Category: Asia

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Damascus, Syria

Damascus, Syria

According to abbreviationfinder, Damascus is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic. At six thousand years old, it is one of the oldest cities in the world and is a bustling mix of cultures and eras. It is lavish in markets, monuments and mosques. A lot of history passed through Damascus, a city that, in addition, was for centuries an obligatory point of resupply and rest for the caravans of twenty thousand people and ten thousand camels that were on their way to the sacred Mecca ; there was still a month to go in the desert.

Between the mountains of the Anti – Lebanon and the desert of Syria, Damascus upward in the oasis of Ghouta, on a branch of the land route of silk. Here Venetians and Genoese came to meet the caravans.


The city began to be inhabited around 3000 BC. n. and., which is why it is recognized as one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, along with

  • Belgrade (Serbia), from 5200 a. n. and.
  • Byblos (Lebanon), from 5000 BC n. and.
  • Susa (Iran), from 4400 a. n. and.
  • Aleppo (Syria), from 4300 a. n. and.
  • Luxor (Egypt), from 3200 a. n. and. and
  • Jericho (Palestine) from 3000 BC. n. and.

It went through various golden ages: in the 7th century, for example, when it ceased to be in the hands of Eastern Rome, Byzantium, and became the seat of a Muslim empire.

In 1078 entrusted by Sultan Malik Shah I to his brother Tutush I, who then conquered Aleppo and proclaimed himself Sultan of Syria. Upon his death, his emirates were divided between his two sons. This was followed by the rivalry between the two emirates that continued for a long time until the extinction of the descendants of Tutush I.

For a long period Damascus preferred to ally itself with the Kingdom of Jerusalem against Zengi, but the armies of the Second Crusade besieged it, and Unar, the emir of Damascus requested help from Nur al-Din and Sayf al-Din, sons of Zengi, who they got the crusaders to lift the siege. After the death of Nur al-Din it fell under the control of Saladin. After his death, the emirate of Damascus was sometimes linked to Egypt, and was finally destroyed by the Mongols.

It had another golden age in the 13th century, although already a hundred years before, when Jerusalem fell to the crusaders, the city had been transformed into a site of Islamic resistance against the attacks of the “army of God”. The Mongols and the Mamluks passed by and in the 18th century, already in the hands of the Turks of the Ottoman Empire, it regained its brightness that had dimmed a bit. The Old City of Damascus was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979. It occupies an area of 135 hectares, and was surrounded by a Roman wall, of which the north and east sides remain, and part of the south side. Eight gates are preserved, of which the oldest, Bab Sharqi, dates back to the Roman period.

Although the city still preserves Roman and Byzantine vestiges, most of the 125 buildings and monuments included in the UNESCO declaration correspond to Islamic art.

Urban morphology

A fortified wall, with its gates, surrounds the old city that has maintained, since the Umayyad era, its Islamic character, preserving at the same time Roman and Byzantine traces (streets oriented towards the cardinal points).

Covered markets, caravanserai, palaces, minarets and domes bear witness to the Islamic character of the old city. Among its many monuments, the Great Mosque, in which the main stages of Damascus history are inscribed, remains a prominent pilgrimage site and one of the holiest sites in Islam. Its architectural plan influenced those of several other mosques in Syria (Aleppo and Hama), in Turkey (Diyar Bakr), in Spain (Córdoba) and elsewhere.

Current population

Damascus has 4,700,000 residents (2007). 75% are Sunni Muslim, 15% of the population is Christian (from various churches), and the remaining 10% is subdivided into Muslim Alawis, Druze and Shiites. See population of Syria.


In general, Damascus is divided into two parts: the new city, with its modern buildings and promenades, and the old city, where the attractions of this 6,000-year-old capital are grouped, which is already mentioned in texts from four years ago. millennia and a half.


Syria has a Mediterranean climate with hot, arid summer and mild, rainy winter. The climate becomes more arid and hostile towards the interior of the country. On the coast, the average temperatures in July are 29 ° C, and in January 10 °. In the steppes, where most cities are located, temperatures are around 35 ° in the summer and 12 ° in the winter, while in the desert the temperature can reach up to 46 °. In the whole country there is not much rain, and it is concentrated on the coast.

Damascus, Syria

Dushanbe, Tajikistan

Dushanbe, Tajikistan

According to abbreviationfinder, Dushanbe is the most populous city in Tajikistan as well as the capital of the country. Nowadays it is a safe city if it is contrasted with previous decades, it is also the seat of the government and its most important commercial center. It has just over 700,000 residents, with a high population density.

Dushanbe is a clean European-style city that has recovered from the damage caused by the civil war of the 1990s, becoming a booming capital and cultural center. Little known for tourism, it is a green, quiet and pleasant city with neoclassical architecture, museums, cafes, markets and monuments, as well as an opera and ballet theater, surrounded by impressive mountainous areas good for activities such as hiking, climbing and horse riding.


Although the history of Dushanbe dates back to the 5th century BC, the city was a small town until about eight decades ago.

The town was formed by the union of three towns, the largest of which was named Diushanbe, the city was renamed Stalinabad, in honor of Iósif Stalin. It became the capital of the Tajik Soviet Autonomous Republic in 1924. After the triumph of the Red Army and the arrival of the railway in 1929, the town became the capital of the Tajikistan Soviet Socialist Republic. The Soviets turned it into a cotton and silk production center, and welcomed thousands of people from other republics of the Soviet Union into the city. The city regained its old name in 1961, during the Khrushchev era The population grew because of the thousands of ethnic Tajiks who migrated to Tajikistan after the integration of Bukhara and Samarkand into the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. At the time of the Soviet Union, Dushanbe was a quiet and prosperous city.

There were some riots in the 1990s as plans to shelter tens of thousands of Armenians were revealed, triggering local nationalist sentiment. During the clashes that followed, twenty-two people were killed.

As a result of the Tajik civil war, which developed after independence, between 1992 and 1997, the city was seriously deteriorated. During that period the situation was very confusing.



The Hissor Mountains offer various attractions and activities, including the 13th century Hissar Fort, 10 kilometers from the city and the beautiful Varzob hill station just five kilometers from Dushanbe. The tallest dam in the world is near Dushanbe: The Nurek Dam on the Vaksh River is 300 meters high and produces most of Tajikistan’s electricity, while also offering great views. Hiking around Dushanbe is a popular activity, with several routes to choose from, and climbing can be done at Fansky Gory, northwest of Dushanbe. Horseback riding and mountain bike tours are a popular way to see the stunning mountain areas around Dushanbe.


The city is located in the foothills of the Hissar Mountains, above the Kafimigan Valley in western Tajikistan.


Dushanbe has a continental climate with hot, dry summers and cold, snowy winters. There are important variations in temperatures according to altitude, and the mountain areas around the city have more extreme climatic conditions than in the city. Spring and summer are good times to visit Dushanbe. The city receives a lot of rain, most of it usually during the spring.


Dushanbe is a political, scientific, industrial, historical and cultural center. The city houses the Presidential Palace, Parliament, all ministries and institutions, embassies, as well as the offices of commercial banks, large corporations and humanitarian organizations.

Administrative division

The city of Dushanbe is made up of five districts:

  • Frunzensky I
  • Frunzensky II
  • Ismoila Somoni
  • Zheleznodorozhny
  • Center


The city is inhabited mainly by Tajiks, but there are also many minority groups living in Dushanbe, including Uzbeks and Russians. Tajik is the official language, but Russian is widely used in business and government offices. See population of Tajikistan.


The city is important in textile production, especially cotton, although it also manufactures silk, machinery, household appliances, leather goods, tractor components, and food products. In the vicinity of Dushanbe there are some coal, lead, and arsenic mines. Lately drug trafficking has reached a great boom in the city’s economy.


Dushanbe is not a very touristy town but it has a good range of things to see, and the surrounding mountain areas are excellent for many activities such as hiking, climbing and horse riding.

The main points of interest in Dushanbe are located near the main avenue, Prospekt Rudaki. Among them are the Ismael Somoni Monument, a statue of a historical leader with a golden crown, the Haji Yacob Mosque and a Russian Orthodox church, as well as a 19th century synagogue. The Unity Palace, also called Vahdat Palaces, is a congress center and the headquarters of the People’s Democratic Party.


You can travel to Dushanbe by air, rail or road. The city has an international airport with flights to Dushanbe, mainly from Russia and Asia. You can also travel to Dushanbe by train from Moscow. There are also trains to Dushanbe from neighboring Uzbekistan. There are minibuses and cars to Dushanbe from Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as from other parts of Tajikistan. However, Dushanbe’s mountain roads are closed in winter. There are domestic flights to Dushanbe from Khojandand Khorog.

Local public transport is mainly run by buses. In Dushanbe there are also taxis. Renting a car in Dushanbe with a local driver is a good option. You can rent a car in Dushanbe from tourist agencies. The city lacks street names, so driving can be difficult at times.

Art and culture

Dushanbe has many interesting museums, such as the National Museum of Antiquities, the Ethnographic Museum and the Unified Museum of Tajikistan, a national museum with, for example, exhibits on natural history. There is also a modern Opera and Ballet Theater in Dushanbe, as well as several art studios and many interesting and cheap markets. The Victory Park offers good views of the city, and has botanical gardens and a zoo.

Places of interest

  • Haji Yakoub Mosque
  • Ethnography Museum
  • Unified Tajik Museum
  • Old Synagogue of Dushanbe

Dushanbe, Tajikistan

Bangkok, Thailand

Bangkok, Thailand

According to abbreviationfinder, Bangkok is the capital and most populous city in Thailand and the third in Southeast Asia, only preceded by Jakarta and Manila. It is also considered as the political, social and economic center not only of Thailand and but of the Indochinapeninsula. The city is located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River and has a population of 6,355,144 residents while the Greater Bangkok area has 11,971,000 residents (according to the 2008 census).

The full ceremonial name of Bangkok is Krungthepmahanakhon Amonrattanakosin Mahintharayutthaya Mahadilokphop Noppharatratchathaniburirom Udomratchaniwetmahasathan Amonphimanawatansathit Sakkathattiyawitsanukamprasit, which means’ City of angels, the great gem of the eternal city, the beautiful capital city of the undiminished gems, the magnificent city of the undying world, the magnificent city of the eternal precious jewel, the happy city, which abounds in a colossal Royal Palace that resembles the divine abode where the reincarnated gods reign, a city offered by Indra and built by Vishnukam ‘. To facilitate conversations, the locals refer to him as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon.

In recent years, the city’s influence on art, politics, fashion, education, sports and entertainment, as well as the strong foray into the business world, has given Bangkok the status of a global city. . Bangkok is not really the name of the capital, although it is the one used universally as it was its ancient name and it is perpetual to this day. This name means “wild plum village” which in turn comes from the name of a part of the west side of the Chao Phraya River called Thon Buri. In Thaithe city is known as Krung Thep Mahanakhon which means “the city of angels”. Bangkok is subdivided into 50 districts called khet or amphoe.


Bangkok is located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River, exactly located between the coordinates 13 ° 45′08 ″ N 100 ° 29′38 ″ E. Bangkok’s Special Administrative Area covers 1,568.7 km 2, making it the 68th largest province in Thailand. Most of this area is occupied by the city of Bangkok, making it one of the largest cities in the world.

The relief of Bangkok and its surroundings is predominantly flat and its main landform is the Chao Phraya River, which covers 372 km and empties into Bangkok Bay.

The city is about two meters above sea level, which causes flooding during the monsoon season. It is common that after a downpour, the water in the canals and the river flood part of the city, sometimes causing it to provoke, for which reason more dams have recently been installed next to some canals to prevent the water levels from reaching the urban level.

It is said that because the city is built on a swamp it sinks an average of two centimeters a year.


Bangkok’s climate is classified as dry tropical. The highest temperature recorded in the city was 40 ° C in May 1983, while the lowest recorded occurred in January 1955, when it was recorded 9.9 ° C.

The coldest daytime temperature was 19.9 ° C in December 1992.

In 1997 was the hottest year in Bangkok in which an average temperature of 30 ° C and the cooler was registered 1975 with an average temperature of 26.3 ° C.


The city has a population of 6,355,144 residents while the Greater Bangkok area has 11,971,000 residents (according to the January 2008 census) and has gone from being a homogeneous Thai population to a mixture of people of other nationalities that include Westerners., which gives the city a cosmopolitan status. Among the most significant immigrant groups are those from India and China. See population of Thailand.


The city of Bangkok is the economic center of all Thailand and the country’s Stock Exchange is located there. Among its main sources of income is tourism and among the main exports are processed food, wood, and textiles. The city has excellent industrial plants including mills rice mills, cement, lumber mills, refineries oil and shipyards.

We must also emphasize that the city is a famous jewelry center, especially in relation to the purchase and sale of silver and bronze pieces and the Chao Phraya River allows Bangkok to function as a port.

Education and culture

The educational and cultural facilities of Bangkok include several universities such as the University of Bangkok, the Asian Institute of Technology, the Bangkok Thonburi College, the SAE Institute Bangkok, among others, it also includes an academy of fine arts, a national theater and a national museum..

The city has many Buddhist temples, known in Thai as Wats, among the best known are Wat Pho and Wat Arun.

The seal of the city is based on a painting made by Somdej Chaofa Kromphraya Narisra-nuwattiwong and shows the god Indra who rides in the clouds on Erawan (Airavata), which is a mythological creature in the shape of an elephant often represented with three heads. . In his hand Indra holds a lightning bolt as a weapon to ward off drought. The tree symbol of Bangkok is the ficus benjamina.

Bangkok, Thailand

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan

According to abbreviationfinder, Ashgabat is the capital and the main economic center of Turkmenistan. It is located in the Karakum desert, in an oasis, next to the Kopet Dag Mountains, near the border with Iran. Its population is approximately 1,031,992 residents in 2008.


Ashgabat is in a certain way a young city, in its beginnings it was a village founded in 1818 with the same name and from which it developed. It is located near the original site of Nisa, the old capital of the Parthians, and the ruins of the city of Konjikala on the Silk Road, which was razed by the Mongols.

The Russian army built a fort on an elevation near the village in 1869, which attracted many merchants and artisans to the area, due to the security provided by the military presence. In 1884. Russia annexed the region, and dedicated itself to developing the city as a commercial nucleus due to its proximity to the territory of Persia, which was under British influence. The city was considered at that time as a modern and elegant city, with many shops, hotels, and European-style buildings.

