Category: North America

Virginia Politics and Economy

Virginia Politics and Economy

According to Abbreviationfinder, Virginia is one of the 50 states of the United States. Officially, it is called the Commonwealth of Virginia, in English.

Politics

Over the past century, Virginia has shifted from a fundamentally rural, politically southern, conservative state to a more urbanized and politically pluralistic environment. Rural areas in the southern and eastern parts of the state are GOP-like, while urban centers and outskirts of Washington, such as Fairfax and Arlington counties, are mostly Democratic-like. African Americans were effectively disenfranchised until after the passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s, which was one of the catalysts for the “Great Migration” of the early 20th century to the cities of the United States. North. The granting of the right to vote and the immigration of other groups, especially Hispanics, have demonstrated the growing importance of minority voting.

Regional differences play a big role in Virginia politics. Urban areas and increasingly politically moderate suburban areas, including Northern Virginia, are the base of the Democratic party. Rural Virginia moved its support for the Republican Party in response to its “Southern strategy” (in American politics, it refers to a Republican method of bringing racism among white voters to the Southern states). Parts of Southwest Virginia under the influence of unionized coal mines, college towns such as Charlottesville and Blacksburg, and southeastern counties in the “Black Belt” region have remained more favorable to the Democratic vote.

The strength of Virginia’s political parties has changed in recent years. In the 2004 US presidential election, Fairfax County in Northern Virginia voted for the Democrats for the first time in the past 40 years, joining the Democratic strongholds of Alexandria and Arlington. In 2006, Democrat Tim Kaine was elected Governor. and in the 2007 state elections, Democrats regained control of the state Senate and reduced the Republican majority in the House of Representatives to eight seats. But in the 2009 election, Republican Robert McDonnell was elected governor by a 17-point margin, and the Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General were also Republicans, regaining six seats in the House of Delegates.

In federal elections since 2006, Democrats have been more successful. In the 2006 Senate elections, Democrat Jim Webb won the Republican incumbent in a close election. The party won both US Senate seats after 2008, when former Governor Mark Warner replaced Republican John Warner. Of the state’s 11 seats in the US House of Representatives, Democrats won six and Republicans five. In Virginia, which has 13 electoral votes, Democrat Barack Obama won in the 2008 presidential election, when Republican candidates had won in the previous ten presidential elections. Virginia is considered a “swing state” in presidential elections.

Virginia Politics

Economy

Virginia’s economy is well-balanced and has varied sources of income, providing employment for 4.1 million civilian workers. In 2006, Forbes magazine named it the best state in the nation for business. Virginia’s Gross Domestic Product it was $ 382.964 billion in 2007. According to CountryAAH.com, it had the largest number of independent counties and cities, fifteen, ranked among the 100 richest counties in the United States by median household income. In addition, along with Colorado, it also has more counties, ten, among the hundred with the highest per capita income. As of 2007, seven Fortune 500 companies are headquartered in the greater Richmond area.

Virginia has seventeen companies in the Fortune 500, 10th nationally. Additionally, ten Fortune 1000 companies are in Northern Virginia, with a total of twenty-nine in the state. With only 1% Hispanic population, the state has 3.6% of the companies in the Hispanic 500. The Pentagon, the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense in Arlington County, is the largest office building of the world.

Virginia has the highest concentration of tech workers of any US state. One third of the state’s jobs are in the service sector. Chips became the state’s largest gross export in 2006, surpassing the top traditional coal and tobacco exports combined. Northern Virginia, once considered the state’s dairy capital, now produces software, communications technology, and consulting companies. The Dulles Tech Corridor, near the Washington-Dulles International Airport, has a large concentration of Internet companies, communications and software engineering. In 2006, Fairfax and Loudoun counties in Northern Virginia had the first and second highest median household incomes, respectively, of all counties in the United States.

Many of Northern Virginia’s highly educated people work directly for federal agencies. Many others work for government contractors, including security and defense. Famous government agencies established in Northern Virginia include the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the United States Department of Defense, as well as the National Science Foundation (NSF), the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The Hampton Roads area contains the largest concentration of military bases and ancillary facilities of any metropolitan area in the world. The largest of these is Norfolk Naval Base, the second state after Alaska, in defense spending per capita.

In southern Virginia, from Hampton Roads to Richmond to Lee County, the economy is based on military installations, such as beef cattle, tobacco and peanut farming. Approximately twenty percent of Virginian jobs are in the agricultural sector, with 47,000 farms, with an average area of ​​732 m². Tomato cultivation surpassed soybean cultivation as the most productive crop in 2006, with peanuts and hay being produced as other agricultural products. the oysters They are an important part of the Chesapeake Bay’s economy, but their populations and catches have declined, due to disease, pollution and overfishing. Northern Neck wineries and vineyards along the Blue Range have also begun to generate income and attract tourists.

Minnesota Geography

Minnesota Geography

Minnesota is the northernmost state outside of Alaska, and its isolated northwest corner at Lake of the Woods is the only part of the 48 contiguous states that lie north of the 49th parallel. Minnesota is in the US region., known as the Upper Midwest. The state shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and Wisconsin in the northeast, and the remainder of the eastern border is with Wisconsin. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota they lie to the west, and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba lie to the north. At 87.014 square miles (225,365 km²), or about 2.25% of the United States, it is ranked 12th in land area. According to CountryAAH.com, Saint Paul is the capital of the U.S. state of Minnesota.

Geology

According to Abbreviationfinder, Minnesota contains some of the oldest rocks found on earth, dating back about 3.6 million years. About 2.7 million years ago, basalt lava gushed from cracks in the floor of the primeval ocean, the remnants of this volcanic rock forming the Canadian Shield in northeastern Minnesota.

The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of the Precambrian seas formed the Iron Mountain Range in northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanic activity 1.1 million years ago, Minnesota’s geologic activity has been more moderate, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions from the sea that left multiple layers of sedimentary rock.

In more recent times, sheets of ice masses at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state’s landscape and sculpted its present terrain. The glaciation left Wisconsin 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and gullies that cut through the bedrock. This area is known as the Driftless Zone because of its absence of glacial drift. Much of the rest of the state outside of the Northeast is 50 feet (15 m) or more. 13,000 years ago the gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest; The lake’s outlet, the Warren River Glacier, carved out the Minnesota River Valley, and its bottom created the fertile lands of the Red River Valley. Minnesota is geologically quiet these days, even though it experiences earthquakes frequently,

Flora and fauna

The native fauna of the state: martens, deer, lynx and reindeer, has been considerably affected by the loss of their habitat, however the region has the largest population of gray wolves without counting Alaska, also harboring quite large populations of elk and white-tailed deer. Being on the Mississippi migration route, the state has populations of waterfowl such as geese and ducks, as well as other migratory birds, examples of which are the Uruguayan, pheasant and turkey. To the southeast can be found trout brook, brown trout and rainbow trout.

Hydrography

Minnesota is one of the most water-covered states in the United States. It makes good use of its nickname, The Land of 10,000 Lakes, counts: it has 11,842 lakes of more than 40,500 m². [3] The largest lake located within Minnesota is Red Lake, with 1,100 km². Counting the percentage of Lake Superior that belongs to Minnesota, the percentage of the area occupied by water in the state is about 8.4% of the total surface of the state.

Minnesota has 6,564 natural rivers and streams, totaling 111,000 kilometers in length. The longest river in the United States and the third largest in the world, the Mississippi, begins its 6,270 km journey at Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota. It joins the Minnesota River at the height of Fort Snelling, and to the southeast with many trout streams. The Red River of the North, on the bed of Lake Agassiz, drains the northwestern part of the state to the north, to flow into Lake Winnipeg in Canada.

The Mississippi River watershed covers about 57% of the state’s surface, followed by the Red River with 30%. For their part, the rivers that flow into Lake Superior, all located in the extreme northeast of Minnesota, cover the remaining 13% of the State.

Protected areas

Minnesota is home to a wide variety of wildlife, parks, and other open spaces. Minnesota’s first state park, Itasca State Park, was established in 1891, and is the source of the Mississippi River. Today Minnesota has 72 state parks and recreation areas, 58 state forests covering nearly four million acres (16,000 km²), and conserving state-like wildlife, all managed by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. To the west is the Voyageurs National Park, the only national park in the state.

Climate

The state has a temperate continental climate, with very cold winters and warm summers, and relatively unstable, where climatic conditions can change suddenly in a short period. Minnesota’s climate is typical of its continental location, high latitudes, and mild terrain, which allows rapid movement of air currents from any direction throughout the state. In general, the state’s temperatures rise as you travel south. However, most of the northeast of the State has lower temperatures than the northwest, due to its higher average altitude. For its part, the Minnesota coastline along Lake Superior has milder winters and summers than the other regions of the state.

Minnesota’s annual mean rainfall rate increases as you travel eastward. The western region of Minnesota receives less than 50 centimeters of annual rainfall per year, while the eastern region receives more than 80 centimeters. The snowfall rate, meanwhile, increases as one travels northward. Southern Minnesota receives about 50 inches of snow annually per year, while the north receives about 180 inches annually.

Minnesota Geography

Vermont Overview

Vermont Overview

According to Abbreviationfinder, Vermont is the second smallest state in terms of population, has 609,000 residents and the sixth smallest in terms of geographic area.

Geographically, Vermont is of interest primarily with the Green Mountains in the west and Lake Champlain in the northwest. It borders Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east, New York to the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north.

The lands of Vermont were originally inhabited by Indian tribes ( Iroquois, Algonquin peoples and Abnaki ). France later claimed Vermont, but today’s state became a British colony after France lost the French and Indian Wars. For many years it was ruled by the surrounding colonies, which met fierce resistance from the “boys of the Green Mountains”. After American independence following the Revolutionary War, Vermont became the 14th state to join the union.

Known for nature, dairy, and maple syrup, Vermont has long been associated with progressive politics and the Democratic Party.

One of IBM ‘s large microelectronics plants is located near Burlington. In 2015, the plant was handed over to GlobalFoundries. It takes over the mass production of some of the chips that IBM designs and uses in its computers. The plant provides thousands of jobs for residents of the small state.

History

Before the Europeans arrived, the Iroquois tribes of New York and the Algonquin tribes of New England fought for possession of the territory of Vermont. The first European known to have explored the region was the Frenchman Samuel de Champlain, who in 1609 reached the lake that was later named after him. The first British settlement was Fort Dummer or Brattleboro (1724), to the south.

In the 1760s, a wave of settlers came to this territory from Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts. These settlers, aided by Benedict Arnold, seized Fort Ticonderoga and drove British forces out of the Lake Champlain region months before American independence was declared. In 1777, the colonists adopted a separate Constitution and, after the war, formed an independent republic that lasted until 1791. In 1791, Vermont was admitted to the Union.

Vermont experienced a population explosion between the 1790s and 1820s. The railroad favored the creation of cities that served as stations and facilitated some economic development, which was offset by a lack of industrial facilities and a tendency to make agriculture the basis of the state economy.

Marble and granite quarries, specialized industrial machinery industries, and the growth of the tourism industry gained prominence in the late 1800s and early 1900s, providing a decisive new boost to the Vermont economy.

Geography

Vermont is famous for its long and snowy winters, when people from all over the world come to enjoy its wonderful winter resorts. Temperatures are almost always negative during the period December – February, sometimes falling below -20 ° C. Summers are short and cool, with an average daily temperature in July – August of the order of 22 ° C

Climate

In terms of climate, Vermont has long winters and short summers. Most of the state receives a lot of precipitation in the form of snow, reaching 3,175 mm a year in many mountain areas.

Vermont flora and fauna

About three-quarters of Vermont’s land area is covered in forests, consisting primarily of hardwood species such as ash, beech, birch, hickory, maple, and oak. The large coniferous forests to the northeast are made up of pines and firs.

The white-tailed or Virginia deer is, of the large mammal species, the most important game in Vermont. Bobcat and coyote are also common, as are beaver, muskrat, otter, rabbit, squirrel, groundhog, and raccoon. Traditionally, the state has had good mineral resources, with deposits of copper, tin, iron ore, silver, manganese and gold.

Vermont’s agriculture sector is small by comparison, but it makes up a significant part of the state’s economy. The most valuable product is milk; equally important are cattle, egg production, hay and apple farming, and maple syrup.

Manufacturing is the most prominent sector of the state economy, focused on electronic equipment, industrial machinery, printing materials, paper and its derivatives, articles of wood and stone, processed foods, precision instruments and aerospace and transportation equipment.

Politics

The state is known for its liberal politics and independent political thought, in this respect it is the only state that has had a Social Democratic governor, outside the Democratic and Republican parties. In April 2009, the law was approved that allows homosexuals to marry without any legal restriction. According to CountryAAH.com, Montpelier is the capital city of the U.S. state of Vermont and the seat of Washington County.

Vermont Overview

Lansing, Michigan

Lansing, Michigan

According to CountryAAH.com, Lansing is a city located in Ingham County, although small portions of the city extend into Eaton County. It is located in the US state of Michigan, and is the capital of that state. In the 2010 Census it had a population of 114,297 residents and a population density of 1,203.28 people per km². Template: Census data.

Geography

Lansing is located at coordinates 42 ° 42′35 N ° 84′33. According to the United States Census Bureau, Lansing has a total area of ​​94.99 km², of which 93.37 km² correspond to land and (1.71%) 1.62 km² is water. Template: Census data

Climate

Lansing has a humid temperate climate (Köppen Dfa climate classification), with four well-defined seasons. The state’s summers are mild due to the presence of large bodies of water in the region, while winters are cold. The temperature drops as you travel north. During the winter, the average temperature in the southern Lansing region is -6 ° C, -9 ° C in the central region, and -12 ° C in the Upper Peninsula. The average of the minimums in the state is -10 ° C, and the average of the maximums is -1 ° C. The minimums vary between -40 ° C and 8 ° C, and the maximums between -35 ° C and 15 ° C. The lowest recorded temperature in the state is -46 ° C, in Vanderbilt, on February 9, 1934.

In summer, the average temperature is 22 ° C in the extreme south, 20 ° C in the central region and 18 ° C in the Upper Peninsula. The average of the minimums is 14 ° C, and the average of the maximums is 26 ° C. The maximums can reach up to 40 ° C in the southern region, and 34 ° C in the Upper Peninsula. The highest temperature recorded in the state was 44 ° C, in Mio, on July 13, 1932.

Precipitation

According to Abbreviationfinder, Lansing’s annual mean rainfall rate is 80 centimeters, ranging from 95 centimeters per year in the Upper Peninsula and in the extreme southwest of the state, to 68 centimeters in the northeast of the state. Average annual snowfall rates range from 100 centimeters in the south to more than 400 centimeters in the north of the state.

Demography

According to the 2010 census, Template: Census Data there were 114,297 people residing in Lansing. The population density was 1,203.28 residents / km². Of the 114,297 residents, Lansing was made up of 61.23% White, 23.74% were African American, 0.77% were Amerindian, 3.72% were Asian, 0.05% were Pacific Islanders, 4.3% were of other races and 6.18 % belonged to two or more races. Of the total population, 12.5% ​​were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

Sister cities

  • Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico
  • Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico
  • Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico

Brother Town

  • Aporo, (Michoacán, Mexico)

Famous people

  • Basketball player Magic Johnson was born in this city
  • Actor Burt Reynolds was born in this city
  • Actor Steven Seagal was born in this city

Politics

The Lansing-Ishii Agreement was a diplomatic note signed by the United States and the Empire of Japan on Template: Date regarding their differences from China.

In the text of the Agreement that was published – signed by the Secretary of State of the United States Robert Lansing and the Japanese special envoy Ishii Kikujirō – both parties pledged to maintain the open door policy in China regarding its territorial and administrative integrity.. However, the United States government also recognized that Japan had certain “special interests” in China due to its geographical proximity, especially in the areas of China closest to Japanese territory, which in practice contradicted the aforementioned open door policy..

In a secret protocol attached to the Public Agreement, both parties agreed not to take advantage of possible opportunities arising from World War I to try to obtain special rights or privileges in China at the expense of other allied nations in the war against Germany.

At the time, the Lansing-Ishii Agreement stood as proof that Japan and the United States had buried their increasingly bitter rivalry over China, and the agreement was celebrated as a milestone in US-Japan relations. However, critics realized the vague wording and the different possible interpretations of the Agreement, which meant that nothing had been decided after two months of talks. The Lansing-Ishii Agreement was superseded in April 1923 by the Nine Powers Treaty.

For the Japanese, while the Lansing-Ishii Agreement of 1917, which recognized Tokyo’s special interests in part of China, did not imply equality with Western powers, it was proof that Japan could no longer be ignored in international affairs..

Population

According to the 2010 census of the United States Census Bureau, the population of Lansing in that year was 114,297 residents, a growth of 6.5% in relation to the population of the state in 1990, of 9,328. 784 residents.

The natural growth of the Lansing population between 2000 and 2010 was 182,380 residents, 691,897 births and 456,137 deaths, the population growth caused by immigration was 122,901 residents, while interstate migration resulted in a decrease of 165,084 residents. Between 2000 and 2010, Lansing’s population grew by 182,380 residents, and between 2004 and 2005, by 16,654 residents.

About 82% of Lansing’s population lives in 9 different metropolitan regions: Ann Arbor, Benton Harbor, Detroit, Flint, Grand Rapids-Muskegon-Holland, Jackson, Kalamazoo-Battle Creek, Lansing-East Lansing and Saginaw-Bay City- Midland.

Most of the population lives in the Lower Peninsula of the state. The average population density of the state is 17 residents per square kilometer. However, in the Lower Peninsula, this average is 230. In the Lower Peninsula, the average density is only 8 residents / km².

Lansing, Michigan

Salt Lake City, Utah

Salt Lake City, Utah

According to CountryAAH.com, Salt Lake City is the capital and the largest city of the state of Utah (United States). In 2008 its population was 181 698 residents in the city and just over 2 million residents counting the metropolitan area that it forms together with neighboring cities.

