 vehicles, dropping to 22,000 on the Massachusetts border.


Virtually the entirety of I-90 is a toll road, the New York State Thruway.

In 2018-2020, the New York State Thruway has transitioned to fully electronic toll collection. As of November 13, 2020, the Thruway has completely switched to electronic toll collection.

Interstate 90 in New York

Coral Castle, Miami

Coral Castle, Miami

Coral Castle (Miami, USA) – history, excursions, expositions. Exact address, telephone, cost of entrance tickets. Local legends and ghosts.

Coral Castle (sometimes called Rock Gate) was the embodiment of an eccentric idea of ​​an American of Latvian origin, Edward Leedskalnin. This complex is not so much a castle as a cluster of numerous megaliths, each of which weighs several tons. The castle is now privately owned and serves as a vibrant and quirky tourist attraction in Miami-Dade County.

The history of Coral Castle is directly related to the history of love, and the “castle” is surrounded by numerous legends. Few of the tourists are not touched by the reasons why Leedskalnin manually and single-handedly dragged here and hewn all these giant stones. And, most importantly, no one can understand how he did it. Until now, the version is in progress that the matter could not have done without the use of reverse magnetism and / or supernatural abilities.

In 1984, Coral Castle was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. See topschoolsoflaw for brief history of Kentucky.

The total weight of stone walls, furniture, decorative elements and the tower reaches 1000 tons. The stones are bonded without the use of mortar and are held together only by their own weight.

Legend has it that Lidskalnin’s 16-year-old fiancee left him in Latvia on the eve of the wedding. The rejected groom left for America, being almost in the terminal stage of tuberculosis. Here he suddenly recovered and later claimed that magnets had such an effect on him.

For more than 28 years, Edward has been building his Coral Castle, forbidding anyone to look at how he works. In his own words, the only tool he used was a “perpetual motion holder”. The castle, called “Rock Gate Park” by Leedskalnin, was completed in 1923 in Florida City (these places were completely wild at that time). In 1936, Leedskalnin decided to move to a new location and take the castle with him. It took another three years: it was necessary to drag all the stones over a distance of 16 km, to where they can be seen now.

The name “Coral Castle” is due to the fact that all the megaliths on the territory of the complex are processed blocks of limestone. And limestone is formed from coral.

After the move, Leedskalnin continued to work on the castle until his death in 1951. For viewing his creation, he charged visitors a fee of 10 cents and, when the visitors rang the bell twice, descended from the living quarters on the second floor of the castle tower and gave a tour. True, he never told a single living soul how he managed to build all this. The only explanation that could be heard from Leedskalnin during the tour: “It’s not difficult if you know how.” Periodically, he also hinted that he was well versed in working with weight and leverage and generally comprehended the secrets of the pyramids.

Today, on the territory of the castle, you can see stone walls, furniture, decorative elements and a tower, the total weight of which reaches 1000 tons. The stones are bonded without the use of mortar and are held together only by their own weight. The work is so precious that not a single gap can be found at the joints. Even after decades and after Hurricane Andrew (category five, by the way), the boulders have not moved an inch.

Among all the buildings on the territory of the castle, a two-story tower, in which the creator lived, stands out. Its walls are made of pieces of stone 2.5 m high. Also noteworthy are an accurate sundial, an obelisk, a barbecue place, a well, a fountain and numerous chairs, tables, a bed and even a throne. With a few exceptions, all these objects are made of monolithic blocks weighing an average of 14 tons each.

Edward said that he created the castle, inspired by his “cute sixteen”. This, in turn, inspired Billy Idol to write the hit song Sweet Sixteen.

Of particular surprise was the main gate of the castle weighing more than eight tons and 2.4 m high. They are carved so carefully that there is no gap of even 0.5 cm between the doors and the wall. In addition, the gate is so well balanced that even a child can open it by pressing a finger. The secret of the gate was preserved until 1986, when they stopped rotating. It took six people and a crane to remove the gate from its hinges. Only after this was done, the secret of the gate was revealed: Leedskalnin somehow drilled a through hole in them, into which he inserted a metal pin with a bearing.

Practical Information

Адрес: FL 33033, South Dixie Highway Miami, 28655.

The castle is located at the intersection of the South Dixie Highway (US 1) and 157th South West Avenue, north of Homestead.

Opening hours: Sunday to Thursday from 8:00 to 18:00. Friday and Saturday until 20:00.

Admission: 18 USD for adults, 8 USD for children aged 7-12.

Coral Castle, Miami

Upper East Side, New York

Upper East Side, New York

The Upper East Side is a block in Manhattan, between Central Park and the East River, bounded by Fifty-ninth and Ninety-sixth streets. The Upper East Site is considered one of the most prestigious and expensive residential areas in New York, it is especially popular with people who value a healthy environment and convenience. It is famous for its good infrastructure for families with children, thanks to its proximity to Central Park, Riverside Park, first-class schools and many activities for children.

Between Third Avenue and the East River, the upper-middle-class liberal intelligentsia mostly reside. Elite cafes and cultural centers are located in this area. See itypetravel for geostatistics of Maine.

In addition, the Upper East Side is known as the developed intellectual center of Manhattan: there are such famous museums as the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Guggenheim Museum, the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Museum of Natural History, and the Children’s Museum. The area is popular with families with children.

At the end of the 19th century, wealthy aristocrats, including the famous families of Astor and Tiffany, built up the Upper East Side with magnificent marble cottages. It has since earned the nickname “Silk Stocking District”. Today, one of the most elite neighborhoods on the Upper East Side is Carnegie Hill, bounded by 86th and 98th streets, Fifth and Lexington Avenues, shaped like an irregular triangle.

Yorkville once also belonged to the Upper East Side, and then received the status of an independent area. It is bounded by 72nd and 96th Streets, Central Park and the East River, bordered by Carnegie Hill to the north and Lenox Hill to the south. At the beginning of the 19th century the countryside and mansions of wealthy New York families were located here, but with the construction of a railway station in the 1830s, the situation changed dramatically. By the beginning of the 20th century, Yorkville had become a very multi-ethnic area: Irish, Italians, Germans, Austrians, Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks and Jews lived here. In the central part of the quarter there were many German shops, restaurants and bakeries.

The dismantling of the railway in 1955 led to the demolition of many mansions. At the same time, Yorkville’s ethnic diversity began to fade. Today, one of the area’s notable landmarks is the park, named after Interior Minister Carl Schurz, where the residence of the Mayor of New York is located. Kips Bay also once belonged to the Upper East Side. In fact, this was the East River Bay, part of it was drained, and a whole block was laid out on this territory, which got its name from the Dutch farmer Jacobus Hendrikson Kip, whose house was built first in this territory. Today it is one of the most densely populated and wealthy neighborhoods in Manhattan with a population density of about 35,900 people per square meter. km, which is almost 3.5 times the average population density of New York. The average income of its inhabitants is almost 1,

The Upper East Side is known as the intellectual center of Manhattan: there are such famous museums as the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Guggenheim Museum, the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Museum of Natural History, and the Children’s Museum.

Murray Hill

Murray Hill is located between 34th and 40th streets, Madison Avenue and the East River, north of the Kips Bay area. Murray Hill was named after the Irish merchant Robert Murray, in the middle of the 18th century. who smashed the farm and the Inclenberg mansion on what was then the outskirts of New York. His house was built on a hill at the intersection of the current Park Avenue and 36th Street, and the literal translation of the name sounds exactly like “Murray Hill”.

Since the late 1990s, the quarter has been actively populated by yuppies; the offices of large corporations are also located here. Due to its proximity to the UN Headquarters, Murray Hill is home to many consulates and embassies.

Turtle Bay

Turtle Bay is bounded by 43rd and 53rd streets, Lexington Avenue and the East River. Its name (“turtle bay”) came either from the turtles that once lived in the bay, or from the Dutch word deutal, a curved blade – the bay served as a reliable shelter from bad weather.

With the adoption of the master plan for Manhattan, the area changed beyond recognition, which at that time was subjected to harsh criticism: one of the fierce opponents of the development of the area was the writer Edgar Allan Poe. However, by the first half of the 20th century, only a small rock remained from the bay at the end of 45th Street, and today it is gone.

In the last third of the 19th century commercial activity flourished in Turtle Bay, with slaughterhouses and breweries, gas works and quarries. Elevated railroad lines were laid along 2nd and 3rd Avenues, which negatively affected the attractiveness of the area for living. Only in the 20s. In the 10th century, the beautification of the quarter began. After that, many celebrities lived in Turtle Bay at different times, and in 1997, in honor of Katharine Hepburn, who lived here for more than 60 years, a local park was named.

Over time, the railway was demolished, high-rise buildings appeared in the area. On the territory of the former slaughterhouses in 1948, the UN Headquarters was built. Due to its proximity to it, diplomatic missions of many countries are located in the quarter.

Irving Place is the center of the area and is full of bars and restaurants. It is here that one of the oldest drinking establishments in the city is located, Pete’s Tavern, where O. Henry wrote the novel “Gifts of the Magi” in 1905.

Upper East Side, New York

British Columbia, Canada

British Columbia, Canada


According to topschoolsintheusa, the westernmost province of Canada, British Columbia is vast and of incredible natural beauty and diversity. Outdoor enthusiasts will absolutely love the endless opportunities for hiking, tubing, sailing and skiing, to name just a few activities. Everywhere in British Columbia, breathtaking mountains soar against vast blue skies, and long stretches of rocky coastline are part of the landscape, along with sandy beaches, wineries, orchards, forests and snow-fed lakes. In the southern Okanagan region is even Canada’s only desert, Osoyoos, home to rattlesnakes, scorpions and prickly pear cactus. If you are looking for untouched nature, British Columbia is the right place for you. It has seven national parks and numerous provincial parks. The cities of British Columbia also have a lot to offer, especially Vancouver with its countless galleries, museums and bars. But even in this big city, you’re never too far from nature, as the enormous Stanley Park, Canada’s largest urban park, feels more like a wooded area than a North American metropolis.

Getting there

Arriving by plane

Lufthansa (LH) flies non-stop from Frankfurt and Munich, Edelweiss Air (WK) flies directly from Zurich to Vancouver. Air Canada (AC) flies from Zurich to Vancouver in summer. A variety of major and minor airlines operate within the province of British Columbia; These include Air Canada (AC), American Airlines (AA) and Central Mountain Air (9M).

Departure fee

An Airport Improvement Fee (AIF) is payable at most Canadian airports. For British Columbia, this is C$5. For more information see Getting to Canada.

Arrival by car

The Trans-Canada Highway comes from Calgary, Alberta and runs through the south of the province to Vancouver. The other major highways are Highways 3, 5, 6, 16, 95, and 97. With the exception of Highway 97, which leads north into the Yukon Territory, most of the roads are in the south of the province. There are good road connections to Seattle/USA. Long-distance bus: The route network of Greyhound USA, a subsidiary of Flixbus, includes services from Vancouver to Seattle (USA). There are also a number of regional bus companies such as Translink, BC Transit and Gray Line. Toll: There are no toll roads. However, for the Portman Bridge and the Golden Ears Bridge, both crossing the Fraser River in the greater Vancouver area, to pay tolls. The toll is automatically recorded via the license plate; the registered keeper pays the fee online. Documents: The German national driving license is valid for 6 months in Canada. However, it is recommended that you carry your international driver’s license with you. All other nationalities require the International Driving Permit. The German national driving license is valid for 6 months in Canada. However, it is recommended that you carry your international driver’s license with you. All other nationalities require the International Driving Permit. The German national driving license is valid for 6 months in Canada. However, it is recommended that you carry your international driver’s license with you. All other nationalities require the International Driving Permit.

Arrival by train

Amtrak Cascades trains operate the Vancouver, BC – Seattle (WA) – Tacoma (WA) – Portland (OR) – Salem (OR) – Eugene (OR) international route. Journey time: 10 hr 25 min VIA Rail Canada serves the following routes into and within British Columbia: Edmonton – Prince Rupert via Jasper, Alberta; Edmonton – Vancouver via Jasper (Alberta); Toronto – Vancouver (several times weekly, The Canadian) via Winnipeg, Saskatoon and Edmonton. The Rocky Mountaineer connects Vancouver to Jasper, Banff and Calgary in the province of Alberta. The Jasper-Prince Rupert train takes you from Jasper via Prince George to Prince Rupert on the Pacific Coast. For more information, contact VIA Rail.

rail passes

The Canrailpass and Canrailpass – Corridor are also valid in British Columbia. For more information on Rail Passes, contact Via Rail Canada or CRD, or see Canada – Local Mobility.

Arrival by ship

Vancouver is an international passenger port with regular service to ports on the North Shore of the United States and the Far East.

Ferry provider

The largest shipping company is Washington State Ferries, which connects Victoria with Seattle (USA), Port Townsend (USA) and Port Angeles (USA), among others. Southern Gulf Islands, Northern Gulf Islands, and the Alaska Marine Highway System operate ferries between British Columbia’s coastal cities and on the inland waterways. British Columbia Ferries offer car and passenger service from Tsawwassen (outside Vancouver) to Swartz Bay (Victoria); also the route from Port Hardy (on the northern tip of Vancouver Island) to Prince Rupert from June to September. Clipper Vacations operate a passenger ferry service from Victoria to Seattle (USA) several times a day with their Victoria Clipper, a high-speed catamaran (journey time: 2 hrs 45 mins). For more information, contact BC Ferries at 1-888-223-3779 or The Ferry Traveler at 1-800-686-0446 (within North America), 1-604-733-9113 (outside North America). The luxury ferry V2V Vacations connects Vancouver with Victoria.

Passport and visa regulations

Entry with children

Since June 27, 2012, children need their own travel document (passport / children’s passport) for trips abroad (also within the EU). Entries of children in the parental passport are no longer possible.



Mainly English.

Public Holidays


As in the rest of Canada, plus:

Contact addresses

Tourism British Columbia (Corporate Communications)

c/o Marketing Service International (MSI)

(also responsible for Austria and Switzerland)

Frankfurter Strasse 175
Neu-Isenburg, Germany
+49 (6102) 88 47 9-0 DestinationBritish Columbia

c/o MSI – Marketing Services International GmbH

(also responsible for Austria and Switzerland)

Frankfurter Strasse 175
+49 (6102) 88 47 9-0. Tourism British Columbia (brochure distribution)

c/o Marketing Services International GmbH (MSi)

(also responsible for Austria and Switzerland)

Frankfurter Strasse 175
+49 (6102) 88 47 9-0.


Business contacts

Ministry of Economic Development Office Ste 730 999 Canada Place, Vancouver, BC V6C 3E1 Tel: (604) 660 24 21 Email: [email protected] Web:



In the larger cities you will find top restaurants, nightclubs and bars. Vancouver has an excellent theater scene. Good entertainment programs are also offered in the hotels.