After Soviet control in 1917 the city was renamed Poltoratsk, in honor of a local revolutionary. The name of Ashgabat, in Russian “Ashjabad”, was restored in 1927. At this point, the city began a dizzying growth and industrialization launched by the Soviet government, which was stopped on October 6, 1948 by a strong earthquake measuring 9 on the Richter scale. It is estimated that the disaster killed more than 110,000 people (2/3 of the city’s total population).

In 1991, Turkmenistan proclaimed its independence, and Ashgabat became the national capital of the new state.



It is located in the Karakum desert, in an oasis, next to the Kopet Dag Mountains, near the border with Iran.


It has an arid climate, summers are hot and dry and winters are mild and short. The average temperature in July is 38.2 ° C. and the highest recorded is 54 ° C. It rarely snows. Annual Rainfall is only 227 millimeters (8.94 inches), the wettest months are March and April.


It has a population of approximately 950,000 residents. Which is mostly Sunni Muslim. There are also Christians of Russian and Armenian origin. See population of Turkmenistan.


The city of Ashgabat is the main commercial and financial center of Turkmenistan. The main lines of the city’s economy are the production of textiles, cotton and the metallurgical industry.


The city has an airport, Ashgabat Airport, and has a network of trolley buses. At the beginning of 2013, President Gurganbulí Berdimujammédov reported on the construction in the capital of a new international airport that would be available by 2016

Art and culture

Places of interest

The earthquakes destroyed most of the old city, essentially the one in 1948. Therefore, the city of Ashgabat does not have the eastern old town that other cities in the region have.

Various art and history museums can be distinguished in the city. It also highlights its famous botanical garden, as well as some modern mosques.



The people of Turkmenistan have traditionally been mostly nomadic horse herders, and even today, after the fall of the Soviet Union, the attempts of urbanization of the Turkmen have not been very successful. They had never really formed a cohesive nation or ethnic group, until they were forced into it by Josef Stalin in the 1930s. Yet they are still divided into clans, and each clan has its own dialect and its own distinctive dress. Turkmens are known for the manufacture of Yomut rugs. These are very elaborate and colorful fabrics, which also serve as a distinction between clans. Turkmens are Sunni Muslims, but like most nomadic regions, they combined the doctrines of Islam with spiritual practices from the pre-Islamist period. As a consequence, they do not have the concept of religious militancy. A Turkmen can be easily identified by the traditional telpek hat, made from sheepskin, black and large. Also included in traditional garments are baggy pants, knee-high boots, and cotton coats.


The two main economic resources of Turkmenistan are cotton (it became the 10th largest producer in the world) and hydrocarbons. The country has significant oil and gas reserves, which provide a growing portion of its income as prices rise and desertification reduces cotton production. Despite the fact that Turkmenistan was one of the countries of the Euro-Asian zone of the former USSR that suffered the least from the economic consequences of the disintegration, the difficult relations with the former Soviet republics have even led to the boycott of its exports, especially by of Ukraine and growing debts of several of its neighbors who buy hydrocarbons from it.

During the Nyýazow presidency, a large part of the profits obtained were used for the beautification programs of the capital and worship of the president, without significant parts of the country’s population having benefited. In 2004, the unemployment rate was around 60%, and a similar percentage of the population lived under the poverty line according to 2003 statistics. According to a decree of August 14, 2003, water, gas, electricity and salt must be provided by the government.

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Abu Dhabi, in Arabic language: أبوظبي ʼAbū Ẓabī, literally ‘Father of gazelles’ is the capital of the homonymous emirate, as well as the capital and second most populous city of the United Arab Emirates.


According to abbreviationfinder, Abu Dhabi owns 9% of all the world’s oil reserves (98.2 billion barrels) and almost 5% of the world’s natural gas consumption (5.8 trillion cubic meters), the great hydrocarbon wealth of the The United Arab Emirates (UAE) gives it one of the highest GDP per capitas in the world. Abu Dhabi owns the majority of these resources (95% oil and 92% gas). National Oil Company of Abu Dhabi National Oil Company said in August of 2006 that the UAE is willing to expand crude oil production to 2.8 million barrels per day (bpd) and one of its production goal is empulsar barrels per day up to 4 million for 2010. See population of United Arab Emirates.

Recently the government has promoted the diversification of the economy, driven by rising oil prices, however the non-oil and gas sectors of GDP today constitute 64% of the UAE’s total GDP. This trend is reflected in Abu Dhabi with substantial new investment in industry, real estate, tourism and retail. Abu Dhabi is the Emirates’ largest oil producer, reaping most of the benefits from this trend. It has carried out a liberalization and diversification program to reduce the emirate’s dependence on the hydrocarbon sector. This is evident in the emphasis on industrial diversification with the realization of an industrial free zone known as the Abu Dhabi Industrial City and the construction of another, ICAD II, in another sector. There has also been a campaign to promote the tourism and real estate sectors with the Abu Dhabi Tourism Authority and the state Investment Development Company developing several large-scale projects.

These projects will be complemented with an improvement in transport infrastructures, with a new port, the expansion of the airport and a railway link project between Abu Dhabi and Dubai, all of which are in development phases.

Abu Dhabi is the richest emirate in the United Arab Emirates in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and per capita income. GDP per capita reached $ 63,000, which is well above the average income of the United Arab Emirates and ranks third in the world after Luxembourg and Norway. Abu Dhabi also plans many shared future projects with the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Persian Gulf (CCG), The United Arab Emirates is a rapidly growing economy: in 2006 per capita income grew by 9%, had GDP per capita of $ 49,700 and ranked third in the world in purchasing power parity. Abu Dhabi plays an important role in the world economy. Abu Dhabi’s sovereign wealth fund, the Abu Dhabi Investment Authority (ADIA), is currently estimated at $ 875 million, the richest of the world’s sovereign wealth funds, in terms of total asset value, Etihad Airways maintains its headquarters in Abu Dhabi.


Any rail transport system in the Middle East is a luxury since it only exists on plans commissioned by their governments. Dubai, the first city to have one, is in it to inaugurate it, hopefully.
Those of Abu Dhabi decided that they could too and more: a complete public transport plan, the Abu Dhabi Plan 2030, ambitions a metro system, a regional railway, trams, a ferry link to Dubai, and three personal rapid transit zones.

This new personal transporter will be one of the vehicles that will circulate as rapid transport on specially constructed guides. It’s great!


Today Abu Dhabi generates 15% of the GDP of the United Arab Emirates and that has a lot to do with the great diversification in its economy in recent years, making a large investment in what is the tourism sector that has really had very good results, since today this city is visited by thousands of tourists who come from all over the world to stay in its hotels, as well as the attractions that are throughout the city.

The capital of the emirate continues to grow and the evidence of this is that many large-scale projects are currently being built at a millionaire cost. Thanks to its great urban development in recent years they have made this city one of the most expensive in the world where they have with them the construction of the most expensive hotel in the world called the ¨Emirati Palace ¨, which had a cost of about 3 Billion dollars, this and many more tourist destinations you can find in this wonderful eastern city full of culture and tradition with a futuristic touch.

In Abu Dhabi, a world of modern wonders awaits you, with the highest quality of services that you can imagine in its different hotels and tourist attractions.

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Tashkent, Uzbekistan

According to abbreviationfinder, Tashkent is a city in eastern Uzbekistan, capital of the country and the oblast (region) of the same name. It is located in an oasis near the Chirchik River. For centuries the location of the city along the western front of the Tian Shan Mountains made it a link between Asia and Europe. Today, its strategic location has helped it to become the largest transportation and industrial center in Central and South-West Asia. It has a population of about 2,142,700.


Tashkent is located at coordinates 41 ° 18′N 69 ° 16′E in a plain west of the Altai Mountains, on the road between Shymkent and Samarkand, in the extreme east of the country, next to the border with Kazakhstan, and very close to the Ferganá valley and Kyrgyzstan. It is located at the confluence of the Chirchik River and several of its tributaries and is based on deep alluvial deposits up to 15 meters. The city is located in an active tectonic zone suffering a great number of tremors and some earthquakes. An earthquake in 1966 measured 7.5 on the Richter scale.


Tashkent has a continental Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa) 12 very close to its own continental climate (Köppen: Dsa) .12 As a result, Tashkent experiences cold winters and long, hot and dry summers. Winters cover the months of December, January and February. Most of the rainfall occurs during these months (it often falls as snow). However, the snow cover tends to be relatively brief as the city frequently experiences warm spells during winter. The city experiences two high points of precipitation, in early winter and in spring.

The pattern of rainfall is slightly unusual, partly due to its 500 m altitude. The summers are long, usually lasting from May to September. Tashkent can be extremely hot during the months of July and August. The city also has very little rainfall during the summer, from June to September.


Today Tashkent’s economy is based mainly on the manufacture of agricultural equipment and cotton garments. The city is still considered the economic center of this resource-rich region.

Social development


In Tashkent there is the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, therefore the city has a great institutional influence on Uzbek sciences. There are a variety of colleges or universities of higher education:

  • National University of Uzbekistan
  • State Technical University (Tashkent Province)
  • Tashkent State Medical University
  • Tashkent State Pediatric University
  • Tashkent Institute of Architecture and Construction
  • Tashkent Institute of Motor Racing and Road Construction
  • International Business School (Kelajak Ilmi)
  • Tashkent University of Information Technology
  • Westminster International University of Tashkent
  • University of International Economics and Diplomacy
  • State University of Economics
  • Tashkent State Law Institute
  • Tashkent Institute of Finance
  • State University of World Languages
  • Tashkent Conservatory of Music
  • Tashkent Institute of Oriental Studies
  • Islamic University of Tashkent
  • Tashkent Institute of Singaporean Development Techniques
  • Tashkent Institute of Textile and Light Industry
  • Tashkent Institute of Railway Engineering


This capital has always been characterized as the largest commercial meeting point and development of Uzbekistan, so the traveler will find an advanced city of large buildings, subways, fine and luxurious hotels, beautiful parks, etc…. but little in the way to the historical past of the city, since most of its architecture was destroyed by a huge earthquake in 1966.

To discover the historical richness of Tashken, Viajejet recommends you visit the Kukeldash Madrasah dating from the 16th century, which today has been restored as a museum, then the huge mausoleum of Kaffali Shash. It is also worth visiting several of Tashkent’s museums that guard art and valuables of the ancient Uzbek culture with great suspicion, such as the State Museum of Art, which has a large collection of art, paintings, ceramics and jewelry.

Among the most famous works of art in the capital is the impressive historical figure of Amir Timur, known as Tamerlane in the West. The ancient buildings of Tashkent are located towards the west side of the center, where ancient corridors make their way until they meet the modern capital of Tashkent.


In Tashkent, the most important football teams in the capital are FC Pakhtakor Tashkent, Lokomotiv Tashkent and FC Bunyodkor. All three clubs compete in the Uzbekistan Soccer League, the country’s top division. In addition, the city is home to the headquarters of the Uzbekistan Football Federation, as well as the Pakhtakor Markaziy Stadium, the stadium of the national team and the Pakhtakor.

Tashkent is known worldwide because a WTA tennis tournament (Tashkent Tournament) has been held here in September since 1999.

Among the city’s sports personalities, the famous cyclist Djamolidine Abdoujaparov, tennis player Denis Istomin and footballer Vassilis Hatzipanagis, born in the city, stand out. Gymnast Alina Kabáyeva was also born in Tashkent.


In 1983 the population of Tashkent was 1,902,000 people, in an area of 256 km². In 1991 the number of permanent residents of the capital was 2 136 600 residents. The city was the fourth most populous city in the USSR (after Moscow, Leningrad(Saint Petersburg) and Kiev. Today Tashkent maintains the status of the fourth city in population among the CIS countries and the Baltic. See population of Uzbekistan.

The resident population in Tashkent on 1 January 2012 amounted to 2 309 300 people (there are unofficial estimates, taking into account temporary migrants from 3.0 to 4.2 million people), of which as of 2008, the 63.0% are Uzbeks, 20.0% Russian, 4.5% Tatar, 2.2% Korean, 2.1% Tajik, 1.2% Uighur, and 7.0% other nationalities.19

The Tashkent agglomeration includes towns within a 60-70 km radius, also including 15 cities and 637 rural settlements. The total area is 6400 km².20 The population of the agglomeration is estimated at approximately 3 million people in 2001.

Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Hanoi, Vietnam

Hanoi, Vietnam

According to abbreviationfinder, Hanoi is the capital city of Vietnam. Located on the banks of the Red River. During the period that the Han dynasty was in power, the city was the administrative center of China under the colonial system that that country established in the region. It is the economic nucleus of Vietnam and despite the fact that it only has 3.6% of the country’s population and 0.3 percent of the national territory, it contributes more than 8% of GDP and 45 percent of the national economy..

Hanoi is located on the right bank of the Red River, specifically between the coordinates: 21 ° 2′0 ″ N 105 ° 51′0 ″ E at about 308 masl (meters above sea level), occupying an area of 921 km², according to the 2005 census. The city has an estimated population of 3,145,300 residents. Between 1954 and 1976 it was the capital of North Vietnam.


During the period that the Han dynasty was in power, the city was the administrative center of China under the colonial system that this country established in the region. In 1873, when the city was occupied by the French, the city was influenced by Western culture, which brought with it a Western-style urban transformation and by 1887 Hanoi had become the capital of French Indochina.

In 1940 the famous city was occupied by the Japanese but just five years later it was liberated by China, after which it became the seat of the Vietnamese government.

Between 1946 and 1954, the attacks to reconquer the important city took off again, which is why Hanoi was again involved in a great battle against the French who tried to regain control of this country by taking control of the strategic capital, but were defeated by the Vietnamese from which the city became the capital of North Vietnam.

The 2 of July of 1976 after culminating the famous Vietnam War, came the reunification of Vietnam in the north and Vietnam in the South and Hanoi became the capital of the nascent state, which was rebuilt due to disasters left by the war, especially those suffered by the bombings that destroyed its bridges and railways that had left the great Asian city practically isolated.


The city is located on the right bank of the famous Red River, between the coordinates: 21 ° 2′0 ″ N 105 ° 51′0 ″ E at about 308 masl (meters above sea level) and occupying an area of 921 km².


It has a climate where the summers are hot and humid and the winters are relatively cool and dry, which is typical of the north of the country.


Most of the year’s rainfall occurs in the summer months, covering the months from May to September, although some rains can be recorded in the spring. The average annual rainfall is 1,682 ° mm. See population of Vietnam.


The winter months are relatively dry and cover the stage between the months of November and March. The minimum temperature in winter in Hanoi can drop to 6–7 ° C, while in summer it can reach 38 – 40 ° C.