Background

It was founded in 1847 by a group of Mormons, a church led at that time by its creator, Brigham Young).

It is located just south-east of the Great Salt Lake.

It is the headquarters of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (also known as Mormons). As the headquarters of the Mormon church, the city still preserves many buildings that were built when the Mormons arrived in this region in 1847, for example:

House of the Lion (Lion House) which was the nickname of Brigham Young (who also called himself “Young Prophet”).

The Deseret Village (Desert Village)

The Salt Lake City temple.

The Mormon church also maintains the largest family registration center in the world, with free services to the public.

Located at the foot of the Wasatch range to be a great recreation center and has one of the largest financial industries in the entire United States.

In the winter of 2002 Salt Lake City was the host city of the Olympic Games of Winter.

History

Before the settlement of Europeans around the 19th century, the Shoshone, Paiute, and other Native American tribes had already dwelt in the Salt Lake Valley for thousands of years.

The first known exploration was carried out by the Franciscan missionary Silvestre Vélez de Escalante and his men in 1776.

The first Mormon settlers settled in the valley on July 24, 1847.

It was built (Temple Square), in an area called the temple square located in the center of the city. It took 40 years to complete the temple, being dedicated on April 6, 1893. Today it is the best-known building in the entire city.

In 1911 the city elected for the first time a mayor who worked to improve the precarious infrastructures available to the city.

In 1929 the Great Crak hit the city hard and caused many of the 61,000 people who lived in the city at that time to lose their jobs and their homes and were forced to live on the streets.

During the Second World War, military bases were established in the city and at the end of the war the city grew rapidly, recovering a good economy.

The 20th century can be defined as a period of great economic and population growth for the city, since at the beginning of the century some 53,531 people lived in the city who had a per capita income of about $ 200 and at the end of the century lived in the city. city ​​159,936 people with a per capita income of $ 24,000, which meant tripling the population and multiplying the per capita income by 120.

During the 21st century the city continues to grow and change and the city council has arranged for a progressive renovation of the buildings in the Financial District to help improve the economy of the city.

Also in recent years, the increase in immigration is turning the city into a multicultural society in which 15% of Hispanics coexist, who are already the most important minority not only in the city but in the entire state of Utah.

Climate

According to Abbreviationfinder, Salt Lake City’s climate is defined as a semi-arid steppe climate with four distinct seasons. Summer and winter are long and spring and fall are short. Summers in the city are characterized by its hot and very dry climate.

The monsoon arrives from the Gulf of California from mid-July through September, producing several focused storms in the afternoons.

Winters are cold and with a lot of precipitation in the form of snow. Spring and fall are comfortable transition periods between winter and summer.

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s Study in Scarlet is described in popular culture as a dystopian colony ruled by Brigham Young’s autocracy and his armed wing, the Avengers Angels.

Population

The population census of the year 2000 in Salt Lake City there are 180,651 people who live in 71,461 houses and that form 39,803 families.

This amounts to 8.1% of the total Utah population, 20.2% of the total Salt Lake County population, and 13.6% of the total Salt Lake metropolitan area population.

Salt Lake City has a population density of 643.3 residents per km2. The population of the metropolitan area of ​​the city amounts to more than 1,300,000 people who live in Salt Lake City and the neighboring cities of Salt Lake County.

23.6% of the city’s population is under 18, 15.2% is between 18 and 24, 33.4% is between 25 and 44, 16.7% is between 45 and 64 and a 11.0% of the city’s population is 65 years or older, which gives an average age of around 30 years. For every 102 men there are 100 women, 10.2% of the city’s population lives below the poverty line, and more than 50% of the city’s population is a member of the Mormon Church.

Salt Lake City, Utah

Boston, Massachusetts History

Boston, Massachusetts History

Boston was founded on 17 of November of 1630 by Puritan colonists from England, called the patriarchs pilgrims on the Shawmut Peninsula, named for the Amerindians who inhabited the region. The first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, John Winthrop, who gave a famous speech entitled “A Model of Christian Charity”, but popularly known as “The City on a Hill” that gave the feeling that Boston had a special covenant with God (Winthrop also promoted and signed the Cambridge Agreement that was instrumental in the creation of the city). The stability and structure of the city was mainly due to the Puritan ethic.

Between 1636 and 1698, six major smallpox epidemics caused significant deaths in Boston.

During the early 1770s, Britain’s intention to exert control over the Thirteen coloniesthrough taxation began the American War of Independence. Battles like the slaughter of Boston, the Mutiny of tea in Boston and many others, occurred on the outskirts of town or in your neighborhood, as the Battle of Lexington and Concord, the Battle of Bunker Hill and the Siege of Boston. It was during this period that Paul Revere he made his famous “night tours”. After the Revolution, Boston became one of the most prosperous international ports due to its seafaring tradition. The most common exports included rum, fish, salt, and tobacco. During this time, the descendants of the Boston families were considered the social and cultural elites of the nation, later called Boston Brahmins.

In 1822, Boston was elevated to the category of city and its citizens agreed, in that same year, to change the official name from “Town of Boston” (Town of Boston) to “City of Boston” (City of Boston). At that time, the city of Boston had 46,226 residents, while the area of ​​the city was only 12 km².

Between 1631 and 1890 the city tripled its physical size by land reclaimed from the sea by filling in swamps, marshes, and lagoons between the piers along the shoreline – a process that Walter Muir Whitehill called “shrinking the hills to fill in the hills. coves “. The largest land reclamation effort took place during the 1800s. After the Great Boston Fire of 1872, workers used building debris to fill in the downtown shoreline.

At the beginning of the 21st century, the city had become an intellectual, political and technological center. Despite this, it has experienced a loss of regional institutions, including the acquisitions of the Boston Globe by The New York Times, and the mergers and acquisitions of local financial institutions such as FleetBoston Financial, which was bought by Bank of America in 2004. Jordan Marsh and Filene’s department stores merged with New York’s Macy’s. Boston also experienced gentrification in the late 20th century, and house prices have risen significantly since the 1990s. The cost of living has risen and Boston is one of the most expensive cities in the United States, ranking as the 99th most expensive city in the world in a survey carried out in 2008 among 143 cities. Despite this, Boston is one of the cities with the best standard of living and is ranked 35th in the world after a survey carried out in 2009 with 215 participating cities.

Geography

The city of Boston is very compact. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of ​​232.1 km², being 125.4 km² of land (54.0%) and 106.7 km² (46.0%) of water. Boston is the fourth most densely populated city in the country among those that are the head of any major metropolitan area. According to CountryAAH.com, of the US cities with more than 600,000 residents, only San Francisco is smaller in land area.

Boston is surrounded by the region of “Greater Boston” (Greater Boston) and by the cities of Winthrop, Revere, Chelsea, Everett, Somerville, Cambridge, Watertown, Newton, Brookline, Needham, Dedham, Canton, Milton and Quincy.

The Charles River separates the city proper of Boston from the cities of Cambridge and Watertown, and the neighborhood of Charlestown, which does belong to Boston. To the east is Boston Harbor and the Boston WEINER Harbor Islands National Recreation Area. The Neponset River forms the boundary between the southern neighborhoods of Boston and the cities of Quincy and Milton. The Mystic River separates Charlestown from Chelsea and Everett; Chelsea Creek and Boston Harbor do the same between the east of the city and its center. Boston’s official height, measured at Logan International Airport, is 5.8 meters above sea level. The highest point is Bellevue Hill, 101 meters above sea level; while the lowest is at sea level.

According to Abbreviationfinder, Boston basically has a climate between the humid continental and humid subtropical, very common on the southern coast of New England. Summers are generally hot and humid, while winters are cold, windy and snowy. Offshore winds that affect Boston predominate, minimizing the influence of the Atlantic Ocean.

Spring in Boston can be warm, with temperatures surpassing 30 ° C with the coastal winds, although it may be possible that a day in late May will not exceed 5 ° C due to the cold winds from the ocean. The hottest month is July, with an average maximum temperature of 28 ° C and a minimum of 19 ° C, with humid conditions. The coldest month, meanwhile, is January, with average maximum temperatures of 2 ° C and minimum temperatures of -6 ° C. Periods of temperatures that in summer exceed 32 ° C and in winter -12 ° C are not common and are rarely prolonged seasons. The highest recorded temperature in Boston was 40 ° C on July 4, 1911. The lowest temperature was -18 ° C and was recorded on February 9, 1934. The month of February in Boston has seen 21 ° C only once in history since temperatures are recorded and it took place on February 24 from 1985. The highest temperature in March occurred on March 31, 1998.

Boston’s location on the North Atlantic coast, while moderating temperatures, also makes the city very prone to northeastern weather systems, which can produce a lot of snow and rain. The city receives an average of 108 cm of rainfall and 104 cm of snow per year. Most of the snow occurs from December to March. There is usually little or no snowfall in April and November, and snow is very rare between May and October. Fog is frequent, especially in spring and early summer, and occasional tropical storms or hurricanes can threaten the region, especially in early fall. Due to its location along the North Atlantic, the city is often subjected to the sea breeze, especially in the final stretch of spring.

Boston, Massachusetts History

Austin, Texas

Austin, Texas

According to CountryAAH.com, Austin is the capital city of the state of Texas (United States). In addition to its functions as the seat of state government, Austin is a commercial, manufacturing, educational, and convention center. Among its production, high-tech items such as electrical equipment, semiconductors and computer equipment stand out. It is the headquarters of the University of Texas at Austin (1883). It is known for being the capital of live music as well.

History

In 1730 Franciscan missionaries established three temporary missions in the area, then occupied by indigenous people from the Comanche, Tonkawa and Lipan groups. In 1838 a permanent community settled here, which was given the name of Waterloo.

From 1838-1850

In 1839 the Waterloo community was incorporated into the Republic of Texas, being designated its capital and renamed in honor of Stephen F. Austin, considered the father of Texas. Most Texans longed to separate from Mexican territory and aspired to union with the United States for commercial reasons. In 1842, in the time of Antonio López de Santa Anna, an incident occurred that forced the capital to be moved to Houston, but the citizens of Austin forced the return of the capital in 1844 when the annexation of Texas was already a fact. Then Texas joined the Union in 1845 and Austin became the state capital in 1850.

After the Civil War, Austin’s economic development was boosted with the arrival of the railroad in 1871. During the 20th century, Austin benefited from the use of hydroelectric power and irrigation from the Colorado River. Beginning in the 1920s and 1930s, Austin launched a series of civic development and beautification projects that created much of the city’s infrastructure and parks.

Economic development

After the Civil War, Austin’s economic development was boosted with the arrival of the railroad in 1871. During the 20th century Austin has benefited from the use of hydroelectric power and irrigation from the Colorado River. Many companies engaged in the production of high-tech items were established in its metropolitan area in the 1970s.

Airport

Its official name is Austin-Bergstrom International Airport. It was opened on October 14,1930. It is located 5 miles (8 km) southeast of Austin’s financial center.

Austin International Airport serves a good part of the state of Texas (United States). It has a large number of domestic flights and some international ones, mainly to Mexico. Around 9.5 million passengers circulated it during 2012.

Geography

Austin is located at coordinates 30 ° 18 ° 26 ° N 97 ° 45 22 W. According to the United States Census Bureau.

Surface

According to Abbreviationfinder, Austin has a total area of ​​790.11 km², of which 771.54 km² correspond to the mainland and (2.35%) 18.56 km² is water.

Social development

Population

In the 2010 Census it had a population of 790,390 residents and a population density of 1,000.36 people per km².

Ethnic composition

Austin was composed of 68.29% white, 8.15% were African American, 0.87% were Amerindian, 6.31% were Asian, 0.07% were Pacific Islanders, 12.93% were of other races and 3.38% belonged to two or more races. Of the total population, 35.14% were Hispanics or Latinos of any race.

Education

The Austin Independent School District operates public schools. In parts of the city, the Del Valle, Pflugerville, Round Rock, Leander, Manor, Lake Travis, Eanes, and Hays school districts operate public schools. Austin Community College operates community colleges. Austin Public Library operates public libraries.

Curiosities

The Formula 1 United States Grand Prix is ​​scheduled to take place in Austin from 2012 to at least 2021.

Austin, Texas

Places of interest

  • The Bob Bullock Texas State History Museum http://TheStoryofTexas.com – Recreate the myths, legends and reality of Texas in interactive exhibits, artifacts never before shown publicly. It has an IMAX theater and the multisensory Texas Spirit Theater.
  • Ann W. Richards Congress Avenue Bridge Bat Colony and South Congress Avenue http://batcon.org – From April to late September, Austin is home to the largest urban bat colony in the United States: 1 million bats migrate from downtown Mexico to the north, to his favorite place in the city, the lower part of the Ann Richards Congress Avenue Bridge. The show begins at dusk, when these creatures take flight in search of their nocturnal meal.
  • Circuit of the Americas http://circuitoftheamericas.com – COTA is the newest foundation for high performance motorsport. The track is the only facility in the country built especially for Formula 1TM racing and is the circuit for the United States Grand Prix between 2012 and 2021.
  • Harry Ransom Center University of Texas http://hrc.utexas.edu – The Ransom Center, one of the world’s most comprehensive cultural archives, contains 36 million literary manuscripts, 1 million rare copies, 5 million photographs, and more than 100,000 works of art. Notable highlights include Gutenberg’s Bible (circa 1450) and the world’s first photograph (circa 1826).
  • Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center http://wildflower.org – This native plant center is dedicated to educating people about environmental need, economic values ​​and natural beauty – the only establishment of its kind in the country.
  • Sixth Street and the Warehouse District http://6street.com – It is one of the most popular destinations in the city, with nightclubs, live music venues and bars. A few steps west, two blocks from the Fourth and Fifth Streets component Warehouse District, where warehouses were transformed into restaurants, clubs, and bars.
Baltimore, Maryland Geography

Baltimore, Maryland Geography

According to CountryAAH.com, Baltimore is located in the plain of the Atlantic coast, in north-central Maryland and on the banks of the Patapsco River, near its mouth in the Chesapeake Bay and approximately 150 meters above sea level and covers a total area of ​​239 km², of which 209 km² are on land surface and 29 km² of water.

Climate

According to the Köppen climate classification, Baltimore has a humid subtropical climate, with very humid summers and average maximum temperatures in the order of 33 ° C and an average low 23 ° C, July is the hottest month of the year and January is the coldest month with minimum average temperatures of -1 ° C, in winter there can be gusts of warm winds that soften temperatures, but with the arrival of the arctic winds they drop considerably, especially at night.

Rainfall is recorded throughout the year quite frequently, mainly towards the east coast with an average of 10.16 cm and except for the winter season where small showers are usually constant but weak, in the rest of the year hail rains usually appear. and storms, in winter occasionally there are some snowfalls with average values ​​of 53 cm per year.

Districts

Baltimore is officially divided into nine zones: North, Northwest, Northeast, West, Central, East, South, Southwest and Southeast, however the Baltimorians divide the city into East or West Baltimore, with Charles Street as the dividing line; and in North and South Baltimore, with Baltimore Street as the boundaries between these zones.

The central region of the city includes the main commercial area of ​​Baltimore and serves as the headquarters for several of the most important companies in Baltimore, it can be said that it is the financial and commercial heart of Baltimore, where the possibilities of residence have been limited but to Despite this, as of 2002 the population in this area increased in such a way that it has practically doubled.

The northern region of the city is surrounded to the east by the Alameda and to the west by Pimlico Road, it is a residential area where most of the richest class of the city lives, this region is home to important universities.

The southern region is characterized by being a kind of mixture of industrial and residential zone, constituting in fact a mixed socioeconomic region that combines working-class neighborhoods of diverse ethnic groups, gentrified areas and less favored areas.

The eastern part of the city includes the Northeast, East and Southeast regions. The northeast is primarily a residential neighborhood that borders Sinclair Lane to the north, Erdman Avenue to the east, and Pulaski Highway and Alameda to the south on its western border. For many years it has remained populated, fundamentally, by the black community.

The eastern region is located below Erdman Avenue and Sinclair Lane, above Orleans Street, this area is almost exclusively for the most humble African-American community, which is why it is considered dangerous due to its high crime rate.

The southeast region is also a mixture between industrial and residential that is located below Orleans Street, bordering on the west with Inner Harbor, with the border of the city on the east and on the south with the port of Baltimore, in it coexist young workers and it is one of the most ethnically diverse areas characterized by being the center of the Hispanic community.

The western part of the city consists of the Northwest, West and Southwest regions. The Northwest region borders the city limits to the north and west, to the south with Gwynns Falls Parkway and to the east with Pimlico Road, it is a residential area that was formerly the center of the Jewish community but since 1960 with the decrease of the white population, blacks predominate.

The west region is the heart of the so-called “West Baltimore”, it is the center of African-American culture and is home to most of the most important monuments and neighborhoods in this community, it is a poor area marked by its high rate of criminality.

The southwest region of the city limits the west with Baltimore County to the north with Baltimore Avenue, it is a mixed area that combines industrial and residential neighborhoods, in it the white population predominates but with a current tendency to predominate in the near future the black.

Population

The population was 636,919 residents in 2008, and in the Baltimore Metropolitan Area 2,668,056 million residents, however, there are around 8.3 million residents when counting the population that inhabits the combined statistical area associated with Baltimore.

Architecture

According to Abbreviationfinder, the city of Baltimore has its streets organized in a hypodamic layout and many of its houses use an artificial stone cladding known as formstone, some of these houses date from the 1790s.

Baltimore has architectural examples of a wide variety of styles that date back more than two centuries and include works from all periods and by renowned architects, which together these works give the city extraordinary architectural importance among which stands out The Basilica of Baltimore dating from 1806, neoclassical building home to the oldest Catholic cathedral in the United States, we also find The Phoenix Shot Tower, built in 1828, for a long time it was the tallest building in the United States Standing over 71 meters tall until the Civil War, another work of great value is the Neo-Greek Lloyd Street Synagogue dating from 1845 and it is one of the oldest in the United States.