British Columbia’s cuisine is heavily influenced by English tradition. The Pacific offers a wide variety of seafood, including king prawns (deep sea crabs), oysters, shrimp and other shellfish, as well as cod, haddock and salmon (various types) served smoked, fried, breaded, baked or grilled and served with local vegetables. The fruits of the province are apples, peaches, pears, plums, strawberries, blackberries, Bing cherries (a type of cherry) and loganberries. The famous Victoria Creams chocolates are made from a recipe dating back to 1885 and are sold worldwide. Drinks: In the Okanagan Valley, sparkling wine is pressed, and all common alcoholic beverages are widely available in licensed restaurants, inns and bars. Taverns are open until 1am, bars and cabarets until 2am. The minimum age for purchasing alcohol is 19 years.



The offer ranges from top hotels in Victoria and Vancouver to motels on the side of the highway in the south to simple mountain cabins in the Rocky Mountains. Vacation homes and bungalows are primarily available on Vancouver Island. In the central Cariboo Chilcotin region, “ranch vacations” are very popular. Information is available from Old English B&B Registry, 1226 Silverwood Crescent, North Vancouver, British Columbia V7P 1J3. (tel: (604) 986 50 69) or the Western Canada Bed and Breakfast Innkeepers Guild, PO Box 74534, 2803 West 4th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V6K 4P4. (Web: The Tourist Office’s annual guide lists guesthouses and other accommodation options. Categories: The blue Approved Accommodations sign indicates that the hotel’s standard is verified by the Ministry of Tourism. Contact Tourism British Columbia or the Hotels Association, British Columbia & Yukon Hotels Association, 2nd Floor, 948 Howe Street, Vancouver, British Columbia V6Z 1N9 for details. (Tel: (604) 681 71 64. Web: Contact Tourism British Columbia or the Hotels Association, British Columbia & Yukon Hotels Association, 2nd Floor, 948 Howe Street, Vancouver, British Columbia V6Z 1N9 for details. (Tel: (604) 681 71 64. Web: Contact Tourism British Columbia or the Hotels Association, British Columbia & Yukon Hotels Association, 2nd Floor, 948 Howe Street, Vancouver, British Columbia V6Z 1N9 for details. (Tel: (604) 681 71 64. Web:


There are nearly 10,000 campgrounds in the state’s 150 parks, most of which have no hook-ups for trailers. Some of the parks have been designated as Nature Conservancy Areas where motorized vehicles are prohibited. The scenic diversity of the campsites ranges from sandy beaches that can be driven on by car to islands and glaciers that can only be reached by boat or plane. Max. stay per pitch is 14 days. Reservations are not accepted. Some rental car companies rent fully equipped campers. For details see accommodation in main entry Canada, or from British Columbia Lodging & Campgrounds Association, Suite 209, 3003 St. John’s Street, Port Moody, British Columbia V3H 2C4. (Phone:


Best travel time

British Columbia is one of the warmest provinces in Canada with pleasantly warm summers and mild winters. Only in the Rocky Mountains is there a lot of snowfall.

Country data

Area (sq km)




Population density (per square km)


Population statistics year


British Columbia, Canada

Colorado for Tourists

Colorado for Tourists

According to Acronymmonster, Colorado has numerous attractions to offer its visitors that will make the hearts beat faster. If you want, you can walk in the footsteps of the gigantic dinosaurs in the state of the century, visit hot springs, explore the state with the nostalgic train, experience historical places, ghost towns, casinos and amusement parks, ski and immerse yourself in the unique nature of the state.

On the trail of the dinosaurs through Colorado

Colorado has a rich cultural heritage that was shaped by the Indians and the conquest of the west by the whites. The state’s oldest historical sites, however, date back to millions of years ago. Because once the largest land animals of all time roamed the area of ​​today’s Colorado and there are numerous opportunities to discover traces of Allosaurus, Apatosaurus, Stegosaurus, Diplodocus and many other dinosaurs from this time.

The Dinosaur National Monument

The known Dinosaur monument is located in northwest Colorado in the southeastern foothills of the Uinta Mountains. The eastern part of the National Monument is in Colorado, the world-famous dinosaur quarry with around 1,500 dinosaur fossils in the rock face of the Dinosaur Quarry Exhibit Hall is in Utah. Dinosaur National Park with the Canyon Visitor Center in Colorado is perfect for experiencing the wonderful nature of the state. Vacationers can go bird watching, camping, swimming, hiking, canoeing, rafting, fishing and much more. Just a few miles from Denver is Dinosaur Ridge, home to one of the world’s most remarkable collections of natural dinosaur tracks and fossils.

On the trail of cowboys and Indians through the Wild West

Colorado is, without exception, a fantastic destination for those who have always wanted to experience the Wild West and learn more about times gone by. There are still mining sites and many abandoned ghost towns in Gilpin County (Apex, Nevadaville and Russell Gulch), among others.

For those interested in Indians, the Mesa Verde National Park, the Hovenweep National Monument and the Anasazi Heritage Center in the southwest are worthwhile places to go. But also galleries, festivals, museums and places like that Ute Indian Museum and the Koshare Indian Museum as well as the panorama road “Trail of the Ancients” are worth a visit.

Also very nice are the Lariat Loop Scenic and Historic Byway, which runs through Denvers Mountain Park. During the drive you can visit Buffalo Bill’s grave and museum, the Hiwan Homestead Museum, which Colorado Railroad Museum and visit the famous mountain park “Red Rocks”.

Numerous historical fortresses from the time of the conquest of the West, such as Bent’s Old Fort on the Santa Fe Trail, the forts Garland and Uncompahgre and the Museum of Northwest Colorado with one of the best cowboy collections in the country round off the attractions for those interested in the Wild West Century state from.

The Silverton Heritage Pass also grants access to the three main mining attractions in Silverton. It includes tours of the Mayflower Gold Mill and the Old 100 Mine.

With the nostalgic train through Colorado

In Colorado, numerous historic railways from the 1970s and 1980s run on the railways that are now operated as museum railways.

Including the:

  • Durrango and Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad in the San Juan Mountains
  • Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railroad on the Coloradian-New Mexican border
  • Georgetown Loop Railroad in Georgetown

The most beautiful routes

  • Narrow-gauge railway line between Cripple Creek and Victor: The seven-kilometer journey on the narrow-gauge railway leads past former gold rushes and through the historic town of Victor.
  • Cumbres & Tolec train journey: The 103-kilometer route between Antonito in Colorado and Chama in New Mexico is considered the longest and highest narrow-gauge train route in North America. The open sightseeing car is a fantastic way to enjoy the beautiful landscape of the century-old state.
  • Narrow gauge railway line between Durango & Silverton: This beautiful train journey in an originally restored passenger car from 1880 takes you past abandoned mines, pristine forests and the wild Animas River and stops in the old gold rush town of Silverton, among other places. Gold and silver used to be transported on the historic route.
  • Georgetown Loop Historic Gold Rush Railway Park: The historic narrow gauge railway between Georgetown and the Silver Plume Depot is one of the main attractions in Georgetown. The train from 1884 takes you from one place to another in around an hour and a quarter. If you want, you can also take part in a mine tour.
  • Southern Railroad, Leadville, Colorado: Leadville brings Colorado mining and railroad history to life. And that with a breathtaking view of the Arkansas River Valley.
  • Manitou and Pikes Peak Rack Railway: The rack railway to the 4,300 meter high Pikes Peak is the highest rack railway in the world and offers a great view. The operation is currently closed, but the railway is to be reopened with new technology in 2021.
  • Royal Gorge Scenic Railway: The small funicular with its open carriages offers a great view of the mountains of Sangre de Cristo and the region around Royal Gorge.
  • Royal Gorge Route Railroad: A railway from the 50s takes you through one of the most spectacular canyons in the USA and with a magnificent view.

Ranch vacation in Colorado

And if that’s not enough, you can experience the spirit of the old wild west on a ranch vacation in the land of cowboys and Indians. If you want, you can ride on tourist ranches over pastures and into the terrain, herd and round up cattle, practice using the lasso and take part in equestrian competitions, nights out and family rodeos. The offers range from pure work farms to real luxury resorts.

Many of the ranches, many of which are located in the great plains in the east but also in the mountains of the Rocky Mountains, also offer additional activities such as a special children’s program, mountain biking, hiking, swimming or even hot air balloon rides.

Cultural Monuments and Landmarks in Colorado

Colorado has a rich cultural heritage and numerous historical artifacts. In total there are two National Historic Sites in the century state (Bent’s Old Fort at La Junta and Sand Creek Massacre), four National Historic Trails (California Trail, Old Spanish Trail, Pony Express Trail, Santa Fe Trail), 15 National Historic Landmarks as well as a total of 1,551 structures and sites that are part of the National Register of Historic Places are registered.

Also well worth seeing is the wooden carousel in Kit Carson County with its 46 hand-carved wooden animal figures. It is the only one of its kind that still has the original color on the animals and backdrops.

A nationally significant collection of decorative art from the 20th century is in the Kirkland Museum of Fine and Decorative Art to find. For those interested in art, a visit to Steamboat Springs and the Denver Art Museum, which houses a major exhibition of Indian craftsmanship. The Red Rocks Amphitheater near Denver, where many greats in the music industry such as the Beatles, U2 and Bruno Mars have performed, is also unique.

National parks and natural landmarks in Colorado

Colorado is home to more than 960 species of animals, and there are plenty of opportunities to hike, climb, camp, ride, or mountain bike. White water sports such as kayaking, paddling or rafting can be enjoyed in the state’s rivers.

Thousands of kilometers of well-preserved hiking trails run through the mountains, forests and plains of this century-old state, and the beautiful national parks in particular are a must for nature lovers visiting Colorado.

List of national parks in Colorado

There are four national parks in Colorado:

  • Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park
  • Great Sand Dunes National Park
  • Mesa Verde National Park
  • Rocky Mountain National Park

List of national monuments in Colorado

There are eight national monuments in the state of the century:

  • Browns Canyon National Monument
  • Canyons of the Ancients National Monument
  • Chimney Rock National Monument
  • Colorado National Monument
  • Dinosaur National Monument
  • Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument
  • Hovenweep National Monument
  • Yucca House National Monument

List of national forests in Colorado

11 national forests invite you to explore the state:

  • Arapaho National Forest
  • Grand Mesa National Forest
  • Gunnison National Forest
  • Pike National Forest
  • Rio Grande National Forest
  • Roosevelt National Forest
  • Routt National Forest
  • San Isabel National Forest
  • San Juan National Forest
  • Uncompahgre National Forest
  • White River National Forest

The NPS also assigns a total of fifteen for Colorado National Natural Landmarks and with the Curecanti National Recreation Area a National Recreation Area.

Skiing in Colorado

The Rocky Mountains are by far the best-known paradise for winter sports enthusiasts in the USA and at 15,783 hectares offer the largest area of ​​ski slopes in North America. The powder snow there is just as legendary as the record-breaking snowfall and the many wonderful mountain resorts that invite you to an unforgettable winter holiday in the state.

List of ski resorts in Colorado

There are numerous well-known ski areas in the century-old state that are popular with tourists and locals alike:

  • Arapahoe Basin
  • Aspen Highlands
  • Aspen Mountain
  • Beaver Creek Resort
  • Breckenridge Ski Resort
  • Buttermilk
  • Copper Mountain
  • Crested Butte
  • Durango Mountain Resort
  • Eldora
  • Howelsen
  • Keystone
  • Loveland Ski Area
  • monarch
  • Powderhorn
  • Silverton
  • Ski Cooper
  • Snowmass
  • Solvista
  • Steamboat
  • Sunlight
  • Telluride
  • Vail
  • Winter park

Colorado for Tourists

Mexico Society and Human Rights

Mexico Society and Human Rights

Population and society

Mestizo country par excellence, Mexico has made this characteristic a key element of its identity. Given its large size and its marked heterogeneity, the fact remains that the Mexican population retains vast and widespread pockets of true ‘Indianness’ under the patina of mestizo homogeneity. This is to a large extent true for its more southern offshoots such as Chiapas, which remains in many ways an Indian-majority region, ethnically much more similar to neighboring Guatemala than to the rest of Mexico. This also applies to other areas of the country, from the state of Guerrero to that of Sinaloa. For Mexico society, please check

Mexico experiences important ethnic conflicts within it, which are sometimes the cause of violent uprisings, especially where they are welded to serious social marginalization, as happened in Chiapas in 1994, when the Zapatista movement rose up in arms. Overall, beyond the ethnic question, Mexican society remains furrowed by profound social and territorial inequalities, despite the economic development that has taken place in the last decade. The contraction in poverty has been largely the effect of growth, while distributional policies have been far less effective, although the fiscal measures adopted provide governments with considerable resources. Nonetheless, there have also been partial successes, as in the case of conditional assistance plans,

Finally, the peculiar Mexican religious history deserves a brief mention. Catholic devotion is particularly strong in the country and the influence of the Church in political affairs has had an exceptional historical weight. At the same time, Mexico has been the scene of violent anticlerical reactions, leading to a rigid constitutional separation between church and state. This separation created a long and solid tradition of secular statehood and prevented the existence of diplomatic relations with the Holy See until 1992. Since then, however, a constitutional amendment has allowed the Mexican state to normalize relations with the Church. Catholic and with other religious confessions.

Freedom and rights

Mexico can be included among those states that respect political and civil liberties, despite the fact that it remains a country afflicted by serious deficiencies in respect for human and civil rights.

Corruption remains a widespread scourge in economic life and in the national public administration. Social protests are frequent and often characterized in the past by violence and repression, culminating in some cases with a high number of victims, as occurred in the case of the Iguala massacre (September 2014), in which 43 students disappeared into thin air after being were stopped by the police while participating in a protest against government policies on education.

In the past, these violence have been fueled by the socio-economic backwardness of the southern regions compared to the more developed ones in the north-central and the indigenous question, which mestizo Mexico has long tended to neglect or consider a mere legacy of past.

However, the major cause of violence is linked to the proliferation of powerful cartels drugs, entrenched along the northern border (according to the Department of Justice U knows the turnover derived from drug trafficking is estimated at over 23 billion dollars a year). A phenomenon that exploded in all its vehemence in the last decade but that found a turning point in 2006 when the then president Calderón decided to tackle the drug trafficking cartels through the militarization of the territory. Since then, the murders in the northern states have grown at an exponential rate, now to the detriment of the same drug traffickers fighting each other, now to those of the defenseless civilian population. There was no shortage of victims of abuse by the security forces. In addition, a growing number of journalists and local politicians actively engaged in the fight against organized crime have paid for this commitment with their lives. According to data published annually by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (I negi) in 2014 there were just under 20,000 homicides (trend down from the peak recorded in 2011). As regards disappearances and kidnappings, however, according to the Encuesta Nacional de Victimización y Percepción sobre Seguridad Publica, in 2012 (latest data available) approximately 4000 and over 105,000 were recorded respectively. As for the kidnappings, the Coordinación Nacional Antisecuestro announced in March 2015 that in the first 27 months of the Government of Peña Nieto there were 5,389 cases, with an increase of 52.7% compared to the previous 27 months (final phase of the Calderón Government). On these crimes, the judiciary has not yet shown itself effective.