Hanoi is an important metropolitan area in northern Vietnam that has 3,145,300 residents according to the 2005 census. It is a great city that is in constant growth and constant changes and its population is a faithful reflection of this.

It is said that by nature Hanoians are people of great discipline, cordiality, kindness, modesty, culture and education among many other values, which, it is said, is a reflection of the past when many of the talents in the arts arose and were grouped in it. and education of the country, as well as of the system strongly entrenched in Confucian values where modesty and consideration of others had more priority than their own.


Hanoi is the economic nucleus of Vietnam and although it only has 3.6% of the country’s population and 0.3 percent of the national territory, it contributes more than 8% of the GDP and 45 percent of the economy. national.

Since 1990, the city has experienced accelerated growth in its economy, clearly reflected in the rapid increase in industrial production, which for 2003 registered an average annual growth of over 20.9%. In this economic activity, the city has more than eight industrial parks and many others that are in the completion phase.

The branch of commerce is another sector that has taken on a lot of growth in the city, which is expressed in the more than 2,000 businesses that Hanoi had already involved in foreign trade by 2003 and the establishment of relations with more than 161 countries and territories.

The non-governmental economic sector is also rapidly expanding, with more than 25,000 businesses operating under the Business Law.

Exports have grown extraordinarily and major changes in the economic structure have yielded excellent results, notably the extraordinary leaps in the sphere of tourism, finance and the banking sector, all of which together place Hanoi as the city. with the highest human development index among cities in Vietnam.


The city is divided into nine inner and five outer districts. The nine interiors are:

  • Ba Đình
  • Cầu Giấy
  • Đống Đa
  • Hoàn Kiếm
  • Hai Bà Trưng
  • Hoàng Mai
  • Long Well
  • Tây Hồ
  • Thanh Xuân

The five exteriors are:

  • Đông Anh
  • Gia Lâm
  • Từ Liêm
  • Thanh Trì
  • Sóc Sơn

Hanoi, Vietnam

Sanaa, Yemen

Sanaa, Yemen

According to abbreviationfinder, Sanaa is the capital of Yemen and together with Aden the most important city in the country. It is located in the province that bears the same name in the west of the country. The city is divided into two sectors. The eastern one, in which the mosques and markets are located, and the western one that is residential. The old part of Sanaa is a world heritage site and is a highly recommended place for visitors.


It was from the 4th century on when the city of Sanaa began to be taken into consideration since at this time it became part of the Himyari kingdom. In the year 632 it was occupied by the Muslim caliphate as well as the cities in the area.

From 1870 it was the Ottoman Empire that took control of the city. After the defeat of the Turks in World War I and with an independent Yemen, Sanaa was the capital of the country for the first time.

The civil war that took place in the country fractured the state in two. On the one hand there were the republicans supported by Egypt and on the other the followers of the imam who were helped by Saudi Arabia. In 1967 the war ended by agreeing to divide the country into two states. One would be in the south, the People’s Republic of Yemen with its capital in Aden and the other in the north, the Arab Republic of Yemen with its capital in Sanaa.

In 1990 reunification took place again and Sanaa was chosen as the capital of the Republic of Yemen. However 4 years later a civil war broke out again due to power conflicts. The northern side was victorious a year later.


Sanaa is the capital of the Republic of Yemen. It is located in the west of the country on a plateau located northwest of the port of Hodeida. A few kilometers from the city we find the highest peak in Yemen, Jaban al-Nabi Shu`ayb, which reaches 3,700 meters above sea level. The capital is located at 2,250 meters of altitude.


As the main natural site in the area, we find the slopes of Jaban al-Nabi Shu`ayb, the highest peak in the country and which is very close to Sanaa. In addition, in this area of the country, the vegetation is more abundant. We found many forests and some tropical plants.


Sanaa is the capital of Yemen and together with Aden the most important city in the country. It is located in the province that bears the same name in the west of the country.

The city is divided into two sectors. The eastern one, in which the mosques and markets are located, and the western one that is residential. Both are connected by the palace of the former rulers of Yemen.


We find a very warm, almost tropical climate in the area, although due to the altitude the temperatures are somewhat more moderate. It is usually quite dry with desert tints. The rainy period is found from March and April and from July to September.

In some areas, they have exceeded 50 ºC.


Of the more than one and a half million residents that populate the city, the largest ethnic group that exists is the Arab. However, there are also South Asians, Afro-Arabs and even some Europeans. See population of Yemen.

The official language is Arabic and the religion Islam, although they are divided almost evenly between Sunnis and Shiites, with the balance partly tilted towards the former.

Economic development

The oil industry is undoubtedly the great engine of the country both oil crude and refined. In addition to this, the factories of fabrics and fabrics also have a vital importance.

As far as agriculture is concerned, coffee, cotton, legumes or gat, a light narcotic, are grown. Livestock is varied, finding mostly goats, sheep and camels.

Among the natural resources, in addition to oil, we find marble, coal, lead and nickel among other materials.


The old part of Sanaa is a world heritage site and is a highly recommended place for tourists to see the architectural style that is typical of Yemen as are tower-style houses with multiple floors. Within this part of the city, it is advisable to visit the market or souk al-Milh, which is recognized by many as the best on the Peninsula where it is located. This part of the city has been inhabited for more than 2,500 years, so there are real architectural gems there. In addition to the multi-storey houses there are more than a hundred mosques, twelve baths and 6,500 houses, which are decorated with elaborate friezes and window frames that have quite intricate carvings, filled with stained glass. Mosques are very visited places. The Great Mosque or al-Jami al-Kabir stands out above all, although there are also other very showy ones such as that of Salah ad-Din or that of al-Aquil.



Curved daggers or also called jambias are the most demanded artisan element in Sanaa. Along with them, silver jewels are also pursued by tourists.

In addition to this, fossils, beads, ancient coins and in general all kinds of antiquities related to the history of the city of Yemen can be found in the different markets of the capital.


The rice, the meat, the fish and vegetables cooked form the basis of gastronomy of the city.

One of the most internationally known dishes but which is still in the background there is the kebab. For this oak, a meat stew with beans, lentils, peas and spices is consumed more than is called salta.

The lentil soup and the lamb soup are also among his favorite dishes. Like bint al shan, a typical Yemeni dessert.

A custom that is not widespread throughout the country since it has fallen into disuse is that of eating with your fingers and with only a little bread.

Holidays and traditions

In recent years the country has undergone considerable evolution and some of the most deeply rooted traditions are being anchored in the past. One of them is purdah, the obligation for women to be covered, which is gradually being eliminated and more and more people can go out without this sword of Damocles on them.

The country’s religious holidays are Eid al-Fitr, the end of Ramadan, Eid al-Adha, the pilgrimage, and Lailat al-Miraj, the Ascension of the Prophet.

In addition to these, a multitude of political commemorations are held throughout the year:

  • On May 22, the National Unity Day.
  • On September 26, the Day of the Revolution.
  • On October 14, the National Day.
  • On November 30, the Independence

Places of interest

One of the main attractions of the city are its houses built following the traditional style of the country. It is easy to find houses around Sanaa that are more than 400 years old.

Another great attraction that the city has are its mosques where the Great Mosque stands out, also called al-Jami al-Kabir that has an important artistic wealth or that of al-Aquil, a fairly small building but which is culminated by very eye-catching that guard the market or souk al-Milh. Among others we can mention:

  • Al-jami`al-Kabir Great Mosque
  • Al-`Aqil Mosque
  • Qubbat al-Bakiliya Mosque
  • Salah ad-Din Mosque

For Muslims the favorite is the Great Mosque al-jami`al-Kabir. It was built in the year 630, during the life of the prophet Muhammad. Most of the current structures, including the minarets, date from the 12th century. Only Muslims are allowed access.

It is also interesting to visit the Qubbat al-Bakiliya, which is more than 400 years old and the old part of the city where there are small markets with the richest crafts in the area.

Sanaa, Yemen

Russian Revolution

Russian Revolution

Russian Revolution

The Great October Revolution was one of the most relevant and momentous events of the twentieth century, it was a true revolution that shook the world, where the great leading role of Lenin and his Marxist conception that gave rise to the Bolshevik Party stood out.


The October Revolution had as a prelude the armed popular insurrection of 1905, which was defeated by the reactionary tsarist forces, but which did not stop the unwavering desires for change, social welfare and peace that the factory workers and the peasants continued to express in large numbers. the streets and fields of all the Russian geography and that despite the brutal repression this continued to grow until unleashing important violent uprisings of the people against the police and soldiers.

The Russian armed forces demoralized by the Tsar’s inability to face the war, by the loss of territories, by the thousands of troops killed in the war and tormented by the suffering of their families beset by hunger, joined the great uprising that it unleashed. the bourgeois democratic Revolution in February 1917, ousting the Tsarist monarchy led by Emperor Nicholas II, the last representative of the Romanov dynasty that ruled Russia for 300 years from power.

In this first stage of the Revolution, a provisional government chaired by General Kerensky was formed, which initially had the support and expectation of the Russian people who demanded the solution to their serious problems with demands such as: the non-participation of Russia in the First War. World (1914-1918); the elimination of overexploitation of workers with 14- and 18-hour workdays with low wages; hunger and food shortages; for justice and freedom for the peasants who lived in the exploitation and oppression of the landlords and who demanded to have their own land.

This bourgeois democratic revolution did not solve the problems raised. This government continued the war, although the people demanded the speedy signing of the peace, they refused to hand over the land of the landlords to the poor peasants, they refused to satisfy the most prevailing demands of the workers and they also opposed solving the discrimination., the oppression and neglect suffered by hundreds of non-Russian nationalities and kept them devoid of rights.

The government in essence, followed the same policy, preserving the entire tsarist apparatus of oppression in the different localities.


The 25 of October of 1917, [6] the Bolshevik leader Lenin (Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov), led the uprising in Petrograd, the then capital of Russia, against the provisional government of Alexander Kerensky.

The Red Guard, led by the Bolsheviks, seized the main government buildings before launching a final assault on the Winter Palace during the night of November 7-8. The assault, led by Vladimir Antónov-Ovséyenko, was launched at 21:45 after a volley shot from the Aurora cruiser. The palace was taken around two in the morning of the 8th; November 7 would be officially established as the date of the Revolution.


The heroic days of October – as described by the American journalist John Reed – shook the world. A new epoch has opened for humanity. No subsequent event can overshadow the greatness of the Russian Bolsheviks. The 7 of November of 1917was conjugated to the top of the European political intelligentsia with the revolutionary spirit of the Russian working class and the struggle of the peasants for land and rights.

The exploits of 1917 and the years in which Lenin led the process constitute milestones of exemplary and imperishable value in the struggle of the peoples for the conquest of freedom. For years and decades, the communists and the people of the USSR fought colossal battles and made prodigious advances in the economic, social, political, cultural and military fields. In a relatively short historical time, they turned the impoverished and exploited country they inherited into a world power of the first order.

The Russian Revolution was the first to be won by the proletariat, since the French Revolution – bourgeois in character – left intact capitalist private ownership of the means of production as the prevailing economic system. Instead, the Russian Revolution was the tangible proof that the outcasts of the earth needed to be sure that Marx’s dream was not unreal.

The Great October Socialist Revolution opened for Humanity a new era, that of the passage from the theory of scientific socialism to the human practice of socialism.

After the October Revolution

After the victory of the Bolsheviks, according to topschoolsintheusa, Russia suffered a civil war (1918-1922) between the supporters of the Bolshevik revolution (Red Army) and its opponents (White Army), the latter, supported by various foreign powers.

After the triumph of the Red Army, the Soviet Union was established in December 1922 as the union of the Soviet republics of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Transcaucasia.

Founding of the Soviet Union

The 29 of December of 1922 a conference of plenipotentiary delegations of Russia, Transcaucasia, Ukraine and Belarus approved the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and the Declaration of Creation of the USSR, forming the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

These two documents were confirmed by the first Soviet Congress of the USSR and signed by the heads of the delegations Mikhail Kalinin, Mikha Tskhakaya, Mikhail Frunze and Grigory Petrovsky, and Aleksandr Chervyakov respectively on December 30, 1922. On 1 February as as 1924 the USSR was recognized by the British Empire, which at that time was the first world power.

The intensive restructuring of the country’s economy, industry and politics began from the early days of Soviet power in 1917. One of the most prominent advances was the GOELRO plan, which called for a profound restructuring of the Soviet economy based on total electrification. from the country.

The Plan began in 1920, developing over a period of 10 to 15 years. It included the construction of a network of 30 regional power plants, including ten large hydroelectric plants, and the electrification of numerous industrial companies. The Plan became the prototype for the subsequent Five-Year Plan (USSR) practically ending in 1931.

Russian Revolution

Nigeria Main Cities

Nigeria Main Cities

Due to the tense security situation due to the ongoing conflict with Boko Haram, the electoral commission postponed the election date for the presidential and parliamentary elections from February to March 28, 2015. According to eningbo, the presidential elections in Nigeria were won by former military ruler and APC candidate M. Buhari , who is in the The 2003, 2007 and 2011 elections were not able to get through. He received around 54% of the vote. Incumbent G. Jonathan  got around 45% of the vote. In the parliamentary elections held at the same time, the APC won 225 of the 360 ​​seats in the House of Representatives, the PDP won 125 seats. After the new president changed the army command in mid-July 2015 and achieved some military successes with support from Cameroon and Niger, Boko Haram relied even more strongly than before on attacks against civilian targets. In mid-February 2016, Cameroonian soldiers took control of the city of Goshi, which was occupied by Boko Haram, in the state of Borno, and freed around 100 hostages. More than 800 people kidnapped by Boko Haram were released in further military operations in northeastern Nigeria at the end of March. According to its own information, the Nigerian army was able to free another 455 hostages in mid-April 2016. At the end of July 2016, Boko Haram fighters attacked a UN aid convoy in Borno. At least 17,000 people have been killed and 2.5 million displaced since the conflict with Boko Haram began in 2009.

In 2016, the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) movement frequently mobilized demonstrations for the formation of a state in the south-east in the Niger Delta region. There were also acts of sabotage against oil production there. At the beginning of August 2016, the army launched air strikes against secessionist rebels, killing more than 100 people according to their own statements.

In the presidential elections on February 23/24, 2019 incumbent M. Buhari prevailed with 55.6% of the votes, opposition leader A. Abubakar (* 1946) received 41.2% of the votes. The APC was also able to prevail against the PDP in the House of Representatives elected at the same time. The opposition then spoke of electoral fraud.