At present we can highlight the World Trade Center of the city that with its 123.4 meters stands as the tallest pentagonal equilateral building in the world.

Baltimore, Maryland

Memphis, Tennessee

Memphis, Tennessee

According to CountryAAH.com, Memphis is located in the southern state of Tennessee, on the banks of the Mississippi River, and is known throughout the world for being the most famous city in the world when it comes to rock and roll, since it is the birthplace of one of the great , Elvis Presley, and there is his Graceland mansion. However, its connection to art and music does not end with this character, since since its foundation it has been intimately linked to culture and all its manifestations.

History

The first residents of Memphis were the Native American Indians who lived along the Mississippi River. The first Europeans to see the river from Memphis were the Spanish Hernando deSoto, who crossed the Mississippi near Memphis in 1541. A century later the French explorers Marquette and Joliet. These were followed by others until in 1763, after the war between the French and the Indians, Europe gained control of the area. In 1790, Memphis became a territory of the United States and went on to have provided State in 1796.

Although in theory the land belonged to the natives, the colonizers gradually conquered it. General Andrew Jackson, General James Winchester, and Judge John Overton are considered the founders of the city. The city was designed in 1819. At that time, the city had a population of about 50 people. Marcus winchester, the general’s son, was named first best (mayor). The first immigrants to Memphis were Germans and Irish who built some of the first churches in Memphis and thanks to whom some of the first neighborhoods were formed, including the Pinch District. El Pinch is an area that years later has undergone a renaissance with the construction of some of the most emblematic buildings in the city, such as the Pyramid, the sports and entertainment palaces and the tram that connects the Pinch with other districts.

Geography

Geographic location

According to Abbreviationfinder, Memphis is located at 35º7’3 N, 89º58’16 W. According to the US Census Bureau, the city has 763.4 km², of which 5.24% is water surface.

Demography

Its population in 2000 was 650,100 people but this city began with only 364 residents in 1820 and by 1900 it already had more than 100,000.

Climate

The city of Memphis has an average annual temperature of about 16.6ºC

To get an idea of ​​temperatures in winter and summer, we can tell you that in January the average is approximately 5ºC and in July it is slightly over 27ºC. The highest temperature reached in the history of Memphis has been 42.2ºC. July 13, 1980 and the lowest, that of -25ºC on December 24, 1963.

Average annual rainfall is 48.6 inches.

Economic development

The economy of Memphis is diverse. Memphis-centric services include banking and finance (First Tennessee, National Commerce Bancorp, Union Planters), real estate (Belz Enterprises, Boyle Investment Co., and Weston Co.), the world’s largest non-profit including waterfowl and the wetland conservation organization (Ducks Unlimited), and a chain of restaurants (Hamburger Yard). Science and technology business is very well represented in Memphis; Brother Industries USA, Buckman Laboratories, Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Morgan Keegan-, Sharp Manufacturing of America, Smith & Nephew, and Wright Medical Technologies are all based there. Memphis is considered a commercial center in the mid- South and an attractive tourist destination. Its initial and continued role as a major cotton market makes agribusiness an economic mainstay in Memphis. Forty percent of the country’s cotton crop is traded in Memphis, home to three of the world’s largest cotton distributors: Dunavant Companies, Hohenburg Brothers (now Cargill Cotton), and the Allenberg Company. Memphis is important in other areas of agribusiness.

The city has always been established as a prime trading center for hardwood, as well as wood and paper products. Memphis also refers to the major processors of soy, meats, and other foods. Enhancing Memphis’s position in the center of agribusiness is AgriCenter International, a $ 8,000,000, 140,000-square-meter agricultural exhibition center exhibition, experimentation and information exchange. It brings together the most technologically advanced methods of agriculture and available farm machinery in one place.

The showroom, where independent companies related to agriculture- (refers to chemicals, irrigation companies, farm management companies, etc.) rental space, is fully computerized, allows farmers and consumers to request specific information from the computer and receive specific responses. The facility also includes about 1,000 hectares of farmland, 120 hectares of field of view, and a 600-seat amphitheater. AgriCenter, a non-profit entity operating under a management contract with the Shelby County AgriCenter Commission, was built amid 2,000 acres of old Shelby County penal farmland, in the eastern section of the province about 30 minutes from downtown Memphis.

Social development

Sports

It is the home of the NBA team, the Memphis Grizzlies. In it, two Spanish players, Pau Gasol, and Juan Carlos Navarro, came to play together, until Gasol was transferred to Los Angeles Laker

Tourist sites

The city also offers several places where you can enjoy live music and several theaters and companies that offer dance, opera etc., such as the Germantown Performing Arts Center, the Poplar Pike Playhouse, the Rodes College-McCoy Theater, the Orpheum Theater, among others.

Culture

Culture occupies an important place in the city that has several interesting museums for visitors, such as the Chucalissa Museum and its Indian village (Indian village), where you can see the archaeological remains of a Native American settlement dating back to from the 15th century and even participate in the excavations. On the other hand, the National Museum of Civil Rights, with an area of ​​more than 10,000 square feet, is located in a poor neighborhood of the city and allows to know the way through the history of the movement for civil rights and in close related to this, the old Lorraine Motel, where Martin Luther King was assassinated It was restored and is dedicated to making known the history of the civil rights movement.

Transport

Interstates I-40, I-240 and I-55 are the main highways in the area. Future I-22 and I-69 are expected to end in the city. Public transportation in the metropolitan area is run by the Memphis Area Transit Authority, and is made up of buses and streetcars.

Memphis, Tennessee

Louisiana Overview

Louisiana Overview

Louisiana. It is one of the states that make up the United States located in the southern region of the country, on the delta of the Mississippi River. The state borders on the west with the state of Texas, on the north with Arkansas, on the east with Mississippi and on the south with the Gulf of Mexico. Louisiana has a particular culture due to French colonization and, to a lesser extent, to the Spanish. The most widely spoken languages ​​today are English and Spanish. As for the dialect of French known as Cajun (a voice derived from the adjective Acadien, which designated the settlers from the French-Canadian colony of Acadia), this has today been reduced to 5% of speakers. Worse luck has fallen to the vestigial Spaniard, brought in the 18th century by Canarian and Andalusian emigrants, which today is practically disappeared. However, Spanish is constantly growing in number of speakers, due to Mexican and Central American emigration, especially in the city of New Orleans. According to CountryAAH.com, Louisiana capital is Baton Rouge, but the most important city is New Orleans. Other cities are Lafayette and Shreveport.

Etymology

According to Abbreviationfinder, Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France (1643 – 1715). When René Robert Cavelier de La Salle claimed this territory watered by the Mississippi River for France, he called it La Louisiane, which means “The Land of Louis.” Louisiana was also part of the Viceroyalty of New Mexico, in the First Mexican Empire. Already part of the United States, the Louisiana Territory stretched from New Orleans to the current border with Canada.

Demography

In 2006, the state of Louisiana had a population of 4,287,768 people, of which:

  • 7% are white (European or of European descent), mainly British, French, Spanish and Italian.
  • 6% are black.
  • 9% are Latin American (among which Hondurans and Mexicans predominate).
  • 3% are Asian.
  • The rest are made up of people of other races.

Hurricane Katrina

On 29 August of the 2005, the Hurricane Katrina hit the state of Louisiana. This was a major hurricane that reached Category 5 on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. The winds reached more than 280 kilometers per hour and caused great damage in the littoral part of the southern United States, especially around the New Orleansmetropolitan area and in the parish of Plaquemines.

In New Orleans, as a result of the rains, Lake Pontchartrain overflowed, leaving more than 80% of the city flooded and around 200,000 houses under water. More than a million people had to be evacuated to other states in the country, mainly Florida, Missouri and Texas, while others were transported to more distant states, such as Washington, Ontario and Illinois. It took the city more than 3 months to completely pump the accumulated water into the sea, to find the bodies of the disappeared and to start living in the houses again.

Although the forecasts were that the houses could be reoccupied by the summer of 2006. A few days after the disaster, on the night of August 31, the mayor, Ray Nagin, declared martial law, subsequently the federal disaster area came under the control of FEMA and the National Guard. The interruptions in imports and exports, as well as the activities in this area of ​​the oil industry, not only affected the local economy, but also affected the economy of the entire country.

New Orleans. Located in the state of Louisiana (United States), it is one of the most important cultural centers of that country, and one of the populations that can boast of having the richest past within a country with a history as recent as yours.

In 2010, its population was 343,829 residents. After being partially destroyed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the population decreased considerably due to evacuation or death and in 2006 the population was approximately half, between 192,000 and 230,000 residents.

History

The French Quarter was the germ of what is now the city of New Orleans. Its style, a mixture of French, Spanish and Creole, preserves the most important characteristics of the area: the Caribbean colors and the festive style that permeates the entire city. For more than 300 years it has been the center of life in the city, especially around Plaza Jackson (Jackson Square), the former Plaza de Armas.

Geography

With the largest port in the United States, it welcomes more than 5,000 vessels from 60 different countries, increasing its trade. In this way, salt, agricultural products, oil, natural gas, etc. They pass through the port of New Orleans on their way to North or South and Central America.

The city extends over a surface of 360 square miles, of which 160 are water, and includes four parishes (parishes, equivalent in New Orleans of the traditional county or county): Orleans, Jefferson, St. Bernard and St. Tammany.

In New Orleans the cardinal points lose their meaning. The north becomes lakeside, the south in Riverside; the east, downtown; and the west, uptown.

New Orleans is divided into 16 historic districts, two of which, the French Quarter and the Garden District, are of national interest. Although the French Quarter, or Vieux Carré, is the one that is usually cited first.

Climate

The month of January, which is usually the coldest in New Orleans, has an average temperature of 10ºC. The month of April has an average of approximately 20ºC and the months of July and August, the hottest, have an average of slightly more than 26ºC.

Rainfall is uneven throughout the year but, curiously, the summer months register the highest rates.

Economic development

With the largest port in the United States, it welcomes more than 5,000 vessels from 60 different countries, increasing its trade. In this way, salt, agricultural products, oil, natural gas.

Social development

Art and culture

The first operas in America were performed in New Orleans in 1790, when the Spanish-style houses of the French Quarter and the exquisite Greek Revival mansions of the Garden District were built.

Since then, restaurants have offered food from many cultures, as well as distinctive Cajun and Creole cuisines. Before the “Civil War”, New Orleans was the birthplace of the nation’s music, so artists and artisans from around the world immigrated to this vibrant port.

Visitors of all classes enjoyed the luxury and perhaps decadence of “the city that worry forgot.” Residents enjoyed cultural and recreational opportunities beyond what the size of most New Orleans cities could offer. New Orleans was the cultural capital of the South.

The city is home to world-class museums, such as the D-Day Museum and the Ogden Museum of Southern Art. Artist studios and galleries line the streets of the French QuarterMarigny, the Warehouse / Arts District and Magazine Street. Art groups offer presentations and shows in various parts of the city. All over the city, historic neighborhoods are being revitalized through architectural and aristocratic restorations.

This city has seen the birth of personalities from the world of music, cinema and letters such as Louis Armstrong and the writers Truman Capote and Anne Rice.

Louisiana Overview

South Dakota Geography and Society

South Dakota Geography and Society

According to Abbreviationfinder, South Dakota (officially, and in English, State of South Dakota) is one of the 50 states of the United States of America. The name of the state comes from the American Lakota and Dakota (Sioux) tribes. On November 2, 1889, South Dakota became the 39th American state. Its capital is Pierre.

Geography

South Dakota, a state located in the northwestern part of the central United States; It limits to the north with the state of North Dakota, to the east with Minnesota and Iowa, to the south with Nebraska and to the west with Wyoming and Montana. The Missouri River forms part of its southeastern border.

Surface

South Dakota has an area of ​​199,732 km². Its altitude ranges from 294 m at Big Stone Lake in the northeast to 2,207 m at Harney Peak in the Black Hills.

The eastern third of South Dakota is part of the Central Lowlands of the United States Midwest. Between the James and Big Sioux rivers lies a higher area, whose dark, fertile soils make this area the most productive agricultural region in the state..

Mountains and elevations

The central lowlands give way in the west to an escarpment, from which the Great Plains region extends, covering all of central and western South Dakota. At the western end of the state are the Black Hills and, around their granite core, there are steep mountains formed by sedimentary rocks arranged in slopes

Rivers

The Missouri River is the main tributary of the Mississippi River. It is approximately 4,130 km long, is the longest river in the United States and drains a 1,371,000 km² basin, approximately one sixth of the North American subcontinent. The James and Big Sioux Rivers irrigate the eastern area, located south of the Missouri River, except for the most northeastern section of the state, which is drained by the Red and Minnesota Rivers.

Cities

According to CountryAAH.com, the largest cities in the state are Sioux Falls, Rapid City, Aberdeen, Watertown, and Brookings.

Climate and Precipitation

In South Dakota the continental climate predominates. Average annual rainfall reaches 635 mm in the southeast and drops to 368 mm in the northwest.

Flora

When the first settlers arrived in South Dakota, most of the region was covered by grasslands. Today the forest occupies only 3% of the lands of the state, and the dominant species are pines, firs and junipers.

Fauna

A century ago, large herds of bison grazed on the vast grasslands of South Dakota; currently there are only a few protected herds living in Custer State Park. White-tailed deer, also known as Virginia deer, proliferate in the Black Hills, and antelope and deer can be seen west of the Missouri River. Common small mammals include coyotes, badgers, bobcats, raccoons, prairie dogs, and American hares.

Social development

Population

According to the 2006 census, South Dakota had 781,919 residents, with 88.7% white. In Dakota live 62,283 descendants of indigenous people, of which the Sioux are the largest group. 6.8% of the population of South Dakota are under 5 years of age, 26.8% represent those who are less 18 years of age, and 14.3% are 65 years of age or older. Females make up approximately 50.4% of the state’s population, and 49.6% comprise males.

Government

Executive power in South Dakota rests with a governor, popularly elected for a four-year term and who cannot govern for more than two consecutive terms. South Dakota elects two senators and one representative to the United States Congress. The state of South Dakota has three branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial. The current governor is Mike Rounds.

Members of the Senate and House

There are currently 35 members of the State Senate and 70 members of the House of Representatives. The state is made up of 35 legislative districts. Voters elect 1 senator and 2 representatives from each district. The legislative branch meets once a year on the second Tuesday in January, and also when the governor calls a special session.

Supreme court

State Supreme Court it is the highest court in South Dakota and the court of final appeal for state actions. The Chief Justice and four justices comprise the South Dakota Supreme Court. South Dakota is divided into seven judicial circuits. There are 39 circuit judges serving on all seven circuits. Circuit courts are the state the trial courts of general jurisdiction. There are 12 full-time and 3 part-time magistrate judges on the seven circuits. Circuit Magistrates Courts assist in the removal in misdemeanor courts of minor criminal and civil cases. These courts of limited jurisdiction make the judicial system more accessible to the public, providing a means of court in direct contact for the average citizen.

Education

South Dakota’s first public libraries were founded during the 1880s. Currently, the state has 126 different public library systems, moving an average of 8 books per capita annually. The first institution of higher education founded in the state was Yankton College, founded in 1881, and closed in 1984. Currently, the state has 27 higher education institutions, of which 14 are public and 13 are private. Of these institutions, 10 are universities and 17 are colleges. The largest university in the state is South Dakota State University.

South Dakota Geography and Society

Kentucky Geography

Kentucky Geography

Kentucky. It is part of the American geography, being one of the 50 states that make up the United States, with Frankfor being its capital.

Rivers and lakes

Kentucky has more than 140,000 km of river currents that provide one of the largest and most complex river systems in the United States. among which are:

  • Lake Cumberland, the largest man-made lake east of the Mississippi by volume of water.
  • Kentucky Lake the largest in area.

Kentucky is the only American state that has three rivers as a border with other states.

  • The Mississippi River to the west
  • The Ohio River to the north.
  • The Big Sandy River to the east.

Its main internal channels include the Kentucky, Tennessee, Cumberland, Verde and Licking rivers, although it has only three major natural lakes, many man-made lakes are located in the state. Kentucky also has more navigable kilometers of water than any other state in the US., After Alaska.

Climate

According to Abbreviationfinder, Kentucky has a temperate climate, with hot summers and relatively cold winters. The temperature in the state does not vary much from one region to another.

In winter, the average temperatures of 2 ° C, while the center-north has an average temperature of -1 ° C. The lowest temperature recorded was -37 ° C, in Shelbyville, on January 28, 1963.

During the summer, the highest temperatures are recorded in the west, the average temperature in the summer, in the western tip of Kentucky, is 28 ° C. The highest temperature recorded in Kentucky was 46 ° C, in Greensburg, on July 28, 1930.

Races and ethnicities

The racial composition of the Kentucky population is made up of:

  • Whites
  • African American
  • Asian
  • American natives.

The median age of the population is 37.3 years, the five largest groups in Kentucky by descent are: Americans, who make up 20.9% of the population (the vast majority are of English and Scottish descent), Germans (12.7%) Irish (10.5%), English (9.7%) and African American (7.3%).

Religion

There is a wide religious culture, since a large number of denominations are registered in this state:

  • Evangelical Churches Southern Baptist Convention.
  • Independent Christian Churches.
  • Church of Christ.
  • Protestant Churches United Methodist Church.
  • Disciples of Christ.
  • Eastern churches.

Main cities

According to CountryAAH.com, Kentucky’s most populous cities, as well as most of the fastest growing counties, are concentrated in an area known as the Golden Triangle, in the Bluegrass region, in the north-central part of the state. The exceptions are Hardin, LaRue and Meade counties, located in the southwest of the state.