Finally, directly linked to the problem of drug trafficking is also that of weapons and their free circulation in the territory, following the question of the vigilantes. These are regularized self-defense groups that the army has registered by granting them the weapons to fight the cartels in the areas most affected. The risk, however, is that such a pact without adequate control by the authorities will lead to a free circulation of weapons, allowing the formation of autonomous paramilitary cells that are difficult to manage by the state.

Mexico Society

Ecuador Landmarks

Ecuador Landmarks

According to mathgeneral, Ecuador is the ideal holiday destination for many different tourist groups. There is a wide variety of different sights and attractions for a wide variety of interest groups, such as athletes, nature lovers, etc.

The Andes in particular are ideal for athletes, as you can set out on exciting trekking tours into the highlands from here. Nature lovers get their money’s worth on an expedition into the rainforest. But also those interested in history and culture do not miss out. You will certainly not be disappointed with the stories and sites of the Ecuadorian Indians. Beach holidaymakers can simply spend their vacation on the country’s Pacific coast.

An absolute must is a visit to the Galápagos Islands. There the national park and also the marine reserve of the island are of particular interest. Both belong to the UNESCO world natural heritage. The largest island in the group is just over 1000 kilometers from the Ecuadorian west coast. The island includes Santa Isabela, San Cristobal, San Salvador, Santa Maria and Santa Cruz.

If you are traveling in Ecuador, you should also visit the capital of the country. Quito is only twenty-two kilometers from the equator. Those who visit there will feel transported back to the time of the colonial rule of Ecuador without much imagination. The city was built on the Spanish model and is absolutely impressive due to its huge central plaza.
If you still don’t want to miss nature, you can find relaxation in many of the quiet gardens and parks. The old town of Quito is something special because of its diverse architecture. There is a variety of architecture to be seen here. Like from Spain, Flemish architectural styles, Moorish or pre-Columbian. All of these historic buildings have been declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO.

In the old town, you should definitely take a look at the stone carving facade of the congress building. But also the Church of San Francisco, the Monastery Church of San Augustin and the Government Palace, such as the cathedral on Independence Square, should be seen. The absolute highlights are the view from the balcony of Guapulo and the Panecillo hill.

Cuenca, a colonial and world cultural city are definitely worth a detour. The city is located on the site of the former Inca city of Tomebamba. Cuenca is the third largest city in Ecuador and has many different sights, such as the flower market, the Todos Santos ruins, etc. But the main square with the old and new cathedral are also worth a visit.

Otavalo is known for its famous handicraft market. Here you can also get to know Havienda life. From the city you can make great trips to the 3000 meter high crater lake Lagune Cuicocha and the place of the same name, which is known for its quality leather goods.

Papallactais located at an altitude of 3300 meters and is popular with tourists for the relaxing thermal baths. The wonderful and impressive surroundings in particular increase the feel-good atmosphere.

The Cotopaxi National Park is also very interesting. Sports activities such as hiking, walking or horse riding are possible here. The park particularly impresses its visitors with its impressive landscape and the almost 6,000 meter high volcano.

The city of Guayaquil is according to western standards. It is the largest city in the country and the city’s port is the hub of various goods for the rest of the world. There is a particularly interesting city center here, with various palaces and sacred buildings. In the area there are some well-preserved fortresses from the colonial era that have now been converted into museums.

Galapagos Islands

The Galapagos Islands are best known for their unique natural beauty. The variety of plant species and the different animals that live here ensure that the Galapagos Islands enjoy a paradisiacal reputation worldwide.

The Galapagos Islands are far from the nearest patch of land in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Administratively, the Galapagos Islands are part of Ecuador and form the Galapagos Province here.

The word Galapagos means, among other things, beaded saddle, but has nothing to do with horses or other mounts. But on the contrary. The name of the Galapagos Islands refers to the giant turtles that lay their eggs on the beach. The Galapagos is the name given to the turtle shell. In the case of the giant tortoise, this shell has a bulge-like attachment in the neck area.

The Galapagos archipelago is made up of 14 large and more than 100 small to tiny islands. Only five of the islands are currently inhabited. Around 21,700 people live permanently on the Galapagos Islands. There are also many tourists who want to spend a vacation here. However, the unofficial numbers look different. Many of the residents are illegal in the Galapagos Islands and it is estimated that there are almost 30,000 people in the Galapagos Islands. There are rules in the Galapagos Islands that are designed to control immigration and immigration. Unfortunately, there is no one here to enforce these rules.

The problem that arises from this is that the steadily growing population takes up more and more space. For this purpose, plants and trees are cleared to create the required space. As a result, over half of the animal species endemic here and almost every fifth of the endemic plant species are threatened with extinction. Illegal immigration therefore not only brings social problems with it, but also gradually destroys the unique nature of the Galapagos Islands.

Ecuador Landmarks

Mexico Population and Economy

Mexico Population and Economy


The first residents of today’s Mexico, around the first millennium BC. C., were probably the Olmecs, followed by Xilanchi, Otomí, Mixtec and Zapotec who allied themselves then in a vain attempt to repel the Aztecs, Huaxtecos and Totonac who managed in part to resist subsequent invasions until the arrival of the conquistadors who killed them. Further south the Maya – Quiché, arrived around the VII century a. C. in Yucatán and on the border with Guatemala, after a long period of splendor followed by a violent and sudden decline, they merged in the eighth century with the powerful Toltecs, who had occupied Anáhuac; the two peoples were later defeated and subjugated by the Chichimechi. Belonging to the ethno-linguistic group of the Nauha, the Aztecs came instead from the north-western regions, the mythical Aztlán (“land of the heron”), starting from the 11th century, imposing themselves on the peoples previously settled in the plateau. The Anáhuac has remained, as in the past, the most populous part of the country. Deep transformations took place between 1518 and 1521 with the Spanish conquest and this in function of the different forms of exploitation. Among these, the breeding of livestock was immediately imposed, in relation to which the first large haciendas arose on vast lands assigned to the encomenderos, the Spanish landowners. Even more decisive was the mining exploitation that enriched the country in a prodigious way, giving birth to new and beautiful cities,, Guanajuato, Zacatecas etc. Already at the end of the seventeenth century there were 35 lively cities in Mexico, which included haciendas, ranchos (small properties) and villages, the latter more numerous in the traditional areas of Indian population, the former prevailing in the areas of colonization. At the same time there was an increasingly deep and extensive process of interbreeding, although large areas of intact Indian population were preserved, especially in the North.

Parallel to economic prosperity there was a significant demographic increase especially among the white and mestizo population, while the Indians were reduced, decimated by epidemics and by harsh economic exploitation. Throughout the nineteenth century. the Mexican population did not register strong increases, and this was due to the poor conditions in which the peón lived, the peasant, subjected to the colonial regime. Independence improved the situation, but the landed oligarchy gradually strengthened its regime, especially in the time of Porfirio Díaz. The campaigns did not yield enough for the masses of peons subject to the interests of the haciendados. The civil war of 1910-17 was the result of an unsustainable situation, which was followed by land reform, and the establishment of the ejidos, the rural communities that became owners of the plots and within which each peasant had his share of land in usufruct. From then on, the life of modern Mexico began and the first strong demographic increases took place; however, the civil war had caused heavy losses and it took a few decades for the population to reach the figure of 1910, when 15 million residents were registered. The most tumultuous increase took place starting from the 1940s, when mortality underwent significant reductions, while the birth rate kept the traditional values, very high, equal to 40-45%. In 1940 the population was 19 million and in 1960 already 38 million, while at the 1990 census there were over 81.2 million residents, which rose to over 103 million in 2005.

According to, the population of Mexico is made up of 64% of mestizos, 18% of Amerindians, spread especially in the North and South, while the Creoles, Mexicans of Spanish origin, and other whites, many of them recently immigrant North Americans, are the 15%; the other groups, including Chinese, Malays, etc. Along the southern coasts there are black and African minorities zambos, derived from the cross between Indios and black Africans. The population density (the average is 60 residents / km²) varies from area to area. In Anáhuac, in the part that belongs to the capital, there are the highest densities, well above 500 residents / km²; in the rest of the central band there are more than 150-200 residents / km2 everywhere. These values ​​decrease considerably in the North and in Baja California, where there is a density of 24 residents / km².


Mexico occupies a leading position among developing countries (in general it ranks second in economic importance among the states of Latin America, preceded only by Brazil), but still suffers from very marked social and territorial imbalances despite the State has intervened with multiple initiatives in order to remedy the heaviest inequalities and to eliminate the greatest pockets of backwardness. The most radical transformations of the Mexican economy began with the revolution; it set itself as its primary objective the elimination of the land oligarchies, which have always dominated the country; with the 1930s, under the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas, the land reform process was accelerated with the subdivision of millions of hectares into small plots, which were established in state-owned peasant communities, the ejidos. It was also Cárdenas who nationalized in 1938, as part of a systematic nationalization of the main Mexican economic activities, the entire oil sector (managed by PEMEX, Petróleos Mexicanos), while already in 1937 the ownership of the main railway lines had been transferred to the State. After the war, government policy aimed at the continuation of this process, trying however to reconcile the never dormant socialist demands with the “technocratic” ones, in order to incentivize higher productivity and stable economic developments, requirements imposed by the very strong demographic growth of the Village. In this way, the energy sector and basic industry in general were boosted, by strengthening the infrastructural equipment (roads, ports, irrigation works, etc.), and at the same time the creation of new enterprises was favored by the State, also through an opportune protectionism, which allowed the affirmation of the industries producing consumer goods and the consequent attenuation of dependence on foreign countries. The rate of growth of production was, especially between 1965 and 1973 (period of maximum growth), among the highest in Latin America. The state, which was now responsible for over 40% of total investments, assumed an increasingly decisive role in the transformation of economic structures. Among the most decisive state initiatives implemented by the government, the nationalization of private banks, implemented in 1982 and the law of “Mexicanization” (1973), were of strategic importance, by which foreign capital was forbidden to have majority stakes in Mexican companies, thus also subjecting the private sector of the economy to state control. However, starting from the second half of the seventies Mexico accused in an increasingly macroscopic way the repercussions of the very serious international economic crisis.

Mexico Population and Economy

Dominican Republic Travel Guide

Dominican Republic Travel Guide

If you think of the Dominican Republic (often abbreviated as Dom Rep or Domrep), you have endless dream beaches, huge palm trees and a clear, blue sea in mind, but that’s not all that this exciting travel destination (especially for a package tour) in the Caribbean. Of course, around 30 ° C sounds very tempting in summer, but there are other facts that speak in favor of a vacation there.

The most beautiful sights can be found in the historic capital Santa Domingo. There are still buildings here that were built by the Spaniards. For gemstone lovers, the Amber Coast with its associated museum is an interesting place to go.

However, these are just a few highlights of a vacation in the Dominican Republic, intended to show that this country has much more to offer than one would expect.

According to ehealthfacts, the Dominican Republic fought for a long time against the reputation of the mass tourism island. For some time now, the country has been concentrating on exclusive vacations. With the fascinating landscapes and beaches it is no wonder that so many people come to the Dominican Republic every year. In many regions, temperatures even reach 21 degrees in winter. Since the Dominican Republic is located in the Caribbean, water temperatures of 26 to 28 degrees prevail here all year round. Hand on heart: Who doesn’t dream of a vacation in the Domrep?

The south of the Dominican Republic is a little drier and has significantly fewer rainy days than the other regions of the country. The southern part of the country is in the rain shadow, as the clouds rain down on the Cordillera Central. As everywhere, the temperatures in the high elevations of the mountains are a bit lower and quite refreshing if you go on a hike or bike ride there. In winter, temperatures can even drop below freezing here.

Caution is advised during the storm season, the Dominican Republic is in the hurricane catchment area.

Dominican Republic climate

The entire Dominican Republic has a tropical climate with high temperatures, high humidity and rain in all seasons. Except in the central mountains, temperatures in the Dominican Republic do not vary much. On average, the summer temperatures are between 28 and 31 ° C. In the mountains, temperatures can climb up to 24 ° C on sunny days, but can just as easily fall into single digits at night or on cloudy days. In the Cordillera Central, for example in the city of Constanza (1,400 m altitude), temperatures down to below freezing point can occur in winter.

Due to the high humidity, the temperatures can feel higher, but fresh sea winds weaken this effect. The water temperatures in both the north (Atlantic Ocean) and the south (Caribbean) are between 26 and 28 ° C throughout the year.

There are two rainy seasons in the Dominican Republic, on the northern coast from October to May, in the south from May to October. Particularly heavy precipitation falls on the north and east slopes of the mountains, where the trade winds rise and have to give off moisture as a result of the cooling. The south is drier as many of the southern regions are in the rain shadow of the Cordillera Central. Here the plants suffer from drought in the winter months.

If you plan to travel across the country, be sure to bring an umbrella. The rains are often very heavy and can last up to half a day.

The island of Hispanola lies in the path of tropical cyclones (hurricanes), which can occur especially in the autumn months.

Best time to travel to the Dominican Republic

The main tourist seasons are between December to February, July to August and the week before Easter (Semana Santa). During this time, you can expect higher prices and crowded beaches. It should also be noted that most water sports activities are prohibited during Semana Santa. From June to August there is a small chance that a hurricane will hit the island.

All in all, February and November are perhaps the best months to visit – both have good weather, the crowds are smaller, and you can attend baseball games and the carnival. Whale watching is also possible.

Health and Diseases in the Dominican Republic

Vaccination protection

The Federal Foreign Office’s health service recommends vaccination against tetanus, hepatitis A and diphtheria, and protection against hepatitis B, typhoid and rabies for longer stays (more than 4 weeks).

Dengue fever

In the Dominican Republic, epidemics of dengue fever occur almost every year during and after the rainy season (around May to November). This disease is transmitted by the diurnal mosquito Stegomyia aegypti, in isolated cases serious damage to health, including fatal results, is possible.


Malaria occurs all year round in the Dominican Republic (only tropical malaria without resistance). There is a medium risk of malaria in the lowlands of the western provinces (Hondo Valle, Castanuela and Pepillo Salcedo), and a low risk of malaria in the lowlands of the provinces in the east including the wetlands on the coasts. There is a very low risk of malaria in the tourist resorts on the coast, in the capital Santo Domingo and the rest of the country.