Port Harcourt

Port Harcourt [p ɔ ː t h ɑ ː kət], capital of the state Rivers, Nigeria, on the eastern edge of the Niger Delta, 2.08 million people; catholic bishopric; two universities (founded in 1975 and 1980) and other colleges; Truck and bicycle assembly plant, aluminum rolling mill, metal processing, tire, petrochemical, canning, cigarette, shoe, cement, glass industry, palm oil, wheat mill, fish processing; nearby oil refineries. Port Harcourt is one of the most important ports in Nigeria (accessible for ocean-going ships), railway terminus, international airport.

Port Harcourt was founded in 1912 as a coal export port and experienced a rapid upswing from 1958 onwards with the development of oil discoveries.


Abuja [ -d ʒ – ], capital of Nigeria, on the Niger, with 2.94 million residents. The city, laid out since 1979, replaced Lagos as the capital in 1991.


Abuja [-d ʒ -], capital of Nigeria, north of the confluence of the Benue in the Niger, 2.94 million residents, as Federal Capital Territory (FCT) 7,315 km 2 and (2016) 2.94 million residents.

University (founded in 1988), several private universities and colleges; Service center with numerous banks, embassies, government and administrative institutions; international Airport.


Abuja shows a modern cityscape loosened up by several parks. The most famous buildings are the National Mosque (opened in 1984) and the National Church (opened in 2005) in the Central District. The cultural center with Millenium Tower (160 m high; under construction since 2006) has not yet been completed for cost reasons. The 400 m high granite rock Aso Rock is located near the Presidential Palace. The 725 m high Zuma Rock northwest of the city is shrouded in mythological legends.

The strong population growth has created several satellite cities in the vicinity of Abuja.


Abuja is a planned city that was deliberately created on the border of the predominantly Islamic north and the predominantly Christian south. It was built from 1979 onwards according to the designs of the Japanese architect and city planner Kenzō Tange; Abuja has been the official capital of the country since December 31, 1991.


Ibadan [ ɪ ː ba ː da ː n ɪ ː ba ː da ː n ɪ bædən], capital of the state Oyo, Nigeria, in the southwest of the country, the center of a cocoa growing region, 196 m above sea level (2016) 3.16 million residents (mainly Yoruba).

Ibadan is a Catholic and Anglican bishopric. As an important educational center, the city has had a university since 1962 (founded as University College in 1948), a polytechnic, agricultural school, Nigerian Academy of Sciences (founded in 1977), International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, national archive, libraries, university museum (Yoruba art). In addition to a varied traditional handicraft, a modern industry was able to develop: car assembly, manufacture of sanitary ware and tiles, cigarettes and canned fruit, processing of cocoa, cotton, palm products, wood and plastics. Ibadan is a trading center and road junction on the Lagos – Kano railway. A regional airport is located west of the city. – Ibadan is a center for contemporary African art.


Lagos, largest city and most important port in Nigeria, on the Gulf of Guinea, with (2016) 13.7 million residents. Lagos is the country’s leading economic and cultural center, has a university, other colleges, and a national library and museum. The influx of people from the interior of the country and the neighboring states has led to a haphazard expansion of the urban area with slums, while modern high-rise buildings made of glass, steel and concrete can be found in the city center. – Lagos was the capital of Nigeria (now Abuja )from 1954–91.


Syria Culture and Traditions

Syria Culture and Traditions


Customs and traditions are linked everywhere in Syria to Islam, orthodox or not, since there are numerous heretical sects. Typical examples of this are the Druze, people of a fierce and warlike nature who live in cubic houses perched on the mountains. The Druze or muwaḥḥidūn (exactly it means monotheists), as they prefer to call themselves, are very jealous of their customs. They are monogamous and maintain a rigid ritual in marriage. The bride-to-be is presented to her fiance by her mother and the girl gives the young man a Syriac dagger (ḥ anǧar) wrapped in a woolen scarf (kuffiye). The sword is the symbol of the protection that the husband owes to the bride, the scarf that of the dedication that the wife offers to the groom. Another Syrian lineage of Muslim origin, just as heretical as that of the Druze, is the nusayrīya or nusayrī lineage also known as the Alawites. The nusayrīya live in cubic houses in the mountains, like the Druze, and practice traditional body modeling rites of ancient origin. Ancient customs are preserved among the nomads of the desert, the Bedouin tribes, proud people who cultivate friendship as a sacred thing. Marriage, as in other realities of the Muslim world, still takes place on the basis of agreements between families which, formally, the daughters can oppose, but which in reality they are forced to accept. “The Bedouin also enjoy a certain freedom; they do not bring the veil and can meet with young people from other families without difficulty. The furnishings of the Bedouin tent are all the richer the higher the class they belong to: carpets, cushions, leather and copper trays. man does not differ much from the female one: long tunic and, on the head, a rectangular piece of cloth held by a silk cord around the forehead. Women use the izar, large brightly colored shawl, white for the poorest. These costumes are still widespread today despite the spread of Western fashion in the cities. The souk (market) is the great exhibition of national craftsmanship: terracotta crockery, fabrics, carpets, scimitars, daggers, rifles and revolvers with handles encrusted with gold and silver and goods of any kind, from food to furniture. Finally, a nod to Syrian cuisine which is essentially based on mutton and rice, cooked in many ways. The most famous dish is the magribi, a variant of Moroccan couscous.


According to Physicscat, the first Syrian approaches to cinema through Turkish domination date back to the 1910s, but only in 1928, with the film The innocent accused., there were the first timid hints of a local production, always left to individual initiative in the following decades, and always regularly frustrated. Very few titles, as many failures, no serious structure to support the tenacious efforts of some pioneers. At the end of the 1950s, on the initiative of the new Ministry of Culture, a beautiful series of informative and illustrative documentaries was made with adequate technical means, while the nucleus of enthusiasts began to expand in the country thanks also to the meritorious work of the critic and essayist Salāh ‘D’ehny, later director of the Arab Cultural Center in Damascus. The revolution of 1963 led to the creation of a general body of cinema, which was faced with imposing and difficult tasks: increasing the number of cinemas also in the countryside, establishing dynamic relationships with the private sector, developing culturally efficient co-productions, building studios, profoundly changing the market (import and distribution). Some results have been seen, such as hospitality to the exiled Egyptian director Tawfiq Salāh for The Victims (1972) and to Lebanese director Borhan Alaouye for Kafr Kassem (1974), both dedicated to the Palestinian drama; the birth of a Syrian director, Nabīl al-Malīh ‘, revealed in one of the three episodes of Men in the Sun (1970), in the film The Leopard (1972) and in the short film Napalm awarded in 1974 in Toulon; the revelation, in the latter location, of a young cinema with artistic ambitions also with the film Al-Yazirly (made by the Iraqi Qays Zubaydi but produced in Syria) and with the feature film Daily life in a Syrian village by Umar Amir’alay, scheduled for the 1976 Pesaro Film Festival. A good reception was given in 1983, at the “Arab film festival” in Paris, to the comedy L’incidente del mezzometro (1982) by Samir Dhikra (director in 1998 also by Torab al-ghoraba – Land for a Foreigner) and, at the 1984 Cannes Film Festival, in I Dreams of the City (1983) by Mohammed Malas. The same author was later awarded in Berlin for Ahlam el Madina (1985), and in 2005 he directed Bab el makam. A further opportunity for promotion and dissemination was provided by the participation of some Syrian directors and documentary makers at the Arab Film Festival (organized in the United States since 1997). Cinema in Syria remains a “not easy” area, due to the more or less latent pressures of the authorities, but among the emerging personalities between the end of the twentieth century and the beginning of the new millennium, Nabil Maleh, director of al – Kompars (1993; The Extras); Abdellatif Abdelhamid, author of Rassaelle Chafahyia (1993; Oral Messages) and Qamarayn wa zaytouna (2001; Two Moons and an Olive Tree); Usāma Muḥammad (b.1954), author of Sunduq al-dunyâ (2002; The Box of Life) and Stars in Broad Daylight (1988), for which he received awards at more than one international festival.

Syria Culture and Traditions

Vietnam Economy Overview

Vietnam Economy Overview

According to thereligionfaqs, Viet Nam is a traditionally agricultural country, like the other states of the Indochinese peninsula; its economic structures before the forced and very long political division presented a substantial unity, linked as they were both to the common matrix of a typically rural world and to the same interventions operated by the colonial regime, even if the French presence had been more marked in the South of Village. The most relevant effects of colonial rule were the introduction of plantation crops (the main ones were those of Hevea, tea, coffee), the construction of roads and railways, the birth of the first industries, the strengthening of extractive activities, the opening of the country to foreign trade: with only partially positive repercussions for the Vietnamese economy. The massive importation of artifacts, especially from France, provoked the crisis of the flourishing local craftsmanship, only partially replaced by the productions of the new industries, the proceeds of which benefited foreign financial groups anyway. On the other hand, the country drew very little profits from plantation agriculture, while there was a widespread decline in food farming. At the same time it was forming, especially in the then Saigon, seat of the French administration, a class of officials openly corrupt and totally subordinate to foreign interests: French first, then Americans. With the division of the country and the establishment of two clearly opposed political regimes, the respective economic structures also underwent radical changes, although in both southern and northern Viet Nam the protracted war of enormous proportions prevented any real development. and conditioned a large part of the production activity to its own needs. In the North, however, from the first years of independence, the foundations were laid for the transformation of the economy in a socialist sense. It concerned above all the agricultural regime, which was subjected to reforms aimed at the elimination of large private property and the creation of state-owned companies and even more so of cooperatives, facilitated by the traditional community spirit of the Vietnamese people. The industrial sector also received considerable impulses, through direct government intervention as regards the major companies, but also indirectly by soliciting the  formation of artisanal cooperatives and small industries subsidized by the state, decentralized and generally not separated from rural life: this as a solution to the problems of industrialization in a country with strong agricultural traditions, a bit like it happened in China in the period of the “great leap forward”.

During the twenty years of division in the South, on the other hand, a line of development was intensively followed industrialization in a country with strong agricultural traditions, a bit like it occurred in China in the period of the “great leap forward”. During the twenty years of division in the South, on the other hand, a line of development was intensively followed industrialization in a country with strong agricultural traditions, a bit like it occurred in China in the period of the “great leap forward”. During the twenty years of division in the South, on the other hand, a line of development was intensively followed capitalistic: an orientation facilitated by the fact, which has already been mentioned, that in this part of the country the colonial presence had operated in a more profound way, arousing a mentality and economic situations more solicited in the Western sense. The war naturally conditioned every subsequent development, both for the US action aimed at creating military infrastructures and for the very serious economic and social imbalances deriving from the war situation; in particular, the flight of the peasant populations towards Saigon contributed to further impoverish the already precarious agriculture, while the city became overstated, creating social classes without a true identification and a true activity. It can be said that in principle the North Vietnamese productive structures, simple and flexible, have held up sufficiently well to tremendous impact of the war, facilitating at the end of the conflict the effort, however powerful, for the rebuilding of the country; on the other hand, southern Viet Nam found itself with a confused economic situation, weighed down by bad governance and corruption, burdened by the phenomenon of the very strong urbanization, while the rural masses, moving to the cities, had by now interrupted all links with the traditional environment of life and work. However, the differentiation between the two sections of the country grew as a result of the new economic policy guidelines introduced since 1986. Once the modest results of forced collectivization had been ascertained, a process of liberalization was in fact initiated aimed at increasing the productivity of a system that appeared to be largely overburdened. from the inefficiency of the nationalized sectors, opening the country to foreign investments, protected by the same new Constitution of 1992 and to a market-oriented socialist economy.

Vietnam Economy Overview

Working and Living in Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Working and Living in Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Work permit, immigration and permanent residence

The work visa fee is AED 200 (plus additional costs) per year of issue and you must be invited by a private company. Foreign employees with permanent employment receive a residence and work permit.

The following documents are required for the application:

  • Application for residence signed by the sponsor / company
  • Copy of the trading license
  • Photocopy of the sponsor’s passport
  • Applicant’s passport
  • Approved medical examination that is valid for a maximum of 3 months
  • Emirates ID registration confirmation
  • Labor card issued by the Ministry of Labor

A stay is always associated with a job. It is not possible to get a permanent visa. If you lose your job, you are threatened with expulsion! You should be back to work within a month. Also keep in mind that there is no social security, pension or health insurance in Dubai. The 5-day week now also applies in Dubai. Friday (in general) and Saturday are usually free.

Currently, according to countryvv, wages in the construction and service sectors are around 300-400 euros per month. Qualified specialists are particularly in demand in the tourism and IT sectors, but medical specialists (pharmacists, doctors and nurses) are also in demand. You should be able to speak English well, better still Arabic. It is also imperative that you adapt to Islamic culture, otherwise you quickly run into problems (e.g. living together is only possible for married people).

Cost of living

Due to the lack of VAT, car purchases, for example, are very cheap. Gasoline is very cheap. Real estate is very expensive, but has been falling since the crisis. Some foods are expensive, especially those that are imported, while others are cheap, so you can buy something cheaper than in Germany if you pay attention to the price differences.

You need around € 3,993.42 (AED 17,793.51) in Dubai to maintain the same standard of living that you can have in Berlin with € 3,700.00 (assuming you rent in both cities).