  • The most populous city in Kentucky is Louisville.
  • The second is Lexington, which it owned, with its metropolitan region.
  • The seven counties located in the extreme north, in the region called Northern Kentucky, which is part of the metropolitan region of Cincinnati (a city located in the neighboring state of Ohio).

Education

Among the most relevant educational centers in Kentucky are:

  • Kentucky Colleges
  • Kentucky Business Schools
  • Kentucky Art Schools
  • Kentucky Community Colleges

Economy

The Economy is marked in several sectors:

  • The primary sector we can find agriculture and livestock, the main agricultural products of the state are horses, cattle, tobacco, dairy products, pigs, soybeans and corn.
  • The secondary sector is industrialized and mining, where the main products are transport equipment, chemical products, electrical equipment, machinery, food going in procession, tobacco products, coal, tourism.
  • The third sector that marks the Kentucky economy, falls on community and personal services, tourism as the main one, financial services and real estate.

About 97% of the electricity generated in the state is produced by coal-fired thermoelectric plants, and the rest is produced mostly in natural gas thermoelectric plants.

Media

Newspapers

Currently in Kentucky about 160 newspapers are published, of which about 20 are daily.

  • The Kentucky Gazette, was the first newspaper published in Kentucky, first published in Lexington in 1787.
  • The Advertiser, Kentucky’s oldest newspaper still in circulation, was first published in 1818, in Louisville.

Radio stations

Kentucky owns about 200 radio stations, Kentucky’s first radio station was founded in 1922, in Louisville.

TV station

Currently, there are approximately 30 television stations, the first television station in the state was founded in 1948, also in Louisville.

Kentucky Geography

Culture

It is generally considered within Kentucky culture, horse racing and gambling.

  • The main horse racing day, the Kentucky Derby, is preceded by the two-week “Kentucky Derby Festival.”
  • Louisville is also the host of the Kentucky State Fair, the “Kentucky Shakespeare Festival”, and the featured National Quartets Convention “Gospel of the South” festival.
  • Owensboro, Kentucky’s third largest city, credits its self-styled nickname of the Barbecue Capital of the World by hosting the “International Bar-BQ Festival” each year.
  • Bowling Green, Kentucky’s fifth-largest city and home to the only assembly plant in the world that makes the Chevrolet Corvette, opened the National Corvette Museum in 1994.
  • The small town of Hodgenville, birthplace of Abraham Lincoln, receives the annual celebration of the “Day of Lincoln” and also held in February of 2008 the implementation of the “National Celebration of the Bicentennial of Abraham Lincoln ” commemoration that will celebrate throughout the country for two years.
South Carolina Overview

South Carolina Overview

According to Abbreviationfinder, South Carolina was one of the Thirteen Colonies that rebelled against the British government in the American War of Independence. And he became the eighth State of the Union in May of 1788. It is known as The Palmetto State, a nickname that originated during the war for independence. Palmetto is an English word that in Spanish means palm tree. At the beginning of the revolution, British forces tried unsuccessfully to capture a fort made of palm wood.

It is one of the 50 states of the United States of America, located in the southern region of the country. Despite its small territorial extension, it is one of the national leaders in textile production and the second largest tobacco producer in the United States, only surpassed by North Carolina.

Geographic location

Its area is 82,931 km 2. It has a Latitude 32 or 4’30 “N at 35 or 12’N and a Longitude of 78 or 0’30” W at 83 or 20’W. Its capital is Columbia with a population of 4,407,709 residents.

Geography

South Carolina limited to the north with Carolina of the North, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean and the southwest with Georgia. The main river in South Carolina is the Santee River, whose watershed covers about 40% of the State. It is also the longest river in the state. The largest lakes in the state were created through dams.

It has a forested plain, with slightly more undulating terrain in the interior and the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains in the northwest. The coastal area is very low, with large marshes and beaches with quite warm water due to the Gulf Stream.

Climate

The climate is hot and humid, with long summers and short, mild winters. However, winds from the north sometimes bring snow and lower temperatures below zero degrees. Therefore, heating in homes and warm clothing is necessary.

The coastal area of ​​the state is affected by hurricanes from August to October. Normally they are not more than strong winds but there have been some devastating ones, such as Hurricane Hugo, which in 1989 devastated a large part of the coastal area, especially Charleston, and which reached the interior of the state.

Counties

South Carolina is divided into 46 counties, listed below:

· Aiken· Allendale

· Anderson

· Bamberg

· Barnwell

· Beaufort

· Berkeley

· Calhoun

· Charleston

· Cherokee

· Chester

· Chesterfield

· Clarendon

· Colleton

· Darlington

· Dillon· Dorchester

· Edgefield

· Fairfield

· Florence

· Georgetown

· Greenville

· Greenwood

· Hampton

· Horry

· Jasper

· Kershaw

· Lancaster

· Laurens

· read

· Lexington· Marion

· Marlboro

· McCormick

· Newberry

· Oconee

· Orangeburg

· Pickens

· Richland

· Greets

· Spartanburg

· Sumter

· Union

· Williamsburg

· York.

Economic development

South Carolina began to industrialize rapidly beginning in the 1880s. Various wealthy state landowners built various textile factories, with the income from cotton produced on their own farms. Other companies settled there, taking advantage of the abundance of raw materials and cheap labor. South Carolina’s industrialization continued throughout the first three decades of the 20th century. The State became one of the largest poles of the national textile industry.

Social development

Population

South Carolina has 3.5 million residents. The most important cities are Columbia the capital of the state, Charleston with one of the most beautiful historical centers of the Low country, and Greenville, near the mountains, is the most important city of the Upstate. Each of these cities has a metropolitan area of ​​about 500,000 residents. The rest of the population is distributed in small cities and towns.

South Carolina Overview

Columbia (South Carolina)

According to CountryAAH.com, Columbia is the capital of the state of South Carolina, in the United States. It is the largest city in the state, located in Richland County and Lexington County.

History

Columbia became the new capital in 1786 by decision of the South Carolina Legislative Assembly, in an attempt to reduce the tensions that existed between the residents who lived on the coast, and those who populated the interior. The former capital was located on the coast, in Charleston. The assembly named the new capital in honor of Christopher Columbus.

Economic development

Columbia is the distribution center for an agricultural region that produces peaches, bean sprouts, and sugar beets, and manufactures nuclear power plant equipment, steel products, textiles, clothing, and artwork.

sightseeing

Along the broad avenues of Columbia are historic sites, ranging from a pre-Civil War mansion to the former home of a slave who bought his freedom, as well as museums. Columbia has 92 hotels, which are characterized by the quality of service and great comfort. The Hilton Garden is the most visited.

Social development

Population

In the 2012 census it had a population of 131,686 residents

Education

The city of Columbia is home to the University of South Carolina (1801), the Columbia School (1854), the Benedict School (1870), Allen University (1870), the Columbia Bible School (1923) and the Southern Lutheran Theological Seminary (1830).

Geography

The city of Columbia is located at the coordinates 33 ° 59′27 ″ N 81 ° 4′4 ″ W.

Surface

Columbia has a total area of ​​349.5 km²

Architectural buildings

Some places of interest are the State Legislative Building (1907), the Chapelle Administrative Building (1922), designed by architect John Anderson Lankford, and the Columbia Museum of Art. Columbia’s Mann-Simons Cottage was built in approximately 1850 by Celia Mann, a freed slave, who later established one of South Carolina’s first black churches after the Civil War. It currently houses a museum of African American culture.

Kansas Geography

Kansas Geography

Kansas is bordered to the north by the state of Nebraska, to the east by Missouri, to the south by Oklahoma and to the west by Colorado. Forests cover less than 5% of the state.

Kansas is covered entirely by the Missouri River watershed, which serves as the border between northeast Kansas and Missouri. This river basin can be divided into two smaller basins. The first of these is the watershed of the Kansas River, which covers the north and east of the state, whose rivers run mostly in an easterly direction. The second basin is the Arkansas River, which covers southern Kansas. The Arkansas River runs south.

Kansas has few natural lakes, due to its relatively flat terrain. Most of the 150 lakes in the state are artificial reservoirs, created by dams, of which the largest of them, Lake Milford, has an area of ​​6.47 thousand hectares.

The geographic center of the 48 contiguous United States — that is, the United States without Alaska and Hawaii — is located in northern Kansas, in Smith County.

The geodetic center of North America is also located in Kansas, in Osborne County. This center is used as a reference point for all maps made by the United States government.

Geographic regions

According to Abbreviationfinder, Kansas can be divided into three distinct geographic regions:

  • The Dissected Till Plains covers northeast Kansas, east of the Kansas River, and north of the Big Blue River. This is the smallest of the three surface regions. The soilin this region is mainly made up of sediments deposited by ancient glaciers. This soil is extremely fertile.
  • The Southeastern Plains cover southeastern Kansas. This region has a very flat terrain, covered mainly by flattened low-lying mountains. The Southeastern Plains have the lowest elevations in Kansas, including the lowest point in the state, 207 meters. The region’s soil is the least fertile of the three geographic regions of Kansas.
  • The Great Plains, the largest of the three regions, cover the entire west-central region of Kansas. It is characterized by its slightly rugged terrain and variable altitude, which increases as one travels towards the west. The highest point in Kansas, Mount Sunflower, with its 1,231 meters of altitude, is located in this region.

Main cities

According to CountryAAH.com, Kansas has 627 incorporated cities. By Kansas statute, cities are divided into three classes which are determined by the population obtained “by any enumeration census.”

A third-class city has a population of less than 5,000 residents, although cities that reach a population of more than 2,000 residents can be certified as a second-class city. The second class is limited to cities with a population of less than 25,000 residents, and a population of more than 15,000, can be certified as a first-class city. First and second class cities are independent of any municipality and are not included within the territory of the municipality.

Education

The first schools in Kansas were founded during the 1830s by missionaries, and created primarily for the education of Native American children. In 1855, Kansas passed a law establishing a public school system for the education of white children, a law that was amended in 1859 to include any child, regardless of race.

Currently, all educational institutions in Kansas need to follow the regulations and instructions issued by the Kansas State Board of Education. This council directly controls the state’s public school system, which is divided into different school districts.

The council is made up of eight members chosen by the governor for terms of up to four years in length. These eight members appoint a ninth member, who will act as commissioner of education, and president of the council.

Each main city (city), several secondary cities (towns) and each county, is served by a school district. In cities, the responsibility for the administration of the public school system rests with the municipal districts, while in less densely populated regions, this responsibility rests with the school districts, which operate throughout the county as a whole.

Kansas allows the operation of “charter schools” (independent public schools, which are not run by school districts, but depend on public budgets to operate). School attendance is compulsory for all children and adolescents over seven years of age, until the conclusion of secondary education or up to fifteen years of age.

In 1999, Kansas public schools served about 472.2 thousand students, employing approximately 33 thousand teachers. Private schools served about 43.1 thousand students, employing approximately 3.2 thousand teachers. The state’s public school system invested about $ 2.84 billion, and public school spending was about $ 6.7 thousand per student. About 88.6% of the state’s residents over the age of 25 have a high school diploma.

The first public library in Kansas was founded in 1859, in Vinland. Currently, the state has 321 public library systems, which annually move about 9.6 books per resident.

Kansas’ first institution of higher learning, Baker University, in Baldwin City, was founded in 1858. Currently, Kansas has 60 institutions of higher education, of which 35 are public and 25 are private.

The University of Kansas, founded in 1859 in Lawrence, is the largest educational institution in the state, and the oldest public institution of higher education in Kansas.

Transport

In 2002, Kansas had 8,138 kilometers of railroad tracks. In 2003, the state had 217,281 kilometers of public roads, of which 1,407 kilometers were interstate highways, part of the federal highway system of the United States.

The mileage on the Kansas public highway system is the fourth highest in the United States, second only to California, Texas and Illinois. The International Wichita Airport is the airport ‘s busiest state.

Media

Kansas’ first newspaper, the Shawnee Sun, was first published in 1835. This newspaper, created by Jotham Meeker (Baptist missionary, defender of the Shawnee, Ottawa and Delaware peoples of Kansas), was published in the Shawnee language, and was directed to the native Shawnee living in Kansas.

The first newspaper published in present-day Kansas in English was the Kansas Weekly Herald, in 1854, in Leavenworth. Currently, about 260 newspapers are published in the state, of which 43 are daily.

Kansas’ first radio station was founded in 1922, in Wichita. The state’s first television station was founded in 1932, in Manhattan. This radio station, one of the first in the country, was created on an experimental basis, and the first commercial television station in the state was founded in 1953, in Hutchinson.

Currently, Kansas has 132 radio stations – of which 49 are AM and 83 are FM – and 20 television stations.

Kansas Geography

Rhode Island Overview

Rhode Island Overview

Rhode Island. Its full and official name is Rhode Island and Providence Plantations or simply known as Rhode Island is a state located in the New England region of the northeast of the United States. It is the smallest state by area and is also the state with the longest official name. Rhode Island was the first of the original thirteen colonies to declare independence from British rule, marking the beginning of the American Revolution. Later it was the last of the thirteen to ratify the Constitution of the United States. According to CountryAAH.com, major cities include Providence, Cranston, Warwick, and Pawtucket.

Origin of name name

According to Abbreviationfinder, the common name of the state, Rhode Island, actually refers only to the largest island in Narragansett Bay, it is also known as Aquidneck Island. Some historians think that the name comes from Roodt Eylandt, which in Old Dutch means “Red Island”, given to the island by the Dutch explorer Adriaen Block due to the reddish coloration of the land on the island. Other historians think that the name owes its origins to the Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano, when upon discovering the nearby Block Island he called it Rhode Island, due to its similarity in shape to the Greek island of Rhodes (where the famous Colossus of Rhodes was built, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World). Later explorers, mistaking the island Verrazzano was referring to, applied the name Rhode to Aquidneck Island.

Geography

Location and relief.

Rhode Island occupies an area of ​​approximately 4,002 km². Its bordering states are Massachusetts to the north and east, and Connecticut to the west. On the southern border is an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean that Rhode Island shares with the state of New York. Nicknamed the Ocean State, Rhode Island is home to numerous beaches. Rhode Island is mostly flat, the average altitude is 60 meters above sea level. The highest point in the state is Jerimoth Hill, only 247 meters high.

Located in the New England province of the Appalachian region, Rhode Island has two distinct natural regions. Eastern Rhode Island, which contains the Narragansett Bay Lowlands, while Western Rhode Island is part of the New England Highlands.

Narragansett Bay is very characteristic of the topography of the State. Block Island is 9 km from the southern coast of the State. In the interior of the bay there are approximately 30 islands. The largest is Aquidneck Island, which shares municipalities with Newport, Middletown, and Portsmouth. The second largest is Conanicut, the third Prudence.

In Rhode Island you can find a very rare type of rock called Cumberlandite. Initially in the State there were two known mineral deposits, but since they could be exploited through the use of gunpowder, one of the deposits was almost completely depleted during the American Civil War.

Climate

Rhode Island is an example of a continental oceanic climate, combining hot, rainy summers with very cold winters. The average temperature in the state ranges between 28 ° C (above zero) and 7 ° C below zero. The highest temperature recorded was 42 ° C in June 2006, in Providence; the lowest, of -25 ° C in Coventry, on February 6, 1996.

Demography

Currently the state of Rhode Island has a population of 1,067,610 people, of which:

78.9% are white (European or of European descent).

11.0% are Latin American.

5.1% are African American.

2.8% are Asian.

The rest are made up of people of other ethnic groups.

Religion

The religious affiliation of the people of Rhode Island is:

  • Christians – 87.5%
  • Roman Catholics – 63.6%
  • Protestants – 21.6%
  • Episcopalians – 8.1%
  • Baptists – 6.3%
  • Other Protestants – 3.2%
  • Protestants, non-denominational – 7%
  • Other Christians – 2.3%
  • Jews – 1.4%
  • Muslims – 1.2%
  • Self-defined as non-religious – 6%
  • Other religions – 1.9%.

In Rhode Island are the Roman Catholic Diocese of Providence and the Episcopal Diocese of Rhode Island.

Rhode Island has the highest percentage of Catholics in the nation, mainly due to the massive immigration of Irish, Italians, and French-Canadians and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Puerto Rican, and Cape Verdean communities. It is interesting to note that having the number of Catholics indicated, it does not have any county among the counties with a Catholic majority in the country. This is because Catholics are spread throughout the state. Rhode Island and Utah are the only states in which the majority of their population belongs to a single religious cult.

History

From the Great Depression to the present: since 1929

In the 20th century, the state continued its economic growth, although the decline of heavy industry devastated large areas. The old industrial areas were especially affected, along with the rest of urban areas, by the construction of interstate highways over urban centers and the suburbanization resulting from the “GI” law, which greatly benefited war veterans. After industrial reconversion, and due to the influx of Boston residents in recent years, prices in the real estate sector have grown spectacularly. Since the Great Depression of 1929, the Rhode Island Democratic Party has dominated local politics, although there are exceptions, such as Vincent A. “Buddy” Cianci., Mayor of Providence, or Donald Carcieri, the current governor of the state.

Rhode Island Overview

Iowa Geography and Economy

Iowa Geography and Economy

Iowa. One of the states of the United States of America, located in the Central-West Region of the country. 92% of the state’s population is white, and the largest ethnic group in Iowa is Germans, who make up 35.7% of the state’s population. Its main sources of income are manufacturing, agriculture and tourism. It is the largest producer of soybeans and ethanol in the United States, and owns the largest pig herd in the country. The name of the state comes from the Iowa Native American people who inhabited the region. The first Europeans to explore the region that now constitutes the US state of Iowa were the French Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette in 1673, who described the region as green and fertile. The first white settlers settled in the region in June 1833. On December 28, 1846, Iowa became the 29th state in the Union. According to CountryAAH.com, Des Moines is the capital and the most populous city in the U.S. state of Iowa.