Malaria outbreaks can occur in the Dominican Republic from time to time (several years apart), tourists can also be affected and (mostly after their return) become ill. In this case, chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine is often recommended. Please also note the current information from the tropical institutes.

Major outbreaks of disease are often not reported by the authorities of the Dominican Republic or warnings are only issued with delay, so you should consistently protect yourself against mosquito bites.

It is recommended for all travelers in the Dominican Republic (including in the cities)

  • wear light-colored clothing covering the whole body (long trousers and shirts). This both during the day (dengue fever) and in the evening (malaria).
  • Regularly apply insect repellent to all exposed parts of the body
  • to use a mosquito net in the regions mentioned above

If you are planning a stay in a malaria area, it is essential that you seek advice from a tropical or travel doctor before you travel.

Diarrheal diseases

Most diarrheal diseases are preventable with proper drinking water and food hygiene. When traveling in the Dominican Republic, travelers should take special hygiene measures before consuming fruit and vegetables; they should preferably be freshly cooked or freshly peeled. The tap water is not suitable for drinking in the country. Drinking water in plastic bottles is recommended. From April to September (the warm season) there is a risk that fish ingest poisonous algae, which can also cause severe poisoning in humans (Ciguatera). No changes can be seen in the fish themselves. It is therefore imperative that you pay attention to local warnings.


The risk of a life-threatening infection with HIV / AIDS always arises from sexual contact and drug use (for example unclean cannulas or syringes or cannulas). The use of condoms is therefore always recommended, especially with casual acquaintances.


There are isolated cases of rabies in the Dominican Republic, mostly in dogs, cats or bats. Every year between one and three people develop rabies in the country (reported cases).

In addition to my general disclaimer, please note the following important note:

A guarantee for the correctness and completeness of the medical information and liability for any damage that may occur cannot be assumed. You stay responsible for your healthy.

Dominican Republic Travel Guide

Mexico Brief History

Mexico Brief History

According to Computerannals, Mexico, Central America, has a lot to offer its visitors; historic sites, an interesting people’s life, beautiful mountain ranges, snow-capped volcanoes, tropical beaches and the world’s largest city, the capital Mexico City with more than 20 million inhabitants. In Mexico you can stay a long time and still not have time for all the interesting things to experience.

My almost four-week tour of southern Mexico offered many interesting and fascinating experiences.

The trip took me via the capital Mexico City to the old colonial mountain town of Oaxaca and on to Puerto Escondido on the Pacific Ocean, I visited the dramatic Canon del Sumidero with its exciting bird and animal life and the old town of San Cristobal de las Casas. I had the opportunity to visit the small village of Oventic and meet some of the Zapatistas who, under the leadership of Subcomandante Marcos, are fighting to improve the conditions of the poor Native American population. I was fascinated by the colorful markets with many colorfully dressed Native American peoples and I came to the small town of Chamula with its beautiful church in which visitors sit and belch to get rid of evil spirits. I visited historical sites such as Teotihuacan, Monte Alban, Palenque, Chichen Itza, Tonina and Tulum.

Mexico history in brief

Mexico’s history is long, interesting and often bloody. Here, several different Native American high cultures have developed. Aztec culture reached its peak when the country was conquered by the Spaniards under the leadership of Hernán Cortés in 1521 AD. The Spanish conquest became a disaster for the indigenous people, who were oppressed and severely affected by the diseases brought by the Europeans.

The indigenous people did not live a happy life before the arrival of the Europeans either. War and the capture of people were part of everyday life. Most of the prisoners were later sacrificed to the gods, who could only be appeased with the help of human hearts torn directly from the body while the victim was still alive! The Spaniards forced the Indians to stop their human sacrifices and so far some got better than before their arrival.

In 1821, the country becomes independent. The radical constitution that was introduced in 1917, and which largely still applies today, has affected the country’s development since then.

Mexico history, older


25,000 – 20,000

The first settlers, hunters and gatherers, arrive in the Mexico Valley where they settle in caves. They belong to the group of migrants who immigrated to the North American continent from Asia via the passage we today call the Bering Strait.


At that time, people lived in primitive settlements and farmed, rather than anywhere else on the American continent. The Indians grew corn, beans, peppers and squash. Crops that later spread around the world.

1 500

The first Olmec settlements are established and thus the first high culture of Mesoamerica (Mexico) is founded. This then becomes the basis of all other high cultures that develop in the country

900 The Olmec city of San Lorenzo is destroyed


The first major Mayan communities began to be built along the border between Mexico and Guatemala


The first settlers come to Monte Albán, which is developing into the largest of the Zapotecs’ cities. Monte Albán has a maximum population of 25,000


The city of Teotihuacán is founded, which came to dominate the region for more than 500 years. At most 125,000 people lived here

100 The Maya settle in Palenque, which develops into an important center of power

Mexico history, older

615 – 683 The Mayan king Pakal reigns in Palenque

650 Teotihuacán falls and is abandoned. The city may have been destroyed by its own inhabitants

799 The city of Palenque is destroyed

900 A Toltec state is formed with Tula as its capital

1100 Tula, the capital of the Toltecs, falls


The mighty Mayan city of Chichen Itza falls. The city had at most 35,000 inhabitants


The Aztecs founded the city of Tenochtitlán, which will develop into today’s capital Mexico City

1426 -1440

The Aztecs become the ruling ethnic group in the Mexico Valley. Their empire, which expands due to conquests and the oppression of other ethnic groups, becomes the last great empire of Mesoamerica.

16th century, beginning

The Aztecs wage war against the Tlaxcala people, who later become the Spaniards’ ally

1502 Montezuma II becomes the last emperor of the Aztecs


The Spaniards occupy Tenochtitlán, the capital of the Aztecs, and the Aztec empire falls

1546 Large silver deposits are made in Zapateca

1571 The Spanish Inquisition arrives in Mexico


Mexico City is hit by a major flood. It takes a full five years before the water recedes

1692 Revolt in Mexico City due to food shortages and ethnic differences

1765 Spain strengthens its grip on the country

1767 The Jesuits are expelled from Mexico


Miguel Hidlago starts a revolt against the Spanish government on 16 September. The uprising is put down and Hidalgo is imprisoned. He was executed in 1811


José Maria Morales makes a second attempt at rebellion against the Spanish government. This too is suppressed and Morales is executed in 1815

Mexico history, modern

1821 Mexico’s independence is proclaimed

1824 The Federal Republic of Mexico is formed

1836 Texas rebels against Mexican rule and wants to join the United States

1840 – 1846 Mayarevolt on the Yucatan Peninsula

1846 – 1848 War between Mexico and the United States


The peace treaty between Mexico and the United States leads to Mexico losing almost half of its land area

1857 A liberal democratic constitution is introduced

1864 – 1867

French occupation of the country. The occupation is supported by conservative forces. Emperor Maximilliam of Habsburg is installed as Emperor of Mexico


Emperor Maximilliam, who becomes the country’s last monarch, is executed. Republic is re-established under Benito Juarez

1876 ​​Porfirio Diaz seizes power and becomes President of Mexico

1894 The railway connecting the Gulf of Mexico with the Pacific Ocean is inaugurated


Francisco I. Madero starts a revolt in the country because Porfirio Diaz has been re-elected as President of Mexico seven times. Madero considered that the election was conducted in a dishonest manner

1911 Francisco I. Madero is elected president

1913 Madero is assassinated by the military in February


Introduces the liberal, revolutionary constitution, which, by and large, still applies. The abolished serfdom, state takeover of the large estates and distribution of the land to the small farmers, cuts the power of the Catholic Church, the inhabitants of the country were given the right to organize and strike, etc.

1913 – 1915 Civil War. Famous revolt leaders are Emilio Zapata and Pancho Villa

1919 Assassinated revolt leader Emilio Zapata

1920 A military revolt is carried out. President Carranza is deposed and executed

1923 Murder of the revolt leader Pancho Villa


Formed Partido Nacional Revolucinario (PNR) which becomes the forerunner of the party (PRI) that has ruled the country since then

1934 Lázaro Cárdenas is elected President of Mexico

1938 The country’s oil industry is nationalized

1940 The Russian revolutionary Lev Trotsky, who fled Russia, is assassinated in Mexico City


Torre Latinoamericana is being built, which at 182 meters is one of Mexico City’s tallest buildings

1968 The Olympic Games are held in Mexico City

1983 The opposition wins significant success in the municipal elections


Mexico City is hit by an earthquake, over 20,000 people die and over
300,000 become homeless


The fall in oil prices forced a shift in economic policy, during which protectionism was exchanged for free trade, and parts of the large state-owned industrial sector were sold to private owners.


Carlos Salinas becomes the country’s new president and implemented several neoliberal reforms. PRI loses power

1991 PRI regains power in congressional and gubernatorial elections


Presidential election won by Ernesto Zedillo
Thousands of zapatistas invade the city of San Cristóbal de las Casas in the state of Chiapas and demand land reform, democracy and social improvements for the poor. During the ensuing twelve-day battle, 145 people were killed

Five months before the presidential election, the PRI party’s presidential candidate Luis Donaldo Colosio was assassinated, and a few weeks after the election, the PRI’s secretary general José Francisco Ruiz Massieu was assassinated. It was assumed that they fell victim to conspiracies within the party leadership. The presidential election was won by Ernesto Zedillo, PRI’s candidate

In December, Mexico is hit by an acute currency crisis in the country, among other things due to the Chiapas uprising, various acts of violence and that foreign investors have been discouraged

1995 US grants Mexico billion-dollar credit to halt so-called “tequila crisis”


The economy began to recover and Mexico was able to repay large parts of the crisis loans fairly quickly


The PRI loses many seats in the parliamentary elections and thus loses for the first time its absolute majority in the Chamber of Deputies
2,000 The presidential election was won by Vicente Fox, leader of the opposition PAN party. In Congress, the PRI remained the largest party, albeit with a narrow margin
President Vicente Fox swear the oath of office on 1 December and therefore is the first president elected in free and fair elections in the country’s history

Mexico Brief History

Facts of Greenland

Facts of Greenland

Read more about vaccinations, transport, price levels and more in connection with your trip to Greenland.

  • Language: Greenlandic, Danish
  • Capital: Nuuk
  • Population: 56,200
  • Religion: Protestantism
  • Currency: Danish krone
  • Surface: 2,166,086 km2

Worth knowing

Midnight sun and northern lights

You can experience the midnight sun north of the Arctic Circle, for example in Ittoqqortootmiit, until the end of July. The bright nights also occur during the weeks before and after. South of the Arctic Circle, it is bright at night during the months when it is midnight sun north of the Arctic Circle. The Northern Lights occur all year round, but can only be experienced during the months that have dark hours during the day. The phenomenon can be experienced throughout Greenland.

Time difference

Greenland is four hours behind Sweden (-4 hours).


The infrastructure in Greenland is very limited. Transport between the cities is therefore often by ship / boat or plane, as there is no road network that connects the cities with each other. On the excursions in the cities, we get around with buses that are adapted to be able to get on the Greenlandic roads.

Price level

The price level in Greenland is generally higher than in Sweden. Fresh imports such as fruit, vegetables and milk are very expensive, as they have to be flown in. Cigarettes and alcohol are also significantly more expensive due to high fees. A meal costs around SEK 120 at a café and around SEK 225 at restaurants and hotels. When it comes to pocket money, most people usually manage with a minimum of around SEK 300 per day.


On our travels, you come into contact with everyday life in Greenland, including conditions that may not appeal to you, or that you are not used to. Take for example the system of tips. In many countries, tips are a more organized phenomenon than we Swedes are used to, and you are expected to leave some tips to local guides and drivers during the trip. We enter an amount in our travel program so that you can count on this when you make up your travel budget at home. The price of the trip does not include the cost of tips as you decide how much you want to give during the trip. The tip system is part of the culture you visit and something you should therefore follow and respect.

In practice, it is possible to arrange for the tour guide to collect money for the entire trip and ensure that the right people get what they need. We would like to emphasize that it is of course voluntary to tip, even if it is common practice.

For cruises, other guidelines apply, see the specific program for your trip.

Currency and credit cards

In Greenland, the currency is DKK Dankort can be used for payment in larger cities where you can also withdraw cash. In smaller towns, you should not expect to be able to use Dankort.


Greenland, just like Sweden, has 220 volts and the same outlet.

Telephone and internet

The international country code for Greenland is +229. It is expensive to call home from Greenland, so feel free to contact your mobile operator regarding coverage and prices. There are internet cafes in the larger cities, as well as the possibility to use the internet in most hotels for a fee.


Hotels, restaurants and cafés have modern / western hygiene standards. When visiting private homes, you sometimes have so-called toilet toilets. Bring wet wipes and possibly. hand disinfection (available at Swedish pharmacies, for example), so you will not be as dependent on access to water.

Customs and traditions

The Greenlanders are friendly and accommodating. It is important not to call the locals Eskimos, but Inuit.


Smoking is prohibited during all flights, trains and bus transport. Smoking is also prohibited in many restaurants and hotels. If you are unsure, talk to your tour guide about what applies.

Sled dogs

The Greenland sled dog can be experienced from Sisimiut and north. It is not a pet but a working animal and an important tool for the hunters. The Greenland dog is a separate breed and is built according to the Greenlandic conditions.

You can often see how a dog that does not listen or is aggressive towards other dogs is punished by the dog sled driver. This is completely normal and necessary to be able to maintain respect between dogs and sled drivers.

Climate and weather Greenland

Here you can read about Greenland’s climate and weather. See, among other things, temperatures for Nuuk.

Daytime temperature -5 -4 -3 0 5 10 12 11 7 2 -1 -4
Night temperature -12 -11 -10 -7 -2 2 3 3 1 -4 -7 -10
Precipitation (mm) 27 23 17 25 30 49 58 70 80 75 47 25
Daytime temperature -16 -18 -13 -4 6 13 15 13 7 -3 -8 -10
Night temperature -22 -24 -21 -12 -1 4 6 4 0 -9 -16 -19
Precipitation (mm) 5 3 2 8 5 12 22 28 17 12 11 4
Daytime temperature -10 -10 -9 -4 4 9 12 10 5 -1 -4 -8
Night temperature -17 -18 -17 -13 -3 3 5 4 -1 -7 -11 -14
Precipitation (mm) 10 13 13 15 18 19 32 32 41 32 21 17
Daytime temperature -11 -16 -16 -5 2 8 10 9 5 -1 -5 -7
Night temperature -18 -24 -25 -13 -4 2 5 3 -1 -6 -11 -13
Precipitation (mm) 13 16 13 18 18 24 32 31 41 25 22 18

According to bridgat, the whole of Greenland (2,175,600 km2) is located in the polar climate zone. Given the size of the country, the climate differs between different parts with the common denominator that it is at most 10 ° C during the summer months. This is partly due to the fact that the midnight sun’s reflections in the ice sheet mean that the temperature differs by only a few degrees between the east coast and the west coast. The amount of precipitation in Greenland also varies quite sharply. While in the southern part between 800 and 1,400 mmm of rain falls every year, the air in the northern part of Greenland is so dry that this part of the country can almost be described as an Arctic desert.