  • Consumer prices in Dubai are 8.53% lower than in Berlin (excluding rent)
  • Consumer prices including rent in Dubai are 7.93% higher than in Berlin
  • Rental prices in Dubai are 45.53% higher than in Berlin
  • Restaurant prices in Dubai are 13.49% higher than in Berlin
  • Food prices in Dubai are 14.84% lower than in Berlin
  • The local purchasing power in Dubai is 5.48% lower than in Berlin

Average cost of living in Dubai (from 08/2019 – 07/2020)

Restaurant Ø € Price € Price from / to
Food, price w. restaurant 8.18 3.50-14.01
Middle class, 3 courses for 2 people. 46.72 28.03-93.43
Local beer, 0.5 l 10.51 7.01-12.85
Imported beer, 0.33 l 10.51 8.18-14.01
cappuccino 4.36 2.34-7.01
Coca / Pepsi (0.33 l) 0.94 0.58-2.57
Water (0.33 l) 0.37 0.23-1.17
Food Ø € Price € Price from / to
Milk (1 L) 1.36 0.93-2.34
White bread (500g) 1.12 0.70-1.87
Rice (white), (1kg) 1.58 0.93-3.04
Eggs (12) 2.46 1.40-4.20
Local cheese (1kg) 10.26 4.20-23.36
Chicken breast fillet (1kg) 7.05 2.80-11.68
Beef (1kg) 9.90 5.37-18.69
Apples (1kg) 1.84 0.93-2.80
Bananas (1kg) 1.49 0.93-2.34
Oranges (1kg) 1.60 0.82-2.80
Tomatoes (1kg) 1.22 0.70-2.10
Potatoes (1kg) 0.96 0.47 – 1.40
Onions (1kg) 0.82 0.47 – 1.40
Lettuce (1 head) 1.56 0.70-2.80
Water (1.5 l) 0.55 0.35-0.93
Bottle of wine (middle class) 14.60 8.18-25.69
Local beer (0.5 l) 3.76 1.64 – 7.01
Imported beer (0.33 l) 4.62 1.87-9.34

Average costs for local transport, utilities, clothing, leisure, education of Dubai (from 08/2019 – 07/2020)

Mode of Transport Ø € Price € Price from / to
One-time ticket 1.40 0.70-2.34
Monthly pass 70.07 42.04-88.76
Taxi base amount 2.80 1.28-2.92
Taxi 1 km 0.47 0.35-1.05
Ancillary housing costs Ø € Price € Price from / to
for 85 sqm apartment (electricity, water, garbage, etc. 145.59 93.43-233.58
1 minute prepaid mobile tariff 0.13 0.07-0.23
Internet (60 Mbps or more, unlimited data, cable / ADSL) 85.58 70.07-112.12
Clothes, shoes Ø € Price € Price from / to
Jeans (Levis 501 or similar) 52.45 23.36-98.38
Summer dress (Zara, H&M,… 46.15 23.36-81.75
Nike sports shoes, middle class 83.48 46.72-116.79
Leather business shoes 85.28 46.72-163.50
leisure time Ø € Price € Price from / to
Fitness center, month / adult 69.80 35.04-116.79
Tennis, 1 hour on weekends 29.69 12.85-46.72
a movie ticket 10.51 8.18-14.01
training Ø € Price € Price from / to
Preschool / Kindergarten, private, whole day, monthly per child 485.97 2333.58-864.23
International primary school per year and child 9,368.65 5,839.40-14,014.55

Average rental prices / purchase and salaries of Dubai (from 08/2019 – 07/2020)

Monthly rental price Ø € Price € Price from / to
Apartment (1 bedroom) in the city center 1,314.93 934.30 – 1,868.61
Apartment (1 bedroom) outside the center 866.90 700.73-1,167.88
Apartment (3 bedrooms) in the city center 2,664.60 1,838.61-4,204.36
Apartment (3 bedrooms) outside the center 1,886.66 1,401.45-2,980.55
Purchase price of apartments Ø € Price € Price from / to
Price per square meter for an apartment in the city – purchase 3,006.01 2,262.77-4,671.52
Price per square meter – apartment outside the center – purchase 1,988.26 1,508.51-2,919.70
wages Ø € Price € Price from / to
Average monthly salary (after taxes) 2,513.40

Living in Dubai – rules of survival in the Orient

So the goal is clear: it should be Dubai. The gigantic city in the Orient is not only a popular holiday destination, but also an ever-growing economic metropolis.

So if you want to emigrate there you don’t have to worry too much about getting a job. However, it is initially not easy for Western Europeans to find their way around the culture of the Orient. These tips can be helpful so that failure abroad is not preprogrammed.

1. Taking pictures

If you are out and about with your camera in Dubai, you shouldn’t snap wildly, even if it’s difficult with the numerous sights: Burj Khalifa, The Palm, Dubai Marina, Mall of the Emirates and and and. But no fear! The Dubai Must-Sees are of course allowed in front of the lens. However, photos of government buildings, property of the sheikh family, military installations and veiled women are prohibited. A detailed list of the Dubai sights that can be photographed can be found here.

2. Clothing

In Dubai, of course, a different dress code applies than in our regions. Here it says: women should avoid see-through fabrics, backless or shoulder-free tops, deep necklines and short skirts. Men should also not wear shorts or strapless shirts. The dress code is not mandatory, but you can be safe from staring if you dress appropriately. In shopping malls, if you show too much skin, you may even not be let in.

3. Language

Hindi and Arabic are most commonly heard on the streets of Dubai. However, you can also get on with English. Most Arabs speak good English so there is no need to learn any of the local languages.

4. Cost of Living

The groceries in the supermarket are about as expensive as in Germany. Those who go out to eat get away cheaper, and those who go to the market also buy. Toiletries, fruit and drinks are comparatively expensive. Telephoning and fuel are much cheaper than at home. You should also take into account that rents always have to be paid a year in advance.

Emigration and Living Dubai

Dubai is only for those who get a steady job through relationships or who have enough capital to invest. One should also live with the Islamic culture and be able to speak good English, better still Arabic. You can find an experience report HERE. Some advantages of the country: Immigrants quite satisfied, relatively safe from natural disasters, cost of living a little cheaper (LHK-I 95.2), tax advantage (KdS 0% Est).

Working and Living in Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Travel to Laos

Travel to Laos

Laos is Asia’s forgotten land. A land with ancient temples, lush primeval forests and barren mountain areas populated only by ethnic groups who have lived isolated here for hundreds of years. Barefoot monks walk around the villages every morning with their food bowls and receive gifts from the people. A trip to Laos is a trip back in time. Not much has changed since 1975, when the Communists took power, and before that one can not directly say that development was particularly rapid.

See Laos

Population: 6.9 million

Capital: Vientiane

Language: Lao and various minority languages

the country’s elephants are celebrated at the annual elephant festival? The prize for this year’s elephant is also presented here.

Laos New Year’s celebration is called Songkran? It is a three-day festival celebrated from 13 to 15 April.

Nature, wildlife and climate in Laos

Laos stretches over 1000 km from the mountainous areas in the north to the low-lying river areas in the south. Large parts of Laos’ mountains and plateaus are covered by pristine rainforest, and the primary agricultural area is located along the banks of the Mekong River in the south. The climate is very varied. The northern parts are cold, while the southern ones have a tropical climate. From May to October, the monsoons ravage and there is plenty of rain. The dry season runs from November to April. At the end of the dry season, the temperature can reach up to 40 °, while the coldest period falls in December and January. Then the temperature often falls below zero in the mountain areas. Ancient rainforest covers half of Laos and offers a fantastic environment for special animal species such as the Indochinese tiger, the Asian elephant, the giant gaurox,

The history of Laos

Today’s Laos consisted for many centuries of a series of smaller, warring kingdoms, of which Lang Xang, meaning “Land of Millions of Elephants”, was the most powerful. The country was briefly conquered by Thailand , which was forced to hand it over to France and French Indochina in the late 19th century. Around the time of World War II, Japan was also engaged for a short period, before Laos received its declaration of independence from France in 1954. Thereafter, internal battles between communists, monarchists and the right flank dominated. The Communists have won and ruled Laos since 1975, something that has not directly meant a peaceful existence for the people of Laos. In the 1980s, Laos was occupied by neighboring Vietnam, and during the Vietnam War, the country was so heavily bombed by the Americans that it became the most bombed country in history. Most Laotians live off agriculture, and especially on rice, coffee and tobacco. The main religion is Buddhism, while the peoples of the mountain areas still worship spirits, just as they have done for hundreds of years.

Traveling in Laos

A trip in Laos is a bit awkward, or exotic if you prefer, because the country has no railway and only parts of the road network are available throughout the year. The Mekong River and its tributaries are the country’s most important transport routes and a cruise on the Mekong River is therefore a perfect form of travel that takes the traveler far and wide around Laos. Of course, there is also the opportunity to take advantage of the country road, and there are lots of exciting places to visit. Many of Lao’s most important temples are located in the sleepy capital Vientiane, one of the world’s smallest capitals. Before the early 1990s, motorized vehicles were a rare sight on the streets, and cyclists and pedestrians still characterize the streetscape of the small capital. A fixed point on any trip to Laos is the mysterious stone pot plain. No one has so far been able to explain why hundreds of huge stone pots, carved out of solid stone, are scattered over a high, remote plain east of Luang Prabang. The pots weigh up to six tons and are believed to be 2,000 years old. Luang Prabang is an ancient royal city surrounded by mountains with beautiful waterfalls. UNESCO has honored the city with a place on its World Heritage List because of its beautiful, old colonial buildings, and its many Buddhist temples. The Pak Ou Caves, 25 km from Luang Prabang, are home to some of Lao’s most important cultural treasures. Thousands of ancient Buddha figures from all over the country have been collected over the centuries, and are today placed in deep caves on the shores of the Mekong. Laos is the land of spectacular nature experiences. Here you will find, among other things, Southeast Asia’s largest waterfall Kone Phapheng. Visit thedressexplorer for Attractions in Laos.

Climate Laos

Below you will find information about Lao’s climate and weather. See temperatures for the capital Vientiane and the world heritage city of Luang Prabang.

Daytime temperature 29 30 33 34 33 31 31 31 31 31 30 28
Night temperature 17 19 23 23 24 25 25 25 24 23 20 17
Precipitation (mm) 51 14 25 78 209 260 259 354 399 50 14 1
Luang Prabang
Daytime temperature 28 32 34 36 35 34 32 32 33 32 29 27
Night temperature 14 15 17 21 23 24 24 23 23 21 18 15
Precipitation (mm) 16 17 30 109 163 155 230 290 166 78 30 13

Laos has a tropical climate with two seasons – the rainy season lasts from May – Sept, and the dry season between Oct – Apr. At the end of the dry season, it is warmest, with temperatures above 30 ºC. However, the temperature varies in the country, some areas get up to 40 ºC while it can be around 15 ºC at higher altitudes. From November to March, there is usually less precipitation, and the temperature is more comfortable.

Travel to Laos

Shanghai, China

Shanghai, China

Since 1990, the new Pudong Special Economic Zone (1 210 km 2), which serves the external economic development (Free Trade Zone Waigaoqiao), the processing (Jinqiao) and the modern industrialization and relocation of companies from former inner-city locations as well as a trading and financial center (Lujiazui). Pudong’s infrastructure (including the new central airport since 1999) and economic development are supported by extensive investments by the central government and a strong inflow of foreign capital (including the construction of the new exhibition center). Almost half of the foreign capital invested in Shanghai is now invested in Pudong, particularly in industry and real estate. The construction of bridges and tunnels will improve the transport links between the two districts of Puxi and Pudong, which are separated by the Huangpu Jiang. The real estate sector and tourism are also important. According to, Shanghai is one of the largest traffic centers in China with port facilities for ocean and river shipping on the Huangpu Jiang over 80 km (2012, with 736 million t annual turnover, second largest port in the world and with 32.5 million TEUs largest container port in the world) and international (Hong Qiao) and national airport (Long Hua). Inner-city traffic is served by an underground and suburban train (under construction). The maglev train has been running since 2003 TEU’s largest container port in the world) and international (Hong Qiao) and domestic airport (Long Hua). Inner-city traffic is served by an underground and suburban train (under construction). The maglev train has been running since 2003 TEU’s largest container port in the world) and international (Hong Qiao) and domestic airport (Long Hua). Inner-city traffic is served by an underground and suburban train (under construction). The maglev train has been running since 2003 Transrapid on the 31.5 km route between Pudong International Airport and Longyang Road Subway Station; increased expansion of the urban fringes. Shanghai hosted the world exhibition “EXPO 2010”.


Shanghai developed from an insignificant fishing village to a port and trading city between the 11th and 13th centuries. The real upswing of the city took place in the 19th century. Its convenient location quickly made Shanghai the most important port in China become. In the Opium War Shanghai was conquered by the British in 1842 and opened to foreign trade by the Treaty of Nanking (the most important Chinese base of the Western powers, especially the British, French and Americans); part of the city (“International Branch” and “French Branch”) was subordinated to the foreign consular corps. Since 1843, the English, Americans, French and other nations set up their own branches north and later west of the Chinese old town, which was walled up until 1911. The French concession in particular had over a million houses that still look like an open-air museum of neo-renaissance buildings. The international concession was on both sides of Suzhou Creek. The number of residents was initially limited, Around 1880, around 200,000 Chinese and 2,500 foreign residents were still living in Shanghai. Since the turn of the century, Shanghai rose to become the economic and financial center of China. Around 40% of all industrial capital in the country was invested in Shanghai, around 50% of industrial production was concentrated in the city above the sea. Traditional Shanghai quickly adopted new developments from other countries; this included B. the rapid takeover of spinning and weaving mills. Traditional Shanghai quickly adopted new developments from other countries; this included B. the rapid takeover of spinning and weaving mills. Traditional Shanghai quickly adopted new developments from other countries; this included B. the rapid takeover of spinning and weaving mills.

The Chinese Communist Party was founded in Shanghai in 1921. After Shanghai was taken under control by troops of the right wing of the Guomindang in 1927 (crushing of a workers’ uprising), Commander-in-Chief General Chiang Kai-shek eliminated the communists in a bloody action from the government and the Guomindang who supported them. The number of residents in 1932 was around 3.2 million, including around 70,000 foreigners. Between 1932 and 1937 the city was the scene of heavy Sino-Japanese fighting; Occupied by Japanese troops 1937–45. On May 25, 1949, the Communist People’s Liberation Army took over the city. In the 1960s, Shanghai was one of the centers of the Cultural Revolution.

It is not just the number of historical systems that is limited. The extremely cramped housing conditions have been a particular problem since the 18th century. In 1957 the living space per capita was only 3 m 2, by 2011 it had risen to around 9 m 2 and had thus tripled. The background to the current positive development was in particular the introduction of home purchases and increasing government support for financing.

Shanghai, China

Best Travel Time and Climate for the Maldives

Best Travel Time and Climate for the Maldives

The Maldives is a palm-fringed atoll in the Indian Ocean. You can decide whether you prefer to relax in an underwater spa in the Maldives or go on snorkeling tours and diving on the house reef. In any case, you should pay attention to the best time to travel to the Maldives.

Take a dive, spot manta rays and even whale sharks, and swim in beautiful lagoons. Take a boat trip in the evening to see dolphins or enjoy an hour-long picnic on your own thila (sandbar).

Best travel time

According to politicsezine, the Maldives are hot and sunny all year round with average temperatures of 23–31 ° C. The best weather – and therefore the best time to travel to the Maldives – is between November and April . The main season is between December and March. The monsoons last from May to October and peak in June. The northern atolls have the highest rainfall from May to November; the southern atolls from November to March. It’s worth paying the higher prices for travel in the dry season as there isn’t much to do in the Maldives on rainy days other than drink, exercise, or dive.