Geography

According to Abbreviationfinder, Iowa borders Minnesota to the north, Nebraska to the west, South Dakota to the northwest, Missouri to the south, Wisconsin to the northeast, and Illinois to the east. The Mississippi River constitutes the eastern border of the state, and the Missouri River the western one. Iowa has 99 counties. The state capital, Des Moines, is located in Polk County.

There are several natural lakes in the state, the most important of which are Spirit Lakes, West Okoboji, and East Okoboji in northwestern Iowa. Man-made lakes include Lakes Odessa, Saylorville, Red Rock, Coralville, MacBride, and Rathbun.

The topography of the state is formed by plains with gentle undulations. Hills of loess are found along the western border of the state, some of which are several hundred feet deep. In the northeast, along the Mississippi River, is a section of the Driftless Zone, which in Iowa consists of low, rugged hills covered in a coniferous landscape — a landscape not generally associated with this state.

The lowest point is Keokuk in southeastern Iowa, at 146 m, and the highest point, at 509 m, is Hawkeye Point, located north of the city of Sibley, in northwestern Iowa.

The average elevation of the state is 335 m. Considering the size of the state (145,743 km²), there is very little elevation difference.

Iowa has the highest average radon concentrations in the nation due to significant glaciation that crushed the granitic rocks of the Canadian Shield and settled into soils, enriching Iowa’s farmlands.

Because of the large surface area of ​​rocky land, radon is released as a boiling gas from soils. Many cities in the state, such as Iowa City, have passed radon resistance requirements for the construction of all new homes.

Economy

Iowa’s gross domestic product was $ 103 billion in 2003. The state’s per capita income, meanwhile, was $ 28,340. Iowa’s unemployment rate was 4.1%.

The primary sector accounts for 4% of Iowa’s GDP. Together, agriculture and livestock account for 4% of Iowa’s GDP, and employ approximately 136,000 people. The effects of fishing and forestry are minor in the state’s economy. Iowa has about 94,000 farms, covering more than 90% of the state. Only Nebraska has a higher percentage in relation to the area of ​​the state covered by farms. Iowa is the largest corn producer in the United States, producing about one-fifth of the corn produced in the country. Iowa also has the largest pig herd in the country.

The state is also one of the largest soybean producers in the country. Iowa concentrates about a quarter of the American pig herd. Other important Iowa farm products are straw, oats, apples, legumes, and cattle.

The secondary sector accounts for 26% of GDP. The manufacturing industry contributes 22% of the state’s GDP and employs approximately 267 thousand people. The total value of products manufactured in the state is $ 31 billion. The main industrialized products manufactured in the state are industrially processed foods, machinery, chemical products, electrical equipment and transportation vehicles. Iowa is the largest ethanol producer in the country. The construction industry accounts for 4% of the state’s GDP, employing approximately 100,000 people. The effects of mining on the state’s economy are minor, employing about 3,000 people. The main natural mineral resource in the state is limestone.

The tertiary sector contributes 70% of GDP. Approximately 17% of the state’s GDP is generated through community and personal services. This sector employs about 535 thousand people. Wholesale and retail trade accounts for 16% of the state’s GDP, and employs approximately 420,000 people. Financial and real estate services account for about 16% of the state’s GDP, employing approximately 135 thousand people. Des Moines is the financial center of the state, and the second largest center for the insurance industry in the United States (behind only Hartford, Connecticut), and the third largest in the world (behind London and Hartford). 12% of Iowa’s GDP, employing approximately 254 thousand people Transportation, telecommunications and public utilities employ 92 thousand people, and they account for 9% of Iowa’s GDP. About 85% of the electricity generated in the state is produced in coal-fired or oil-fired thermoelectric plants. The only nuclear power plant in the state, the Duane Arnold Energy Center, produces 11%, and hydroelectric plants produce about 2%.

Iowa Geography and Economy

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

According to CountryAAH.com, Pittsburgh can be considered divided into four sections: the north face, the south face, the east and west limits. Both the north and the south are subdivided, but in total we can consider that there are about 88 neighborhoods in the city, all flanked by highways and hills. The large number of bridges that we can find in the area stands out, since Allegheny County has more than 1,700, of which 720 are within the limits of the city of Pittsburgh.

History

According to Abbreviationfinder, the city of Pittsburgh, belonging to the state of Pennsylvania, was founded in 1758 and joined the Union in 1816 and is also known as The Burgh. – It has a population of 350,000 residents. Roughly, but if we count the total population of Allegheny County, to which it belongs, we have approximately 1,336,000 people. An average of almost four million people visit the city each year.

In 1754, the French built Fort Duquesne on the site that became Pittsburgh. During the French and Indian War, British General John Forbes occupied the fort. He ordered the construction of Fort Pitt, named after British Secretary of State William Pitt the Elder. He also named the settlement between the rivers “Pittsborough.”

In the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the descendants of William Penn, purchased from the western six nations lands that included most of the present site of Pittsburgh. In 1769, a survey was made of the land situated between the two rivers, called the “Manor of Pittsburgh.” . Virginia and Pennsylvania claimed the Pittsburgh area during colonial times and would continue to do so until 1780. in which both states agreed to extend the westbound Pittsburgh line of placement from Mason-Dixon in Pennsylvania. After the American Revolution, the village of Pittsburgh continued to grow. One of its earliest industries was building boats for settlers to enter the Ohio country. In 1784, the presentation of the “City of Pittsburgh” was completed by Thos. Vicroy of Bedford County and approved by the Penns’ Philadelphia attorney. The year 1794 saw the short-lived whiskey rebellion. The act of March 5, 1804, which amended the provision of the old Pittsburgh city charter to the original 1794.

The American Civil War

The American Civil War boosted the city’s economy with increased production of iron and armaments. Steel production began before 1875, when Edgar Thomson’s jobs in Braddock, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania began making rail from steel using the Bessemer process. In 1901, the US Steel Corporation formed. Before 1911, Pittsburgh produced between one-third and one-half of the nation’s various types of steel. The city’s population swelled into the millions, many of whom were immigrants from Europe.. During World War II, Pittsburgh produced 95 million tons of steel. Around this time, pollution from burning coal and steel production created a black fog (or smog). After the war, the city launched a clean air and civic revitalization project known as the “renaissance.” This much-acclaimed effort was followed by the “Renaissance II” project, started in 1977 and to focus more on cultural and neighborhood development than its predecessor. The industrial base continued to expand through the 1960s, but beginning in the 1970s and 1980s, the steel industry in the region imploded, with massive layoffs and mill closures. Starting in the 1980s, the city shifted its economic base to services, tourism, medicine and high technology. 1950 to 330,000 in 2000.

Geography

Climate

Regarding the climate of the city of Pittsburgh, the average temperature in July is 28ºC and in January it is approximately -6ºC.

Economic development

It has an unemployment rate of 4.2% and a median household income of $ 38,200 (in 1997). It is spread over about 55 square miles and is about 1,223 feet high. It is the thirteenth largest city in the country. It has the largest inland port in the United States. It has appeared in the top five in the ranking of the most livable cities in the United States in the years 1983, 1985 and 1989.

Social development

Education

Regarding educational resources, it has a total of 92 public and 72 private schools, in addition to 58 parochial schools. For higher education, it has 8 colleges and universities, among which the University of Pittsburgh stands out.

The most visible institutions of higher education in Pittsburgh are the University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie-Mellon College. The University of Pittsburgh, ranked in the top 25 public universities in US News and World Report, has its strengths in Philosophy of Science, Asian Studies, Business, Philosophy, Law, Engineering, and medical assistance. Carnegie-Mellon University is ranked in the top 25 of national universities in US News and World Report; The university’s strengths include computer science, drama, business, law enforcement, engineering, design, art, and architecture.

Religion

In Pittsburg there are a variety of religious cults. It has 348 Protestant churches, 86 Roman Catholic, 28 Jewish and 8 Orthodox. The media cover what is happening in the city. It has four local newspapers, 32 radio stations and 5 television networks.

Traditions

To begin with, there are the Duquesne or Monongahela cable cars, thanks to which you can see one of the most beautiful views in the United States. These devices were used in the late 19th century to transport immigrant workers from work to their homes. The one in Duquesne also still uses the original funiculars from 1877. It also functions as a museum displaying photographs of the city and other funiculars around the world.

Museums

Regarding the cultural offer, Pittsburg offers a large number of museums for all types of visitors. Among them, the most prominent is the Andy Warhol Museum, which opened its doors in 1994 and which is the most complete dedicated to the figure of this influential creator and representative of pop art. The Carnegie Museum Of Art displays art from the past two centuries: sculpture, painting, decorative arts, video. The Carnegie Museum of Natural History has one of the best dinosaur collections in the world, and the Carnegie Science Center conducts an exploration for science.

Theaters

To enjoy art but as a show, there are some of the following Theaters in the city of Pittsburg. The Palace Theater, the Pittsburg Irish and Classical Theater (which focuses on English, Irish and classical theater), the Pittsburg Opera, the Pittsburg Public Theater or the Unseam’d Shakespeare Company, will amaze you with their performances of plays. Classics of the theater, are some of the options that are presented to spend an evening of theater, dance or opera.

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Indianapolis, Indiana

Indianapolis, Indiana

According to CountryAAH.com, Indianapolis is the Capital (political) of the American State of Indiana, and that of Marion County. According to the 2010 Census, it had a Population of 829,718 residents, making it the most populous city in Indiana. It is founded in 1821. The 1987 Indianapolis Pan American Games were held in that city.

History

Indianapolis is founded in 1821 according to the Indiana General Assembly, before its official foundation it was a marshy area called Fall Creek Settlement by some fur traders.

European-American’s first settler, is believed to be George Pogue, which was established on 2 of March of 1819 with a double cabin trunk along the Rio Blanco (currently the White River State Park in downtown Indianapolis).

Like all cities, it has its own Flag and Coat of arms that reflect the history of the city and its relationship with the environment. The site of the new capital of the State of Indiana was chosen in Corydon in 1825 and it is placed in the exact geographic center for the construction of the capital; Miami Lenape Native American tribes who lived there, moved from 1820 to 1840.

Geographical location and climate

According to Abbreviationfinder, Indianapolis is located according to the geographical coordinates in Latitude: 39.7795 and Longitude: -86.1328

It has a moderate climate, where autumn temperatures are very pleasant around 18 ° C, as for summer it can be very hot, with high humidity. The warmest months are July and August, where the temperature rises to 31 ° C.

The coldest winter months are December, January and February, where temperatures drop to below zero, with snowfall especially in January and February. The annual average of snowfall is 58 centimeters.

Social development

Politics

Until the 1990s, Indianapolis was considered one of the most conservative metropolitan areas in the country compared to other major cities in the United States. For thirty-six years the Republicans had a majority in the city. For 32 years, the mayor was a Republican.

In 1999, Democrat Bart Peterson defeated Sue Anne Gilroy, with 52% versus 42% respectively. Four years later, Peterson was reelected with an overwhelming 63% of the vote. Republicans also lost control of the consolidated City-County council in 2003.

The mayor currently (2006) is Bart Peterson (D), the predecessor Steve Goldsmith 1992-1999 (R), William Hudnut 1976 – 1991 (R), and Sen. Dick Lugar 1968 – 1975 (R).

Sports

It has sports facilities, among which are the Lucas Oil Stadium and the Conseco Field Stadium, located in the center of the city, in this city the Pan American Games Indianapolis 1987 were held. Among the main sports that are developed are:

  • Motorcycling. The city is known for its Indianapolis Motor Speedway, which opened in 1909, and is 4,186 meters long, with ten left and six right turns. Important motor racing events take place on this track, including: the Indy 500 race and the NASCAR Brickyard 400. The Formula 1 United States Grand Prix was held on this circuit until 2007, but in the year of its centenary. it reactivated.
  • Basketball. It has development of this sport, with the Indiana Pacers team that is integrated into the NBA.
  • Football. The main team is the Indianapolis Colts, also known as “The Colts”, they are hosts in the NFL.

Culture

The city has a wide cultural heritage, monuments and various festivals are held.

  • Monuments

Circle Monument is located in the center of the city, it is a traffic circle at the intersection of Meridian streets and markets, in this monument the Monument to the Soldiers and Sailors is exhibited. (The Monument Circle is depicted on the city’s flag, and is generally regarded as a symbol of the city.). This monument is in the shadow of the tallest skyscraper in Indiana (the Chase tower). Until 1970 it was declared that no building could be taller than the Soldiers and Sailors Monument.

Monument to the war located at the intersections of Meridian and Vermout streets, built in memory of the Indian soldiers who fought and died in the First World War; but its construction was halted because of the Great Depression, which ended in 1951, although its original purpose was changed to encompass all of the American wars in which Native Indiana residents fought.

The Monument resembles the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, its height is 64 m, making it higher than the original, at the north entrance are the national headquarters of the American Legion.

  • Festivals

In 1999 he began to develop the Festival of Jazz Indy, which is an event of three days held at the Military Park near the canal. Renowned artists have participated in it such as: BB King, Aretha Franklin, Bruce Hornsby, Béla Fleck and the Flecktones, Kool and the Gang, Ray Charles, The Temptations, Dave Brubeck, Emmylou Harris, Chris Isaak, Jonny Lang, and Norah Jones among others.

Indianapolis, Indiana

Portland, Oregon

Portland, Oregon

According to CountryAAH.com, Portland is a city in the northwestern United States of America, next to the Columbia River and the Willamette River. Portland has an estimated population of 562,690 and is the largest city in the state of Oregon, and following Seattle and Vancouver it is the third largest in the Pacific Northwest region. Its metropolitan area reaches approximately two million residents, making it the twenty-fourth most populous city in the United States since July 2005.. It was named the “green city” because people take care of natural resources and sustainability more than elsewhere. Known worldwide as a great center for art, culture and commerce, Portland is home to a wide variety of artists and creators.

History

According to Abbreviationfinder, Portland started out as a place known as ” The Empty, ” which was in the middle of Oregon City and Fort Vancouver. In 1843, William Overton saw great commercial potential in this land, but lacked the funds required to claim a piece of land. Overtonclosed a deal with his partner Asa Lovejoy of Boston, Massachusetts: For 25 ¢, Overton would share his 2.6 km² claim with his partner. Overton then sold its half of the land to Francis W. Pettygrove of Portland, Maine. Pettygrove and Lovejoy wanted to call the city their hometown. To see who named it, they tossed a coin and Pettygrove won.

Development

At the time of its incorporation in 1851, Portland had more than 800 residents, a steam train, a cabin hotel, and a newspaper, the Oregon Weekly. In 1879, the population had grown to 17,500.

Portland’s location to the Pacific Ocean and the Columbia River and the Tualatin Valley gave it an advantage over the other nearby ports and made it grow rapidly. The city of Portland became the best port in the Pacific Northwest for a long time in the 19th century, until 1890, when the great port of Seattle was connected to the rest of the important areas by train, providing a route without the treacherous navigation of the River Columbia. During this time, government corruption was such that some very disgusting activities such as the white slave trade, and the kidnapping of men to be used as slaves on ships, were allowed.. This was so common that a network of underground tunnels, known as the ” Portland Metro ” was built to carry out such criminal practices tolerated by the authorities.

Curiosities

The first reference to Portland as the ” City of Roses ” was made by visitors to the Episcopal Church in 1888. The nickname grew in popularity after 1905, during the Lewis and Clark Exposition, where Mayor Harry Lane suggested that this city needed to have a “rose festival.” Portland’s first Rose Festival was held 2 years later, and it’s still the city’s biggest annual festival 100 years later.

Geography

Altitude: 15 meters.

Latitude: 45 o 31 ’24 “N

Length: 122 or 40’30 “O

Economic development

Portland has an important deep-sea port. It has a diversified economy based largely on industry, distribution, commerce, and state government services. Industries include machinery, electronic equipment, metal products, transportation equipment, wood, and wood-based products. The region is also noted for its scenic beauty, Mount Hood and other snow-capped peaks of the Cascade Range, visible from the city, and Columbia Gorge is located nearby; That is why tourism is important in the economy of the city, to which its good land and air communications contribute.

Airport

Portland International Airport is the largest in the North American state of Oregon, moving through this, more than 90% of passengers and more than 95% of air cargo in the state. Portland International Airport is also known by its IATA code, PDX. PDX has direct connections to major airports throughout the United States, plus international flights to Canada, Germany, Japan, Mexico, and the Netherlands. It is a hub for flights to smaller cities located in the states of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, Californiaand Nevada. The Oregon Air National Guard has a base located south of the airport.

Social development

Education

Portland is home to several institutions of higher education.

Secondary schools

Benson Polytechnic

Cleveland

Franklin

Ulysses S. Grant

Jefferson

Leadership and Entrepreneurship Public Charter High School (LEP)

Lincoln

James Madison

Marshall

Roosevelt

Woodrow wilson

Culture

In the city of Portland, among the places of cultural interest, the Oregon Institute of Art stands out, which houses a collection of art and objects of the indigenous people of the Northwest; the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry and the Portland Center for the Performing Arts, home of the Portland Opera Association; the Oregon Symphony Orchestra and the Oregon Ballet.

Sport

Portland has a wide variety of sports activities. The best known are the Portland Trail Blazers, a professional NBA basketball team that plays at the Rose Garden, and Portland International Raceway, the most important racetrack in the northwest of the country.

The Blazers

The Blazers have reached the NBA Finals three times, winning their only championship in 1977 and finishing runners-up in 1990 and 1992. In addition, the team has qualified for the playoffs in 25 of the 36 seasons they have been in the NBA since its inception. existence, including a streak of 21 consecutive appearances from 1983 to 2003. Four players who belong to the Basketball Hall of Fame have worn the jersey of the Blazers (Lenny Wilkens, Bill Walton, Clyde and Drazen Petrovic and one has been recognized by the NBA as one of the 50 greatest players in the history of the league (Scottie Pippen. Walton is the most successful player in the history of the Blazers, having won the MVP of the Finals and the MVP of the season the following year.