Facts of Greenland

Facts of Panama

Facts of Panama

Below you will find practical information related to travel to Panama

  • Language: Spanish
  • Capital: Panama City
  • Residents: 3, 7 mill.
  • Religion: Roman Catholic
  • Currency: Balboa (PAB)
  • Surface: 75,400 km2

Worth knowing

Time difference

The time difference between Sweden and Panama depends on whether it is summer or winter time in Sweden.

Summer time: – 7 hours
Winter time: – 6 hours


In Panama, bars, cafes, nightclubs and hotel restaurants often add a 10-15 percent service charge to the bill. The supplement is stated in the note. In addition to the supplement, it is also customary for the waiter / waitress to receive an additional 5-10 percent in tips. If the bill does not contain a service surcharge, you can leave 10-15 percent of the total amount in tips. The drinking system is part of Panama’s culture and should therefore be respected. For the sake of safety, we would like to emphasize that it is of course highly voluntary to leave tips.


Bus The
buses in Panama do not quite meet the same standard as in Europe, but we use those that are in good condition and are equipped with air conditioning.

When traveling with Albatross, we usually travel the longer distances in Central America with domestic flights. The Swedish tour guide informs the tour participants about all practicalities at check-in at the airport and flight time.

Price level

It is relatively cheap to eat at a restaurant in Panama. A meal (both lunch and dinner) costs around SEK 120. Including drinks, you can therefore do well at less than SEK 350 per day. Souvenirs and crafts are available in all price ranges and much is quite cheap.

Currency and credit cards

Panama’s currency is called Balboa (PAB). US dollars are often used as a means of payment, so feel free to bring them. You usually get the exchange back in local currency, which means that you do not necessarily have to exchange money. You can not switch to balboa in Sweden.

If you bring US dollars with you from home, be careful not to bring denominations larger than 20-dollar bills, as 50- and 100-dollar bills are often prone to counterfeiting.

Larger shops, restaurants and hotels accept VISA cards and you can also withdraw money with them at ATMs. MasterCard and American Express can also be used but are not as viable as Visa.


In Panama, the following power sources are used: 120 volts AC, 60Hz. In Panama, flat blade connectors are used, just like in the US, so feel free to bring an adapter.

Telephone and internet

According to Allcitycodes, Panama’s international country code is +507. It is expensive to call home from Panama, so you may inquire with your mobile operator about coverage and call prices. Most hotels have internet service and the connection is usually very good.

Drinking water and hygiene

In Panama, hygienic conditions do not reach the same level as in Western Europe. However, hotels and larger restaurants have modern / western toilet facilities. In public toilets or in rural areas, the standard can be more primitive without toilet paper and the like. Bring your own toilet paper or a package of wet wipes and possibly. hand disinfection (available at Swedish pharmacies, among other places). Then you can do without water if there is no such thing. In Panama City and Colón, it is good to drink tap water. In other parts of the country, you should drink bottled water or boil the water before using it.

Food and drinks

You will find French, Spanish and American cuisine in all the restaurants in Panama City and Colón, and there are also a lot of oriental restaurants. The country’s national dishes are usually strong and spicy. The dishes often consist of fish and chicken and lots of vegetables. You will also find an unlimited selection in terms of beer, wine and alcohol.


Smoking is prohibited during flights and bus transport. In addition, most restaurants and hotels are non-smoking.

Good tone

Tourists are usually well received in Panama. However, some areas are more accustomed to tourists than others. Although the locals are used to many tourists, it is expected that local customs and practices are respected. Nature conservation is most important of all. The areas we visit are often protected and their preservation often has the highest priority among authorities and local people. Always follow the instructions of the tour guide or local guides.

At religious sites, there may be specific rules for photography.

Facts of Panama

Guatemala Brief History

Guatemala Brief History


The territory of present-day Guatemala was inhabited by the Maya who, having arrived in ancient times, then transmigrated further north, to the Mexican peninsula of Yucatán. When the Spanish conquest took place in Guatemala, as in the rest of Central America, there were no longer politically strong indigenous societies, but only warring nuclei. The Iberian penetration took place around the years 1523-24, thanks to Pedro de Alvarado, who was also the founder of the old capital of Guatemala, Antigua. From the political-administrative point of view, the possession suffered the fate of all the colonies of Spain in the New World. In particular, she became a Capitanía General, within the framework of the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Mexico). Therefore the events that led Mexico to independence involved Guatemala and the other Central American countries. On 15 September 1821 a Cabildo abierto proclaimed the independence of the entire region in Guatemala; but Mexico did not accept the detachment and militarily recaptured the dissident “provinces”. However, as the Mexican infighting created more favorable conditions, the rebels resumed the initiative: in June 1823 they formed a state entity, which they called the United Provinces of Central America. In 1839, when unity collapsed, each “province” became autonomous, assuming republican constitutional connotations. In Guatemala, independence did not bring about changes in the socio-economic structure, which remained colonial, to the advantage of the dominant oligarchy. Governments mirrored that situation, through the rise of caudillos and dictators. We remember Rafael Carrera, 1839-65; Justo Rufino Barrios, 1873-85; Manuel Lisandro Baillas, 1885-92; Manuel Estrada Cabrera, 1899-1920; Jorge Ubico, 1931-44. Already Barrios, but especially Estrada Cabrera and Ubico, opened the doors of Guatemala to US investments. The United Fruit Company, concessionaire of vast coffee and banana plantations, as well as services, the International Railways of Central America, active in the field of transport, and Empresa Eléctrica, a subsidiary of American Foreign Power, took advantage of this. These “Big Three” practically enslaved the Guatemalan economy to the interests of the United States, as they had done or were preparing to do with the other Republics in the sector. Internal maturation (birth of a middle class and working class), as well as the evolution of the international framework created the conditions, during the Ubico dictatorship, for a radical change.


In October 1944, according to usprivateschoolsfinder, a victorious revolution installed a provisional junta with a social democratic tendency. In the same year free elections were held: the scholar Juan José Arévalo was elected president of the Republic. An anti-totalitarian constitution was enacted, the new regime carried out the first reforms, but the greatest efforts took place after 1950, when Arévalo was replaced by Colonel Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán, his friend. The government accentuated its progressive character and tackled the problem of land redistribution. In July 1952 he promulgated an agrarian reform, which affected, in addition to the national landowners, also the United Fruit Company. From that moment Arbenz Guzmán became the target of bitter attacks by the United States, which accused him of being in the service of communism and therefore of representing a danger to the American continent. The United States supported a counterrevolutionary movement two years later which, under the command of Colonel Carlos Castillo Armas, managed to penetrate Guatemala from neighboring territories, resulting in the fall of Arbenz Guzmán and his regime in 1954. Castillo Armas remained in power until 25 July 1957, the day on which he was assassinated: however, he had time to restore the ancient order, repealing the reforms of Arévalo and Arbenz Guzmán. After a period, during which the leadership of the state alternated with exponents of the armed forces. In 1966 a civilian returned to power, the liberal progressive Julio César Montenegro. But the 1970 elections returned the presidency to a military man, Colonel Carlos Arana Osorio. In the meantime, outbreaks of guerrilla warfare had developed in the mountains by revolutionary Marxist elements. Violence also spread to the cities, due to the opposition of far-left and far-right formations. The 1974 elections gave power again to the government candidate (Kjell Langerud García) replaced, with the 1978 elections, by General Romeo Lucas García, president, and Francisco Villagrán Kramer, vice president. In 1982, a coup led by young officers brought General Efraín Ríos Montt to power, but he was deposed the following year and replaced by General Oscar Humberto Mejìa who called free elections. Held in 1984 these were won by the Partido Democracia Cristiana Guatemalteca (PDCG) and the Unión del Centro Nacional (UCN). A committee made up of representatives of the three main parties then started a revision of the Constitution, which was resolved with the promulgation of a new text.

Guatemala Brief History

Activities in Boston

Activities in Boston

Activities in Boston

The city, which is located in the north of New York City, offers many opportunities not only in the center, but also in the surrounding area, to spend entertaining days with the family or without.

  • Shopping: Somehow shopping is part of the American way of life. And as in all American cities, there are also various shops in Boston where you can indulge in shopping pleasure and dress according to your own style and trend. You can let off steam here, for example, in the Mall Cambridgeside in East Cambridge which has a wide variety of shops and restaurants. But also the street Newbury Street Back Bay, Copley Place, Downtown Crossing and Charles Street in Beacon Hill are full of shops and great areas for shopping.
  • Enjoy: dining in style. Boston isn’t exactly cheap. Nonetheless, there are some tips for good food under $ 20 like the ” Dumpling Palace “Or” Tasty burger “. The ” In a pickle “On (especially if you love omelets). Affordable Korean cuisine has the ” Coreanos “On offer in Allston. And if you want to try a real Boston specialty, be sure to try the “ Boston Cream Pie “At the Omni Parker House in downtown. In Inman Square the ” Oleana “To feast and also the food truck” Mei Mei“Audubon Circle is always worth a detour.
  • Nightlife: Those who like to turn night into day should definitely get their money’s worth in Boston. The ” The Grand “Offers over 1,000 square meters of space for dancing and a 20 meter high LED wall that circles the dance floor. And sometimes there are even internationally known DJs on the podium, such as Shaquille O’Neal. Life acts on a big stage has the ” Royale “In the Theater District. The establishment impresses with an elegant, marble foyer, cozy sitting areas and a generally great atmosphere to turn night into day. Latin, House and Hip Hop are part of the ” Icon “In the Theater District on the plan and anyone looking for a huge range of music should definitely visit the” Phoenix Landing “Pay a visit to Central Square.
  • Exercise: Boston is not only culturally on the ball, but also offers everything to meet the physiological needs. In winter you can go to the Frog Pond ice skating on Boston Common and other natural or man-made ice surfaces. There is Cycle City Tours where you can explore the city by bike accompanied by a guide. You can go kayaking on the Charles River. There are two gold courses in Franklin Park that were designed by Donald Ross.

And if you don’t want to play actively, you also have a lot of passive options. There are teams in each team sport and you will definitely find a game to watch the Boston Bruins, Boston Red Sox or Boston Celtics, depending on whether you prefer ice hockey, baseball or basketball. The home ground of the Boston Red Sox, Fenway Park, is also historically interesting. Because the stadium was built between 1911 and 1912 and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. So anyone interested in architecture, history and baseball should definitely pay a visit to Fenway Park and watch a game as a spectator. You can watch Boston Bruins games as a spectator in the TD Garden arena. The Boston Celtics have been at TD Garden since 1995.

  • Explore the port: There are several ways to explore Boston Harbor. One option is to take a walk, another is to take part in one Harbour Cruise. The building 470 Atlantik Ave offers a great view of the famous harbor. The Fort Point Channel Tour also starts there. Another route leads to the city center. The downtown tour begins in Christopher Columbus Park, part of the North End district.

Worthwhile day trips from Boston

According to calculatorinc, Boston is located in the northeastern United States of America and offers many possibilities for excursions to popular destinations in the region and the wider area. We have summarized some of them for you here:

  • New York City: The Big Apple is about a four-hour drive and 350 kilometers from Boston. After driving south, you can easily visit the most important sights within a day. In the morning, for example, you can visit the Statue of Liberty and theEmpire State Building, take photos of the Manhattan skyline and spend the afternoon in Central Park before visiting Times Square after dark.
  • Newport on Rhode Island: Newport on Rhode Island in New England is also worth a day trip. Here, too, drive south. Stately mansions can be seen here in just over an hour’s drive (approx. 115 kilometers), especially along Bellevue Avenue. Many of these houses are now museums and give a fascinating insight into history. Definitely worth seeing are ” The Breakers ” and ” Marble House “. Portsmouth, also located on Rhode Island, can be visited on this occasion.
  • Plymouth: Plymouth is definitely worth a day trip. The city was founded by the Pilgrim Fathers on the Atlantic Ocean in Cape Cod Bay in 1620. William Bradford is said to have landed here with the Mayflower. There are several festivals and events spread over the year. The open-air museum ” Plimoth Plantation “Is an exciting excursion, especially with children. Every resident of the village from the 17th century plays his role perfectly and so you feel on a journey back in time and experience the everyday life of the pilgrims. Plymouth is an hour’s drive south of Boston.
  • North Falmouth: This travel destination is located southeast of Boston. North Falmouth on the Cape Cod Peninsula is just an hour’s drive from Boston and offers a beautiful mountain bike trail of around two hours. You can rent bikes at the entrance and then cycle on the former route of the Old Colony Railroad to Wood’s Hole, where the ferry to Martha’s Vineyard leaves.
  • Martha’s Vineyard: Martha’s Vineyard is a half hour ferry ride from Falmouth. The island is the summer destination of many locals, so there is a lot of activity here at this time of the year. Oak Bluffs beckons with “gingerbread houses” and other attractive buildings from the 19th century. The gingerbread houses bear their name because they look like the sugar works of the same name: colorful and decorated with ornaments.
  • Salem: Salem, north of Boston, was the scene of the witch burnings in the 16th century. Even today, tourists make pilgrimages to the city to walk in the footsteps of the events of that time. Salem is in the surrounding area and is only about 30 minutes drive from Boston. In addition to the mystical atmosphere, there is much to discover about the history of the American Navy here in Marblehead, as this place is the birthplace of the American Navy.
  • Broadmoor Wildlife Sancturary Park: Located in Natick, a 40-minute drive west of Boston is the ” Broadmoor Wildlife Sanctuary Park “. The park has 9 miles of trails through fields, forests and moors. Bird lovers get their money’s worth here and can watch the native birds in the wild. In winter you can also take a snowshoeing course here.
  • Philadelphia: If you want to delve deeper into the history of independence in the USA, then you should definitely drive a few more kilometers and visit the city where the declaration of independence was once signed. Philadelphia. The big city is the second largest city on the east coast, is home to around 1.6 million residents and has much more than just Independence Hall, where the Declaration of Independence was signed. In addition to the impressive skyline, you will also find churches worth seeing, other historical sights such as the Liberty Bell and much more. Philadelphia is around 500 kilometers away from Boston. Here you can also take a tour along the east coast at which one z. B. New York City with its impressive skyline and other sights can still be included in the route. This means that you don’t have to spend quite as many kilometers in the car at a time.
  • Rockland: Rockland is a lovely place in Maine on the New England coast and a good place to go if you love lobsters. In many restaurants you can enjoy lobster in all variations, there is a museum dedicated to the animals and this is also regularly found there Maine Lobster Festival instead of. Rockland can be reached by rental car in around three hours from Boston.