For divers, both the dry and the wet season have their charm: In the dry season, the underwater visibility is excellent due to the current, which increases in November from the northeast. In February these currents weaken. During the rainy season, water temperatures are a few degrees lower, but this causes larger numbers of hammerhead and reef sharks to congregate in shallower waters. On the one hand, this is very attractive, but the other side of the coin is poor visibility due to the decreasing current.

Optimal travel time after months


With lots of sun and warmth, January is a great time for a beach vacation. There is also good visibility for diving and snorkeling. This is a very popular time to travel and it is recommended that you book in advance.

February March

These are the two driest months with warm temperatures, low humidity and excellent visibility for diving and snorkeling. As these months are also very popular, you should book your vacation in good time.


Another good month to travel with lots of sunshine and good visibility in the water. However, there is a slightly increased risk of rain, especially towards the end of the month.

May – September

These months are still warm and there is a lot of sun, but the chance of rain increases and there is a risk of storms. In addition, the plankton increases, so that the visibility is somewhat clouded when diving. However, lower prices and great deals make it a good time to travel. August in particular is still a popular month to travel.

October November

As in the previous months, warm temperatures and lots of sunshine are balanced with the increasing probability of rain and storm. In October and November, you can see whale sharks and manta rays feeding on plankton in the Maldives. There are many great offers to take advantage of this time of year.


December is warm with many hours of sunshine, but the likelihood of rain and storms increases. Until just before Christmas, many hotels usually have great deals, so earlier in the month is a good time to travel.

Climate in Malé

The Maldives has a tropical climate that is hot all year round and is influenced by the monsoons. The southwest monsoons, from late April to September, are stronger in the northern islands and are accompanied by winds that can make the sea rough and make activities such as diving difficult. In addition, the humidity is higher and more often cloudy. The northeastern monsoons from October to December are quieter and only bring brief showers and thunderstorms in the afternoon or evening, especially in the southern atolls. The driest time outside of the monsoons is from January to April and is more noticeable on the northern atolls.

The temperatures are stable all year round: The maximum values ​​are around 30 ° C and usually only drop to 25 ° C. Throughout the year the humidity is very high and is around 80%. Rainfalls usually occur in the form of short and heavy showers or thunderstorms. They are a little more common in the southern atolls, but less so in the north. Sunshine is constant in the Maldives, an average of about 7 hours a day. The sunniest months are February and March. The sea is warm all year round, with a water temperature between 28 ° C and 30 ° C.

Food and drink

In the resorts around the Maldives you will find a large selection of international cuisine with excellent fish dishes and seafood. Most resorts also offer a selection of Asian and European dishes as a buffet or à la carte. All drinks are imported and alcoholic drink prices can be high.

Social conventions

With all the luxury the resorts offer, it’s easy to forget that the Maldives is an Islamic country. While bikinis and alcohol are allowed in the resorts, the inhabited islands, including Malé, insist on more decency. It is recommended that women wear closed clothing and not show too much skin.


The Maldivian language is Divehi, a dialect of Sinhala (spoken by the majority in Sri Lanka). Recently, the Arabic language is becoming more and more important. Most of the officials speak English, which is also spoken in almost all holiday resorts.


Some resorts automatically increase the cost of additional services by 10%. A tip of 10% is expected where not included.

Best Travel Time and Climate for the Maldives

Nepal in Asia

Nepal in Asia

According to a2zgov, Nepal is among the poorest countries in the world. A crucial step towards progress is a showdown with discriminatory societal structures that restrict women, ethnic groups and people from lower castes.


Population: 29,717,587 million inhabitants (2018)

Proportion of population below national poverty line: 25 percent

Can read and write: Men: 76.4 percent Women: 53.1 (2015)

Life expectancy: Men: 70.6 Women: 72 (2018)

Location measured by prosperity and development: 149 out of 189 countries (Human Development Index 2018)

GDP per capita (2016): $ 2.5 (number 199 out of 230)

On an elongated strip of land between India and China, 29 million people live in the mountainous nation of Nepal . The country is among the poorest in the world.

Discrimination, stereotypical gender roles and a hierarchical structure of society are crucial obstacles in the pursuit of prosperity and prosperity. In many places in Nepal, the caste system is rigidly maintained, making some people from birth considered less valuable than others. There are also a large number of ethnic minorities in the country, some of whom rank high in the social order, while others are hardly considered full citizens of the state of Nepal . For example, they end up at the back of the queue at the health clinics and have to fight to ensure a proper schooling for their children.

As in many other developing countries, many people seek out the big city to try to improve their living situation. This has led to large slums in the capital Kathmandu, where residents are struggling to be evicted from their humble homes, but also fighting discrimination and the stigma associated with living in a slum.

Inter-People’s Cooperation collaborates with local Nepalese organizations. We bring together poor people in village groups who work to gain access to public pools for local development and to hold government officials accountable for providing proper schooling and health services to all Nepalese citizens. The village groups not least give women the opportunity to step out of the men’s all-dominating shadow.

Inter-People’s Cooperation in Nepal also helps to give a voice to young people in Nepal who are passionate about creating a more just society. This is done through Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke’s international youth network Activista.


Nepal is taking small steps towards a more democratic society. In 2008, a historic election put an end to a 10-year civil war started by Maoist rebels, and the new parliament definitively abolished the kingdom of Nepal. Thus also began a process of writing a new constitution to provide better conditions for Dalits (people from the lower castes), ethnic minorities and women.

In 2017, elections have been held in the country’s provinces for the first time since 1997. And although the elections have been surrounded by some chaos, they show that the democratic process in Nepal is, after all, back on track.


In April 2015, the already fragile mountain nation was shaken by a violent earthquake . About 9,000 people lost their lives, 602,257 homes were destroyed and a further 285,099 homes and buildings, as well as much of the country’s infrastructure, were damaged.

Reconstruction is still slow and there is still a risk of buildings collapsing. The reconstruction has been pulled out, i.a. because the government has hesitated to pay the promised subsidies to the people who lost their homes.

Inter-People’s Cooperation was present with emergency relief after the earthquake . The effort has helped more than 133,000 people with i.a. temporary housing, temporary training centers, hygiene kits and grain silos.

The youth network Activista helped mobilize young Nepalese who helped in the chaotic weeks and months after the earthquake.

Today, we continue to work on a reconstruction program that puts local communities at the forefront of comprehensive efforts. The program runs until 2018, and will hopefully help to get the country back on its feet.

And hopefully more than that.

Nepal in Asia

Bahrain Economy

Bahrain Economy

Compared to the countries of the Persian Gulf, these islands have always enjoyed a certain prosperity: the presence of numerous freshwater springs allows for flourishing agriculture (dates, tomatoes, citrus fruits and other fruits, rice, vegetables); this, which was once associated with a decent breeding, has however suffered, as well as the competition from other sectors, the growing salinity of the soil; the shoals of pearl oysters are among the richest in the Persian Gulf (the relative fishing is however clearly in decline today); finally, the strategic position favors maritime trade, already relevant since ancient times. The discovery, which took place in 1932 in Awali, on the island of Bahrain, and the exploitation of oil have radically transformed the country’s economy; however, this sector has given cause for concern, partly linked to the fall in prices on the international market but above all derived from the prospect of an imminent depletion of the fields, which we tried to remedy, on the one hand, also by resorting to policies of conservation and containment of production, as well as the use of other resources; on the other hand, by relaunching the search for submarine fields N and W of the archipelago. More than oil production is actually the large Awali refinery, one of the largest in the Middle East, which processes mostly crude oil from Saudi Arabia. In addition to the sectors related to the extraction and processing of oil, the secondary sector is also active above all in the chemical, petrochemical and metallurgical fields, with an aluminum foundry that has reached a level of world rank.

According to allcountrylist, the industrialization process of Bahrain is part of the economic and social development of the country, which in addition to its numerous food complexes (including one for fish processing), cement factories and modern manufacturing industries, has invested in the sector of telecommunications (to guarantee the country its role as an important financial center) and the construction of a seawater desalination plant in Hidd, powered by a new power plant. Further sources of wealth derive from the exploitation of natural gas (also used in the production of electricity), and above all financial activities, stimulated in 1975 by the decision to allow it to be carried out under the offshore: since then Bahrain has been one of the channels for the investment of Arab petrodollars in the world market. Based on this role, the establishment of a scholarship to serve the wider surrounding region was approved (a common university was also built for the same purpose). In 2000, following the censorship by the OECD which has marked Bahrain as one of the “tax havens”, the country has taken steps to enact anti-money laundering regulations. Foreign trade takes place mainly with Saudi Arabia, the United States, Japan and, in the European Union, Great Britain and Germany. The main imported goods are manufactured goods, electrical machinery and for the oil industry, textiles; among those exported, in addition of course to oil and aluminum, there is a high percentage of re-exported goods. Over the past decades, the country’s trade relations and communications to the outside have also drawn considerable impetus from the construction of the highway linking Saudi Arabia to Bahrain (1986), which has thus ceased to be properly a ‘ Island. Free of railways, the country has an efficient system of infrastructures linked to road transport, in addition to the commercial port of Mina Sulman, the oil terminal of Sitra and the airport of Al Muharraq. The breakdown of the active population (overall equal to more than half of the total) indicates the good degree of development achieved by the country: only a small part of the residents of Bahrain are employed in traditional activities, agriculture and fishing, more than half work in industry (oil, construction, manufacturing, etc.) and the remainder is used in the tertiary sector. The GDP recorded in 2018 was 38,291 ml US $, settling around a variation of about 1.8%. Wealth too settling around a variation of approximately 1.8%. Wealth too settling around a variation of approximately 1.8%. Wealth too per capita of the residents has undergone a marked increase reaching 25851 in 2018.

Bahrain Economy

United Arab Emirates Human Geography

United Arab Emirates Human Geography


State of Asia, located in the Arabian Peninsula at the mouth of the Persian Gulf, overlooking what was once called, with clear reference to the activity carried out by the coastal populations, the Pirate Coast.The seven Emirates of Abu Dhabi arepart of the State , Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm al Qaiwain, Ras al Khaimah and Fujayrah, also known in the past as the Truce States, in memory of the peace concluded in 1853 between Great Britain and the pirates of the area. Dedicated for centuries to sea raids, pearl fishing and nomadism, ruled by the Persians, Portuguese and English before the rise of the two tribal confederations Bani Yas and Qawassim (respectively ancestors of the rulers of four of the current domains), the United Arab Emirates United remained until the discovery of oil a fundamentally depressed region divided by conflicts between the various sheikhdoms. Within a few decades, the collapse of the pearl market (1930) and the beginning of the exploitation of black gold reserves (starting from the 1960s) changed the configuration of the country and its perspective, transforming it into one of the richest states in the world. Modernization and widespread well-being in the area are eloquently exemplified by the urban and architectural development of the city of Dubai, a candidate to quickly become the true nerve center of the Middle East for foreign investments, services and trade and whose urban symbols (from the tallest skyscrapers of the world, to artificial beaches to futuristic projects of cities under the sea) are now intrinsically connected with the imaginary of the entire country. However, economic growth and transformations have not found an equal response in the political and social sphere: the process of democratic reform has in fact only been started in recent times and the oligarchic power expressed by the emirs still informs most of the institutions, as well as the tradition still invests many of the costumes.


Over the last few decades, the population of the Emirates has undergone a particular evolution: the country’s growth rate in the period 2002-2007 was 4.5%; according to localtimezone, the residents of the country amounted to over 4 million people, a surprising figure, if compared with that of less than twenty years earlier (179,000 residents in 1968). Between 2005 and 2017, the population increased from just over four million to almost 9.5 million. Between 2015 and 2020, the growth rate stood at 1.4%. This demographic increase is largely due to massive immigration from the Asian countries of the Middle East, attracted by the demand for manpower linked to mining activities and by the wave of well-being following the discovery and exploitation of oil fields in Abu Dhabi and Dubai: it is estimated that about 70% of the workforce is of foreign origin. This massive presence regulated during the nineties of the twentieth century also by legislative measures aimed at containing the phenomenon of illegal immigration, is also the cause of the disproportion between the sexes within the population: with two thirds of the residents of male gender, the UAE is the country in the world with the largest number of men. The ethnic composition of the United Arab Emirates is made up of This massive presence regulated during the nineties of the twentieth century also by legislative measures aimed at containing the phenomenon of illegal immigration, is also the cause of the disproportion between the sexes within the population: with two thirds of the residents of male gender, the UAE is the country in the world with the largest number of men. The ethnic composition of the United Arab Emirates is made up of This massive presence regulated during the nineties of the twentieth century also by legislative measures aimed at containing the phenomenon of illegal immigration, is also the cause of the disproportion between the sexes within the population: with two thirds of the residents of male gender, the UAE is the country in the world with the largest number of men. The ethnic composition of the United Arab Emirates is made up of Arabs for 15% and Asians for 75%. If the former are concentrated above all in the oases and are dedicated to agricultural activities, the latter populate urban centers and deal with commercial activities. The population density of the country 111.5 residents / km² has also increased by almost one and a half times compared to the latest surveys; urbanization is quite widespread and two thirds of the population is concentrated in cities. The rest of the population lives along the coasts, dedicated to activities related to fishing, while about 10% of the residents are nomads. The largest and most populous of the Emirates is that of Abu Dhabi, which extends from the border with Qatar to Oman and Dubai; it includes some villages of the fertile and well-populated oasis of Buraimi, however, claimed by Oman and Saudi Arabia. The demographic size of Dubai is also relevant, extending between the Pirate Coast and the Gulf of Oman, whose center is one of the most lively and populous in the country. The residents of the other emirates, who are more scarce in resources, instead seek accommodation in the coastal centers economically enlivened by oil and related traffic.