Portland, Oregon

Chicago, Illinois

Chicago, Illinois

According to CountryAAH.com, Chicago is located in the state of Illinois, along the southwestern shore of Lake Michigan. It is part of Chicago land, a conurbation also made up of outlying counties.

Climate

The climate in Chicago is defined as continental climate and therefore it is very varied, since in summer maximum temperatures can be registered between 30 and 35 ° C, and minimums from 15 to 20 ° C. In winter the maximum temperatures range from -10 ° to 5 ° C and the minimum from -20 ° C to -5 ° C. The lake only tempers the weather slightly. Maximum rainfall is concentrated in the spring and summer months, with August being the wettest month in general; although the precipitations are distributed throughout the year. Snowfalls or blizzards are frequent during late autumn and winter and can be very intense, being found in the middle of the North American subcontinent, and near the lands of Canada.

Due to the flatness of the area, rainwater must be accumulated in underground tunnels temporarily, in a system known as TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Program) that has 168 km of tunnels, between 90 and 100 meters deep, between 3 and 11 meters in diameter, with a capacity for one million m3 each.

The climate in Chicago is continental, but this is very marked by its geographical location, since Chicago is precisely located between the Central Sierra and the Atlantic Ocean. This causes the climate in Chicago to be characterized by extremely cold winters, hot summers and in-between, that is, spring and autumn, quite cloudy, with frequent rainfall and sometimes accompanied by strong winds.

History

According to the accounts of the Spanish explorers of the 17th century, the Indians of Illinois (Potawatomis) were the first to claim a territory that they called ” Chicaugou “, and which means powerful, strong or great, and that was used by many tribal chiefs to mean they were “big” bosses. In 1795 the area was ceded by the Native Americans to the United States by the Treaty of Greenville for their military use.

The first European explorers to set foot in the place destined to become Chicago were Louis Joliet and Fr. Jacques Marquette. The two explorers were commissioned by the French Government in 1673. Father Marquette returned to the area only a year later to establish an Indian mission.

According to Abbreviationfinder, Chicago’s first European colonizer, Jean Baptiste Point DuSable, arrived in the area around 1780. He married a Potawatomi Indian named Kittihawa and had two children, Jean and Susanne. In 1779 he left Peoria and explored north to an area called Eschikagou, (Chicago) by the Indians. DuSable, recognizing its potential, decided to settle in Chicago and built the first permanent home on the banks of the river.

He established a trading post that became the main supply point for traders and trappers going west. The post of Du Sable prospered much and he became quite wealthy. In 1796 a granddaughter was born, becoming the first child born in the newly created Chicago.

Although Chicago suffered from a number of problems, including the Fort Dearbornmassacre by a hostile Indian tribe and the War of 1812 between the United States and Great Britain, it managed to maintain its territorial holdings and expand its boundaries.

Fort Dearborn – Chicago 1803 With the development of the railroad and the Illinois / Michigan canal (in 1848 the Illinois and Michigan canals were built, interconnecting the Great Lakes with the Mississippi River ), Chicago became the leader in the cattle, chip, and chip industries. wood, firewood and wheat. Word spread that the city was full of opportunity, and by the mid- 1850s, as many as 100,000 immigrants were coming to the city annually looking for land and work.

In 1860, Chicago hosted the Republican National Convention which named Abraham Lincoln himself, as the presidential candidate. A year later, during his tenure, the Civil War began.

Postwar Chicago was unstoppable. Population grew, grain shipments doubled, and merchants prospered.

The October of October of 1871, the Great Chicago Fire destroyed most of the central area of the city. It started in the lumber district in the western part of the city. They say Mrs. O’Leary’s cow hit a kerosene lamp that started the fire. By October 10, the fire had destroyed almost four miles of the city, claimed at least 250 lives and left 100,000 residents homeless. More than 17,000 buildings were destroyed and the damaged properties were estimated at $ 200 million.

After the fire, a larger Chicago emerged. Architects of international fame came to the city for its reconstruction. Within a few years, Chicago resurfaced and was chosen to host the [[| 1893 | 1893]] Columbian World Exposition for two and a half million visitors.

In 1933 and 1934, the Chicago World’s Fair, known as “A Century of Progress,” was organized as a non-profit society in January 1928. Its purpose was to hold a world fair in Chicago in 1933.

The “A Century of Progress” exhibit was conceived as a centennial commemorating the city of Chicago and a testament to the scientific and industrial achievements of that time.

Located south of Navy Pier (Navy Pier) in Chicago, This exhibition, “A century of Progress”, had 112 ha on the shore of the Lake and was made up of two artificial lagoons and Notherly Island.

The fair was inaugurated on 27 of maypole of 1933 with the lighting of the lights with the rays of the star Arcturus. The rays were concentrated in photoelectric cells in a series of astronomical observatories and then transformed into electrical energy that was transmitted to Chicago.

Unlike any previous fair, ‘A Century of Progress’ celebrated color and lighting. The architecture of the fair was influenced by the Great Depression of the time. Rather than focusing on architecture, the fair focused on scientific and technological progress and related manufacturing processes.

The “A Century of Progress Exposition” was an unprecedented success and welcomed more than 48 million visitors in the two years it lasted. It offered an encouraging glimpse into a future embodied by technology while honoring the achievements of the past.

Today, Chicago is a dynamic and culturally diverse city. It is an international center for business and leisure travel, due in part to the city’s accessibility through transportation, a thriving business community, and hotels, restaurants, shopping venues, etc.

In this city of Illinois lived the famous mobster Al Capone who ruled in the eastern sector of Chicago.

Chicago, Illinois

Oklahoma History

Oklahoma History

According to Abbreviationfinder, the State of Oklahoma is located in the southern part of the Central Plains region of the United States. It limits the north with the states of Colorado and Kansas; to the east, with those of Missouri and Arkansas; to the south, with that of Texas; and to the west, with those of Texas and New Mexico. The Red River traces most of its southern border. According to CountryAAH.com, Oklahoma most important cities are: Oklahoma, Tulsa, Lawton, Norman and Broken Arrow.

History

Evidence suggests that indigenous peoples traveled through Oklahoma since the last ice age. [1] The ancestors of the Wichita, Kichai, Teyas, Escanjaques, and Caddo lived in what is now Oklahoma. The villagers of the southern plains lived in the central and western part of the state, with a subgroup, the people of the Panhandle culture who lived in the Panhandle region. The people of the Caddoan culture of Mississippi lived in the eastern part of the state. Spiro Mounds, in what is now Spiro, Oklahoma, was a major Mississippi mound complex that flourished between AD 850 and 1450. [2] [3]

In 1541, the Spanish conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado was the first European to reach Oklahoma. French trappers began to arrive in the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1803, due to the Louisiana Purchase, all of Oklahoma, except for the panhandle, became part of the United States. In 1817, the federal government began sending large groups of Native Americans from Alabama, Georgia, Florida, and Mississippi to the region. Oklahoma was divided into the Five Civilized Nations, consisting of the Creek, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Seminoles. In 1834, the region was transformed into the Indian Territory.

During the American Civil War (1861-1865), the Indian tribes of the territory supported the Confederates. After the war, indigenous nations were forced to cede the western half of their territory to the United States to host other tribes. President Rutherford Birchard Hayes issued orders in 1879 and 1880 prohibiting colonization of the territory. In 1885, Congress authorized the president to begin negotiations with the Creek and Seminole tribes to open up uninhabited areas so that they could be colonized. The negotiations concluded favorably in 1889.

In 1890, the federal government recognized the Oklahoma Territory, which consisted of lands in the southern part of the region and the western part of the Indian Territory, along with the panhandle plateau. In 1907, the two territories became part of the Union.

During the period before and during World War I, Oklahoma had the strongest Socialist Party in the United States, but the movement was crushed due to the aftermath of the Green Corn Rebellion (Oklahoma) and the repression of all leftists in the state. [4]

Until the middle of the 20th century, Oklahoma’s economy suffered severe ups and downs. Oil production was progressively gaining importance, especially in the 1920s, when remarkable deposits of oil and natural gas were discovered. In the early 1950s, strong measures were taken to control floods, increase irrigation and create new diversified industries, ranging from the production of electronic and space equipment to the manufacture of mobile homes (trailers or caravans).

Flag

The Oklahoma state flag honors more than 60 groups of Native Americans and their ancestors. The blue field comes from a flag carried by Choctaw soldiers during the civil war. The shield in the center is the Osage Warriors Battle Shield which is made of buffalo hide and adorned with eagle feathers. Two symbols of peace pierce the shield. One is a calumet, or pipe of peace. The other is an olive branch. The crosses on the shield are Native American signs for the stars, representing high ideals.

Capital City: Oklahoma City

Admitted to state: November 16, 1907.

Bordering States: Arkansas Colorado Kansas Missouri New Mexico Texas.

Motto: Work conquers all things. It was adopted in 1906 as part of the state seal.

People: Oklahomeños

Cognómento: The Fastest State.

Origin of the name of the state: Word of the Choctaw Indians that means Red Man.

State Seal

The Great Seal of the State of Oklahoma is a tribute to the state’s Indian heritage and is hope for the future. The central design consists of a large star, representing the state of Oklahoma, surrounded by 45 small stars, representing each of the other states in the union. The large Star that symbolizes the characteristics of Oklahoma that have the five shields at their points, one for each of the Indian nations. The top ray is for the Chickasaw Nation, and it supports a warrior with a bow and shield.

The upper right ray represents the Choctaw nation, with a bow, three arrows, and a tomahawk. The lower right ray represents the Seminole nation, with a hunter in a canoe. The bottom left spoke is for Creek Nation, and it holds a sheaf of wheat and a plow. And the upper left ray is the seal of the Cherokee Nation, with a seven-pointed star and an oak wreath.

The center of the main star shows an Indian shaking hands with a white man, symbolizing the combination of cultures. The olive green branches surround this image, representing the hope of peace. The state motto “Labor Omina Vincit”, or “Labor Conquers All”, displays on the stamp, and the entire stamp is ringed with the “Great Seal of the State of Oklahoma 1907 “.

Oklahoma History

Idaho Geography and Economy

Idaho Geography and Economy

According to Abbreviationfinder, Idaho is a state located in the Rocky Mountains region of the United States; It is bordered to the north by the Canadian province of British Columbia, to the east by Montana and Wyoming, to the south by Utah and Nevada, and to the west by Oregon and Washington. A part of the eastern border of Idaho is formed by the Continental Divide or North American mountain range (the crest of the Rocky Mountains), and the channel of the Snake River constitutes part of the western limit of the state. According to CountryAAH.com, Idaho main cities are Boise (the capital), Pocatello, Idaho Falls, Nampa, Lewiston and Twin Falls.

Geography

With an area of ​​216,445 km², the elevation of the Idaho territory varies from 216 m in the floodplain of the Snake River, in Lewiston, to 3,859 m that reaches the top of Borah Peak. The average altitude is 1,500 meters. Idaho’s major physiographic regions are: the Rocky Mountains to the north, the Columbia Plateau to the south and west, and the Great Basin to the southeast. Nearly the northern two-thirds of the state is occupied by the Rocky Mountains. In general, the altitude of the mountain ranges descends towards the northwest from the crest of the Bitterroot mountain range., on the border with the state of Montana. Made up mainly of young granitic rocks, this region is notable for its vast expanses of forests. The Columbia Plateau area occupies much of the southern third of the state, as well as the northern border in the direction of Coeur d’Alene. The plateau was formed by the accumulation of lava flows; the soils that developed on it (arid reddish volcanic soils) are fertile. The Snake River runs through this region and its relatively wide plain, which is Idaho’s agricultural heartland. The Great Basin extends through the southeastern part of the state. Its main river is the Snake, which, along with its major tributaries – the Clearwater, the Salmon, the Payette and the Boise – runs through the southern and central parts of the state. The Kootenai, Pend Oreille, and Spokane drain northern Idaho. Also in the mountainous area of ​​the north you can find numerous natural lakes. Despite the distance from the Pacific Ocean, Idaho has a climate softened by the air coming from the ocean. Moisture-laden winds cause precipitation of up to 1,270mm per year on the highest western slopes of the Rockies, most of it in the form of snow during winter. The Snake River Plain and the Basin and Cordillera region are much drier; many of its areas receive less than 254 mm of rainfall per year. The moderating effects of sea air make mean temperatures warmer in winter and cooler in summer than in the Great Plains states. The state is popular for its beautiful coniferous forests (especially western white pines) that occupy the mountainous regions. Western yellow pine and Douglas fir grow at lower elevations, giving way to larch and western white pine and, fir trees. The Great Basin region has a vegetation of pine forests and junipers. Wildlife includes Virginia deer, mule deer, elk, elk, bush sheep, mountain goat, black bear, fox, chipmunk, jay, and hawk. Other species that can also be found are cougars, coyotes, rabbits, and badgers.

Economic development

The state is among the first producers of silver, antimony, vanadium and garnets, and has the main sources of phosphates, lead, gold and zinc in the country. Agriculture contributes approximately 10% of the annual gross state product. Idaho is among the top states for potato production and third for sugar beets. Livestock, particularly beef (veal), and the cultivation of hay, wheat and barley are also important. The lumber industry is notable, especially in the north of the state. Most of the production is of noble woods; Douglas fir, ponderosa [pine] and white pine are the most prominent commercial varieties. Other important industries are processed foods, paper mills and chemicals.

Social development

In 2007, Idaho had 1,499,402 residents. The white population represents 91%, and the black population, 0.4%. 101,690 residents are of Hispanic origin, mainly Mexican. The main groups of Amerindians are the Nez Percé and the Shoshone.

Education

Idaho’s first school was founded around 1830; It was a missionary school for the native Indians of this place. Today, the state has several centers of higher education.

Culture

Much of the state’s historic landmarks are found along the routes that pioneers followed in their westward migration, such as the Oregon Trail, used in the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806). The two most important national monuments in Idaho are: the Craters of the Moon National Monument, near Arco, and the Hagerman Fossil Bed. Hell’s Canyon, the deepest gorge in all of North America, and Shoshone Falls, with a 65-meter drop — greater than Niagara Falls — lie on the Snake River.

Sports

Mountains, lakes and streams, as well as its vast natural regions make Idaho an ideal place for outdoor activities such as skiing, hunting, hiking, camping, rowing and fishing. The most important ski resorts are Silver Horn and Sun Valley.

Idaho Geography and Economy

Cleveland, Ohio

Cleveland, Ohio

According to Abbreviationfinder, Cleveland is located in the most populous county in the state of Ohio in the United States, Cuyahoga of which it is the seat. As such, it constitutes a municipality located in the northeast of that state, specifically on the southern shore of Lake Erie, about 100 km west of Pennsylvania. Due to its location at the entrance of numerous canals and rail lines, Cleveland from its origins became a very important manufacturing center in the country, which was affected to some extent by the decline in heavy manufacturing, which is why the economy it has diversified and spread strongly in the service sector.

According to CountryAAH.com, the city is ranked as the thirty-sixth largest city in the country and the second largest in Ohio and is recognized for large investments made in arts and cultural institutions and a robust public library system that have contributed greatly to increased tourism.. According to studies conducted by The Economist in 2005, Cleveland and Pittsburgh are the most livable cities in the United States, and ranked as the best city for business meetings in the continental United States.

History

Cleveland was founded on 22 of July of 1796 in the vicinity of the mouth of the river Cuyahoga, and takes its name when the experts of the Connecticut Land Company drew the Western Reserve of Connecticut in municipalities and a capital city they named “Cleaveland” in honor of its leader, General Moses Cleaveland. Lorenzo Carter was the first settler to settle in Cleveland on the banks of the Cuyahoga River, but the town of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 23, 1814, later in 1831 Looking for the way that the name would fit in the head of a newspaper, a spelling arrangement was made to the name of the city, deleting an “a” and from then on being called “Cleveland”.

In its beginnings, due to the approach to low and swampy lands and harsh winters, the area was not very populated but as railway development increased and especially after the construction of the Ohio and Erie Canal in 1832, there was a rapid and sustained growth that made the city a key connection between the Ohio River and the Great Lakesas well as between the Atlantic Ocean through the St. Lawrence Canal and the Gulf of Mexico through the Mississippi River, all of which contributed to the incorporation of Cleveland as city ​​in 1836.

Because of its location in the middle of the road for the iron ore coming from Minnesota across the Great Lakes and for the coal and other raw materials coming by rail from the south of the country, the area quickly prospered and Cleveland thus became a one of the largest manufacturing and populated centers in the United States, establishing itself by 1920 as the fifth largest city in the country.

After World War II, the city grew slightly and businesses proclaimed that Cleveland was the “best place in the nation” and in 1949 it was named an All-America City for the first time, however by 1960 the heavy industries began to decline. and residents sought out new areas of the economy on the outskirts.

Geography

Cleveland is located in the northeast of the state of Ohio, on the southern shore of Lake Erie, about 100 km west of Pennsylvania. Exactly 41 ° 28′56 ″ N 81 ° 40′11 ″ W? /? 41.48222, -81.66972. The city has a total area of ​​213.5 km². Of which 201.0 km² is land and 12.5 km² is water.

Climate

The main contributor to snow and the main pillar of Cleveland’s weather, is the so-called lake effect, which is strongly reflected in the eastern part, due to the proximity of Lake Erie which from mid- November begins to cool until the surface of the lake freezes between late January or early February. This effect causes the total amount of snow to vary greatly between different parts of the city.

The maximum temperature recorded in Cleveland was 40 ° C and occurred on June 25, 1988, and the minimum temperature was −29 ° C on January 19, 1994. July is the hottest month with an average temperature of 22.2 ° C, and the coldest is January, with an average temperature of −3.5 ° C. Average annual rainfall is 930 mm.

Architecture

The architecture of Cleveland is varied, highlighting many buildings that share a common neoclassical architecture among which are government and civil buildings such as the City Hall, the Cuyahoga County courthouse, the Cleveland Public Library, and the Public Auditorium all clustered around an open mall. These were built in the early 1900s and are one of the finest examples of City Beautiful design in the United States.

Among the notable examples are the Terminal Tower, built in 1930, and converted for the time into the tallest building in the country outside of New York until 1967 and the tallest in the city until 1991. The two new skyscrapers in the downtown plaza, Key Tower, which is currently the tallest building in Ohio, and the BP Building, feature Art Deco architectural elements with postmodern designs. Another of the achievements and architectural jewel of Cleveland is The Arcade, which is an arcade built in 1890 and renovated in 2001 as the Hyatt Regency Hotel..

Another notable example is Euclid Avenue, which for its prestige and splendor once rivaled New York’s Fifth Avenue, becoming famous as the home of internationally known names such as Rockefeller, Hanna and Hay.

Cleveland, Ohio

Honolulu, Hawaii

Honolulu, Hawaii

According to CountryAAH.com, Honolulu is the capital and most populous community in the state of Hawaii. In the Hawaiian language, Honolulu means “sheltered the bay” or the “place of shelter.” The census-designated place (CDP) is located along the southeast coast of the island of Oahu. The term also refers to the Honolulu district.

History

The first to settle on the Hawaiian Islands were probably Polynesian sailors from the Marquesas Islands in the South Pacific. They arrived in approximately 900 AD followed by other sailors from Tahiti and New Zealand. Captain James Cook, the famous British explorer, was the first European to arrive on the shores of Hawaii on January 18, 1778. At first, the locals welcomed foreigners until they realized that they brought deadly diseases with them. In just one century, European diseases wiped out 80% of Hawaii’s population.

The next destructive wave came with the missionaries from the United States. His attempts to convert the Hawaiians in the first half of the 19th century changed the social dynamics of the island forever. It was foreigners who established Honolulu’s first town, and by 1850 its port was filled with merchant ships and whalers. The thousands of sailors who came ashore looking for fun often ended up creating trouble. Honolulu jails were continually full in this troubled age.

Honolulu’s first destination was to become the commercial port for much of the Pacific. Sugar was the king product during the late 19th century, and by itself, it turned this “town” into a prosperous and multicultural city. But Hawaii was also an obvious strategic outpost, and the global powers of the 19th century pushed for control over the islands. Foreign merchant settlers and farmers pressured the Hawaiian monarchy to cede most of their authority, and in 1893 a US-backed coup d’état overthrew the former kingdom of Hawaii.

In 1898 the United States annexed Hawaii, making Hawaii the 49th state in 1959. Before tourism became a mainstay of Honolulu’s economy, pineapple and sugar plantations dominated the island. The American military also arrived, creating the Pearl Harbor base and integrating itself into Hawaiian society. Waikiki’s first hotel opened in 1901 and when the steamboats discovered Honolulu, tourism exploded.

The attack on Pearl Harbor during World War II put Honolulu as a global focus in 1941. After the global conflict ended, Honolulu’s popularity as a tourist destination increased rapidly. Today this beachside city is not only one of the largest cities in the United States by population, but one of the world’s most popular destinations for business and pleasure. As a gateway to the Hawaiian Islands, everyone passes through Honolulu at one point or another.

Climate

Honolulu has two seasons, dry and wet, but is warm and breezy throughout the year. The annual average temperature is close to 25ºC, with very small fluctuations. Honolulu is located on the leeward side of Oahu, which gives it dry and warm conditions most of the year. The dry season corresponds to the summer months, from June to September, while the wet season corresponds to the winter, from November to March.

The best times to visit Honolulu are the middle seasons, April, May, September and October usually have perfect weather. Conditions are not very humid and not too windy. These periods are also low season, the number of tourists is lower, accommodation costs slightly cheaper and the local population is more relaxed.

Transport

Located at the western end of Honolulu proper, the Honolulu International Airport(HNL) is the main aviation gateway to the state of Hawaii according to Abbreviationfinder.

Cultural institutions

Performing arts

Established in 1900, the Honolulu Symphony is the oldest symphony orchestra in the US west of the Rocky Mountains. Other classical music ensembles include the Hawaii Opera House. Honolulu is also a center for Hawaiian music. Major music venues include the Neal Blaisdell Center Concert Hall, the Waikiki Shell, and the Hawaii Theater.

Honolulu also includes several venues for live theater, including the Diamond Head Theater and the Manoa Valley Theater.

visual arts

Located near downtown Honolulu, the premier place for the visual arts in Hawaii is the Honolulu Academy of Arts. The Honolulu Academy of Arts offers the largest collection of Western and Asian art in Hawaii and also hosts a year-round film and video program dedicated to the presentation of arthouse and world cinema at Duke Theater. Doris from the museum. The Contemporary Museum in Makiki is the leading museum of contemporary art in the state. Downtown Honolulu hosts a monthly art walk on the first Friday of each month.

Gardens

  • Foster Botanical Garden
  • Liliuokalani Botanical Garden
  • Walker Status

Museums, aquariums, zoos and cultural centers

  • The Bishop Museum is the largest museum in the state of Hawaii and contains millions of specimens of natural history and cultural artifacts relating to Hawaii and the Pacific.
  • The Honolulu Academy of Arts has consistently grown to become Hawaii’s largest private presenter of visual arts programs, boasting a permanent collection of over 40,000 works of art from cultures around the world.
  • The Honolulu Waikiki Aquarium and Zoo are both located at the eastern end of Waikiki in Kapiolani Park.
  • The Hawaii State Art Museum (HISAM) (Official Site) is located in the Downtown District at the Old YMCA Building and Features Local Artists. Blessed with a large collection and competent in-house staff.
  • La de Shangri (Duke of Doris)

Sports

Currently, Honolulu has no professional sports team. However, Honolulu hosts the annual NFL Bowl Pro each February in addition to the Hawaii Bowl of NCAA football. Spectator sports fans in Honolulu generally support the football, volleyball, basketball, and baseball programs of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. High school sporting events, especially football, are especially popular. Venues for spectator sports in Honolulu include:

  • Aloha Stadium (football)
  • Les Murakami Stadium in UH-Manoa (baseball)
  • Stan’s Sheriff’s Center at UH-Manoa (basketball and volleyball)
  • Neal Blaisdell Center Arena (Basketball)

Sights

  • Bishop Museum
  • Honolulu Academy of Arts
  • Diamond Head, Hawaii
  • Arboretum of Lyon
  • National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific
  • Waikiki Beach

Honolulu, Hawaii

Fargo, North Dakota

Fargo, North Dakota

According to CountryAAH.com, Fargo is a city located in Cass County in the US state of North Dakota. In the 2015Census it had a population of 118,523 residents and a population density of 834.74 people per km², It is the most important economic enclave in eastern North Dakota and western Minnesota.

Geography

Fargo has a total area of ​​126.45 km², completely terrestrial, it is located at the coordinates 46 ° 51′55 ″ N 96 ° 49′44 ″ W.

Climate

The area’s continental climate makes Fargo characterized by very cold winters with frequent snowstorms and moderately warm summers.

Demography

As of the 2010 census, there were 105,549 people, 39,268 households, and 20,733 families residing in the city. The population density was 834.74 residents / km². Of the 105,549 residents, Fargo was made up of 90.2% White, 2.7% African American, 1.38% Native American, 2.97% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.62% were of other races and 2.09% belonged to two or more races. Of the total population 2.19% were The top 6 ancestry groups in the city are German (40.6%), Norwegian (35.9%), Irish (8.6%), Swedes (6.5%), English (5.2 %), French (4.7%). There were 39,268 households out of which 26.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.8% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female head of the household without the presence of the husband, and 47. 2% were non-families. 34.6% of all the households were made up of individuals and 8.0% have an elderly person over 65 years of age. The median household size was 2.20 and the median family size was 2.91.

Economy

The Fargo area economy has historically been dependent on agriculture. That dominance has decreased substantially in recent decades. Now, the City of Fargo has a growing economy based on food processing, manufacturing, technology, retail, higher education, and healthcare.

Education

The Fargo public school system operates fifteen elementary schools, three middle schools, two high schools (North Fargo High School and South Fargo High School), and one alternative high school (Woodrow Wilson). South Fargo 9th Graders Go to South Campus II (Former Agassiz Middle School)

Culture

Fargo offers a relatively wide variety of cultural opportunities for a city of its size. This is probably due, in part, to the presence of three universities in the metropolitan area. Most theater and events are promoted or produced by universities, although there are some private theater companies in the city. The Fargo Theater is a restored 1926 Art Deco movie house featuring first performance movies, film festivals, and other community events. The Plains Art Museum is the largest art museum in the state. It is located in downtown Fargo and features regional and national exhibits. It also contains a large permanent collection of art.

Transport

According to Abbreviationfinder, Fargo is a major transportation hub for the surrounding region. It sits at the crossroads of two major interstate highways and is home to a major airport. Fargo is served by Hector International Airport. Hector has the longest public runway in the state and schedules passenger flights to Minneapolis, Chicago, Denver, Colorado, Las Vegas and Salt Lake City, Utah. The BNSF Railroad operates the metropolitan area as a successor to the Great Northern and Northern Pacific Railways. Amtrak service is provided via the Empire Builder passenger train at the Fargo Amtrak station.

Museums

  • Bonanzaville, USA – (1351 Main Avenue, West Fargo, North Dakota) A “village” made up of many historic buildings from the region. It includes a church, a school building, and log cabins. It is named after the historic outstanding farms of the area. Open May-October.
  • The Children’s Museum at Yunker Farm – (28th Avenue 1201 North) provides many exhibits and “hands-on” participation for children. Open throughout the year.
  • Fargo Air Museum – (1609 19th Avenue North) Features aircraft from World War IIand beyond. Also hosts traveling exhibits.
  • Plains Art Museum – Large Art Museum (704 1st Avenue North) located in a historic downtown building. Regional features and national exhibits.
  • Roger Maris Museum – (West Acres Shopping Center) A small museum located in a wing of the mall. Features memorabilia and a video presentation about the New York Yankees player who lived in Fargo for a portion of his life.

Theaters

  • Fargo-Moorhead Community Theater – (333 4th Street South) FMCT presents Comedies, Dramas, Youth Shows, and Musicians in a theater located in the Island Park south of downtown.
  • Fargo Theater – (314 Broadway) a 1926 Art Deco movie theater. Movies of the present (classic and current), live productions, and other events.
  • Main Avenue Theater – (hosts 716 Main Avenue) live productions next to the local independent theater By the Tin Roof Theater Company and other events by theater companies.
  • Trollwood School of the Arts – Trollwood Performing Arts School – (Trollwood Park) (TPAS) is a summer theater program for students of all ages. TPAS presents many different forms of performing arts each summer, the most prominent being the Mainstage Musical performed in front of up to 2,500 audience members at an open-air theater. All performances produced by TPAS are done entirely by students, 18 and under.

Other Major cities

Bismarck, the state capital, is the second largest city in the state with a metropolitan population of more than 100,000 people. The largest city, Fargo, has about twice that number alive in its metropolitan area.

Fargo, North Dakota

Atlanta, Georgia

Atlanta, Georgia

According to CountryAAH.com, Atlanta is one of the largest and most important cities and the third most populous city in the United States. It has been considered “the capital of the new South”, “the international city” and “the best place for business”. It is located in the South of the United States, northwest of Georgia and bordered, to the west, by the ChattahoocheeRiver and to the east by Stone Mountain, a rock formation that also houses a park.

History

In the last century, it was one of the main states that promoted and defended slavery and, until the civil war, it was the most important center in which the military industry of the Confederacy was based. In 1864, in the midst of the Civil War, General William Sherman, a unionist, set the city on fire (a very remembered scene from ‘Gone with the Wind ‘). But its recovery took a few years: today it represents the archetype of the aggressive, urban and industrial New South of the country.

Due to its complete destruction and subsequent resurgence, it is symbolized by the Phoenix, the bird of Greek mythology that was reborn from the ashes. There are two fairly important sculptures of this bird: one on Broad Street, near the First National Bank and the other, on Martin Luther King Drive, next to the Rich’s Department Store. Paradoxically, despite its slave-owning and racist past and being the place where the mythical Ku Klux Klan was founded, it was the birthplace of Martin Luther King, the black leader who defended the civil rights of his race and, today, is one of the North American cities with the largest black population.

In 1996 it hosted the Olympic Games; This managed to increase the prestige and improve the services of the city. Atlanta is divided into three centers: Lenox, Midtown, and Downtown. In Midtown there is a clock that is counting the number of residents who live in the city. There is also one of the few old houses from 1900. This is located between Peachstreet and Peachstreet streets (although it sounds funny, many streets have this name, which means peach tree, a typical tree of the State of Georgia).

Geography

According to Abbreviationfinder, Atlanta is located in the South of the United States, northwest of Georgia and bordered, to the west, by the Chattahoochee River and to the east by Stone Mountain, a rock formation that also houses a park. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of ​​343 km², of which 341.2 km² is land and 1.8 km² is water. The total area of ​​water is 0.51%. Located 320 meters above sea level and the airport at 308 meters, Atlanta sits atop the southern ridge of the Chattahoochee River.

This south is also accompanied by one of the most beautiful landscapes in the United States, rivers mixed with impressive vegetation where some important areas where aridity predominates.

Climate

The weather is mild for most of the year, although July and August are usually quite hot and humid. From time to time, you see a little snow fall in December and January, but never too much.

Economic development

One of seven American cities classified as Gamma Cities of the World, it is ranked third in the number of fortune with 500 companies headquartered within city limits, behind New York and Houston. Several major national and international companies are headquartered, including three Fortune 100 companies: Coca-Cola Company, Home Depot, and United Package Service in adjacent Sandy Springs. The Mobility Headquarters of AT&T, the largest mobile phone service provider in the United States, can be found a short distance within the perimeter of Georgia State Route 400 on the other hand.

Newell Rubbermaid is one of the newest companies to relocate to the metro area; in October of 2006, he announced plans to move its headquarters to Sandy Springs. Other headquarters for some major companies in Atlanta and around the metro area include Arby, Chick-Fil-A, Earthlink, Equifax, Georgia-Pacific, Oxford Industries, Southern Company, SunTrust Banks, and Cookie House.

Over 75% of the Fortuna 1000 companies have a presence in the Atlanta area, and the region hosts the offices of about 1,250 multinational corporations. Delta Air lines is the city’s third largest metro pattern and area. Delta operates the world’s largest airline hub at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport and, together with competent carrier hub AirTran Airways, has helped make Hartsfield-Jackson the world’s busiest airport, in terms of passenger traffic and aircraft operations.

The airport, since its construction in the 1950s, has served as the dominant engine of Atlanta’s economic development. It has an important financial sector. SunTrust Banks, the seventh largest bank by asset holdings in the United States, has its home office on Peachtree Street in downtown. Federal Reserve System has a district headquarters in Atlanta; The Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, which oversees much of the Deep South, relocated from downtown to Midtown in 2001.

Wachovia announced plans in August of 2006 to place its new credit card division in Atlanta, and long – term hopes of the port of the city, state and civic leaders having the service of the city as the home of the secretariat of a future Free Trade Area of ​​the Americas.

The auto manufacturing sector in metropolitan Atlanta has suffered setbacks recently, including the planned closure of the General Motors Assembly of the Doraville plant in 2008, and the shutdown of Ford Motor Company’s Atlanta Assembly plant in Hapeville in 2006. Kia, however, has Broken ground in a new assembly plant near West Point, Georgia.

The city is a major cable television programming center. Ted Turner started the Turner Broadcasting System Media Empire in Atlanta, where he purchased an UHF station that eventually became WTBS. Turner established the headquarters of the Cable News Network at the CNN Center, today adjacent to Centennial Olympic Park. As his company grew, his other channels — Cartoon Network, Boomerang, TNT, South Turner, CNN International, CNN En Espanol, CNN Headline News, and CNN Airport Network — centered their operations in Atlanta as well (South Turner has since been sold). The Weather Channel, owned by Signal Communications, has its offices in the nearby suburb of Marietta.

Cox Enterprises, a privately held company controlled by brothers Barbara Cox Anthony and Anne Cox Chambers, has substantial media holdings in and beyond Atlanta. Its Cox Communications division is the nation’s third-largest cable television service provider; the company also publishes about a dozen daily newspapers in the United States, including The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. WSB – Cox’s flagship radio station – was the first station Radio in the South. It is also home to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Adjacent to Emory University, with a staff of nearly 15,000 (including 6,000 contractors and 840 Corps Commission officers) in 170 occupations, including: Engineers, Entomologists, Epidemiologists, Biologists, Physicians, Veterinarians, Behavioral Scientists, Nurses, Medical Technologists, economists, health communicators, toxicologists, chemists, computer scientists, and statisticians.

Atlanta, Georgia

North Carolina Geography and Cities

North Carolina Geography and Cities

According to Abbreviationfinder, North Carolina borders Tennessee to the west, South Carolina to the south, Georgia to the southwest, Virginia to the north, and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North Carolina consists of three major geographic areas: the Coastal Plain, which occupies the eastern part by 45%, the Piedmont region, which occupies 35%, and the Appalachians and Foothills. The eastern tip of the state contains the Outer Banks, a chain of narrow sand islands that form a barrier between the Atlantic Ocean and waterways. The Outer Banks forms two straits: the Straits of Albemarle in the north and the The Pamlico Strait in the south is the two largest landlocked straits in the United States. The coastal plain is relatively uneven, with rich soils, ideal for growing Tobacco, Glycine max | soy, Cucumis melo | melons and Cotton. The North Carolina Coastal Plain is mostly rural-occupied, with few or even no large cities. The Agriculture is an important economic sector. The main rivers in this area, the Neuse, the Tar, the Pamlico and the Cape Fear, tend to be slow and wide.

Climate

The coastal plain is under the influence of the Atlantic Ocean, which maintains mild temperatures in winter and moderate in summer. In summer, the maximum temperature on the coast averages less than 32 ° C. In winter, the coast enjoys the mildest temperatures in the state, with daytime temperatures rarely falling below 5 ° C. On the coast it snows about three days a year, having years without the presence of Snow.

The Atlantic Ocean has less influence on the Piedmont region, and as a result, its summers are hotter and winters are colder than those on the coast. In Piedmont, the maximum daytime temperature in summer normally averages 32 ° C. While it is not common in North Carolina for temperatures to exceed 37 ° C, when it does, the highest temperatures are recorded in the lower areas of Piedmont, especially around the city of Fayetteville.

Politic and government

The Governor, Lieutenant Governor, and eight elected executive department heads form the State Council. Ten other executive department heads appointed by the North Carolina Governor make up the Cabinet. The current governor of the state, Beverly Perdue, belongs to the Democratic Party, and is the first woman to hold that position in this state.

The North Carolina General Assembly, or Legislature, is made up of two houses: the 50-member Senate and the 120-member House of Representatives. The Supreme Court of North Carolina is the highest court of appeal in the state; It is made up of a total of seven judges. The Court of Appeals is the only intermediate court in the state and is made up of fifteen judges.

North Carolina Geography

Most important cities

According to CountryAAH.com, the major cities include

  • Asheville
  • Charlotte
  • Durham
  • Greensboro
  • Greenville
  • Raleigh
  • Wilmington
  • Winston-Salem
  • Cary

Charlotte (North Carolina)

Charlotte It is a city located in Mecklenburg County , in the US state of North Carolina, near the border with South Carolina. Headquarters of the county of Mecklenburg, it is the most populous city in the state, being known as an outstanding financial center since two of the largest banks in the United States have their corporate headquarters in the city. Incorporated in 1768 and named after the Queen of Great Britain, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Charlotte in English). The educational system is managed through public schools.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of ​​629 km 2, of which 627.5 km 2 is solid land and the remaining 1.6 km 2 is made up of water (0.25%).

Climate

It is located in the humid subtropical climate zone. It has mild winters and hot, humid summers. During the month of January, the minimum temperatures in the mornings are, on average, 0 ° C and the maximum averages are 11 ° C, while in the month of July, the averages range between 22 and 32 ° C. It receives about 1105mm of rain per year.

Demography

In 2004, there were 614,330 people, and 801,137 in the county as a whole (Mecklenburg). The population density is 861.9 residents / km 2.

Metropolitan area

The metropolitan area is comprised of Mecklenburg, Gaston, Lincoln, Cabarrus, Union, Iredell, Cleveland, Anson, Rowan, and Stanly counties in North Carolina. It crosses the state border arriving in South Carolina with the counties of York, Lancaster and Chester. The population of the metropolitan area was 1,897,034 in 2004.

Durham (North Carolina)

Durham. City belonging to the state of North Carolina, in the United States. It is located in County Durham. It is known for being the home of Duke University. It is the fourth most populous city in the state, and its metropolitan area is inhabited by 451,212 people, according to the 2005 census.

Geography

It is located at the coordinates 35 ° 59′19 ″ N 78 ° 54′26 ″ W, at 123 meters above sea level. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of ​​245.8 km 2. 245.1 km 2 is land and 0.7 km 2 (0.29%) is water.

Demography

According to the 2000 census, there were 201,726 people, 74,981 homes and 43,563 families residing in the city. The population density was 763.1 / km 2. 45.50% of the residents were white, 43.81% black, and the rest of various ethnicities.

History

The city was founded in 1853, with the intention of creating a train station midway between Wilson and Hillsborough.

It grew very slowly before the Civil War, but after the Civil War growth accelerated, in part thanks to the installation of a major tobacco factory.

Its name is due to the doctor Bartlett S. Durham, who donated land for the railroad passage through the city.

Florida Overview

Florida Overview

According to Abbreviationfinder, Florida borders the Gulf of Mexico to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and Georgia and Alabama to the north. Florida is made up of a plain that runs along the northern Gulf of Mexico and a peninsula with the Atlantic Ocean to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the west. It limits the north with the states of Georgia and Alabama. Among the Parks, the Biscayne National Park stands out.

Economy

Florida’s economy relies heavily on tourism. The mild climate for most of the year and the many miles of beaches attract many tourists from all over the world. The Walt Disney theme park, the largest in the chain, located near Orlando, drives the activity in the area, along with other theme parks that have been gradually installed, such as Universal Studios.

The large amount of sales tax the state collects is what allows Florida to have no income tax. Other important industries are citrus and juice production, banking, and phosphate mining. With the arrival of the space program at the Kennedy Space Center in the 1960s, Florida has attracted numerous aerospace and military industries.

Florida’s economy is based on tourism: almost one million work in this area of ​​the 18.8 million people who inhabit the state. Amelia Island is a very visited place for its beaches, its central historic district and the ability to see nests of turtles and whales swimming on the shores.

Florida does not collect income taxes and relies on sales taxes, in which tourism contributes a high percentage. For example, in Amelia Island County, 35% of taxes come from tourism, although that of the other counties hovers around 17%.

According to CountryAAH.com, Florida has the following major cities and districts:

  • Adventure
  • Boca Raton
  • Bradenton
  • Cape Coral
  • Cardal
  • Casupe
  • Cerro Colorado
  • Clearwater
  • Dade County
  • Coral gables
  • Coral springs
  • Davie
  • Florida
  • Fort Lauderdale
  • Fort myers
  • Friar Marcos
  • Gainesville
  • Hallandale
  • Hialeah
  • Hollywood
  • Homestead
  • Jacksonville
  • Key Biscayne
  • Kissimmee
  • Lakeland
  • Melbourne
  • Miami
  • Miami beach
  • Miramar
  • Naples
  • Nico Perez
  • North Miami
  • North Miami Beach
  • Ocala
  • Orlando
  • Palm coast
  • Panama City
  • Pembroke Pines
  • Pensacola
  • Plantation
  • Pompano beach
  • Port Saint Lucie
  • Saint Augustine
  • Saint Petersburg
  • Sarandi Big
  • Sarasota
  • Sunny isles beach
  • Tallahassee
  • Tampa
  • August 25
  • Twenty five of May
  • West Palm Beach
  • Weston

Recent History

Reconquest of Florida by Spain

The second period under Spanish sovereignty occurred during the United States War of Independence when the Spanish regained West Florida in 1779 after the battles of Baton Rouge, Fort Charlotte, San Fernando de Omoa and Mobila and East Florida after the famous victory. in the Battle of Pensacola (March-May 1781), in which Bernardo de Gálvez, Spanish governor of La Luisiana (Spanish since 1763) and to face the English, gathered troops from different parts of the Empire and additional supplies of Cuba, Louisiana… increasing its army to about 7,000 men, which, for the time, was considerable. This army defeats the English troops of John Campbell, achieving a decisive victory.

As Jamaica was the last major English stronghold in the Caribbean, Gálvez set out to organize a landing on the island and add it to the territories under Spanish sovereignty, but in the middle of the preparations, he was surprised by the end of the war. At the end of the war, Florida (eastern and western Florida) was officially returned to Spain by the Treaty of Versailles of 1783, it also maintained the recovered territories of Menorca and recovered the coasts of Nicaragua, Honduras (Mosquito Coast) and Campeche. Spanish sovereignty over the Providencia colony was recognized.

Florida Overview

Florida independence and US invasion

In small West Florida, the Spanish had to evacuate their troops from Mobile (Alabama) in April 1813 to the capital Pensacola and the United States seized the city, in the context of the Anglo-American War of 1812 – 1815, claiming it as part of the Louisiana Purchase from the French a few years earlier.

Given the precarious situation of the colony, the 29 of June of 1817, General Gregorio MacGregor, militarily took the town of Amelia, in eastern Florida, located on the island of the same located name on the northeastern coast of Florida, 35 miles north of Vacapilatca (now Jacksonville) on the Georgia border. Days later, Florida insurgents north of Vacapilatca called on the population to proclaim independence from Spain and declare the “Republic of Florida”, establishing their capital in the fortified town of Fernandina.

Taking advantage of these events, the US President, James Monroe and his Secretary of State, John Quincy Adams, ordered a land and sea invasion to take over Florida. In September 1817, a great US military deployment supported by Spanish troops from Havana, landed in Amelia and from there they went to Fernandina to subject the rebels to blood and fire, arresting the authorities who were defending the insurgency in Florida..

In 1818, Andrew Jackson intervened in East Florida in what later American history called the First Seminole War, and this fact earned him popular support in his country and that of the Government.

The Spanish presence in the Floridas (West Florida and East Florida) came to an end after the beginning of negotiation, the Adams-Onís Treaty, in 1819, by which Spain was forced to sell the Floridas to the United States government (with President Monroe and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams), in exchange for preserving its borders in Western North America and five million dollars.

The vast majority of the Spanish population in Florida emigrated to Cuba and the Spanish footprint ended up being diluted, being today scarce (churches, government buildings, fortresses…) and their descendants numbered.

Confederate State

White settlers began to establish cotton plantations in Florida, which required numerous workers. In 1860 Florida there were only 140,424 people, of which 44% were slaves. There were fewer than 1,000 free black people before the Civil War.

On January 10, [[ 1861 ]], before the start of the Civil War, Florida declared its secession from the Union, ten days later, the state became a founding member of the Confederate States of America.

During the war the Battle of Olustee took place, carried out near Lake City (Florida), on February 20, 1864, it was the largest battle that occurred in the state of Florida during the war, with victory for the confederation.

The war ended in 1865. The 25 of June of 1868, representing Florida in the US Congress was restored.

New York City, New York

New York City, New York

According to CountryAAH.com, New York is the most populous city in the State of New York, the United States of America and the second largest urban agglomeration on the continent. It is the center of the New York metropolitan area, which is among the largest urban agglomerations in the world. Since the end of the 19th century it has been one of the main world centers of commerce and finance.

New York is considered a global city given its worldwide influences in media, politics, education, entertainment, and fashion. The artistic and cultural influence of the city is one of the strongest in the country. In addition, it is the headquarters of the United Nations, which makes it an important point of international relations.

The city is made up of five neighborhoods (sometimes translated as boroughs or communes) each of which coincides with a borough: the Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. With more than 8.4 million New Yorkers in an urban area of ​​830 square kilometers (320 mi²), New York is the second most densely populated city in the United States, behind Union City, New Jersey, located across the Hudson River.

The city has many neighborhoods and buildings recognized all over the world. For example, the Statue of Liberty, located on the island of the same name, and Ellis Island, which received millions of immigrants who came to the United States in the late 19thand early 20th centuries. Wall Street has been one of the major global centers of finance since World War II and is the home of the New York Stock Exchange.

According to Abbreviationfinder, the city has also home to many of the tallest buildings in the world, including the Empire State Building and the twin towers of the World Trade Center, which were toppled in the attacks of September 11, 2001.

The city is also the birthplace of many American cultural movements, such as the Harlem Renaissance in literature and visual arts, Abstract Expressionism (also known as the New York School) in painting, and hip hop, punk, and Tin Pan Alley in music. In 2005, nearly 170 languages ​​were spoken in the city, and 36% of its population was born outside of the United States.

With its subway running 24 hours a day and the constant movement of traffic and people, New York is known as “the city that never sleeps.” The A Eighth Avenue Express(” A Eighth Avenue Express ” line, in Spanish) is a “New York City Subway” subway service.

History

At the time of its discovery in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, the region was inhabited by around 5,000 aborigines from the Lenape tribe. This Italian explorer in the service of the French crown called it Nouvelle Angoulême (New Angouleme).

European colonization began in 1614 at the hands of the Dutch and in 1626, the head of the colony, Peter Minuit, bought the island of Manhattan. The place would be renamed New Amsterdam and would specialize in the fur trade.

In 1664, the English conquered the city and renamed it New York in honor of the Duke of York and Albany.

New York City gained importance as a commercial port under the British Empire. As early as 1754, the city’s first university, Columbia University, was founded.

During the American War of Independence, the city emerged as the scene of a series of major battles known as “The New York and New Jersey Campaign.” After the war ended, the Continental Congress met in New York, and in 1789, the first president of the United States, George Washington, was proclaimed in Federal Hall on Wall Street.

New York was the capital of the United States until 1790. In the 19th century, immigration and development transformed the city. A visionary development proposal, the Commissioners ‘ Plan of 1811, expanded the city street grid to the entire island of Manhattan, and the opening in 1819 of the Erie Canal connected the Atlantic port to the vast agricultural markets within North America.

By 1835, New York City had surpassed Philadelphia as the largest city in the United States. Local politics had fallen under the rule of Tammany Hall, a system of political patronage supported by Irish immigrants.

Members of the former merchant aristocracy contributed to the establishment of Central Park, which became the first landscape park in an American city in 1857.

On the other hand, a major abolitionist movement existed in Manhattan and Brooklyn, and although slaves existed in New York in the 1820s, by the following decade New York became the center of abolitionist activism in the North.

Between 13 and 16 of July of 1863 opposition to the military draft during the American Civil War (1861 – 1865) caused a series of violent demonstrations known as Draft Riots or Draft Week; These events are considered one of the worst civil uprisings in American history.

In 1898, modern New York City was formed with the annexation to Manhattan of Brooklyn and municipalities of other boroughs thanks to projects such as the Brooklyn Bridge. The opening of the metro in 1904 helped unite the city. Through the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communications.

In the 1920s, New York would become the main destination for African Americans during the so-called “Great Migration” from the American South.

September 11 attacks

New York City was one of the targets of the attacks of September 11, 2001, in which almost 3,000 people were killed in the terrorist attacks that were carried out against the twin towers of the World Trade Center, causing their collapse for two hours. after.

New York City, New York

Delaware Overview

Delaware Overview

Geography

According to Abbreviationfinder, Delaware is a state located on the Atlantic coast of the United States; It limits the north with Pennsylvania; to the east by the Delaware River, the Bay of Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, and to the south and west with Maryland.

Surface

With an area of ​​6,446 km², Delaware is the second smallest state in the country. Approximately 95% of the state is located on the Delmarva peninsula, in the Atlantic coastal plain

Soils

The soils are generally not very fertile. Throughout the eastern part of the state there are extensive swampy regions; Cedar Swamp is inland, to the south. The extreme north of Delaware, the Piedmont area, is a mountainous area composed of metamorphic rocks, whose soils are somewhat more fertile than those of the coastal plain.

Rivers

There are no large rivers in the interior of the state; the Delaware River and its estuary (known as the Delaware Bay), shape the northeastern border of the state. Delaware also does not have large lakes, although it does have several small bodies of water where swimming and fishing can be practiced.

Cities

Its main cities are Dover (capital), Newark, Milford, Elsmere and Wilmington, which is the largest city in Delaware.

Climate and Precipitation

The state of Delaware has a humid and temperate climate, with slight variations from one place to another.

Flora

In terms of flora, the most common species include red and white oak, willow, some varieties of walnut, such as bitter walnut hickory, taeda pine, Virginia pine, and red maple.

Fauna

White-tailed or Virginia deer, red and gray foxes, raccoons, weasels, cottontail rabbits (see Rabbits and Hares), American marmots, gray squirrels, and muskrats are found in many areas of the state. Delaware Bay is important as the wintering area for waterfowl in the region.

Economic development

Mining

The only mineral resources of any importance in the state are sand and gravel, which can be found throughout the territory.

Sightseeing

Its beautiful beaches make Delaware a prominent place for outdoor activities such as swimming, rowing, or fishing. Although Rehoboth Beach is considered the first resort in the state, Bethany Beach and Fenwick Island are also very popular.

Industry

Lumbering is a small-scale industry, although the state makes significant amounts of wood pulp. In addition to chemicals, other major industries in the state include synthetic fabrics, vehicle parts and motors, processed foods, precision instruments, rubber and plastic items, printing materials, and industrial equipment. All electricity produced in Delaware is generated in coal, natural gas or oil thermoelectric plants.

Social development

Population

In 2006, Delaware had a population of 853,476. The average density in that same year was 169 residents / km². The white population represents 74.6%, and the black population, 19.2%. Apart from other groups, 37,277 people are of Hispanic origin.

Government

The Legislative Assembly of the state of Delaware is in Dover, capital of the state since 1777 and is governed by the Constitution of 1897, with some later amendments. It is the only state in the country that does not require a popular vote to ratify a constitutional amendment. The chief executive is a democratically elected governor for a four-year term, who cannot be reelected for more than two terms.

Members of the Senate and House

At the national level, Delaware sends two senators and one representative to the United States Congress.

Education

In 1796 the state legislature created a public education fund, but the creation of a state education system in Delaware did not come until 1829. Cunado divided the state into different school districts, each having the right to receive up to 300 from the state. dollars annually, thus establishing the first public schools in the state. Until then, children from poor families were forced to study or not study, in schools run by religious institutions (the first were founded during the early seventeenth century). In 1999, the state’s public schools served about 112.8 thousand students, employing approximately 7.3 thousand teachers. Private schools served about 22.8 thousand students, employing approximately 1.8 thousand teachers. The state’s public school system spent about $ 873 million, and public school spending was about $ 8.3 thousand per student. About 88.7% of the state’s residents over the age of 25 have a high school diploma. Delaware’s first library was founded in 1754, in Wilmington. Currently, the state has 57 public library systems, which annually move an average of 5.8 books per resident. Delaware’s first institution of higher education was the present-day Newark College University of Delaware, founded in 1833, in Newark.

Curiosities

  • Delaware is known as the first state, because it was the first of the original 13 colonies to ratify the Constitution of the United States. The Legislative Assembly, pictured, is in Dover, the state capital since 1777.
  • Most of the residents of Delaware (USA), especially those in the northern part of the state, live in urban areas. According to CountryAAH.com, Wilmington is the largest city in Delaware. It was developed as an important industrial and navigation center of the Delaware River.

Delaware Overview