Activities in Boston

Best Travel Time and Climate for Jamaica and Suriname

Best Travel Time and Climate for Jamaica and Suriname

According to militarynous, Jamaica is located in the Caribbean and is part of the Commonwealth of Nations. The island state is the third largest island in the Greater Antilles and it is located below Cuba.

The northeast trade wind shapes Jamaica’s tropical climate. In May and June and from September to November there are two distinct rainy seasons . During this time, severe storms and hurricanes can occur.

Jamaica is geologically very interesting. The mountain range in the middle of the island is 2,000 meters high and has deep valleys and caves with underground rivers. There are places where the mountains drop steeply almost 500 meters. Many animal and plant species can only be found in Jamaica. There are a multitude of tropical birds and, due to the many caves, numerous different bat species. The Jamaican giant swallowtail can be found in the rainforest. The knight butterfly is considered to be one of the largest butterflies in the world.

Best travel time for Jamaica

The best time to travel to Jamaica is from October to mid-December . After the end of the Caribbean hurricane season, temperatures rise significantly. Then there is nice weather on the island (all year round 23-28 ° C) and it is easiest to find hotel and flight offers. The prices are also cheap in summer, but then the risk of ending up in the hurricane season increases. The main travel season is between January and March, when room prices in some hotels can rise sharply. If you’re looking to save money and avoid the crowds, this is the time of year that you shouldn’t plan for.

From April to June the average temperatures are 23-27 ° C, but the weather can be a bit rainy. Golf courses and beaches are relatively quiet, and some hotels have fantastic offers in spring. Jamaica should be avoided from July to September, as many hotels and attractions close due to the rainfall.

Best travel time for Suriname

Suriname is the smallest South American country and, in addition to 11 different languages, has a tropical climate with two dry seasons from August to November and February to mid-April and two rainy seasons from mid-April to mid-August and November to mid-February.

However, this information can vary, although Suriname has relatively clearly defined seasons. So it can rain during the dry season and sometimes there is no rain during the rainy season. The climate is humid all year round, so a high-quality, lightweight rain jacket and light clothing when packing for the trip are a must.

In principle, Suriname can be visited all year round, but you should definitely consider the seasons. The best time to travel to Suriname is the dry season ( August to November and February to mid-April ), it is the most pleasant time of the year.

A visit to the popular Brownsberg Nature Reserve above the Brokopondo Reservoir and Central Suriname Nature Reserve are mandatory for all Suriname visitors. The nature reserves are best visited in the dry season, when there is no rain to spoil the joy.

Lying above the equator, Suriname has warm and humid weather with an average temperature of 27 ° C. The climate is strongly influenced by precipitation and humidity. All year round, visitors can expect sunshine in abundance and the temperature practically never exceeds 32 ° C. As already mentioned above, the year is divided into wet and dry seasons, the former being between the months of April to August and November to mid-February and sometimes resulting in considerable rainfall. The dry season is the optimal time to visit the country.

The maximum temperature in Suriname is 33 ° C in October. In January, February and March the thermometer rises to a maximum of 29 ° C. The summer (June to September) with average 31 ° C hot . In the winter months it is around 30 ° C very warm . During the day, the annual mean temperature in Suriname is a hot 30.6 ° C.

At night it gets coldest at 22 ° C. While the nights in summer are averages of pleasantly warm 23 ° C, the thermometer drops to a pleasantly warm 22 ° C between November and March. The temperature at night averages a pleasant 22.7 ° C throughout the year.

With 23 rainy days, May and June are the rainiest months of the year. The September and October are with 9 days of rain, the driest months of the year . From June to September Suriname is humid with an average of around 17 rainy days each, the winter (November to March) is relatively humid with 15 rainy days. An annual average of 15.8 days of rain falls per month.

Best travel time for Suriname

Saint Kitts and Nevis History Timeline

Saint Kitts and Nevis History Timeline

According to commit4fitness, Saint Kitts and Nevis is a country in the eastern Caribbean on the border of the Atlantic Ocean. It is part of the beautiful Leeward archipelago in the Lesser Antilles.

The largest city on Saint Kitts is Basseterre, which is also the capital of the country. The rest are: Charlestown, Sadlers, Cayon, Sandy Point Town, Mansion, Monkey Hill, Dieppe Bay Town, Boyd’s and Gingerland.

As some of the first islands in the region, Saint Kitts and Nevis were colonized by Britain in 1623 and 1628, respectively, and in the following centuries, the indigenous population of Arawak and Caribbean Indians was undermined by imported African slaves.

Sugar production was very lucrative on the islands, as in all British colonies in the Eastern Caribbean, African slavery and civil rights were a hot topic on Nevis and St. Louis. Kitts.

Both islands are known for their subdued, relaxed atmosphere, and for their welcoming hospitality.


1493 – Christopher Columbus lands on the islands. He named St. Kitts after the patron saint Christopher.

1623 – Britain establishes first colony on St. Kitts.

1626 – British massacre of 2,000 native Caribbean nationals.

1628 – The British establish a colony on Nevis.

1755 – Alexander Hamilton, often considered one of the founders of the United States, was born on Nevis. He moved to the United States in his teens, quickly entering politics and being elected Secretary of the Treasury by President George Washington on the advice of the merchant Robert Morris, and held the post from 1789 to January 1795 – and from there the rest is history. Hamilton died on July 12, 1804 in New York, USA.

1783 – The claim to St. Kitts is abandoned by France under the Treaty of Versailles.

1871 – St. Kitts, Nevis and Anguilla united as British dependence.

1876-1956 – The islands were part of the Leeward Islands Federation.

1958-1962 – The islands were part of the West Indies Federation.

1971 – Anguilla placed under direct British rule; Followed by a revolt against the dominance of St. Kitts.

1980 – Anguilla constitution; union with St. Kitts and Nevis formally recalled.

1993 – Anti-government demonstrations take place after the election.

1994 – Anti-government riots started by Labor Party supporters cause a state of emergency.

1998 – St. Kitts and Nevis carried out in August the first execution in 17 years, despite international protests.

Hurricane Georges ravaged St. Kitts and Nevis. The hurricane cost 5 lives and resulted in damage of 458 million. $ at St. Kitts and 39 million. $ on Nevis.

2003 – Largest hotel complex in the Eastern Caribbean opens at Frigate Bay, St. Kitts.

2008 – Charles Elroy Laplace hanged for murder on December 19. The government hoped it would act as a deterrent to high levels of violent crime. It was the first execution since the year 2000. The execution was also controversial as it took place before he could appeal his case to the Council of State’s Judiciary Committee in London, which is the Supreme Court of the islands.

Saint Kitts and Nevis History

Study Abroad in University of California, Riverside

Study Abroad in University of California, Riverside

After I had already spent a student exchange in Minnesota, it was clear to me that I would like to spend another longer time in the USA during my studies and decided to do a semester abroad at UC Riverside (UCR).

It was very important to me that my achievements from abroad would also be recognized at my home university, which is why the UCR seemed particularly suitable to me, as its business school is accredited by the AACSB. In September, two weeks before the start of the semester, my fellow student from Munich and I made our way to Riverside.

If you book a flight early, look around to see if you can arrive directly at “Ontario” airport, which is even closer to Riverside than LAX. Back then, I booked a rental car online through Hertz early on and did not use the UCR pick-up option. You don’t need a navigation device under any circumstances, with a little sense of direction and a free map from Hertz you can easily find your way from LAX or Ontario Airport to Riverside.
For the first few days on site, I booked a hotel nearby and kept the rental car for a week so that I could take a look at a few apartments and check out car dealers for a used car.

As I said, I wanted to find my own apartment and not use the UCR dormitory. Dormitory is probably the wrong word here, the whole apartment complex is very chic and modern and is right next to the UCR, but the rooms are VERY expensive. For the same money you can easily get your own apartment near the university.

Invest a day and just drive down the streets near the university, there are tons of apartments. Back then, my fellow student and I opted for the “Boulder Creek Apartments” on Iowa Avenue. The price was perfectly okay, for a 1-room apartment that could easily be inhabited by two, we paid about $ 1000 per month and shared it. I can only recommend the residential complex – the most beautiful pool area of ​​all apartments in Riverside, seriously!

If you decide to have your own apartment, it is essential to have an internet connection. Some apartments offer free WiFi, ours unfortunately not. We decided on the Anbierter “Charter”. With this one can conclude a “contract” for Internet and television without a social security number and also borrow equipment such as WLAN routers and receivers; there is also no minimum contract period. As soon as you leave Riverside, you bring the borrowed equipment back and the “contract” is over. We bought a used television on ebay for $ 20 – it did its job without worries.

Many of the apartments are furnished, but unfortunately not ours, so we bought a piece of furniture from Ikea, which can be found about half an hour from Riverside in Covina.
My biggest tip I can give you: There you can find everything from wardrobes to skateboards mostly very cheap.
In addition, we decided to buy a car. I really wanted to buy from a used car dealer in order to have a guarantee if something happened to the car.
I would NOT do the same thing again. You’d rather spend a few dollars more and rent a car over time. After a long negotiation I got a guarantee for the car, which then cost us $ 6000, but it was sorely needed. I stood at the dealer in the yard 12 (!) Times to have the car repaired, thank goodness everything was covered by the guarantee. Shortly before the return flight I wanted to sell the car back to the dealer, but they made me a lousy offer and so I had to sell the car to Carmax for $ 2000 (I had expected $ 4000) for better or worse.
But a car is an absolute must if you don’t always want to ask someone to drive you to go shopping. The California distances are definitely not to be underestimated.

Daily Life:

There are numerous supermarkets in Riverside, my tip: Food 4 Less, more of a kind of wholesale market and much cheaper than other supermarkets. There are also enough banks. To get cash free of charge, you either do one of the following: With cards from Deutsche Bank, you can get cash free of charge at Bank of America; alternatively open an account on site, it costs nothing and you get a soccer ball for free ;-); get a credit card. You definitely need it, because firstly in America you can easily pay for any chewing gum with a credit card, but it is also often irreplaceable for paying bills (internet, garbage,…) over the internet. With many free credit cards that are offered in Germany, you can withdraw cash from ATMs internationally free of charge.
Get a cell phone! Tip: Kmart, $ 30 including cell phone and free minutes. Don’t be surprised: even if someone calls you, you pay with American prepaid cards.


The great thing about Riverside is the location! It is an hour to downtown LA, 1.5 hours to the beaches and 1.5 hours to San Diego. San Diego is my all time favorite here! Pack a few people in the car on the weekend, rent a cheap hotel and go to a few clubs in the Gaslamp Quarter – great! Downtown LA is definitely a must-see, but the whole thing seemed rather dingy to me during the day and rather dangerous in the evening. Since having to party with San Diego much better. An absolute must, especially New Year’s Eve, but only if you are over 21: Vegas! As I said, it’s really only worth it if you are over 21, the bouncers understand their job, believe me.
Travel around, discover California (insider tip: Santa Barbara and the district “Isla Vista”: you haven’t seen anything like this before, what’s going on there on a Saturday evening!). Whatever you do: DO NOT go to Tijuana! It used to be a party hotspot for San Diego students, now it’s just dangerous and what’s there to see is not worth it.

Uni life:

You read again and again how difficult it must have been for some students from abroad to get their desired course at the UCR. There is a simple rule here: keep calm and speak genuinely and kindly to the right people. If you kindly explain that it is very important for you to come to this course, because you need it for your university at home, even the fullest course can be done at once with a little bit of negotiation skills. You hardly need to send emails, unfortunately they are rarely answered, go straight to the consultation hour.
After you have completed your course selection, studying at the UCR is a lot of fun. I had three courses – a business course and two economics courses. The schedule was put together just right. You will notice a difference to your German university: More homework and unannounced smaller tests, but slightly easier tests in the middle and at the end of the semester. My tip: If you have the chance and the interest: choose a course from Dr. Sean D. Jasso – the best professor I have ever seen!
Use the Recreation Center: The whole thing costs about $ 75 for a quarter, but you have a gym, tennis and squash courts, you can borrow equipment for free and, and, and… it’s worth it!


If you feel like studying a quarter at the UCR – do it! You will have incomparable experiences and have the fun of your life.
To recap: should be your best friend, rent a car, meet as many people as possible and just have fun, but that’s almost guaranteed!

Many thanks to Aline Meyer for her always friendly and helpful support!

University of California, Riverside 1

Study Abroad in San Jose State University

Study Abroad in San Jose State University

Preparation for the stay abroad:

The application process via MicroEDU went like clockwork – if you can put it that way. The team is available to answer any questions at any time, and these tend to pile up at the beginning when putting together the application documents. CoCo also checks all documents and details again before the application is sent to the SDSU. With the help of the checklists provided, you always have an overview of the application process and which steps still need to be taken. Obtaining the F1 student visa , which I processed at the embassy in Frankfurt, is particularly important and also a bit time-consuming.

Arrival and accommodation:

I only flew to San Diego shortly before the beginning of the semester and therefore didn’t have the opportunity to get to know the whole city or to travel. In my opinion, that didn’t mean I had any disadvantage at all. Since I had already organized accommodation from Germany, I didn’t have to move into the hostel like many other students and look for an apartment on site.

Unlike most students, I live with a fellow student in a private house near the campus. We got the contact from a friend who previously lived there during her own semester abroad at SDSU. I was super satisfied with the accommodation. We both had our own, sufficiently large room and the rest of the house was well furnished. The landlord lived in the house himself, but only shared the kitchen with us. He has a separate bedroom with bathroom in a small annex in the garden. The location of the house was also ideal. The university was within walking distance and the “Boulevard63” dormitory, where most of the (international) students lived, was just seven minutes away on foot. There were also numerous supermarkets and restaurants nearby.

The typical question that everyone has to answer for themselves is. “Would I prefer to live close to the university or close to the beach?” Since the SDSU is inland, you have to weigh your preferences. Both choices definitely have their advantages. I decided to be close to the campus and I was really very satisfied with it. My fellow student and I rented a car from Dirt Cheap and so we were well equipped for trips to the beach after university. In addition, the majority of the international students lived in the student residences close to the campus, so that it was easiest to meet again on campus or at home for group work.


The San Diego State has a wonderful campus to offer, which invites you to linger and study in the park areas thanks to the almost consistently good weather. Every Thursday there is also a food market and a wide range of fast food / restaurant chains and small student supermarkets.