United Arab Emirates Human Geography

Georgia History

Georgia History

Independence proclaimed on April 9, 1991, Georgia effectively became autonomous with the definitive dissolution of the USSR (December 1991). The new state was, however, soon hit by a bloody civil war between the opposition and the supporters of President Zviad Gamsakurdia forced to flee (January 1992), while the South Ossetians proclaimed the secession to join the Russian Federation. Apparently resolved the internal crisis with the appointment of EA Ševardnadze, former foreign minister of MS Gorbačëv, as president of the State Council, Georgia obtained its first international recognition and was admitted to the CSCE. An agreement between Ševardnadze and BN Elcin (June 1992) favored a truce in South Ossetia, but the following month a new secessionist front was opened by the Abkhazians. In this way a new phase of instability was inaugurated, also characterized by the resumption of activity of the partisans of Gamsakurdia. In the impossibility of resolving the intricate situation and despite Russia having played a precise role in the secessionist events that had upset the life of Georgia, Ševardnadze, in the meantime elected president of the Parliament (October 1992), was forced to come to terms with Elcin and to sign Georgia’s membership of the CIS (October 1993). A new agreement in early 1994 sealed a sort of Russian protectorate over Georgia with the granting of military bases and border control without, however, the situation could really return to normal. In addition, a peace treaty was signed with the Abkhaz rebels. At the end of 1993 mriva Gamsakurdia and in October 1995 a new constitution came into force (approved by a large majority by the Parliament) which made Georgia a presidential republic by recognizing the head of state, elected by universal suffrage, broad powers, including the to appoint the head of government. The presidential elections of November 1995 were won by Ševardnadze, supported by the Union of Citizens party, which established himself as the first political force in the contemporary elections of the Legislative assembly.

According  to globalsciencellc, the Abkhazians, however, did not recognize the legitimacy of the consultations, like the South Ossetians, who on November 10, 1996 elected Ljudvig Chibirovcon as their president. The stipulation of a military cooperation agreement between Georgia and Russia was worth nothing to resolve the issue of secessionisms, stemming mainly from the latter’s intention to restore its authority in the region. Likewise, the negotiations started in 1997 with the South Ossetians and the Abkhazians were resolved in a failure. Adžaristan and the Samtskhe-Djavakhei, located along the delicate Turkish and Armenian border marks. Moreover, the undeniable economic progress of the country did not contribute to solving its structural problems, linked to the shortage of electricity and massive unemployment, nor to undermining its endemic mafia corruption. Ševardnadze had to foil in 1998 an uprising of troops loyal to the late president Gamsakurdia, suffer the downsizing of his party in local elections and escape, after the one in 1995, a second attack behind which the Moscow director was suspected, interested in maintaining control of the very rich energy reserves (gas and oil) of the Caucasian region, while Georgia, supported by the United States and Europe, Caspian to the West. The serious tensions with the Kremlin worsened between the end of 1999 and 2001, on the occasion of the Russian offensive against the rebels of neighboring Chechnya, which the Moscow government believed protected by the Georgians.

To this was added the setback suffered by Western investment projects for the exploitation of Caspian energy resources, due to the high costs necessary to carry them out. This penalized Ševardnadze’s pro-Western foreign policy, which nevertheless obtained Georgia’s entry into the Council of Europe (1999) and the World Trade Organization (2000), negotiating with good prospects that of NATO.. Between 1999 and 2000, Ševardnadze saw a decline in popularity but managed to win the elections again by defeating former Communist Dzhumber Patiashvili. In 2003 there was a violent protest against the government and the president resigned in order not to drag the country into a civil war (Revolution of the Roses); in his place was designated Nino Burdzhanadze with the task of calling new elections (2004); they saw a landslide victory by Mikheil Saakašvili, leader of the opposition in Ševardnadze. In the same year, elections were held in South Ossetia not recognized by the government and followed by several armed clashes. In early 2005, Prime Minister Zurab Jvania died under unclear circumstances. In November 2007, a popular protest against the president erupted, declaring a state of emergency and resigning. Parliament spokesman Nino Burdzhanadze was recalled to take over the country until January 2008, the year in which Saakašvili was reconfirmed as president. In the next elections, in May 2008, the president’s party the United National Movement (UNM) won with over 50% of the votes. In August 2008, riots in South Ossetia provoked the advance of Georgian military forces into the region. The Russian army reacted by causing the conflict to widen, siding with the secessionists in Ossetia and in August 2008 Riots in South Ossetia provoked the advance of Georgian military forces in the region. The Russian army reacted by causing the conflict to widen, siding with the secessionists in Ossetia and in August 2008 Riots in South Ossetia provoked the advance of Georgian military forces in the region. The Russian army reacted by causing the conflict to widen, siding with the secessionists in Ossetia and in Abkhazia, formally recognized by the Moscow government. In October 2012 the political elections took place which saw the victory of the political group Sogno Georgiano, led by the magnate Bidzina Ivanishvili and the defeat of the UNM, linked to President Saakašvili; in the following days, Parliament approved the birth of a new government headed by Ivanishvili himself. Presidential elections were held in October 2013, won by Giorgi Margvelashvili.

Georgia History

Taiwan (Republic of China)

Taiwan (Republic of China)

Created in 1949, the State of Taiwan (or the National Republic of China) is a presidential republic, as established by the Chinese Constitution of 1947, still in force and last amended in 2005. The President of the Republic, elected by direct suffrage with a four-year mandate, appoints the head of government. The power to legislate is entrusted to a Legislative Assembly, made up of 225 members elected by universal suffrage and in office for 3 years. The dissolution of the National Assembly, active until 2005 with constitutional tasks, has in fact assigned to the instrument of the popular referendum any possible modification to the Fundamental Charter. Martial law was abolished in the country in 1987; at the same time, the parliamentary opposition was legalized. On a legal level, the enactments of the International Court of Justice are accepted with reservation and the death penalty is still in force. Justice is administered through a collegial body, the Judicial yuan, whose members are appointed by the president with the consent of the Legislative Assembly. The defense system of the state is organized according to the classic tripartition: army, navy and air force, to which are added paramilitary corps.

The military service is compulsory and lasts 16 months; a reduction of the detention period is foreseen to 12 months by 2008. The system contemplates the participation of women in the aviation corps in roles that do not involve combat. Primary education is compulsory and free from 6 to 15 years. The secondary school is divided into middle school, normal school and technical institutes. According to educationvv, middle schools in turn are divided into two cycles. Primary teacher training for rural areas is equated with the first cycle of middle school, while the training of other elementary teachers is equivalent to the second cycle of middle school. The specialized technical institutes have 2 cycles, one lower and one higher. In the country there are numerous universities and several independent colleges. The percentage of illiterate people is particularly low: in 2005 it stood at 2.8%, almost halved compared to the estimate recorded ten years earlier.


The spontaneous vegetation has been partially destroyed, above all due to the recent thickening of the population, but it is still present in its original luxuriant form, especially on the eastern mountainous slopes; the most typical and widespread species are the lauraceae, the bamboos and the camphor tree. Over 2000 m there are conifer woods and, near the peaks, pastures and shrubs. The different types of forest, especially the less inhabited mountainous areas, are home to a great variety of fauna: mammals (Formosan brown bear, macaque, wild boar, sika, pangolin, sambar), birds (pheasant, sparrow), reptiles, amphibians (Formosa salamander, various species of frog), insects; territorial waters are rich in fish. Some protected species are subject to illegal trade. The frenetic growth of industry, starting from the 1950s, initially accompanied by a lack of ecological sensitivity, has caused extensive damage to the environment: air and water pollution and groundwater contamination due to illicit disposal. of radioactive waste, although since the 1990s the authorities have passed laws aimed at safeguarding the natural heritage and established sustainable development policies. 18.8% of the country is considered a protected area; in particular, 6 national parks have been created, several nature reserves, naturalistic shelters,


The tertiary sector is the largest voice of GDP and employs more than half of the workforce. Banking, financial and insurance services are highly developed and Taiwan is one of the largest business centers in Asia. Due to the now high standard of living achieved by the country, internal trade is quite lively. Foreign trade is essential for the Taiwanese economy; the country mainly exports electrical and electronic equipment, machinery, optical and precision instruments, mining products (iron, steel, copper), plastic objects, dolls and toys, sports equipment, clothing, while it mainly imports oil, machinery and means of transport, minerals, agricultural products. The trade balance is constantly in surplus; the exchange takes place eminently with the United States, China, Japan and South Korea, followed by Saudi Arabia (for oil imports); exports are also directed towards Hong Kong, which has long been the leading market also because it acted as an intermediary in relations with China, and some countries of the European Union. The morphology of the island hinders communications, which are lacking, especially between the coasts and inland areas. The railways follow the coastal contour and cover a total of 4,600 km (of which, however, only a little more than a thousand are national railways); the most important section is the one that runs along the island on the western side, from Keelung to N to Kaohsiung to S. The situation is better with regard to the road network (approx. 37,000 km, mostly asphalted, in 2002). Maritime transport has been developed, which mainly refer to the four international ports of Kaohsiung, Chilung, Taichung and Hualien. Taiwan also strengthened its airport structure; the international airport of Taoyuan, near T’aipei, joins the international ones of Kaohsiung and Hualien as well as various national airports. Tourism is developing strongly: the island has been visited every year for approx. 2.8 million foreigners (2005). The government has launched programs to promote the country’s natural and historical wealth; the 2008 Beijing Olympics are an important step in this program. Kaohsiung and Hualien as well as various domestic airports. Tourism is developing strongly: the island has been visited every year for approx. 2.8 million foreigners (2005). The government has launched programs to promote the country’s natural and historical wealth; the 2008 Beijing Olympics are an important step in this program. Kaohsiung and Hualien as well as various domestic airports. Tourism is developing strongly: the island has been visited every year for approx. 2.8 million foreigners (2005). The government has launched programs to promote the country’s natural and historical wealth; the 2008 Beijing Olympics are an important step in this program.

Taiwan (Republic of China)

South Korea Literature and Cinema

South Korea Literature and Cinema


After the Second World War, two literary currents were formed. The first was formed by authors from the North, such as Im Hwa (1908-1953), who remained faithful to the motifs of the proletarian literature of the early twentieth century. The other instead tends to safeguard the traditional values ​​of Korean culture, according to a concept of “pure literature” free from political alignments. After the civil war of 1950-53, Korean poets and writers also found themselves divided between North and South, some by ideological choice, others by necessity. In South Korea it certainly presented more varied aspects. In the fifties, in full reconstruction, the national tragedy was naturally the favorite theme of poets and writers, who now returned to gather around literary circles, including that of the “Green Deer” founded by Pak Tujin (1916-1998) with Cho Chihun (1920-1968) and Pak Mogwol (1916-1978). Regarding the prose, Hüngnam ch’ŏ isu (The Retreat from Hüngnam) by Kim Tongni, is one of the most significant novels; but also writers such as Yi Pǒmsǒn (1920-1982), Sun Ch’angsŏp (b.1922), Pak Kyŏngni (b.1927) and Hwang Sunwon (1915-2000) deserve to be mentioned as among the busiest in this period. In particular, the latter achieved notoriety with the novel K’ain-ui huye (Descendants of Cain). In the 1960s, a literary genre based on psychological introspection and inner reflection emerged. Kim Suyŏng (1921-1968), Kim Ch’unsu (b.1941) and Kim Namjo were certainly among the most active poets in those years.

In the following two decades, Ko Ǔn (b.1933), Hwang Tonggyu (b.1938), Kim Chiha (b.1941), Hwang Chiu (b.1952), Ch’oe Sŭngho (b.1954). Among the novelists, Yi Mungu (b. 1941), Kim Wonil (b. 1942), Cho Sehüi (b. 1942) and Hwang Sŏgyŏng (b. 1943); new names such as the writer O Chŏn ghŭi (b.1947) and, above all, Yi Munyol, were then brought to the attention of critics (no. 1948). After decades of intense political passions and painful moments of repression, the last decade of the twentieth century saw the affirmation of greater cultural freedom and an opening towards North Korea. With the authors almost eager to allow themselves a pause for reflection aimed at a serene and critical examination of the whirling historical-political events experienced since the post-war period, South Korean literature appeared rich in retrospective works and analyzes of sociological, political and cultural events of previous years. While waiting for a decisive generational change, it was the most successful poets and writers who occupied the first places in the charts of the titles sold. Cho Chongnae and Pyon’gyong (Changes) by the aforementioned Yi Munyol. Even the fascination of the everyday found those who knew how to illustrate it admirably, and this was the case of Yi Kyunyong (1951-1996) and his Noja-wa Changja-ui nara (The Country of Laozi and Zhuangzi), while political-existential reminiscences characterized the works by other authors, such as Ch’oe Yun (b. 1953). Centered on science and Korean nationalism are the works of Bok Geo-il. A very important strand within Korean literature is fantasy, with works such as Lee Yeongdo’s Dragon Raja, Jeon Min-Hee’s The Rune Children, and Lee Woo-hyouk’s The Soul of the Guardians. As for poetry, there was a revival by no longer young authors, whose works, juxtaposed with those of the younger generation, helped to enhance that climate of reflection on the past typical of the period. Since the end of the twentieth century, according to itypeauto, Korean literature has enjoyed a certain response from the international public (there are specialized series in Korean literature from French, German and Italian publishers), on the one hand thanks to the new translations of the classics, such as Hŏ Kyun (1569-1618), and of the great writers of the post-war generation, such as the autobiographical novel Mr. Han by the aforementioned Hwang Sŏgyŏng or The Shaman of Chatsil by Kim Tong-ni, who tackles the crucial theme of the meeting of the most atavistic indigenous tradition with the new Western spirituality. On the other hand, Korean literature returned to international attention in 2005 when South Korea was the host country of the Frankfurt Book Fair; narrators such as EUN Heekyung (b.1959) and JO Kyung Ran (b.1969), and, among poets, Hwang Ji-U (b.1952), whose multifaceted interests they also turn to theater and sculpture.


The first decades of the twentieth century saw the beginnings of Korean film art under Japanese domination, which greatly influenced productions and artists. Government conditioning was a widespread practice, which, under another sign remained, and still is present, in the art and culture of North Korea. The division of the country into two areas was consequently followed by the formation of two distinct cinemas. South Korea, which suffered strong US penetration, was experiencing a period of considerable development and expansion in the decade between the 1960s, with an annual production of over 200 films; among the names of some ambitions of the time, we remember Kim Song Min, Ri Hwa Sam, An Jong Hwa, Kim Tae Soo (Patate, 1969),, 1965). Over all, however, dominated Shin Sang Ok, the most important director of the Sixties, known as “the Korean Kurosawa” for his mastery in period films as well as in contemporary films (The guest and my mother, 1961, considered his masterpiece; The dream, 1967; Eunuch, 1968, to name just a few titles by an author who was also active in the following decades). South Korean cinema declined in the seventies and eighties, to then experience the start of a great recovery thanks above all to the work of Jang Sun Woo (The age of success, 1988; The lovers of Woomuk-Baemi, 1991; Un petalo, 1996) and Park Kwang Su, which debuted in 1988 with Chil-Su and Man-su. In the following years, directors such as Park Ki-Yong (Motel Cactus, 1997; Camel (s), 2001), Lee Chang-dong (Green Fish, 1997; Peppermint Candy, 2000; Oasis, presented at the Venice International Film Festival, established themselves in the following years. of 2002). Among the directors who emerged in the 1990s, Kim Ki-Duk (b.1960) (Birdcage Inn, 1998; Bad Guy, 2001; Samaritan Girl, 2004; Time, 2006) deserves a particular mention. dissemination and international recognition of South Korean cinema. A determining role was played by Hong Sang-soo (b. 1961), director of Turning Gate (2002), Woman Is the Future of Man (2004) and Woman on the Beach (2006), winner of international awards and formed thanks to important experiences abroad (USA). The new millennium has also seen the rebirth of an important line of independent productions, a natural counterpoint to national works that have been too seduced by Western canons. A note that testifies to the importance of the South Korean film movement is the Pusan ​​International Film Festival, which reached its twelfth edition in 2007 with 271 works and more than 198,000 spectators, which undoubtedly attest to the very first places among film festivals in Asia. In 2020 the South Korean film Parasite by director Bong Joonho, was awarded the Oscar for Best Picture. Parasite was the first non-English language film to win this award in Academy Award history. The film also won the Palme d’Or at the Cannes Film Festival in 2019, a Golden Globe (2020) for best foreign film, and four other Oscars (2020) for best international film, best director and best original screenplay.

South Korea Literature

Study Regional Sciences from the Near and Middle East Abroad

Study Regional Sciences from the Near and Middle East Abroad

Hardly any other region appears as frequently in the media as the Near and Middle East. The region is of great international interest . It is based primarily on historical and economic interdependencies. Because of Germany’s responsibility for the acts of the National Socialists, the FRG has maintained close political and economic relations with Israel since the 1960s.

The international economy depends on the oil reserves in countries like Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Iran. At the same time, countries like Turkey or the United Arab Emirates are popular holiday regions that are associated with sunshine and oriental flair. Against this background, experts are in demand who are familiar with politics, the economy and the cultural history of the region.

Course content

According to, the courses in the area of ​​regional studies in the Near and Middle East or Middle East studies are still quite new in Germany. So far, they are only offered at a few universities .

They differ from the established courses of study in Arabic, Jewish and Oriental Studies in the following respects: There is not only an occupation with either the Arabic language and culture or the Jewish language and culture, but both areas flow into the course.

Set priorities

At most universities, however, students can set priorities and specialize in a region such as Turkey or a topic such as Judaism in the Middle East.

In addition, at most universities, students have the opportunity to choose a minor and thus specialize even further. Depending on the university, you can choose from subjects such as political science , history or communication studies .

In the bachelor’s degree

Language acquisition is initially the focus of the bachelor’s degree programs . The students decide on two languages ​​that they learn in the further course of their studies. Depending on the university, you can choose between Arabic, Turkish, Hebrew, Persian and ancient languages ​​such as Syriac or Greek . In language courses, they learn vocabulary and grammar rules, but aspects of geography and culture are always highlighted.

In the further course of their studies, the students then deal more intensively with their chosen region or focus . Depending on the university, the focus can be on cultural, historical, economic, social or political topics. The students then deal, for example, with the Middle East conflict, but also with Islam, post-colonial theories or the economy in the United Arab Emirates.

In the master’s degree

Most of the graduates add a master’s degree to their bachelor’s degree. This serves on the one hand to further specialize in content and on the other hand prepares for management positions in business or an academic career . The individual universities offer master’s programs with very different focuses.

There is a choice of courses with a linguistic focus, but also programs that focus on the politics, culture or economy of the Middle East. In most master’s courses, students also have the opportunity to learn a third foreign language .


Applicants should first and foremost be interested in the region to which they are devoting their studies. A certain talent for languages is also helpful in learning two foreign languages. Most universities do not require any language skills, but first knowledge of Arabic or Hebrew at the beginning of the course is definitely helpful. In addition, applicants must have a good command of English in order to understand the English-language specialist literature.

Career prospects for Middle East experts

The study of regional sciences in the Near and Middle East does not provide training for any specific occupational field . The choice of the minor is all the more important. Internships completed alongside your studies are also helpful in order to orientate yourself professionally and acquire additional qualifications.

With their language skills and their cultural background knowledge, graduates have a wide range of career opportunities. Many aspire to work for an international organization, an NGO, a foundation or another development cooperation institution .

Most of the graduates work there in scientific and advisory roles . With knowledge of Arabic, positions in the diplomatic service are also possible.

The inner-German migration policy has to rely on the expertise of Middle East experts. Those who prefer to work in the cultural field can, for example, work in museums and other cultural institutions related to the Middle East.

A journalistic activity is conceivable. In addition, graduates can work as translators or in the tourism industry. Master’s graduates are free to pursue a doctorate and pursue an academic career.

Stay abroad

A stay abroad in a country in the Near or Middle East is compulsory for students. On the one hand, it serves to improve language skills . On the other hand, a semester abroad gives students the opportunity to really experience and understand the culture of the respective country.

However, one or two semesters abroad are also recommended, because studying on-site opens up a new perspective on the subject. This can also be interesting in the context of thesis or research. In addition, the students have the opportunity to make international contacts that can prove to be valuable when starting their careers.

Study Regional Sciences from the Near and Middle East

Children Education in Lebanon

Children Education in Lebanon

Lebanon, on the Mediterranean coast, has been hit hard by civil wars and there are still conflicts between different groups in society. The war in Syria has put further pressure on the country with millions of people fleeing. More than half of Lebanon’s Syrian refugees are children.

Since the outbreak of the war in Syria in 2011, around one million Syrians have sought refuge in Lebanon. Even before that, many Palestinian refugees lived in camps around the country. Children, and especially girls, are hard hit by conflicts and disasters. A total of 1.4 million children in Lebanon are expected to grow up in vulnerability, without access to the essentials such as protection and clean water.

Poor finances affect children

To cope with everyday life, families become dependent on the children contributing to their livelihood. Children are forced to work in agriculture, in a factory or as a street vendor in the middle of traffic. The most vulnerable children are at risk of being exploited in prostitution, falling victim to human trafficking or being recruited by armed groups.

Deteriorating situation for girls

Girls and women are negatively affected by the difficult economic situation and an unequal view of girls and women in particular, both among Lebanese and refugees. Among other things, girls are forced to stay at home to take care of the household and can therefore not go to school. Without education, their ability to control their own lives diminishes.

Six percent of children in Lebanon have been forced into child marriage. But for the girls who have fled Syria, it looks even worse, among them just over one in five has been forced to marry before they have turned 19 years old. Young girls are married off because someone is responsible for them or because the family is poor and needs money. Girls in child marriage are particularly vulnerable to violence.


This is what Plan International in Lebanon is doing

Plan International has been in place in Lebanon since 2016. Our highest priority in the country is to prevent children from being married off or forced to work, by focusing on the right to education and protection from violence. We work on several levels to increase girls’ power over their lives and opportunities to avoid child marriage and sexual violence.

In Tripoli, northern Lebanon, we work to support teenage girls’ schooling, which gives them a more stable foundation for the future and at the same time reduces the risk of them getting married early. We also work to ensure that the sexual and reproductive health and rights of girls and young women are met. We do this by informing, working to change attitudes and ensuring that girls have better access to health care and relevant products.

Plan International Lebanon informs and provides support to both children and adults to counter violence and to let them know where to turn if they are exposed. We also run preschools where both children and parents receive support. We educate young people so that they can support themselves and take a place and influence society in a positive way.

Plan International has a series of reports on the situation of teenage girls in humanitarian crises . One of the reports is about girls on the run in Lebanon and describes how violence is part of their everyday lives, that many are married off and how the economy affects their opportunities to go to school.

Together with girls of different ages, we discuss what their rights are and how they can take power over their lives.

Children Education in Lebanon

Youngest and strongest in the family

Ten-year-old Kholud was only three years old when the war broke out and her family was forced to leave Syria. The family sought refuge in the city of Tripoli in northern Lebanon, where they now live in poverty.

The difficult situation has forced Kholud’s family to marry off her older sisters. Her two brothers have also been forced to leave school to work.

Despite the challenges, Kholud is determined to follow his dream and train as a lawyer. She has joined one of Plan International’s programs that we run together with one of our partner organizations in the city where Kholud lives.

– I want to become a lawyer so that I can defend the rights of all people and make my voice heard in the society where I live, says Kholud.

The program that Kholud is part of is developed for children who are at risk of getting married or forced to perform harmful work. Together with the other children, she gets to learn more about her rights but also practice different skills. She also gets to learn basic reading and writing skills so that she can start studying and have better opportunities to support herself.

Kholud says that her sister is introverted and that their mother often underestimates her potential and says that she will soon be married off. But Kholud refuses to accept that her sister’s fate is already predetermined and urges her to decide for herself about her future.

– My sister can neither read nor write but I try to teach her everything I learn in the lessons so that she can become a stronger person, says Kholud.

Kholud’s stubborn struggle for his sister’s future has finally paid off. The family has agreed to let her sister take part in Plan International’s program.

– I can already see a difference in my sister’s personality and I am very happy about that, says Kholud.

Facts about Lebanon

Facts about Lebanon

Capital: Beirut
Population: 6 million
Life expectancy: 80 years
Infant mortality rate: 4.5 per 1000 births
Proportion of children starting school: 86.3%
Literacy: 91%
Proportion of women in parliament: 3%

Kyoto Travel Guide

Kyoto Travel Guide

The former capital of Japan, Kyoto, is the embodiment of Japanese culture colored by world heritage sites.



Imperial Japanese crown jewel

The Kyoto legend originated about 1,500 years ago. The most significant turning point in the city’s glamorous history saw the light of day a few centuries later when Kyoto became the capital of Imperial Japan.

Although the residence of the country’s emperor and the importance of the city to the country varied over the years, Kyoto maintained its position as the capital for almost an entire millennium.

The years have passed, but surprisingly little has changed. Once so glorious, the capital is still glorious Kyoto today, even though it is no longer the administrative center of the country.

The splendor of Kyoto persisted over the war


Unlike almost all other major Japanese cities, Kyoto survived the devastating World War II virtually intact.

Due to this good fortune, Kyoto is Japan at its most authentic and flowering. Centuries-old temples of the capital era, Shrines and other impressive buildings still stand in the same places as proud as ever.

As many as 17 of the Kyoto monuments have been classified as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The most famous examples of these are probably the Kiyomizu-dera Temple and Nijo Castle.

In addition to individual top attractions, the city is worth the same without a precise destination. In the midst of nearly endless history and stagnant architecture, the mind rests.

Districts of Kyoto

By Japanese standards, Kyoto is at most a medium-sized city. In Finnish terms, however, with a population of one and a half million, it is a giant with many things to see.

The city center is an interesting combination of new and old. The Imperial Palace and Nijo Castle bring a historic touch, counterbalanced by a state-of-the-art train station.

Western Arashiyama, on the other hand, is a little more natural because of its lush hills. The eastern part, Higashiyama, is again known especially for its geishas. The southern part is largely the area of ​​the old capital, while the northern part is home to many World Heritage sites.

At its best in spring and fall

Most tourists head to Kyoto in the spring and fall, largely due to favorable weather. Temperatures revolve around twenty degrees on either side, and rain doesn’t do much of a headache.

In summer, of course, it is hot, but also very humid. Winter frosts are instead a congestion-avoiding choice.



Trips to Kyoto

There is no airport in Kyoto, but the connections from Finland to the rest of Japan are so great that you should not miss the trip.

The most convenient way to get there is by flying from Helsinki on a Finnair direct flight to Osaka and continuing the journey by high-speed train to your destination.

The flight takes about ten hours and usually costs 800 to 1,000 euros for the round trip. By train from Osaka to Kyoto in just over an hour.

Many accommodation options

Kyoto offers accommodation for every taste. As a rule of thumb, hotel accommodation in the city center is expensive, a little further away a little cheaper. Also in high season, prices follow the increase in passenger numbers.

At a cheaper price, you can stay in a more traditional hostel or, in Japanese, a capsule hotel, if you are not bothered by the cramped place. In Finnish, internet cafes also represent a rather exotic accommodation option.

For the experiential, the right direction is temple accommodation instead. While the language barrier and bedtime may be surprising at first, the morning devotion of the temple certainly begins the day out of everyday life.

The train is the best ride game

With public transportation, Kyoto makes an exception when compared to many Japanese metropolises. The two-line metro is quite modest in the city, and you can’t get anywhere from it.

It is still worth favoring railways in Kyoto as well, albeit overground. The trains cross and cross almost everywhere. Buses, in turn, patch the shadows left by the train network.



The splendor of the Imperial Temple

There are a total of four imperial temples in Kyoto, the most famous of which is probably Kyoto-gosh, simply the Imperial Temple, right in the center.

The whole thing is absolutely beautiful and the historical hum is palpable. The palace garden with its cherry trees is also enchanting, especially in spring. The temple still occasionally serves as a stage for state events.

However, those intending to attend the temple should note that access to all Imperial temples must be requested from the Imperial Household Agency, and during the busiest seasons, there will not be enough time for guided tours for all applicants.

Other Imperial Monuments include Sento Imperial Temple, Katsura Villa and Shugakui Villa. Access to these must also be requested, but unlike the Central Temple, they do not offer English-language tours.

The rugged beauty of Ryoanji’s rock garden

When the mind gallops after overtaking a rally of sightseeing, it is worth taking the direction of Ryoanji Temple.

The Temple of the Peaceful Dragon, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is considered the most impressive example of Zen Buddhist achievements in the whole country.

There are a total of 15 larger boulders in the temple courtyard, of which only 14 can be seen at a time — regardless of location — according to Buddhists, all the stones can only be seen after the tent , the Enlightenment.

Stopping Kiyomizu-dera

Kijomizu-dera’s history goes far, in fact, further than the entire Kyoto story. The temple, from its place, on the slope of a mountain, has seen all the colorful stages of the city.

The view from the temple over the city is impressive, but there are plenty of wonders inside the building as well. Namely, there is a waterfall in Kiyomizu-dera, where the water of the mountains flows.

The temple is one of the city’s most popular attractions, and for good reason. It is definitely a must-see for every visitor to Kyoto.



The best attractions

  1. Imperial temple
  2. Kiyomizu-deran Temple
  3. Ryoanji Stone Garden
  4. Nijo Castle
  5. Gionin geishat