The courses:

BA350 – Multinational Business & Organizational Behavior:

Very interesting content, very good lecturer (Prof. Blue), interactive lectures.
There was a group project in which a country of our choice was to be presented in terms of culture, politics and economy. However, this presentation had to be embedded in a creative concept and be interactive. That took time to prepare accordingly. The exams each consisted of 50 multiple-choice questions. For the exams, 6-7 chapters of the course book had to be read or memorized. The reading and learning effort was accordingly high, but the content was very interesting and mostly very easy to understand. I would recommend this course to others.

MGT352 – Human Resource Management:

Very interesting in terms of content, you learn a lot about the rights of employees and the application and selection process of companies. The lecturer (Pro f. Del Castillo) is very competent and brings a lot of knowledge from his job as an HR expert. However, in my opinion, he lacks the skills to really prepare his course for the exams and exams. The three exams each consisted of 40 multiple choice questions and four short answer questions, whereby the expected answer length is by no means “short”. Some of the questions were asked very comprehensively, so that at least three quarters to a full page had to be answered, which in view of the time was sometimes quite tight. In addition, there were 5 unannounced inclass activities over the course of the semester, each of which brought 20 points and could not be made up in the absence (also excused). Overall, a very interesting course in terms of content, but which quickly caused frustration due to the lecturer and his expectations. Recommended only for people who actually see their future in human resources.

MGT357 – Multinational Business & Comparative Management:

A very interesting course format that I have never experienced before. In this special session the course founded its own company (a consulting company)and associated social media channels. Everyone from the course was assigned to a department depending on the focus of study and interests, so that at the end there was the departments Finance, HR, Marketing, IT and Operations, as well as a CEO and Vice President. In our course there was a girl who made bracelets from pearls as a hobby. We as a consulting company then helped her with the creation of the bracelets and the marketing. So this course was about practical work and a project that was supervised by everyone. The final exam consisted of a DIN-A4 page about what one had learned during the semester in this course. Attendance and the preparation of current news, which were presented and discussed at the beginning of each event, also flowed into the grade.I would recommend the course because of its uniqueness.

BA370 – Marketing:

A very good course with a great lecturer (Prof Haddock). Also very high reading effort for the exams, but easy to manage with only 50 multiple choice questions each. I would choose this course again.


San Diego and the university itself have a lot to offer for recreational activities. In addition to the numerous offers of the SDSU to student groups in the fields of sport, music, etc., the university offers its students a free membership in the campus fitness studio, as well as access to the Aztecs swimming complex, the Gaslamp Quarter in downtown, Point Loma, the Sunset Cliffs or even Coronado Island. The zoo, the USS Midway Museum, Seaport Village and Old Town are also highly recommended.

In addition, San Diego has three beaches to offer: Pacific Beach, also known as Party Beach, has numerous restaurants and bars. In any case, you have to have taken part in the “Duck Dive” on Taco Tuesday, where the internationals meet every Tuesday to eat taco and then party, when a DJ plays from 9 a.m. and the happy hour begins. This is located on Mission Beach Belmont Park, a small old amusement park, which can convince with its location on the beach and the view from the wooden roller coaster. Ocean Beach also has restaurants and beach stalls, but takes it easy. Particularly recommended for all dog lovers, because there is a whole stretch of beach here only for four-legged friends and their masters.

For day trips, Mexico, Los Angeles , the cities along the coast to LA or the beautiful little town of Julien, which is located in the mountains inland, are ideal.

If you have a few more days off, you should of course not forget San Francisco, Las Vegas, the Grand Canyon and other national parks.

Please make sure to use the free tickets to the games of the SDSU teams ! Don’t miss the tailgate before a football game.

Tips and conclusion:

I definitely recommend leaving plenty of space in your suitcase on arrival. In the first few days you may have a little less clothing to choose from than usual, but you can find such good bargains and prices in the outlets and shopping malls in the USA that you would look in vain in Germany.

However, it is best to take enough cosmetic products etc. with you. Contrary to my expectations, products such as deodorant, shampoo and so on were disproportionate and unexpectedly expensive (8 € for deodorant), so it is best to buy enough stock here at DM.

I had an amazing time in San Diego that I will remember fondly for a long time. I’ve met an incredible number of people and seen places that have all shaped me. The SDSU, as a highly regarded university, and the location of San Diego, located by the sea with many sunny days and a lot to experience, offer a great combination for a stay abroad. My English has also improved again through the stay and I am much more self-confident and become more independent.

I take a lot with me from my time in San Diego and can only recommend the semester abroad in California to every sun lover. It’s not for nothing that San Diego is also known as the “Americas finest City” !!

San Jose State University

Costa Rica Human Geography

Costa Rica Human Geography

Costa Rica is a country in Central America with (2018) 5 million residents; The capital is San José.


Costa Rica is not excessively populated (86 residents / km²); however, it recorded a very strong increase in the twentieth century, passing from 300,000 residents from 1900 to ca. 4 million in 2000; this is the result of a constant lowering of the death rate, while the birth rate remains at very high values. In the early 21st century, however, there was a decline in the annual growth rate, from 3.1% in the 1980s to 1.5% in the 2000-2005 period. According to itypetravel, the residents are almost entirely of European origin; it was in fact the Spaniards who actually populated the country, in which the Indian element was and remains extremely scarce: it is estimated that the Amerindians represent 2% of the population, while the Creoles are 77%, the mestizos 17% and the mulattos 3%. The mulatto minority is the fruit of immigration of the Jamaican workforce who came to Costa Rica to work in the banana plantations of US companies. Even today the number of illegal immigrants is still relevant, especially Nicaraguans, who have penetrated Costa Rica first to escape the precarious political conditions of their country and, secondly, attracted by the demand for low-cost labor, causing, however, tensions between Costa Rica and Nicaragua.

There are also very numerous Salvadoran, Cuban and Peruvian immigrants, while since 2001 there has been a considerable increase in Colombian refugees and asylum seekers. The coastal strips, due to their unfavorable environmental conditions, they have always been the least populated areas: over 70% of the residents is concentrated in the small area of ​​Meseta Central, where the province of San José exceeds 300 residents / km². The population is for approx. 40% considered rural; the capital is indeed the only real city in the country (352,366 residents in 2008), an important commercial and industrial center, thanks to its position on the transistmic railway and on the Pan-American highway. Its urban agglomeration, which has expanded towards the E and towards the West because the mountain ranges have hindered its expansion towards the south, has over 1 million residents. No other city reaches 70,000 residents; the two major centers of the Meseta are Cartago, very flourishing in colonial times but gradually decayed due to the succession of disastrous earthquakes, and Alajuela, farmer’s market and cozy garden city. Important coastal centers are Puntarenas and Limón (or Puerto Limón), on the opposite ends of the transistmic railway, on the Sea of ​​the Antilles, the second largest city in terms of population (70,166 in 2008).


Despite a prudent government policy and cuts in public spending, the trade balance remains in constant and growing deficit (in 2006 exports covered less than three quarters of imports). The main commercial partners are, for imports (oil, machinery and manufactured goods), the United States, Mexico, Venezuela, China and Japan; for exports (electronic components, products related to agriculture – coffee, bananas, cocoa, sugar – and the pharmaceutical and chemical industry), again the United States, followed by the Netherlands, Hong Kong, China and the countries of the area Central American. § As regards the infrastructures, the communication routes are on the whole in good condition; the road arteries include the Costa Rican stretch of the Pan-American motorway (carretera), which connects the country with Nicaragua and Panama, and a road system of 36,131 km, but only partially passable during the rainy season (since only 9,416 km are asphalted). Half of the railway network, 650 km, is owned by United Brands; however, the most important line, which crosses Costa Rica passing through the capital and brings together the port centers of Limón, the largest maritime outlet in the country, equipped for the export of bananas and other agricultural products to the United States, and Puntarenas (other active ports on the Pacific are Golfito and Quepos, all mainly used for the export of bananas). The major cities are also connected by overhead lines; the capital is served by the Juan Santamaría international airport, located in the province of Alajuela.


Heredia [e reðja], capital of the province in Costa Rica, 1 200 meters above sea level, as an agglomeration (2020) 367 900 residents.

University (founded 1973); Center of coffee cultivation and trade.

Cartago (Costa Rica)

Cartago, provincial capital in Costa Rica, 1 450 m above sea level, on the Meseta Central, at the foot of the Irazú volcano (3 432 m above sea level), as a metropolitan area (2020) 232 300 residents.

Cartago, founded in 1563, was until 1823 the capital of the governorate of Costa Rica, which was part of the General Capitol of Guatemala; destroyed several times by earthquakes.


Alajuela [ala x  ela], capital of the province of Alajuela, Costa Rica, as an agglomeration (2020) 196 900 residents.

Bishopric; Trade center and industrial location (food, shoe and textile industries).


Puntarenas, port city and provincial capital in Costa Rica, on the Gulf of Nicoya, (2020) 87 500 residents.

Food industry (including fishery products). The port was replaced as the most important Pacific port in Costa Rica by the caldera around 15 km away.

Costa Rica Human Geography

USA People, Language and Religion

USA People, Language and Religion


US society can be roughly divided into 6 social classes.

According to sociologists, in 1998 there were about 1 percent prominent, wealthy citizens (upper class), about 15 percent highly qualified professionals such as doctors, professors, lawyers (upper middle class), about 32 percent well-trained professionals such as school teachers and craftsmen (lower middle class), about 32 percent Industrial workers, wage workers and simple employees (working class) and about 20 percent part-time poor or non-working who are dependent on public welfare.

Around 82 percent of the people living in the USA are white, around 13 percent black and mulatto, around 4 percent Asians and around 1 percent Indians. Visit handbagpicks for United States Tour Plan.

The United States is a popular immigration country, as can be seen in the more than 50 million immigrants who have immigrated since the beginning of the 19th century. These include Europeans, Central Americans and Asians. This ethnic diversity is still reflected today in the specific traditions that have been preserved and cultivated.

The descendants of the indigenous people are one of the socially weakest groups. More than half of them live in one of the approx. 300 reserves. In Alaska, the Indians and Eskimos make up around 16% of the population, the rest are whites.

And whites make up a third of the population in Hawaii. Otherwise, Japanese, residents of Polynesian descent and groups of Chinese, Koreans, blacks and Filipinos live there together.


The most widely spoken language is American English (it is slightly different from British English). There are many Spanish-speaking residents in the state of New Mexico who only speak their native language. That is why Spanish is the second official language there.

In addition to German, French, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese and Polish are also common in the USA. Many of the over one hundred Indian languages ​​are threatened with extinction.

English language courses

Among the multitude of language courses, I recommend multimedia language courses because you learn very quickly with this method. The link below provides you with a professional language course with which you can learn English quickly and easily:

  • American English language course


The government does not keep a register of the religious status of residents. Through the history of immigration, different religions are represented in a variety of ways.

A good half of the total population is committed to one of the more than 240 Protestant churches. The proportion of Catholics is tending to increase due to ongoing immigration.

Judaism and Islam are also major religions in the country. Buddhists, Hinduists, Mormons and others are represented on a relatively large scale.

Because of their tradition of non-interference (regulated by the constitution) in religious affairs, many smaller denominations have found refuge in the states, such as the Amish, who live mainly in Pennsylvania and the neighboring states. For generations they have been practicing the simple life without any modern technology.


Sport is very important in America. In addition to American football, the national sports include baseball, basketball, ice hockey and soccer.

The numerous immigrant groups have of course brought their cultures and traditions with them. That’s why American culture is quite diverse.


The film is one of the most important entertainment media in the United States. And who doesn’t know Hollywood films?

A very popular pastime for many Americans is to go to the movies. Walt Disney cartoons were also produced in the USA and are known worldwide.

The music is very important here. The music channel MTV was born in the USA.

The press plays an important role as the guardian of democracy, backed up by the first amendment to the American Constitution, which came into force in 1789. This article states that Congress cannot pass laws restricting the freedom of the press.


Education varies across states. There is general compulsory schooling from 6/7. Age up to the age of 16.

Under certain conditions one can also give one’s children home schooling (homeschooling). About 1-2 percent of parents choose this option for reasons such as religious views, special needs of the children or because of problems such as bullying or drugs.

Most parents send their children to state schools for which the parents do not have to pay school fees. Only about 10% of US students attend private schools. An annual fee must be paid for this.

Over 3,000 universities and colleges are available. The most famous private universities include Princeton, Harvard and Stanford. Half of them are in private hands.

Three percent of the population over the age of 15 cannot read or write.

The grades in the United States are not numbers, but letters from A – F. A is the top grade. F usually means ‘failed’. The grades can be further differentiated with a plus or a minus.


Elementary School from Kindergarten – Grades from Kindergarten to fourth, fifth or sixth grade (depending on the school district). The class size is around 18–24 children.

Junior High School and Middle School – include grades 5–8, but mostly only grades 6–8.

The high school is a kind of unified school with a course system. It covers grades 9 to 12 and is completed with the high school diploma.

USA People, Language and Religion

Manhattan Overview

Manhattan Overview

Manhattan. Name of an island belonging to the United States located at the mouth of the Hudson River in the north of New York Harbor. It is one of the five metropolitan districts (boroughs) that make up New York City. The metropolitan district has the same boundaries as New York County and includes the island of Manhattan as well as several smaller islands (Roosevelt, Randall, among others), as well as a small portion of mainland land (Marble Hill, which is geographically in the Bronx, but politically belongs to the county of New York).


The name Manhattan comes from the languages ​​of the primitive residents of the area. The story presents a popular interpretation that emphasizes how this island was bought by Dutch settlers from the natives for $ 24 on May 24, 1626 and the establishment of some 30 Dutch families two years later, when they founded the city of Niew Amsterdam where now downtown is. This city became the capital of the territory of New Holland, a short-lived Dutch colony. In 1664 it happened to the English administration after a relatively weak resistance of the Dutch, partly due to the discontent of the population with the governor Peter Stuyvesant.

The English changed the name of the city to New York, named in honor of the Duke of York, who would later become the Catholic King James II of England. New York County is one of the original twelve counties of the State of New York, created in 1683. At the time of its creation, it was the same size as New York City and occupied the entire island of Manhattan, the same area that occupies today. In 1873, the western part of present-day Bronx County was transferred to New York County from Westchester County and in 1895, the remaining part of the Bronx was also transferred to the county. In 1914, those parts constituted the new county of the Bronx. See topschoolsintheusa for LSAT test centers in New York.

In 1898, Manhattan was united with the four remaining districts forming the second largest city in the world, and from there it became the Mecca of culture, entertainment and finance for all of North America. The city benefited from the arrival of thousands of immigrants who were looking for improvements in their living conditions. This caused a cultural miscegenation that has enriched the city, transforming it into an incomparable point for the visitor. Currently 80 different languages ​​are spoken.

New York City now encompasses four separate, though not from a distinct geological view, areas, namely the City of Manhattan (Manhattan), the Borough of the Bronx, the City of Richmond (Staten Island), and the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens (Brooklyn, Jamaica, Flat Bush-and Long Island City). Of these, the District of Manhattan and the Borough of the Bronx have a common geological expression, the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens are identical in geological character, and carry their most typical boundary to the drift zone so greatly reduced in the island of Manhattan by municipal changes, while the Richmond district has an individual geological structure imply peculiar characteristics not observed in the others.

In geological affinities, if the term can be used, Manhattan and the Bronx have allied themselves in the north or primordial, even arching structures; Richmond, kings and queens of the south and the last, however, in fact, in Richmond there is a problematic core similar to those on the island of Manhattan. In view of this diversity of features, the discussion of the topographical conditions and geological nature of New York City naturally fall into three sections: first, that of Manhattan Island, with an appendix briefly covering similar construction of the borough of the Bronx, in second place, that of Brooklyn and Queens, and in third place, that of Richmond.


The borough of Manhattan and New York County have the same boundaries (they are coextensive). As part of New York City, the county has no other political subdivisions. It occupies the entire island of Manhattan, surrounded by the East River, the Harlem River, and the Hudson River. It also includes some smaller islands such as Roosevelt Island(formerly Welfare Island, and previously still “Blackwell Island”), U Thant Island (officially known as Belmont Island), and a small portion of the North American mainland (Marble Hill ) adjoining the Bronx. Marble Hill was originally part of Manhattan Island; but the Harlem River canal, excavated in the 19th century To improve navigation on the Harlem River, he separated it from Manhattan.

Manhattan Island is approximately 22 km long and 3.6 km wide at its widest point and less than 1.6 km at its narrowest point. With the exception of the large green rectangle that is Central Park, it is almost entirely covered by buildings and streets.

Manhattan is connected by bridges and tunnels to New Jersey in the west and to three New York boroughs: The Bronx in the northeast and Queens and Brooklyn on Long Island to the east and south. Its only direct connection to the city’s fifth district is the “Staten Island Ferry,” whose terminal is in Battery Park at its southern end.

Every May 28 and July 12, both at sunrise and sunset, the sun is visible on the horizon from street level as it is aligned with its path.


The most densely populated county in the United States is New York, with a total of 1,537,195 people, 738,644 heads of household, and 302,105 families residing in 2000. The population density is 25,835.21 residents / km². With a figure of 798,144 houses with a density of 13,414.18 dwellings / km². The county’s ethnic makeup is 54.36% White, 17.39% Black, 9.40% Asian, 0.07% Oceanic, 0.50% Native American, 14.14% other ethnicities, and 4.14 % mestizos. 27.18% of the total population are Hispanics, who can be of any ethnicity.

There are 738,644 heads of households, of which 17.1% have minors in their care, 25.2% are married couples who live together, 12.6% are single women, and 59.1% are not families In the county, 16.8% of the population is under 18, 10.2% is between 18 and 24, 38.3% is between 25 and 44, 22.6% is between 45 and 64, and 12.2% are over 65 years old. The average age is 36 years. For every 100 women there are 90.3 men and for every 100 underage women, there are 87.9 men.

The average annual income of a head of household is $ 47,030, and the average income per family is $ 50,229. Men have an income of around $ 51,856 compared to $ 45,712 for women. The median per capita income for the county is 42,922. 20.0% of the population and 17.6% of families are below the poverty line. Of the total number of people living in this situation, 31.8% are minors and 18.9% are over 65 years of age.

Spoken languages

In Manhattan there are registered speakers of dissimilar origin, being an approximate of 96 different languages. The majority of the population is English-speaking, this being the predominant spoken language with 59.1% of the speakers; while Spanish is the second language, with 24.9% of speakers. Chinese has 5% and the rest of the languages ​​do not reach 1% of speakers.

Government and legislation

As in other counties in New York City, there is no county government, but there are county courts and other authorities, such as the county attorney. Each metropolitan district in New York elects a President but this office does not have much power, de facto. The office of the District President (Borough President) was created with the consolidation of the five counties, to balance the balance of these, with respect to the central municipal government. Each district president had an important role, having a vote in the New York City Board of Estimate, presenting and approving municipal budgets and making proposals for spatial planning. In 1989, the United States Supreme Court declared this Board unconstitutional, because Brooklyn, the most populous county in the borough, it had no more votes than Staten Island, the county with the smallest population. This constituted a violation of the Equality Protection Clause, according to the Fourteenth Amendment (or addition) to the United States Constitution, passed in 1964 according to the rule that each person has the right to one vote.

The powers of the Board of Estimate were transferred to the Board of Councilors (City Council, with 51 members, in charge of the legislative power in the city), thus increasing the centralized power in the New York municipality. Manhattan has ten councilors on the New York City Council. Since 1990, the District President has served as an advocate for the county’s interests with the mayoral agencies, city councils, New York state government, and corporations. The President of the District of Manhattan is Scott M. Stringer. The District Attorney for the New York District (known as District Attorney or simply DA, in the original English) is Robert M. Morgenthau. It also has 12 administrative districts, each served by a local Community Board. These Boards are the representative bodies that collect citizen complaints and serve as defenders of the residents of their area, before the City Council. New York is officially designated as the county seat of New York, which is totally irrelevant for all practical purposes since there are no other cities or towns in the county.

Manhattan Overview

American History: from Jackson to Lincoln

American History: from Jackson to Lincoln


The “era of good feelings” ended in 1829, when it was replaced by the “reign of Jackson”, so called by the name of A. Jackson, president from 1829 to 1837. Western man, the first typical representative of the ” American America ”to take office in the White House, Jackson definitively democratized the United States, placing the “common man” at the forefront, but under his own strong personal leadership. He had been elected as the representative of the Democrats-Republicans (or more simply Democrats, as they are still called), supporters of a liberal-progressive orientation, as opposed to the conservative address of the Republicans-nationals: an opposition that was concretely articulated around some big problems posed by the development of the United States itself. Thus for the communication routes, roads and even more channels, it was debated whether it was up to the Union or the states to equip them; as regards customs tariffs, the contrast between the North advocating protectionism and the opposite South persisted; as for the National Bank, reconstituted in 1816, J. Calhoun (vice-president with Adams and then with Jackson) in the thesis of the nullity of federal laws that invade the field of “state rights”.

According to usaers, the crisis culminated in 1832: in contrast to the “Nullity Ordinance” issued by South Carolina Jackson threatened the use of force, choosing to protect the cause of the Union rather than that of the freedom of states, he who was also a Democrat. During Jackson’s second presidency, while the question of tariffs alienated the southerners from the president, the conflict for the National Bank (whose “charter” was not renewed) pitted him against the republicans-nationals, now bearers of the interests of the industrial East and financial. These two very different groups, united only by their common aversion to Jackson, since c. 1834. they began to call themselves Whigs, analogous to the English Whigs who opposed George III’s personal rule. If in the elections of 1836 they failed to present a single candidate, so that M. Van Buren (1837-41), Jackson’s heir, was elected, in 1840 the only Whig candidate B. Harrison (who died just a month after took office; he was succeeded by Vice President Tyler, 1841-45). During the 1940s, the thrust to the west resumed vigorously, as far as the Pacific, then on territories that belonged to Mexico. Texas, where the residents of Anglo-Saxon origin were more numerous than those of Spanish origin, had already proclaimed itself independent in 1836, then annexed, in 1845, to the United States. The war between the United States and Mexico (1846-48) ensued, won by the former, who with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (February 2, 1848) obtained the cession of Texas, California and all the intermediate territory, New Mexico. Meanwhile, in 1846, a treaty with Great Britain had resolved the condominium on Oregon, giving the United States the territory up to the 49th parallel. Thus was fulfilled the Manifest Destiny, that “continental” destiny that the United States had pursued since its very foundation.

By 1850, rapidly populated for the “gold rush”, California was already admitted to the Union as a state. In the middle of the century XIX (between 1845 and 1861 James Knox Polk, Zachary Taylor, Millard Fillmore, Franklin Pierce, James Buchanan succeeded each other as president) not only territorial expansion marked the development of the United States. The population increased, which in 1850 had exceeded 23 million; economic activities flourished, favored by the construction of railways, by the introduction of steam navigation, by the application of new technical discoveries. In the same 1850 for the first time the annual value of industrial production was higher than that of agricultural production. And with industrialization, democratization progressed, even on the cultural level (popular newspapers, public and free schools, that is, non-denominational). Yet a crisis loomed over the United States, the largest in its history, aggravated by some of the same fundamental aspects of progress. L’ industrialization widened the gap and consequently the contrast between the agricultural South and the industrial North, including that part of the West, around the Lakes region, which was being industrialized. The further expansion to the west, then, acutely posed the problem of whether or not slavery was extended to the new territories and states. Set aside, rather than truly resolved, with the “Missouri compromise” of 1820, postponed with yet another compromise, of 1850, this problem broke out in all its gravity in 1854, when the “Kansas-Nebraska law” was passed, two territories located north of the line marked as the limit of slavery by the “Missouri compromise”. Once the compromise was revoked, the law established the principle of “popular sovereignty”, entrusting the decision of the residents of a territory if it, becoming a state, should he be a free-market or a slaveholder. The law provoked violent reactions from the adversaries of slavery; locally, in Kansas, there was bloody clashes. On the national level, by far the most important consequence was the founding (1854) of the Republican Party (the one that has continued to exist over the centuries), in which theanti- slavery whigs united with some democratic elements and with the followers of the Free-Soil Party. The Democrats still managed to win the presidential elections of 1852 and 1856, but in 1860 they did not agree on a single candidacy and so was elected the Republican A. Lincoln (1861-65).

American History - from Jackson to Lincoln

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Philadelphia (in English Philadelphia, also nicknamed Philly) is the largest city in the state of Pennsylvania, located in the northeast of the United States, between New York and Washington DC. It is the fifth city in the country by population, Philadelphia County has 1,450,000 residents in its commune (Philadelphia City) and 5,950,000 in its metropolitan area. It is the largest historical, cultural and artistic center in the United States, and in the same way an important industrial port on the Delaware River, which extends to the Atlantic Ocean. Founded in 1682, it was during the 18th century the most populous city of the Thirteen colonies and the third most populous city in the British Empire (after London and Dublin), before temporarily becoming the capital city of the United States. It was quickly overtaken by New York and gave its capital status to the brand new city of Washington DC Today, Philadelphia is the main metropolis of Pennsylvania, whose capital is Harrisburg, and also the seat of the government of Pennsylvania. The name of the city, chosen by William Penn, means “the city of brotherly love”, as it was desired to be a haven of religious tolerance. See topschoolsintheusa for high school codes in Pennsylvania.

Established in 1682, it is one of the oldest cities in the country, and as the original capital and largest colonial city, it enjoyed greater political and social importance than Boston, Massachusetts, or New York. In 1776, the Continental Congress of the 13 colonies met in Philadelphia and on July 4 of that year, declared independence from Great Britain. Perhaps the most famous citizen of Philadelphia was Benjamin Franklin, writer, scientist, and politician.

The American Revolution

The Carpenters’ Hall hosted the First Continental Congress in 1774

In the 1770s, Philadelphia became one of the major centers of the American Revolution. The Sons of Liberty, an organization of American patriots, were very active in the city: they resisted the fiscal measures imposed by the metropolis and incited the colonists to boycott English merchandise.

Philadelphia was chosen, because of its central position within the Thirteen Colonies, to host the First Continental Congress which met from September 5 to October 26, 1774 in Carpenters’ Hall. The Second Continental Congress lasted between 1775 and 1781, the date of the Declaration of Independence and the ratification of the Articles of Confederation. During the war of independence, this assembly organized the continental army, issued paper money, and dealt with the country’s international relations. The delegates signed the Declaration of Dependence on July 4, 1776 In this city. However, in response to the American defeat of Brandywine in 1777, Congress had to leave the city, as well as 2/3 of the population. The residents must have hidden the ” liberty bell “.

Many battles between the US forces commanded by George Washington and the Redcoats. Having conquered the city in September of 1777, the British concentrated 9,000 soldiers in the German district, Germantown. In June of 1778, the British left Philadelphia to protect New York, exposed to the French ships. In July, Congress returned to Philadelphia. A constitutional convention met in the city in 1781 to draft a constitution. This text, organizer of the institutions of the new country, was signed in Independence Hall in September of 1781. It was in Congress Hall that the Bill of Rights was produced in 1790, the first ten sections of the American constitution. The Continental Congress was installed in New York City in 1785, but, under pressure from Thomas Jefferson, it returned to Philadelphia in 1790, which was made the provisional capital of the United States, while Washington DC was being built. Philadelphia ceased to be the capital of the colonies in 1799.


Baldwin Locomotive Works plaque

Philadelphia’s maritime trade was disrupted by the Embargo Act of 1807, which led to the War of 1812 against England. After this event, New York surpassed the city and the port of Pennsylvania.

At the beginning of the 19th century, Philadelphia experienced significant economic growth thanks to its agricultural and mining wealth (coal) present in its territory; the construction of roads, canals and railways allowed the city to maintain its position in the Industrial Revolution. The textile industry, the clothing industry, the metallurgy, the manufacture of paper and railway material, the shipbuilding in shipyards and the agricultural industry were the main industries of the 19th century. Philadelphia was at once a major financial center. During the Civil War, the factories of the city supplied the armies of the Union. Hospitals also played an important role in accommodating many wounded as a result of the conflict.

Due to the mechanization of agriculture in the South of the United States, thousands of African Americans began to migrate north and Philadelphia became one of the privileged destinations of these tributaries. As in other American cities, the years preceding the Civil War were marked by violence against immigrants, such as the anti-Catholic riots of May and June 1884.
The riots of 1844 in Philadelphia

With the Act of Consolidation of 1854, the city of Philadelphia annexed many districts, settlements, and outlying neighborhoods. This decision made it possible to align the city limits with those of the county and improve the management of urban problems. However, the republican municipality continued its corruption and fraud and intimidation in the elections were frequent.

In 1876, Philadelphia was the site of the first universal exhibition organized on American territory (The Centennial International Exhibition for its name in English). It commemorated the first centennial of the American Declaration of Independence and was located above Fairmount Park, near the Schuylkill River. It attracted 9,789,392 visitors.. The vast majority of the exhibition buildings were preserved by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. Among the innovations that were shown to the public, we can mention the Alexander Graham Bell telephone, the Remington typewriter, the Heinz Ketchup or even the Root beer.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania