Category: Asia

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History and Geography of Beijing, China

History and Geography of Beijing, China


Historically Beijing was one of the ancient capitals of China. Since the Shang Dynasty (between the 16th century – 11th century BC) was overthrown by King Wu of the Zhou Dynasty, who enforced the region of Yan to Prince Shao, it has a history of more than 3,000 years.

Called Ji in ancient times, it was the capital of the Yan State in the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC). Later in the Liao Dynasty (Number 907 1125), it was the temporary capital, called Yanjing, and the Jin Dynasty, Beijing was established as its capital with the name of Zhongdu. See population of China.

It acquired the name Dadu in the Yuan dynasty, and was later called Jingshi during the Ming and Qing dynasties, with the generic name of Beijing, which means “northern capital.” Beijing, as a capital from the Jin dynasty to later dynasties, has enjoyed a history of more than 800 years. There the hardworking Chinese people with their intelligence and hard effort have created a brilliant civilization.

Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing 1995.

Between August 8 and 24, 2008, it hosted the XXIX Olympic Games in Beijing 2008.


The four seasons are very marked. In winter the climate is cold and dry; in Summer there is a tropical heat and abundant rain; and fall is cool and pleasant. The annual rainfall level is 600 millimeters on average.


Located in the temperate monsoon zone, it is quite pleasant during spring and fall. The hottest month is July, with an average temperature of 30ºC, and the coldest, January, with an average of almost -5ºC.

This is a summary of the most representative average temperatures in each of the seasons of the year:

Station Climate Average minimum temperature Average maximum temperature
Spring Sunny days 12 (month of May) 25 (month of May)
Summer Hot days,Rainy time 28 (August) 19.9 (August)
Autumn Temperatures,nice, clear skies 6.8 (month of October) 18.7 (month of October)
Winter Cold and dry weather -9.7 (January) 1.7 (January)

Flora and fauna

According to abbreviationfinder, Beijing has rich resources of flora and fauna, and the most numerous poultry species. Its gymnosperms rank first in the world in terms of species. It is one of the countries with the greatest Biodiversity. However, it also faces a difficult situation in this area, since between 15% and 20% of the higher plants are in danger of extinction, and the subsistence of 40 thousand biological species related to these plants is threatened.

As one of the first signatory countries of the Biodiversity Convention, China always takes an active part in the matters related to the Convention and issues opinions on the important problems that arise in the international compliance of the Convention.

Furthermore, it is one of the few countries that has fully complied with the Convention’s Plan of Action. China’s Biodiversity Protection Action Plan, drawn up in 1994, constitutes the standard to be followed for the many activities aimed at protecting the Ecosystem and the Environment.

In accordance with the Law for the Protection of Wild Fauna, any act that violates the protection of wild zoological resources will be punished. Relevant government departments pay attention to the effective protection of biological resources.

More than 400 deposits and gene banks of varieties of wild flora have been founded in the country, so that more than a thousand varieties of wild flora have managed to establish their stable artificial population. In January 2003, the Chinese Academy of Sciences sponsored an Endangered Flora Rescue Project, which plans to increase the botanical species of 12 botanical gardens under its supervision from 13,000 to 21,000 within 15 years, and build the largest botanical garden in the world with an area of 458 square kilometers.

In this project, the money destined to collect precious, rare and threatened plants will exceed 300 million yuan, and gene banks will be created, with Qinling, Wuhan, Xishuangbanna and Beijing as centers.

The Project for the Salvation of Endangered Wild Fauna has already paid off. To date, 250 centers for the reproduction of wild animals have been founded in the country, dedicated especially to saving seven important species, including the Pandaand the Red Ibis (Nippon nippon).

The panda is considered a “national treasure” and a “living zoo fossil”, its wild population has grown from 1,100 to more than 1,596 specimens, and its pen population to 183 specimens, thanks to ever-improving subsistence conditions.

The population of red ibis increased from the original 7 to more than a thousand specimens, thus countering the threat of extinction. The number of artificially propagated Chinese alligators is close to 10,000. Of the Deer Cervus eldi of Hainan there were only 26 copies left, but now they already exceed 1,600. The hereditary gull has also increased its population from 2,000 to more than 10,000 members.

The Tiger, rarely seen, appears from time to time in Northeast, East and South China. The populations of the South China and Northeast China tigers have risen to 68 and 1,300, respectively. The Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) of Tibet, believed extinct by international zoological circles, was discovered in the 20th century and its population has grown steadily. China leads the way in scientific research and study on the white dolphin, a species of freshwater dolphin, and its artificial reproduction.

Thanks to the tenacious fight against illegal hunting and the coordination of several organizations of the international animal protection community, the Tibetan antelope, whose numbers were falling precipitously for this reason, now enjoys a rest that favors reproduction, currently the species has 190 thousand copies.

Beijing, China

Astana, Kazakhstan

Astana, Kazakhstan

According to abbreviationfinder, Astana is the capital of Kazakhstan since 1998 when it replaced Almaty, it is also the capital of a federal district. The name of the city before June 1998 was Akmola. The city is located in north-central Kazakhstan, within the Akmola province, although it is politically independent from the rest of the province, which has its own capital Kokshetau. The city’s population was 750,700, according to a November 2008 estimate.

The word Astana in the Kazakh language literally means Capital City. Formerly it had the name Tselinogrado and then Akmola, which means white tomb.

In June 2008, the parliament proposed to change the name of the city to “Nursultan”, in honor of the current president, but the idea was rejected by the president himself, who suggested that future generations should decide to change the name. name the city.


In 1824 a troop of Siberian Cossacks reached the upper reaches of the river Ishim and there they founded a fort that prospered over the years and became known as Akmolinsk.

In 1961 it was renamed Tselinograd and became the capital of the Soviet Virgin Lands Territory and the center of the Virgin Lands Campaign led by Nikita Khrushchev in the 1950s, in order to make the state a second producer. of grain for the Soviet Union.

With the independence of Kazakhstan the city and the oblast were renamed Aqmola (White Tomb).

In 1994 it was promoted as the future capital of the country. When the capital was transferred from Almaty (previously called Almá-Atá).

In 1997, it was renamed under its current name, which means capital in the Kazakh language.

Astana was modernized by running one of the world’s largest and most expensive urbanization projects, although the quality of the architectural design is not the best. This great project was financed with oil money.

It is said that the transfer of capital was to dominate the northern region of the country, with a Russian majority and thus avoid a possible secession; Another theory suggests that it was tried to move the capital away from the borders, since Almaty is only 60 km from China and 50 from Kyrgyzstan. In any case, both theories have their strategic function, but officially the reason was the lack of space for the expansion of Almaty, the former capital of the country and because it is located in a seismic zone.


The city is located in a very flat semi-desert steppe in the center of Kazakhstan, at about 347 meters above sea level, being irrigated by the Ishim River, which divides it into two neighborhoods.


The city has a continental climate, with exceptionally cold winters and moderately hot, arid and semi-arid summers. The average annual temperature in Astana is 1 ° C. January is the coldest month with an average temperature of -16 ° C. July is the warmest month with an average temperature of 20 ° C.

After Ulaanbaatar the capital of Mongolia, Astana is the second coldest capital in the world with temperatures between -35 to -40 ° C.


The development of the new capital has attracted thousands of immigrants from Kazakhstan, and from neighboring states such as Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, especially workers and young professionals who aspire to develop their careers. This immigration produced a change in the demographics of Astana, increasing the number of more ethnic Kazakhs in a city with a predominantly Slavic population, which brought the ethnic population of Kazakhs to increase in 1989 to 60%, well above 17 % before that date.

In 1999, Astana already had a population of 281,000, with an ethnic mix that included Kazakhs, Russians, Ukrainians ], Volga Germans, among others. The% of the population by ethnicity was as follows: 40.5% of the population were Russians; 5.7%, Ukrainians ; 3% were German; 2.6% were Tatars ; 1.8% Belarusians and 0.8% Polish.

Although the Kazakh population outnumbers the Russian with 41.8%, Russians form the largest ethnic group in the city, while Ingush and Koreans each account for 0.8% of the total. Other notable minorities are the Uzbeks, with 3.8% of the population.

According to surveys carried out in 2009, by that date Astana already had a population of over 700,000 residents. See population of Kazakhstan.


Astana is considered one of the largest urban growth projects in the world and its execution is linked to the strong contributions linked to oil. The purpose of the project, in addition to making the city the center of Kazakhstan, is to be the capital of Central Asia, although at present the capital of this area is still Tashkent.

Public policies and government administration are the main economic activities of the capital, which also forms a special economic zone.


The neighborhoods of the city that were built in the first phases are located to the north of the river while those of new construction are located to the south of it.

The construction standards indicate that the quality of the buildings is considerably high, the buildings are modern, however there are divisions among the experts about the real quality of the new buildings.

Places of interest

Avenida de la República is the main center of activity in the city, where there are shops, cafes, restaurants and nightclubs.

Among the main sites of the city we can mention:

  • The Bayterek Tower: symbol of the new Astana.
  • The Avenue of the Republic.
  • The Oceanarium.
  • The Islamic Center.
  • The Catholic Cathedral.
  • The Central National Mosque of Astana.
  • The Palace of Peace and Reconciliation.
  • Among the museums we can mention:
  • The Presidential Center of Culture.
  • The Mausoleum of Kabanbay batır.
  • The Atameken Ethical Memorial Complex.
  • The S. Seyfullïn Museum.
  • The Museum of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Among the theaters we can mention:

  • The Gorka Russian Dramatic Theater.
  • The Kazakh Theater K.Qwanışbaev.
  • The National Opera of K. Baysetova.

Among the monuments we can mention:

  • The Otan qorğawşılar.
  • The one built in homage to the victims of political repression.
  • The one built in honor of the Kazakhs killed in the war in Afghanistan.
  • The central square.
  • The one built in honor of Kenesarı khan.

Among the architectural monuments we can mention:

  • Buzok City.
  • The Church of Konstantin and Jelena.
  • The Green Mosque.


In the city there is an extensive sports development where the soccer team FC Astana should be highlighted, which plays in the Kazakhstan Super League, winner of the national championship three times, the basketball team Astana Tigres, winner of the 2004 season title / 2005, as well as Barys Astana of the Kazakh Ice Hockey League.

In the city there is a great development of cycling and the government sponsors a team of this sport that is licensed by the UCI ProTour, this team called Astana participated in the 2007 Tour de France, they also participated in the 2009 edition with excellent results.

Astana, Kazakhstan

Muscat, Oman

Muscat, Oman

According to abbreviationfinder, Muscat is the cultural and modern capital city of Oman, it is located on the shores of the Gulf of Oman. It is the most important city in the country and the main administrative center. Its population is 769,090 residents.


Muscat was under the rule of the Portuguese in the periods 1507 to 1580 and 1640 to 1650, of Spain between 1580 and 1640. It is one of the oldest cities in the Middle East. Evidence of communal activity has been found in the areas around the city dating back to the 6th century BC. In the area south of the city, remains of Harappan pottery were found indicating some level of contact with the Indus civilization. Muscat’s fame as a port has been recognized as early as the 1st century dne by the Greek geographer Ptolemy, who names it Cryptus Portus (the Hidden Port), and by Pliny the Elder, who calls it Amithoscuta.

In the 3rd century AD, the port fell into a Sassanid invasion, under the rule of Sapor I, while the conversion to Islam occurred during the 7th century. Muscat’s importance as a commercial port grew in subsequent centuries, under the influence of the Azd dynasty, a local tribe. The establishment of the first Imamate in the 9th century AD was the first step in consolidating the disparate Omani tribal factions under the flag of the Ibadi state. However, tribal skirmishes continued, allowing the Abbasids of Baghdad to conquer Oman and occupied the region until the 11th century, when they were driven out by the local Yahmad tribe.. Power over Oman shifted from the Yahmad tribe to the Azdi clan of Nahahinah, during which time the populations of coastal ports such as Muscat prospered through maritime trade and close alliances with the Indian subcontinent, at the cost of alienation from the population of the interior of Oman.

In July 1507 the Portuguese conqueror Afonso de Albuquerque attacked Muscat, which produced a bloody battle between the Portuguese and forces loyal to the Persian governor of the city. When the city fell, Albuquerque massacred most of the residents, including men, women, and children — after which the town was occupied and looted. The Portuguese and Spanish held their post in Muscat for more than a century, despite challenges from Persia and the bombardment of the town by the Turks in 1546. The Turks captured twice Portuguese Muscat, Muscat Sequestration (1552) and 1581 -88.

The election of Nasir bin Murshid al-Yaribi as Imam of Oman in 1624 brought about a shift in the balance of power once again in the region, from the Persians and Portuguese to local Omanis. On August 16, 1648, the Imam organized an army in Muscat, which captured and demolished the steep towers of the Portuguese, resulting in a weakening of their control over the city. Decidedly, in 1650, a small but determined body of the Nasir’s troops attacked the port during the night, finally forcing the surrender of the Portuguese on January 23, 1650. A civil war, and repeated raids by the Persian king Nadir Shah in the 18th century destabilized the region, and closer relations between the interior of the region and Muscat. This lack of power in Oman led to the rise of the Al Bu Sa’id dynasty, which has ruled Oman ever since.

Muscat’s naval and military supremacy was reestablished in the 19th century by Said bin Sultan, who gained control over Zanzibar, eventually moving his capital to Stone Town, the old quarter of Zanzibar City, in 1840. However, after his death in 1856, control over Zanzibar was lost when it became an independent sultanate under his sixth son, Majid bin Said (1834 / 5–1870), while his third son, Thuwaini bin Said, was became Sultan of Oman.

During the second half of the 19th century, the fortunes of the Al Bu Said declined and friction with the magnets within the interior re-emerged. Muscat and Matrah were attacked by inland tribes in 1895 and again in 1915. An attempted ceasefire was broken by the British, who offered the interior greater autonomy. However, conflicts between the disparate tribes of the interior, and with the Sultan of Muscat and Oman continued throughout the 1950s, eventually reaching the Dhofar rebellion (1962).

The rebellion forced Sultan Said bin Taimur to seek assistance from the British to quell the revolts in the interior. The failure of the assassination attempt on Said bin Taimur led to the subsequent isolation of the Sultan, who moved his resident from Muscat to Salalah, amid conflict between armed civilians. The 23 of July of 1970 Qabus bin Said, son of Sultan, carried out a coup bloodless palace in Salalah with the presence of the British, and took over as ruler.


The city is surrounded by mountains and is located on the shores of the Gulf of Oman. It occupies an area of 3,500 km². Muscat is also called one of the governorates into which Oman is divided, composed in turn by six vilayatos they are: Muscat, Matrah, Bousher, Seeb, Al Amirat and Qurayyat.


Muscat is the main administrative center and the most important city in the country. Modern highways, built in the 1970s, link the city with other cities in Oman and with its neighboring country the United Arab Emirates. Muscat was the main port in the country, until a new port located in Mina Qaboos was built in 1974. Near the city are a cargo terminal for giant tankers, through which refined oil is imported, as well as the international airport.


Capital of the Sultanate of Oman, Muscat is a unique city. Oasis in the desert, it is not only the smallest but also the warmest in the world… In other words, It is true that with its walls and the Blue Palace flanked by the forts of Jalali and Mirani, Muscat has the charm of the ancient cities of legend. From the port of Mutrah to Old Muscat, passing the iconic incense burner on the Corniche.

Places of interest

  • Bait Al-Zubair Museum
  • Franco-Omani Museum
  • Bahla
  • Route of the Rustaq Forts,
  • Nizwa
  • Nakhl
  • Jabrin, the village of Tanuf and the great mosque.


Influenced by Middle Eastern and Indian recipes, Omani cuisine is as delicious as it is colorful. From the taverns in the old town to the restaurants on the seafront, you just have to decide where to discover Muscat’s culinary specialties. From the meat skewers (chawarma) inherited from the Lebanese to the Indian “biryanis” of fish, chicken or lamb, each dish reflects Muscat’s important cultural miscegenation. The fresh fish barbecues are delicious too. Recommended: makbou (biryanis with tomato sauce), chicken masala, falafel, mezze and rose water drinks.


It is very easy to have fun during a stay in Muscat. You can start by exploring the Muttrah neighborhood. With its souk full of life, it is an ideal place to linger for a while and find bargains such as fabrics, incense, jewelry, kandjiares… The artisan stalls located around the old Muscat are full of cafes ideal to stop for a while. Locals and foreigners meet here in the afternoon to enjoy the lively atmosphere of these picturesque taverns, full of people of all kinds. It is highly advisable to take a walk along the Muscat Corniche, relax on the main beach of the city and cycle along the Muttrah cove.

Recommended itinerary

The Route of the Forts is an inseparable walk from the Muscat cruises. The first place to discover is the Nizwa Fort, surrounded by a beautiful palm grove that has dominated the city since its construction in the 17th century. At 45 km, the Jabrin Fort was built around the same time, although lovers of Islamic architecture will surely prefer the Bahla Fort, made entirely of earth and famous for being the oldest building of its kind in the region. However, the most impressive of this cruise stopover are Rustaq and Nakhl: one has 12 well-preserved towers and the other, built on a rock, is considered the best in the country.


Most of the population is Muslim, there is also a minority of Hindu and Christian people. See population of Oman.

Muscat, Oman

Dili, East Timor

Dili, East Timor

According to abbreviationfinder, Dili is a city that is located in East Timor of which it is the capital. It is located on the north coast of the island of Timor.


Dili was founded by the Portuguese in 1520 and in 1769, then it became the new capital of Portuguese Timor, replacing Lifau, in the current enclave of Oecussi-Ambeno, since it was too vulnerable to the attacks of the Dutch. During World War II, Dili was occupied by the Japanese. The 28 of November of 1975 East Timor made a unilateral declaration of independence from Portugal. But nine days later, on December 7, Indonesian forces invaded Dili. On 17 July as as 1976 Indonesia annexed East Timor, who called Timor Timur, with Dili as its capital.

In 1991, the Dili massacre occurred, which gave international support to the independence cause of East Timor. On May 20, 2002, Dili became the capital of the independent state of East Timor.

International campaign for the liberation of East Timor

The international campaign by human rights organizations in favor of East Timor was intense, and in 1996 Amnesty International called for observers to be allowed into the country. That same year, exiled activists José Ramos Horta and Catholic Bishop Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo received the Nobel Peace Prize. Thanks to international pressure, in 1998 Indonesia proposed limited autonomy for East Timor. Portugal entered into talks with Indonesia and reached an agreement to convene a “popular consultation” to find out if the Timorese accepted relative autonomy from the Republic of Indonesia. On Voting Day, August 30, 1999, 98% of the registered electoral roll went to the polls to cast their vote. The vast majority of voters rejected the Indonesian autonomy plan and called for their independence.

After the elections, a wave of violence began throughout the territory. Many Timorese died and others sought refuge in Australia. The UN decidedly assumed the solution of the conflict and got multinational forces to enter the island to control the situation and restore peace and security. At the same time, humanitarian organizations brought basic services and food to the island. Indonesian authorities began to leave East Timor until they completely abandoned it. The 28 of Septemberof 1999 Indonesia and Portugal agreed to transfer the authority of East Timor to the United Nations With the idea of managing the transition to independence, the United Nations Transitional Administration (UNTAET) was created. However, UNTAET faced many difficulties. In different parts of the island the activity of guerrillas armed by the Indonesians continued, the economy was in bankruptcy and it was necessary to provide accommodation and food to more than 150 thousand refugees who returned to their country.


It is located on the northern coast of the island of Timor, which is located between Australia and Sulawesi. It was the capital and the main port of Portuguese Timor until 1975, when its control ended and that of Indonesia began. The city is built on a series of rocky hills, opens to the Ombai Strait and the Banda Sea and is protected by a coral reef.

It is the most populous city with 67,000 residents at the beginning of 2002, according to the Transitional Administration for East Timor (UNTAET). They are followed in population size by Baucau, Manatuto and Los Palos.


It has a subtropical climate that is generally hot and humid, characterized by a rainy period and a dry period.

Economic development

The city’s economy is based on the production of coffee and the manufacture of soaps, perfumes and textiles, and on the export of products such as cotton, rice, coffee or sandalwood. The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception is the largest Catholic church in Southeast Asia. Population (2003), 48,731 residents. See population of East Timor.

It is the main port and commercial center of the country. It has an airport, renamed after independence as Nicolau Lobato, used for commercial and military flights.

Social development


The health system is precarious, the Dili General Hospital is a prime example of the health system situation throughout East Timor. Since the precipitous withdrawal of the Indonesians in early 1999, the ICRC has managed it. Today, this 210-bed hospital is fully operational with some 350 employees, 26 of them expatriates, most of whom were made available by National Red Cross Societies.

The most common diseases are malaria, tuberculosis, and gastroenteritis. Obstetric complications and road accidents are on the rise and need to be addressed without delay. Although there are many Timorese nurses, the country’s doctors are very few: only three in the Dili hospital. On average, there are two for every 100,000 residents, that is, about 20 for all of East Timor.


Destruction of your union’s offices: The offices of the East Timor Teacher Union (ETTU), an affiliate of Education International, were destroyed during the violence that affected Dili in February and March 2008. The teachers’ union has not been able to function normally since then.

Dili, East Timor

Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

According to abbreviationfinder, Bishkek is the capital and most populated city of Kyrgyzstan, it is also the administrative center of the Chuy province within which it is geographically located, but curiously it is not part of said province. It is located in the valley of the Chu River, in the course of the Alaarcha and Alamedín rivers, at the foot of the Kyrgyz Mountains, a few kilometers from Kazakhstan. Its altitude is 800 m. above sea level. It has a population of 906,000 residents according to the 2009 census.

Between 1926 and 1991 in honor of the revolutionary leader and general of the Red Army, Mikhail Frunze, who was born in the city. the city took its name.

The city is also known as Bishkek and its name is believed to derive from a Kyrgyz word related to the fermentation of mare’s milk, which is the country’s national drink.


The first settlements that were established in the area where the city is located date from the Neolithic.

In the 10th century the civilizations that were established in the territory were defeated by the Mongol hordes that invaded the entire region.

At the end of the 18th century the region was invaded and conquered by the Uzbek from Kokand, who established a fortress there in 1825.

In 1862 the fortress was razed by the troops of Tsarist Russia and they later built a new fortress next to the ruins of the previous one.

In 1878, in the place occupied by the old fortress, the Russian colonists founded a city which they called Pispek, which quickly prospered, becoming an important administrative center in the region and the most important of the district in which it was located. In 1924, due to the progress obtained and its geographical location, the city was designated the capital of the oblast.

In 1925 the city was elevated to the highest rank of capital of the newly created Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.

In 1928 the Soviet government changed its name to Frunze, in honor of the revolutionary leader and general of the Red Army Mikhail Vasilievic Frunze, who was originally from this city, where he was born in 1885.

In 1936 it became the capital of the Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic, within the former Soviet Union.

During World War II, Bishkek became one of the main industrial centers of the entire country.

In June 1990, after several riots in the south of the country, a state of emergency was declared as they threatened to dangerously spread to the city.

In 1991 with the independence of the Kyrgyz Republic, the city regained the name of Bishkek and was declared the capital of the country.


Bishkek is located in the valley of the Chu River, in the course of the Alaarcha and Alamedín rivers, at the foot of the Kyrgyz Mountains, in the extreme north of the Kyrgyz Mountains, in the western part of the Tian Shan mountain range. The city lies at an altitude of 800 m. above sea level.

Its relief is wavy typical of the steppes of Kazakhstan.

North of the city runs the river Chu and is named after the administrative district surrounding Bishkek. Several of the tributaries of this river also flow through the city, such as the Ala Artscha and the Alamedin.


Due to its location south of the continental climate of temperate latitudes, the city has a very harsh and extreme climate with very few hours of sunlight in winter where it can be below 126 hours.

The average air temperature is 10.2 ° C. The coldest month is January with an average of -4.7 ° C and the warmest is July with an average of 24.5 ° C. The monthly average relative humidity is 44% in June and July and 74% in March, the annual average is 60%.


Most of the country’s residents are native to the country and in 1999 52.1% of the population was from Kyrgyzstan, 33.2% was from Russia, and 2.8% from other European origins; At present, these percentages have varied and Russians and Europeans represent only less than 30% of the population, which is why the downward trend has been maintained since the 70s when most of the population was of Russian origin, a decrease that is it increased after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. See population of Kyrgyzstan.


The economy of the city is supported by industrial development and its main factories are dedicated to the production of machinery for construction and the metallurgical industry, although there are also others dedicated to the production of preserves and food products.

In Bishkek you will find one of the largest markets in the entire country, the Dordoy Bazaar.


Biskek is a developed city with a grid shape that despite its modernization still preserves its Soviet appearance in its architecture, with the buildings and gardens built during that time that still prevail over the new constructions. An example of this are the famous and typical Soviet buildings Khrushchevkas. Much of the city streets are lined with trees that reduce the heat on hot summer days. One fifth of the city’s surface is occupied by green areas.


The city has a teaching system that covers all educational levels from primary to university education, it is located an important university in the country and is the headquarters of the Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences and the Polytechnic Institute of Agriculture.

Educational institutions found in Bishkek:

  • Kyrgyz International University.
  • American University of Central Asia.
  • Bishkek University of Humanities.
  • Kyrgyz State Medical Academy.
  • Ataturk-Alatoo International University.
  • Kirgiz Technical University.
  • National University of the Kyrgyz State.
  • Arab University of the Kyrgyz State.
  • Slavic University of Kyrgyz
  • Kyrgyz-Russian State University.
  • Kyrgyz-Turkish MANAS University.
  • Kyrgyz Uzbek University.

Places of interest

Ala-Artscha National Park, is only 45 minutes drive from Bishkek about 40 km south of the city in the mountains of Kyrgyzstan. This park offers good hiking trails and a stunning landscape of alpine mountains.

Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

Islamabad, Pakistan

Islamabad, Pakistan

According to abbreviationfinder, Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan, located on the Potwar Plateau in the north of the country. It was built during the 1960s as a planned city to replace Karachi as the Pakistani capital, its name in Urdu means: “Inhabited by Islam”.


The area where Islamabad is located has historically been part of the crossroads of Punjab and the Northwest Frontier.

The emergence of the city has its origins in 1946 when Pakistan became independent from India, which resulted in hundreds of thousands of people seeking refuge in Karachi, which was the city chosen as the capital of the new country. Due to this, the population grew explosively and by 1950 its population had risen from half a million residents to two million.

The extraordinary growth of the population of this city brought about the clash between different ethnic groups for which the government of Pakistan under the leadership of President Ayub Jan decided that Karachi would not continue to be the capital of the country, since it had become a city too socially and politically unstable to install the government in it, they also stated that it was not located in a central point of the country and defined that the new capital of Pakistan would be called Islamabad, the “city of Islam “, which would be erected as a symbol of a Young and progressive Islamic State.

In the 1960s the city was built to replace Karachi as the Pakistani capital, for which the development of the country was concentrated in that city and President Ayub Jan wanted to establish a more equitable distribution. For its construction, an area was chosen next to the ancient city of Rawalpindi (a former capital), which was designated a temporary capital. Jan was interested in this location as Rawalpindi was a garrison city loyal to his government.

In 1965 the University of Islamabad and the Quaid-i-Azam University were built.

On October 26, 1966, the city came to life by occupying the city’s first office building.

In 1967 the city of Islamabad officially became the capital of Pakistan. Islamabad is a modern and clean city, especially when compared to other Pakistani cities.


The modern city is situated on the edge of the Porhohar Plain, south of the Margalla Hills and only 14 km northwest of Rawalpindi, showing the past and present of the country. The historical ruins of ancient Taxila are located 30 km northwest of the city.


The city has an extreme climate with hot summers with monsoon rains that occur in July and August, and rather cold winters that bring snow to the hills.

The microclimate of the area is regulated by three artificial lakes (Rawal, Simli and Janpur Dam).


The city has a population of over 805,000 residents. See population of Pakistan.


The city is divided into eight zones or sectors depending on their usefulness, among which the following stand out:

The diplomatic and government zone, the residential area, the commercial district, the educational one, the industrial zone and the recreational areas where there are plenty of shops dedicated to leisure and parks.


The city of presents features of both modern and ancient architecture, the Saudi-Pak Tower being a good example of this.

Other significant buildings in the city are the National Assembly building (designed by Louis I. Kahn), the Pakistan House, where the president resides, and the botanical gardens. The most notable, representative and famous monument or building in Islamabad is the huge Faisal Mosque, known for its unique architecture and enormous dimensions. The cost of construction was covered by King Faisal of Saudi Arabia.


Government and politics

Although it was officially declared a federal republic, in October 1999 General Pervez Musharraf overthrew the civilian government led by Nawaz Sharif and assumed executive power. Local government elections were held in 2000. Musharraf declared himself president in 2001. A new parliament was elected in 2002 and Zafarullah Khan Jamali, a faithful follower of Musharraf, was appointed prime minister. After more than a year of political bickering in the bicameral legislature, Musharraf made a compromise with some of his parliamentary opponents, giving his followers two-thirds of the majority vote required to amend the constitution in December 2003.. Constitutional reforms approved some of Musharraf’s decrees and retroactively legitimized his presidency by freeing him from the requirement of being elected to office.

Despite intermittent democratic periods, Pakistan has a long history of military dictatorships, including those of General Ayub Khan in the 1960s, General Zia Ul Haq in the 1980s, and General Pervez Musharraf from 1999 onwards. the elections of the 6 of October of 2007, Pervez Musharraf had promised to resign as head of the army and carry out a civilian government. Former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto returned to the country days later after several years in exile, hoping for a gradual return to democracy. However, on November 3 there was a self-coup, overturning the promises of opening and starting a new military dictatorship with Musharraf at the head. On December 27 of that same year, former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto was assassinated in an attack.

The 18 of August of 2008 Pervez Musharraf resigned to avoid impeachment by the National Assembly was to vote for the next day by the parties that were supporting the government. He was replaced on an interim basis by Muhammad Mian Soomro, president of the Senate, as envisaged by the constitution until the election of a new president. In the presidential elections held on September 6, Asif Ali Zardari was elected president.

Political-administrative organization

Pakistan is a federation of four provinces

  • Baluchistan.
  • Northwest Frontier.
  • Punjab.

Islamabad, Pakistan

Abkhazia Overview

Abkhazia Overview


Abkhazia is located in the Caucasus region, the border between Asia and Europe. It is a mountainous land, crossed by the Caucasus Mountains (which separate Abkhazia from Circasia), and whose coasts are washed by the Black Sea. Of its 8,700 km2 area, 75% corresponds to mountainous areas, especially in the eastern area, near Svanetia, where some mountains exceed 4,000 meters in altitude.

The different arms that emerge from the main mountain range, form deep valleys with small but important river beds. An example of this is Lake Ritsa, north of Gagra, considered one of the most beautiful mountain lakes in the world. In this environment there is also the deepest cave in the world, the Sima Krubera-Voronya, located in the Arabika massif (Orto-Balagan valley) with a depth of -2,160 meters.

Much of the territory (about 70%) of Abkhazia is covered by oak, beech and alder forests. In the altitude range from sea level to 600 meters above sea level, the region is rich in deciduous forests. Above this level, and up to 1,800 meters above sea level, various species of conifers proliferate, including some of the tallest trees in Europe, such as firs that exceed 70 meters. Between 1,800 and 2,900 meters above sea level, you can find meadows with alpine characteristics. Finally, above that altitude, the eternal snows of the mountain range and the glaciers extend.


Abkhazia enjoys a temperate subtropical climate due to the regulatory effect of the Black Sea and the climatic screen formed by the Caucasus, preventing the entry of cold boreal winds. Average annual temperatures reach 15 o C, with extremes of 4 o C in winter (January) and 23 o C in summer (July). The rainfall, while, ranging between 1100 and 1500 mm per year, and the humidity is relatively low.

Above 1000 meters above sea level, the thermal amplitude increases, and winters and summers are harsher, forming a climate with continental characteristics. Beyond 2000 meters of altitude, the mountain climate prevails, and temperatures drop considerably. In inland regions, rainfall increases, reaching 3,500 mm per year in mountainous areas. Snow can accumulate to over 5 meters in height in some regions of the Caucasus: avalanches are a latent danger in the few populated centers there.

Due to its pleasant climate and its beautiful landscapes, part of this territory was a place of great tourist influx, being known as part of the Soviet Riviera. In addition, the climate has allowed the development of agriculture, mainly crops such as tea, tobacco and fruits, in addition to the installation of vineyards.

Government and administration

The Head of State of Abkhazia corresponds to the President of the Republic, a position currently held by Sergei Bagapsh, after succeeding Vladislav Ardzinba, the first President of Abkhazia (1994-2004). The President is seconded by the Vice President: currently Raul Khajimba. The head of government, meanwhile, is the Prime Minister, a role that Alexander Ankvab has held since February 2005.

The Legislative Power is exercised by the People’s Assembly. It is made up of 35 members, elected by each of the 35 electoral districts.

The country is administratively divided into seven districts since 1995, named like its capital city:

  • Gagra (capital)
  • Gali (capital)
  • Gudauta (capital)
  • Gulripsh (capital)
  • Ochamchira (capital)
  • Sukhumi (capital)
  • Tkvarcheli (capital)

The Republic of Abkhazia is not a member of the United Nations, but since 2008 it is recognized by two countries that belong to that organization: Russia and Nicaragua. Additionally, on November 17, 2006, Abkhazia signed a mutual recognition protocol with the independence governments of South Ossetia and Transnistria, whose recognition is also disputed by other states. In 2009, Venezuela became the third member of the United Nations to recognize the Abkhaz government.

Social development


The demographics of Abkhazia changed drastically because of the war of 1990. According to the census carried out by the Soviets in 1989, Abkhazia had a population of approximately 500,000 residents, of which 48% were Georgians (mainly Mingrelians) and only 17 % were Abkhazians. Almost half of the latter were Sunni Muslims and the other half Orthodox Christians.

According to official estimates by the Government of Georgia, 264,792 people fled from Abkhazia to other parts of the country between 1992 and 1998. Of these, about 120,000 took refuge in the Samegrelo and Svaneti area, and more than 77,800 in the capital., Tbilisi.

Recently, with the aim of recovering the country’s population to its historical levels, the government of Abkhazia has promoted the repatriation of makhadjirs, that is, Abkhazians who had been exiled, mainly to Turkey, after the Russian invasion in the 19th century.


Most of the residents of Abkhazia are nominally Christian (Belonging mostly to the Orthodox Church and a small part to the Armenian Apostolic Church), Sunni or irreligious Muslims, but most of the people who declare themselves Christian or Muslim do not attend religious services. The influence of the traditional Abkhaz religion also remains strong among Christians, Muslims and non-believers. There are a very small number of followers of Judaism, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and other new religious movements. Jehovah’s Witnesses have been officially banned since 1995, although the decree does not apply today.

According to the constitutions of Abkhazia and Georgia, followers of all religions (as well as atheists) have equal rights before the law.

According to a survey carried out in 2003, 60% of those surveyed identified themselves as Christian, 16% as Muslim, 8% as atheist or irreligious and 8% as belonging to the traditional Abkhaz religion or as pagan.


Literature written in Abkhaz appeared relatively recently, at the beginning of the 20th century. However, Abkhazia shares with other peoples of the Caucasus the Nart sagas – a series of tales about mythical heroes. The Abkhazian alphabet was created in the 19th century. The first newspaper in Abkhaz, called Abkhazia and edited by Dimitri Gulya, appeared in 1917.

Arguably the most famous Abkhaz writers are Fazil Iskander, who wrote mostly in Russian, and Bagrat Shinkuba, a local poet.


The football remains the most popular sport in Abkhazia. Other popular sports are basketball, boxing, and wrestling.

Abkhazia has had its own amateur football league since 1994. The league is not part of an international football union.

Abkhazia Overview

Tbilisi, Georgia

Tbilisi, Georgia

According to abbreviationfinder, Tbilisi (in Georgian, Tbilisi, in Russian Тифлис) is the capital and largest city of Georgia, it is located on the banks of the Kura River. During the Soviet Union it was the capital of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (RSS). The city has a registered population of 1,400,000 residents and an area of 726 km². Tbilisi has been known for the peaceful Rose Revolution, which took place in Liberty Square and nearby locations. As a result, the then president, Eduard Shevardnadze, was removed from power.


The name “Tbilisi” (tbili- means hot), was given to the city because of the numerous sulphurous hot springs that the territory enjoyed and continues to have. In Spanish, it’s Tbilisi


Archaeological findings show that the territory of Tbilisi was inhabited since 4000 BC It is also known that the settlement of the area was during the second half of the 4th century AD when a fortress was built during the reign of Varaz-Bakur. Towards the end of the 4th century, the fortress fell to the Persians, then the area fell to the King of Kartli (Georgia) in the middle of the 5th century. King Vakhtang is primarily responsible for founding and building the city. The area in which ancient Tbilisi was built now corresponds to the districts of Metekhi and Abanotubani

At the beginning of the 6th century Vakhtang I Gorgasali was succeeded in power by King Dachi I Ujarmeli who transferred the capital from Mtskheta to Tbilisi. During his reign, Dachi completed the construction of the fortress wall and delimited the new borders of the city. At the beginning of the 6th century, Tbilisi began to notice a period of peace due to the favorable and strategic situation as a crossroads between Europe and Asia.

During the following centuries the city suffered frequent raids by Byzantines, Arabs, Persians, Mughals, Seljuk Turks, and tribes from the Caucasia region. It was the capital of the independent state of Georgia in the 12th and 13th centuries. The last major raid occurred in 1795, when Persian troops invaded and sacked the city. Tbilisi entered the Russian orbit in 1801 ; in 1936 it was named capital of the newly created Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (RSS).

During Soviet times the population of Tbilisi grew considerably, the city became quite industrialized and was an important political, social and cultural center of the Soviet Union. In 1991 it was designated the capital of independent Georgia after the collapse of the USSR,

From December 1991 to January of 1992 there was a brief civil war, Tbilisi was the scene of clashes between some mafia clans and illegal business entrepreneurs. During the Shevardnadze era (1993 – 2003) crime and corruption reached very high levels. Many strata of society became impoverished due to lack of employment due to the collapse of the economy. The citizens of Tbilisi began to be disappointed by the poor quality of life in the city. In November of 2003 Massive protests were carried out as a result of the falsified parliamentary elections that forced hundreds of thousands of people to take to the streets and that ended with the Rose Revolution as a result of which the then president, Eduard Shevardnadze, was displaced from power. Since 2003, Tbilisi has greatly increased stability, decreasing crime and increasing the economy.

In August of 2008, Russian planes bombed an airfield military located in Tbilisi, where Georgian aircraft were produced Skorpion, unreported victims in the context of the war in Ossetia South. The airfield suffered serious damage.



It is located in the east of the country on the banks of the Kura River, in a valley sheltered by the Caucasus mountain range.


Its climate is continental, with cold winters and hot summers, although without reaching extreme temperatures.


The city has a registered population of 1,400,000 residents. Its demographics are diverse and historically it has been home to people of different ethnicities, religion and culture. There are many different ethnic groups in the city over 100. Approximately 80% of the population is ethnically Georgian, there are large populations of Russians, Armenians and Azerbaijanis, Ossetians, Abkhazians, Ukrainians, Greeks, Jews, Estonians, Germans and Kurds, among others, also live in the city. See population of Georgia.

Economic development

It is an important economic, industrial, social, cultural and transportation hub. It is an important passage route for global energy and trade as it is strategically located between Asia and Europe. The city has an international airport. Among the main industries include food and textile and machinery, railway equipment, printing materials, leather and elaboration of the wine


Its main tourist places are Sameba Cathedral, Freedom Square, Sioni Cathedral, where there is a famous image of Jesus Christ as well as a very old cross, Metekhi, Narikala, the Parliament of Georgia, Rustaveli Avenue, the Opera and Ballet Theater, Anchiskhati Basilica, Mtatsminda Mountain, a holy mountain in which there is a church with a pantheon in which are the tombs of Georgian personalities. The Kashveti Church, near which are the National Museum, the Historical Museum and numerous art galleries. The statue of Saint George: This statue is in front of the town hall, killing the dragon. The statue has been the cause of a fight among the residents, as there are many people who are starving while the city puts expensive statues in its streets. The city was immortalized by painters Niko Pirosmani and Lado Gudiashvili.


It is distinguished by its ancient churches, among which the V-century Cathedral of Zion and the 6th-century Monastery of St. David stand out. Tbilisi is home to a university (1918) and the Georgian Academy of Sciences, as well as a number of theaters and museums.


Located at the southern end of the Georgian military highway, it is served by the Transcaucasus railway.

Tbilisi, Georgia

Vientiane, Laos

Vientiane, Laos

According to abbreviationfinder, Vientiane is the capital and most important city of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Also known as Vientiane, it is considered one of the quietest cities in the world. It is located in the central west of the country, on a plain next to the Mekong River, almost on the border with Thailand. Its population is 200,000 residents.


King Setthathirath intervened in the ancient kingdom of Lao and Lan Xan and made Vientiane the capital in 1560. The kingdom was divided in two and Vientiane remained the capital now of Lan Xan.

In 1779 Phraya Chakri conquered the capital and made it a vassal of Siam. In one of the many attempts to conquer the area, in 1827 the city was almost destroyed but later it was rebuilt and began to progress economically. King Anouvong attempted a rebellion but was unsuccessful.

In 1893 Vientiane became the protectorate of France and 6 years later it became the capital of French Laos.

Finally in 1946 Vientiane was again named capital but now of a new independent state.


Vientiane is the capital and most important city of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Also called Vientiane, it is located in the west-central part of the country just where its territory begins to expand. It is also located in the prefecture of the same name. Laos is the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia


Vientiane is located in the west-central part of the country, almost on the border with Thailand. It is the most important city in Laos and is located on a plain next to the Mekong River.


The climate can be considered tropical although there are variations in temperatures between the summer and winter months. In Vientiane the average is 22ºC in December and 29ºC in April.

From May to October is the rainy season in which the annual average rainfall is 1,800 mm.


The city is washed by the waters of the Mekong River

Administrative divition

Vientiane is made up of five districts:

  • Chantabuly
  • Hadxaifong
  • Sikhottabong
  • Sisattanak


The population of Vientiane is basically made up of Laotians although of different ethnicities such as the Theung or the Sung. We also find Thais living in the capital but they are a minority. See population of Laos.

Economic development

The trade in its raw materials is what drives the economy mainly. They export wood, lacquer, textiles or leather.

Its most prominent industries have to do with food, footwear and construction materials.

Mineral resources are centered on gypsum, tin, gold, or precious stones.

They have an important airport.

Tourist attractions

The city of Vientiane, which is the capital of the country, is considered one of the quietest cities in the world. Suffice it to say that it only houses 200 thousand residents.

Among the monuments that cannot be missed here we find the That Luang Stupa as well as the Vat Sri Saketel monastery, considered the oldest temple in the city since it dates from the year 1818. If you want to continue practicing religious tourism then you cannot miss the Vat Ho Pra Keo Royal Oratory, which today functions as a religious museum. Inside this place is the image of Buddha, Pra Bang.

Continuing with this route, you can travel about 25 kilometers south of Vientiane to visit the Buddha Park. It is also recommended to visit the Patuxai which is the monumental triumphal arch of the city. Likewise, the visitor can dare to visit one of the most revered sanctuaries in the country, which is the 45-meter high Buddhist stupa known as Pha That Luang.

The former royal residence is also highly regarded among visitors.

It is also very traditional to visit the many markets that the city has and where you can find practically everything, such as Talàat Sâo.



The goldsmith, textiles and baskets are manufactured major craft exhibitions in the city.

In addition to those already mentioned, tribal crafts, jewelry and various sculptures by local artists are also popular in Vientiane.


The Buddhism Theravada represents the majority religion of the population, but there are some very minority cults are officially banned. Some of them are the Phii or the sayasat.

Holidays and traditions

The festivals that take place throughout the year in Vientiane are closely linked to religious celebrations or the harvest season.

The Laotian Buddhist calendar is your system for locating yourself in time by setting your year 1 to 638 BC on the Christian calendar.

In the month of April, the Pii Mai is celebrated, a festival in which the Buddha figures are washed and then everyone splashes water in the streets.

The Visaka Bu-Saa festival, in the month of May, commemorates the birth, enlightenment and death of Buddha.

Finally, it is worth highlighting the Full Moon or That Luang party, which takes place in the capital in November, and for a week the fireworks are the protagonists.


  • Pha That Luang Temple, 16th century.
  • Former Royal Residence.
  • National Museum of Laos
  • Buddha Park
  • Great stupa That Dam
  • Vat Si Muang, here is a famous stone column that indicates the place, where the city of Vientiane was founded.
  • The Buddhist Temples Vat Sok Pa Luang, and Vat Si Saket
  • Patuxai, a monumental triumphal arch built in commemoration of independence.

Vientiane, Laos

Manila, Philippines

Manila, Philippines

According to abbreviationfinder, Manila is the capital of the Philippines, a country in Southeast Asia. As a coastal city, it is located exactly in the Bay that bears its name, next to the mouth of the Pasig River.


The history of Manila begins in the 12th century, when a small maritime town settled there. However, back in the 16th century, the Spanish Miguel López de Legazpi and a companion from his boat arrived in these lands and conquered them in the name of Felipe II.

The island of Luzón was explored in 1570 by Martín de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo, sent by Legazpi, who in 1571 conquered it and appointed it head of government of the Philippines. The city remained under his rule for centuries. Due to limits and because reaching the Philippines implied going through Portuguese waters, this colony was quite isolated from its metropolis, even so a settlement was installed to secure it from rival powers.

It was besieged by the Dutch and the English in the 17th and 18th centuries. It was conquered by the American Dewey in 1898, after the Battle of Cavite. In World War II it was occupied by the Japanese between 1942 and 1945. In 1947 the country achieved its independence, but by then it was under a US protectorate. In 1948 it ceased to be the capital of the Philippines, although it continued to be the most important city. In 1976 it regained its capital status to the detriment of Quezon and became the capital city and since then it has been the center of internal immigration: a city where thousands of people came seeking a better quality of life. The problem was that it was overcrowded and the consequences were dire.

Manila has a few dynamic points where commerce and active life pass, but its main place is the mouth of the Pasig River. Despite this, these places have a very poor standard of living: endemicity, pollution and overcrowding are constant. Manila also had the misfortune of being frequently hit by earthquakes, fires and other natural disasters.


The Philippines comprises eleven large islands (Luzon, Mindanao, Samar, Negros, Panay, Palawan, Mindoro, Leyte, Cebu, Bohol and Masbate) that comprise 95% of the Philippine territory, and more than seven thousand islands or islets that mark out, along long of more than 1,800 km, two of the main tectonic arcs of the Pacific Ocean and the Sonda shelf, between Taiwan and Borneo. They are mountainous islands with numerous volcanoes, some still active.


The climate of the Philippines is tropical, with two distinct seasons: one dry and the other rainy; the latter runs from June to December and is the typhoon season. The average temperature does not vary much and is around 26º C.


Manila is located on the western coast of Luzon Island, at the mouth of the Pasig River, open to Manila Bay.


Manila has 10,330,100 residents. See population of Philippines.

Economic development

The capital of the Philippine Islands is an important industrial center where large factories in the food sector, mechanical constructions, the steel, metallurgical, chemical and electronic sectors are located. In recent times, the development of the textile, publishing industry and some products of primary origin has increased. This advance has generated new job opportunities but in turn brought more pollution and in a city where only 10% of the population has access to drainage systems, this problem turns into a true tragedy.

The most representative industrial branches are: textiles (12.06 of the national total), appliances of all kinds (12.01), food products (9.69), advertising and printing (8.49), metal manufacturing (7, 45), and others less important. This city has several attractions, buildings with exquisite architecture and green parks.


A visa is not required for a stay of less than 21 days, but it is necessary to have a validity of six months in the passport. The best way to access Manila is through its Ninoy Aquino International Airport. The Manila night invites you to stroll near the shore of the Pacific. One of the most recommended activities for tourists is swimming in some of the formidable Philippine beaches and practicing scuba diving.


Living conditions in Manila are very bad. There are mandatory vaccines against various diseases that are considered epidemics. Hygiene conditions are not good.


Manila was the host city of the 1954 Asian Games.

Illustrious people

The Philippine independence movement against the Spanish had its most important figure in José Rizal; in Manila, where he was executed in 1896, he is still remembered as the first and greatest of the country’s martyrs. After the defeat of the Spanish, the islands’ first American governor was future President William H. Taft.

Manila, Philippines

Kabul, Afghanistan

Kabul, Afghanistan

According to abbreviationfinder, Kabul is the capital city of Afghanistan, framed by the Afghan provinces of Parwan, Kapisa, Laghman, Nangarhar, Logar and Vardak.

It is located 1800 meters above sea level and has a population of 2.08 million residents.


In the Rig-veda text (the oldest text in India, from the middle of the second millennium BC) the word Kubhā is mentioned to refer to the Kabul river.

The first written mention of this city affirms that in the year 328 a. n. and. suffered the invasion and conquest of Alexander the Great. Later it fell under the power of the Sassanids whose establishment lasted until well into the 7th century, a period in which the Arab and Muslim conquests began. After the arrival of Islam, the Mongol conquests began with Genghis Khan at the head and at the end of the Middle Ages, that is, well into the sixteenth century, it was named capital of the Mughal Empire by the conqueror Baber (1504-1525). Later, Delhi replaced it as the imperial capital in 1526 But Kabul remained an important Mughal center until it was conquered in 1738 by the Persian king Nadir Sha. In 1747, with the emergence of a modern Afghanistan, Kabul became part of an Afghan state with independent characteristics and in 1776 it replaced Kandahar as the state capital.

“According to ancient sources, Karabakh has the following borders: the Araz river from Khudaferin bridge to Sinig Korpu in the south. Today Sinig Korpu is located between Gazaj Shamsaddin and Demirchi-Hasanli communities… The Kura River in the east, which merges with the Araz River in Javad village, empties into the Caspian Sea. The Goran River, to the Kura River in Elizavetpol (Ganja – K.Sh.) in the north. The high mountains Kusbek, Salvarti and Erikli of Karabakh in the west »

Mirza Yamal Yavanshir (1773–1853). Karabakh history

In 1822, the Karabakh Khanate was dissolved and it became a province. In Obozrenie published in Saint Petersburg in 1836, he reported on the borders and territory of the Karabakh province, noting that a significant part of the territory is covered by mountains. [1]

In his article titled Caucasus Crisis, A. Skibitsky, son of the famous researcher MA Skibitsky, writes:

«[…] the whole mountainous part of Karabakh Khanate was called as Nagorno Karabakh. This territory includes the Karabakh mountain range in the East, the lands between the Zangazur Mountains in the West, also the Karabakh Plateau that separates Upper Karabakh from Lower Karabakh.


Kabul is located on a plateau, next to the river of the same name, from which the Khyber pass is overlooked. To the old part of the city, located to the south of the river, they were added, first a traditional neighborhood north of Kabul (19th century); later a new city was built, about eight kilometers from the old town. Between one nucleus and another more recent neighborhoods have developed that follow geometric lines.

Province data

Kabul province occupies a surface area of 4685 km 2 and has a population of 2.85 million.

Territorial organization

The province is divided into districts, which are:

  • Bagrami
  • Chahar Asyab
  • Dih Sabz
  • Guldara
  • Istalif
  • Acceptance
  • Kalakan
  • Khaki Jabbar
  • Mir Bach the Cat
  • musayi
  • Paghman
  • Qarabagh
  • Shakar Dara
  • Surobi


Kabul’s products include Afghan coats and leather goods. Blankets of artisan designs and lapis lazuli jewelry are also made.


The most popular dishes in the country are Kebabs, made of lamb or chicken and Pilau, served with rice, and the delicious Afghan bread, called “nan”. Another well-known dish is the pilau zarda or norang is made with chicken seasoned with orange, and the pilau gaubili with lamb. Nuts, grapes and spices are usually added to these types of dishes. A little stronger is the pilau qurma. The most typical is the tea called chai that you can taste in the tea houses called chai khanas.


Despite being the capital of Afghanistan, Kabul is one of the smallest cities in the country. With an approximate population of just over three million, it is also the most densely populated. See population of Afghanistan.


Any person who wishes to enter Afghanistan must apply to the consulate closest to their country of origin for a visa. To do this, you must pay the amount indicated according to the time of stay in Afghanistan and present a passport valid for at least three months. In Kabul, the tourist has options such as the Intercontinental Hotel and numerous guest houses. The national airline is Ariana Afgan airline that carried out international flights and some local ones.


Afghanistan shows a very backward economy based on transhumance cattle ranching and very archaic agriculture. Kabul is little industrialized, the most important factories, which emerged from 1940, are dedicated to leather, glass, plastic and footwear.

Upper Karabakh

Nagorno Karabakh region. It is a territory officially recognized by the United Nations as part of Azerbaijan, illegally occupied by Armenia. Located in the South Caucasus region, about 270 kilometers west of the Azerbaijani capital, Baku. Its name means ” the mountainous part of Karabakh “. The region includes the major cities Jankendi and Shusha.

Kabul, Afghanistan

Hong Kong Overview

Hong Kong Overview

According to abbreviationfinder, Hong Kong is a special administrative region located in eastern China, near the delta of the Pearl River and consists of a peninsula and several islands. Today it is one of the most influential cities in Southeast Asia. Its more than 7 million residents in just 1,000 square kilometers make up one of the most densely populated regions on the planet.

With a still recent colonial past, since it ceased to depend on the United Kingdom in 1997, Hong Kong is one of the five most populous Chinese cities and also one of the most westernized. This is largely due to the close contact it has maintained with European and British culture as a result of its colonial character. Despite this, many Chinese traditions are maintained in the city, one of the two regions of the country, together with Macao, as a special administrative region. See Hong Kong facts.


Historically, the Hong Kong region has been occupied by the Chinese since the Neolithic era. Initially these formed a small fishing community, being the refuge area for pirates and opium smugglers. In the seventeenth century, the region witnessed the struggles between the Ming dynasty and the Ping dynasty, participating in the history of China itself.

It is after the First Opium War when the island of Hong Kong occupies a place in history by being ceded, indefinitely, by China to Great Britain through the Treaty of Nanking of 1842. After the Second Opium War and the Convention of Peking of 1860 new assignments remember to Britain: part of the Kowloon Peninsula and the island of Stonecutters. The area of the colony increased significantly with the incorporation of the New Territories, part of the Kowloon Peninsula and Lantau Island, leased to Great Britain for 99 years from July 1, 1898 to June 30, 1997.? Following the establishment of the ROC in 1912, Hong Kong became for the first time a political refuge for Chinese exiles from the mainland. In 1937, during China’s war with Japan over Manchuria, it again became a place of asylum for hundreds of thousands of Chinese displaced by the Japanese invasion.

During the Second World War it fell into the hands of the Japanese who transformed it into the military center of their campaign in Asia. The British took Hong Kong back in 1945 after Japan’s unconditional surrender. The civil war between nationalists and communists in China brought back waves of Chinese who took refuge in the territory before and after the communist victory of 1949.

In the 1950s, during the Korean War, the United States banned trade with Communist China, hurting Hong Kong’s business activity and slowing its economic progression. The continued influx of Chinese from the mainland provided cheap labor that enabled rapid growth, especially in manufacturing. The ensuing economic development transformed Hong Kong into one of the richest and most productive regions in Asia, and as a consequence, during the 1970s, the influx of refugees from the continent increased. In the early 1980s, large numbers of refugees began arriving from Vietnam.

In 1982, given the proximity of the end of the British lease on the New Territories (July 1, 1997), talks between China and Great Britain about the future of Hong Kong began. By the Joint Declaration signed by China and the United Kingdom on December 19, 1984 in Beijing, China promised that under the “one country, two systems” policy, China’s socialist economic system would not apply in Hong Kong, committing to respect the existing legal system in Hong Kong prior to the transfer of sovereignty for a period of 50 years, until the year 2047. China would take charge of foreign policy and defense of the territory.

After 1997 Hong Kong would also give a constitution that would be known as Basic Law drafted by a committee convened in Beijing which would be attended by representatives of the British colony. In 1989, after the Tiananmen events, work on the new constitution was suspended and Britain refused to consider a possible renegotiation of the Joint Declaration. In April 1990, the Chinese Parliament approved the new constitution, the so-called Basic Law, which even allowed some seats in the future Legislative Council to be elected before 1997.

Relations between China and Britain over Hong Kong deteriorated during 1991 due to disagreements over the financing of a new airport on Lantau Island, on which an agreement was finally reached in November 1994. Another source of friction with China was given by the late British governor Chris Patten when carrying out democratic reforms in the last years of British sovereignty not well seen by communist China. Hong Kong also experienced a delicate moment in May 1992 ] when the government of the region initiated the forcible repatriation of all Vietnamese refugees.

On 1 July as as 1997 Hong Kong became a Special Administrative Region of China as, regime which will end in 2047 with full integration into China. Today Hong Kong has become one of the world’s major tourist, industrial, financial and commercial centers, playing the role of a springboard for mainland China’s trade and investment.


The Hong Kong region is made up of a peninsula and 236 islands, of which the best known is Hong Kong Island proper.


Hong Kong Island

Taken by the English in 1840, Hong Kong Island is the most modern area and concentrates most of the companies in the administrative region of Kong Kong. In the north of the island is Victoria Bay, where the most famous buildings in Hong Kong are located: the Bank of China Tower, the Two International Finance Center, the Central Plaza and others. In addition to the financial district, we will find two points of great interest: Victoria Peak and Aberdeen Bay.


It is the most densely populated area in Hong Kong with a density of 43,000 residents per square kilometer. It is located to the north of Hong Kong Island and is the most residential and chaotic area of Hong Kong. In the south of Kowloon is the Tsim Sha Tsui area, where you can get the best views of Victoria Bay.

Lantau Island

It is the largest in Hong Kong and where the Hong Kong International Airport, the Hong Kong Disneyland theme park and the Po Lin Monastery are located, where you can see the tallest Big Sitting Buddha in the world with 24 meters of height. The whole island is very different from the rest of Hong Kong. Lantau Island is a natural place that offers relaxation and tranquility.

New Territories

It is the northernmost part of Hong Kong and its widest area. More than 3 and a half million people live in its almost 1,000 square kilometers.


Hong Kong has a subtropical climate with clearly differentiated seasons. Typhoon season runs from May to November. Weather according to the season:

  • Spring (March – May) It is characterized by rising temperature and humidity. Nights can be cold.
  • Summer (June – August) It is characterized by heat, humidity and sun, with occasional showers and storms.
  • Autumn (September – November) It is characterized by lots of sun, light breezes and very pleasant temperatures. For many people, this is the best time of year to travel to Hong Kong.
  • Winter (December – February) It is characterized by cold, dry and cloudy weather, with occasional cold fronts. The temperature can drop below 10ºC in urban areas.

Economic development

Its financial importance (it is one of the 20 most important financial centers in the world), based on its great commercial activity, has also made it one of the Chinese cities with the highest percentage of foreign population, although its almost seven million residents (data 2002 of the Hong Kong Tourism Board) are mainly Chinese, and the most widely spoken language, Cantonese, although the use of Putonghua is growing.


More and more tour operators include Hong Kong as a stop on their China combo packages or as a main travel destination. Traveling to Hong Kong can be a fascinating experience, due to the seductiveness of the center – more cosmopolitan – and the calm of its surroundings. The large number of leisure options available, its nightlife and its combination of Chinese tradition with Western modernity make it, without a doubt, a unique place.

Social development


In terms of education, Hong Kong still shows traces of its colonial occupation in its educational system, while it takes some of its characteristics from the British model.

Its universities include the University of Hong Kong (University of Hong Kong), the Chinese University of Hong Kong (Chinese University of Hong Kong), the City University of Hong Kong (City University of Hong Kong), the University of Science and Technology of Hong Kong (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology) and the Polytechnic University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong Polytechnic University).


In it, traditional Chinese languages coexist (Mandarin and Cantonese are sometimes mixed) with English, the second official language and widely used in the region.

Hong Kong Overview

Beirut, Lebanon

Beirut, Lebanon

According to abbreviationfinder, Beirut is the capital and largest city of the Lebanese Republic. It has a population of more than a million and a half residents. It is the main seaport in the country.

The city was destroyed during the Lebanese Civil War and divided between western (Muslim) and eastern (Christian) Beirut.


It is recognized as one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, along with Belgrade (Serbia), Byblos (Lebanon), Aleppo (Syria), Susa (Iran), Sidon (Lebanon), Luxor (Egypt) and Jericho (Palestine) .

Already from 3000 a. n. and. there were settlements of families. In 1400 a. n. and. it is referred to as Bairuth. In the 1st century BC. n. and. it was invaded by the Roman Empire, who named it Berytus. A century later it is mentioned by its original name (Beirut).


The Capital of the Lebanese Republic is an active city that conglomerates more than a million and a half residents. Its location, in the entire center of the country, makes it a strategic place without competition in the region, it is surrounded by mountains and at its feet the Mediterranean Sea extends, enriched with a trajectory of more than five thousand years of history, which turned it into the most imposing city on the Canaanite-Phoenician coast for many centuries.


The capital of Lebanon is located on the shores of the Mediterranean, in the Bay of Saint George, to the north of the triangular rocky promontory that emerges from the Lebanon mountain range.


The climate in Beirut is Mediterranean, characterized by hot and sunny summers, generally temperatures reach 30 degrees Celsius.

As an annual average, this coastal city reaches 300 days of sunshine. Winters in Beirut, however, are much colder. Unless you want to go skiing, the best time to visit Beirut is between April and November.


The Lebanese capital today has a significant number of newspapers and publications in 4 languages: Arabic, English, French and Armenian. Beirut’s five universities contribute to teaching the different branches of science and innovating intellectual production. The development of the arts, cinematography, music and plastic arts consolidates the cultural heritage that allows us to experience a continuous advance of the city. Among its natural conditions, the city makes it possible to create a favorable environment for regional and international conventions and congresses.

It is home to numerous international organizations, such as the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) which has its headquarters in the city center, the International Labor Organization (ILO) and UNESCO have regional offices. in Beirut, spanning the Arab world. The Arab Air Carriers Organization (AACO) also has its headquarters in this city.

Beirut has hosted summits of the Francophonie and the Arab League. It will be a candidate to host the Olympic Games of 2024.

Cultural heritage

Lebanon is a multicultural country, with strong groups of Muslims and Christians living within its borders, so the Lebanese people are used to ethnic diversity, and they are more tolerant than in many other Muslim countries. Therefore, in Beirut, also women can dress more freely than in most Middle Eastern countries.


Lebanon’s diverse cultural heritage is also reflected in the number of languages spoken in the country. In addition to Arabic and French, which are the two official languages, English is also commonly understood in Beirut. See population of Lebanon.

Economic development

Beirut is the commercial, banking and financial center of the region. The trade innately part of the residents of Beirut since discovered centuries ago, the importance of their city port as a link between East and West, for the realization of all types of businesses. It became a financial, commercial and industrial center of great resonance.

The port of Beirut was conditioned for the anchorage of dozens of ships and boats. Its strategic location makes it one of the safest ports in the area.

The project for the conditioning and modernization of the port was highlighted in the country’s reconstruction plan. Another organization, equipping and expansion project was the Beirut International Airport that served the air traffic of the Lebanese airline (MEA) and many other international airlines.

At the end of the internal war that Lebanon suffered in 1975, Beirut was rebuilt in an accelerated time, keeping its central helmet as a witness to the many centuries of history.


Attractions in the city

With its history dating back more than 5,000 years, Beirut is a city with deep roots buried in the soil of the Middle East. Although the city has been through difficult times, and is still not completely free from them, there are many attractions in Beirut, which are worth looking at. There are relatively well-preserved and impressive historical sites in the city, as well as theaters, concerts, and the exciting Beirut nightlife.

The nightlife in the Lebanese Capital is considered the most up-to-date in terms of services and contributions to international tourism, because between the high level of security and the excellent quality of service, the management of 3 basic and everyday languages, the culinary culture recognized worldwide, and the decision of their children to re-qualify as “Middle East Switzerland”, in 2009 Beirut won the first place as a tourist destination in the world.


Beirut is served by the Beirut Rafic Hariri International Airport, located south of the city. The Port of Beirut is the main seaport in the country. The city has bus lines that connect it with the rest of the country and the main cities of neighboring Syria. You can also travel by hiring the services of a taxi. Buses leaving for the north and Syria depart from the Charles Helou Station.

Nature and sports

Beirut is in many ways an open-air city. Sunbathing fills Beirut’s beaches from May to October, walks through the city’s parks add a touch of fresh air, sailboats fill the harbors, and diving in Beirut is a popular sport. Skiing around Beirut is also available from December to March. Shopping possibilities in Beirut are also good, with affordable prices and yet the high quality available, not forgetting the local Lebanese cuisine that is known all over the world.

Beirut, Lebanon

Doha, Qatar

Doha, Qatar

According to abbreviationfinder, Doha is the capital of Qatar, and is located on the Qatari peninsula in the Persian Gulf. Its main economic activities are the oil and fishing industry. Its estimated population is 998,651 residents (2009) and its geographical position is located between the coordinates 25.3 ° N 51.5333 ° E. In the city is the headquarters of the Al-Jazeera television network, one of the main international media. in Arabic language.

In this city the first meeting at the ministerial level on the negotiations of the World Trade Organization with the purpose of liberalizing world trade was held. Which was called the Doha Round and materialized in 2001.


Doha was founded in 1825 with the name of Al-Vida, in that same year, during the war between Qatar and Bahrain, Doha had been severely damaged and Abu Dhabi, was helping Bahrain.

The name “Doha” is believed to come from the Arabic word Ad-Dawhah which means: “The Great Tree”. Alluding to a prominent tree that must have grown on the spot. It is also said that it may have been a derivative of “Dohat” which in Arabic means bay or gulf.

In 1765 Al Bida appears for the first time reflected on an English map.

In the 19th century, Doha was little more than a small town known as Al Vida routinely attacked by Bedouin nomads.

In 1821 the town was bombed by the British ship Vestal in 1821, after the city considered broken a general peace treaty.

In 1841 the town was bombed again after Al-Suwaidi, the leader of the Sudanese who later ruled Al Bida, was accused of being outside the law.

In 1847 the town was destroyed after its leader – Bin Tarif Bin Salamah – died in battle against the Caliph of Bahrain near Fuweirat.

Doha was a city close to Al Bida, and between Al Bida and Doha, the British resident decided to establish that the capital of Qatar was to be Doha or Al Wakra.

In 1867 the Qataris were attacked again by Bahrain who had the help of Abu Dhabi, after that Doha and Al Wakra tried to retaliate in a very bloody naval battle, but the British, who wanted to keep the trade calm and stable in the Annoyed that the caliphs of Bahrain had broken the treaty prohibiting maritime warfare in the area, they arrived in Qatar and were received by the head of Al Bida, Sahikh Mohamad Bin Thani. At this meeting it was to lead Qatar and turn it into a nation-state under Al Thanis.

In 1882, Al Rayyan built the fortress of Al Wajbah in the southwest of Doha and the following year, Sheikh Qassim led a Qatari army to victory against the Ottomans.

With the approval of Qassim Al-Thani, who had an interest in consolidating his control of the area, the Ottomans took control of the country, based in Doha. However, disagreement over tributes and interference in internal affairs led to the battle of 1893 where the Ottomans were defeated and withdrew to their outpost in central Doha, from where they were driven during the First World War.

As a result of the departure of the Ottomans as early as 1916 Qatar was a formal British protectorate with Doha as the country’s capital.

In 1917, the Al-Kout Fortress, which is located in the center of the city, was built by Sheikh Abdulla Bin Qasim Al-Thani.

In 1930 after the introduction of cultured pearls by Japan the entire region, including the city of Doha, suffered a very strong depression and Qatar sank into poverty because during the 20th century, a large part of the Qatari economy depended on fishing and pearl gathering, and the introduction of these pearls brought a debacle to the economy, however in the late 1930s, important oil deposits were discovered in the country that despite the fact that they could not be exploited to a great extent Due to the Second World War already today, the nation as a whole produces thousands of barrels of oil per day.

In 1971 the country gained its independence.

After the second world war the exploitation of the oil reserves of Qatar were pushed to save the city. However, the emirs of Qatar waited a long time to develop and expand the exploitation of the newly discovered wealth, after which there was a coupled development of the entire city, but as in other countries in the region, in the desire to modernize much of the country’s heritage was lost.

In 1973, the University of Qatar opened its doors.

In 1996 the Arab satellite Al-Jazeera television (news channel) began to broadcast from Doha.

By 2010 Qatar was already considered one of the fastest developing countries not only in the Arab world but also on a planetary level.


Doha is located on the Arabian Peninsula, specifically on the Qatari peninsula in the Persian Gulf between the coordinates 25.3 ° N 51.5333 ° E.


The prevailing climate in the city of Doha is warm and very arid but cold at night, the average temperature is over 48 ° C from May to September, and the humidity is variable. In summer, temperatures often reach 60 ° C or more.


During the summer months there is almost no precipitation and the rest of the months there is no precipitation, with an average of 0 mm per year, with drizzles falling on isolated days, especially between October and March.

Winters are hot during the day and cold at night, although the temperature rarely drops below -3 ° C.


The population of Doha is composed mostly of foreign residents, predominantly those from South Asian countries, mainly Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, the Philippines, Bangladesh and Indonesia, there are also a large number of people from Arab countries from the East Coast and North Africa, and East Asia as well as expatriates from the UK, USA, Canada, France, South Africa and Australia, and from many other countries around the world. See population of Qatar.

Due to heavy immigration, Doha has witnessed one of the most extraordinary population growth rates and currently stands at over one million residents.


Doha, is the economic center of Qatar and where the wealth obtained from oil and natural gas is reflected, which are the bases of its economy and the country, it is the headquarters of the largest oil and gas companies in the country, including Qatar Petroleum, Qatargas, Ras Gas.

The city on par with the country is rapidly trying to diversify the economy in order to get away from this dependence on oil. So it is experiencing a very big boom, especially as a result of the Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa modernization program.

Like the nearby city of Dubai in the United Arab Emirates, Doha’s economy is moving away from its dependence on oil and natural gas, although unlike Dubai, Doha’s main focus is not tourism. Doha due to its extraordinary population growth is experiencing a boom in the real estate sector with the rise in real estate prices.

This growth rate has led to projects such as the Lusail Ciudad project, which is being built north of Doha, which will house 200,000 people.

Construction is also booming in Doha as a result of increased business and commercial activity in Doha.


Doha main districts:

  • Al Bida
  • Bin mahmoud
  • Al Dafna
  • Al Hilal
  • Madinat khalifa
  • Al Mamoura
  • Al Markhiya
  • Al Nasr
  • Old Airport
  • Onaiza
  • Qutaifiya
  • Ras Abu Aboud
  • Al sadd
  • Rumeilah
  • Al Waab
  • Wadi Al Sail
  • West Bay


Education has been a very important focus of attention for the Qatari government in recent years. The government has requested the creation of other universities apart from the University of Qatar, established since 1973 and to create the famous City of Education.

The Education City is one of the major non-profit projects sponsored by the Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development, which has also launched the World Education Innovation Summit (global forum that brings together educational actors, opinion leaders and decision makers from around the world to discuss educational issues).

Doha is also home to countless international schools established for immigrant communities.

Doha, Qatar

Yerevan, Armenia

Yerevan, Armenia

According to abbreviationfinder, Yerevan is the capital and largest city of Armenia, as well as being the center of the largest political, cultural and commercial life in the environment. It is located on the banks of the Razdan River, next to the border with Turkey. It is an important economic and cultural center, as it has a university and numerous museums, libraries and art galleries.


Armenia is a mountainous country. With an average height of 1,800 meters, in the Armenian territory great peaks of the Caucasus alternate, such as Mount Aragats (4,095 m.) And volcanic plateaus, crossed by deep valleys where torrential waters run. The largest of these streams, the Araxe River, a tributary of the Koura, serves as a boundary with Turkey and Iran. With a dry and continental climate, the summers are hot and the winters very cold. See population of Armenia.


Yerevan limits: to the North and Northeast with the province of Kotayk ‘, to the South with the province of Ararat, to the Southwest with the province of Armavir, and to the West with the province of Aragatsotn.

Economic development

The city of Yerevan, located in a picturesque region, is famous for its orchards and vineyards, is an important cultural, industrial and transport center. Among the main lines of its economy predominate, the manufacture of chemical products, primary metals, machinery, rubber, plastic, textiles and food products.


The capital of Armenia, Yerevan, also called Yereban, is located in the center of the country and has approximately 1 million residents (according to Wikipedia). Yerevan is an explosion of mixtures and flavors, which welcomes the tourist who arrives wanting to know another city and another different paradise.

The traveler who goes to Yerevan, must be aware of the contrasts that he is going to know and of the difference between cultures that he is going to notice. In addition to the wealth of the city, and its impressive buildings, the landscape that surrounds the city must also be taken into account.

The strategic location of Yerevan is another of the attractions that most attracts the attention of tourists. The peaks of the Caucasus surround this city full of magic. The postcard that can be seen from any high location in the city is almost a must to photograph.

The history of the city, as well as the influence that religions have had on that territory for centuries, can be seen in its architecture and lifestyle. Yerevan holds many charms that will make the origins of the ancient civilization be known when you walk through its streets.

Erevan is a city in constant change and evolution, its constant movements of people, the international tourism it receives or the influences of its neighboring countries, make the Armenian capital an explosion of cultures.


Yerevan International Airport, better known as Zvartnots Airport, is the most important in Armenia and serves not only Yerevan (Erevan) its capital, but the entire country. It operates with various points in Europe, several of them in Eastern Europe, among other destinations; in addition to domestic flights. Around 1.33 million passengers went through it in 2009.

Buses, minibuses and taxis connect the airport with the urban area. Bus and minibus lines run frequently to the center of Yerevan. The taxi ranks are on the Arrivals level, at the exit of the baggage claim area and operate 24 hours a day.


Yerevan is the center of Armenian culture, it is the headquarters of the Yerevan State University (1920), the Armenian Academy of Sciences, a historical museum, an opera house, a music conservatory and several technical schools. The Matenadaran archives house a rich collection of valuable ancient Armenian manuscripts. Yerevan has numerous public libraries, museums and theaters, a botanical garden and a zoo. In Yerevan you can also see the ruins of a Roman fortress, a 16th century Turkish fort and an 18th century mosque.

Places of interest

  • Mount Arafat, (the place where Noah’s Ark is supposed to have been anchored), is one of the places of greatest tourist pilgrimage. This is where, supposedly, the worldwide flood that Noah endured took place.
  • Church of San Gayane, is another of the neuralgic points of the city and other architectural importance.
  • Blue Mosque, a temple built in 1766 and undoubtedly the most important there. It has been used mainly as a mosque, although in times of Soviet rule it was a planetarium.
  • Archaeological Ensemble of Zvartnots; where churches still preserved from the 15th century are located.
  • The opera; It is also another of the most famous places in the city and interesting for its architecture.
  • Matenadarán Center, depository of old documents; some 17,000 manuscripts and 30,000 documents on various subjects in Arabic, Persian, Syriac, Greek, [Latin]], Amharic, Japanese and some Indian languages, there is nothing.
  • Memorial Park and the Museum of Victims of the Genocide of 1915, one of the places that reminds us of the sad story of suffering that has accompanied the Armenian people during their lives.


The image of Yerevan will not be complete without a visit to Vernisage, the rich handicraft market that looks more like an open-air museum. Here every Saturday and Sunday the skilled artisans present their works of silver and gold, stone and wood, ceramics and clay, embroidery, carpets, dolls in traditional costumes, various souvenirs and much more.

Yerevan, Armenia

New Delhi, India

New Delhi, India

According to abbreviationfinder, New Delhi is the capital of India. It is located at a crossroads between the trade routes that came from Europe and circulated through the Ganges plains to the farthest East. Uncompromising city in every way. It stretches over a huge expanse of the Iamuna River plain and the growing population, poverty and high levels of pollution are distinctive symbols. Regardless of these factors, historical, architectural and culinary wonders prevail at every step in the tour of the city called also of the great contradictions.


It is considered one of the oldest cities in the world because its origins date back to approximately 1,200 BC. Up to seven different cities have been successively built on it, one on top of the other. Founded by the Mughal emperor, Shahjahan, who gave it the name of Shahjahanabad (Old Delhi) and made it the capital of the country.


Delhi has been the capital of India since its independence in 1947. It emerged as a planned city, built capital south of the old urban area and named after the English rulers moved the capital of British India from Calcutta in 1911 to this city. It continues to be the capital of independent India. The architect Edwin Lutyens was in charge of planning the city. He designed a spectacular administrative area, a legacy of British imperialism.

The modern capital is actually the sum of two cities: Old Delhi, huddled within the dirty and narrow streets of the enclosure, surrounded by the walls of the Red Fort, and New Delhi, the opposite pole, site of the great Imperial Citadel, tree-lined boulevards and spacious bungalows designed by Lutyens and Baker in the 1920s. After decolonization, starting in 1947, the city experienced spectacular development, especially in the sub-urban area. A new city, New Delhi, was born and officially declared the seat of the Indian Government and Parliament.

Today Delhi is the most important city in India in terms of culture, commerce and politics. Despite its long history, Delhi is a very young city. With the partition of 1947, the city underwent enormous changes that radically transformed it overnight. India became predominantly Hindu, while Pakistan became a fully Islamic country.

There were massive migrations between the two countries and there were large-scale bloodbaths. After being predominantly Muslim for centuries, Delhi became after 1947 a Hindu and Sikh city whose official language is Panyabi. At the same time, the population doubled, despite the mass exodus of Muslims. This surprising and artificial demographic change largely explains the harshness and insecurity of the city. In a way, it is a city only half a century old.


The municipality of New Delhi has a population of over 340,000. In 2003, the National Capital Territory of Delhi – of which New Delhi is a part – had a population of 14.1 million making it the second largest metropolitan area in India after Bombay. There are 821 women for every 1000 men and illiteracy is 81.82%. See population of India.


New Delhi has a total area of 1483 km². Most of the territory is located on the west bank of the Yamuna River, and the Ganges and Aravali rivers are nearby.

The city is located at an altitude between 65,421 and 305 meters above sea level. Geographically it is located in the northern part of the country. It borders the states of Uttar Pradesh and Haryana.


The climate is monsoon. It has two seasons, a wet one, in the summer, from the end of June to the end of September, and a longer dry one that lasts the rest of the year. Starting in mid-April, temperatures rise inexorably. During most of the months of May, June and July the thermometers stay around 45 ° C (113 ° F) until the arrival of the monsoon.

The rainiest months are July and August, the rest of the year the rains are scarce and occasional with abundant sunny days with fog and smoke from air pollution. Snowfall is scarce. Temperatures are mild in winter although contrasted between day and night as there is hardly any cloudiness. The highest temperatures occur in the spring months, as there is hardly any rainfall (April, May and June), exceeding 37 ° C almost every day, and can reach 45 ° C. Summer is warm although not as warm as spring; the fall as the winter are milder.

Most representative places

The city offers multiple places of interest and a rich architectural history, among which the former residence of the British viceroys and the current presidential palace, Rashtrapati Bhavan, the Gateway of India, a memorial erected in honor of soldiers who died during various wars; Humayun’s Tomb, said to be the forerunner of the well-known Taj Mahal in Agra; the Raj Ghat or memorial of Mahatma Gandhi; the Lotus Temple or the remains of the ancient city of Purana Quila.

Of its monuments, the Qutab Minar and Humayun’s tomb, have been declared a World Heritage Site.

Significant cultural events

Important events of a patriotic nature, such as Gandhi Jayani (Gandhi’s birthday), Republic Day and Independence Day, are celebrated annually in New Delhi and the rest of India. Most citizens of New Delhi celebrate the day of the independence of India (on August 15) flying kites, which are considered a symbol of freedom. That day the Prime Minister of India addresses the nation from the Red Keep.

The Republic Day parade is a large cultural and military parade that showcases the cultural and military diversity of India. Religious festivals include Diwali (Festival of Lights), Durga puya, Holi, Lohri, Maha Shivaratri, Eid ul-Fitr, Eid ul-Adha, and Buddha Jayanti.

The Qutub Festival is a nightly cultural event during which musicians and dancers from all over India perform, with the Qutub Minar in the background.

Other events such as the Flying Kite Festival, the International Mango Festival and Vasant Panchai (Spring Festival) take place annually in Delhi.

New Delhi, India

Macau Overview

Macau Overview


The Portuguese occupied Macao on August 14, 1556. Beginning in 1670, Portugal began to pay a tax to China for its presence in the territory. Macau prospered because of its location on the trade route between Malacca and Japan.

According to abbreviationfinder, Macao was the entry point to China for missionaries seeking China’s conversion to Christianity, such as the Jesuit Matteo Ricci. The presence of various religious orders, especially Jesuits, gave a boost to education in Macau.

The peculiarity of Macao as a European pass in China disappears in 1842 at the end of the First Opium War, when the British achieved sovereignty over Hong Kong. The port of Hong Kong would isolate Macao into the background in the commercial arena. Despite this crisis, the weakness of the Qing court at that time allowed Portugal to suspend the payment, imposed for the use of the land that Portugal paid to China and which implied an implicit recognition of Chinese sovereignty.

This consolidation of Portuguese control over Macao is also reflected in the recognition of the territory as a province of Portugal in 1844. Until then, Macao was dependent on the Portuguese possessions in India. Despite the fact that there had never been a formal transfer of sovereignty, Portugal considered Macao an integral part of its territory in 1822 and with the cessation of paying tribute to China it was confirmed that power over Macao belonged to Portugal. In 1851, the Taipa and Coloane islands took over the territory, thus tripling the area of Macao.

During the 20th century, the policies that shook China caused many migratory movements to Macao. This increased during the Second World War, when Macao, thanks to Portugal being neutral, escaped the Japanese invasion. After the Chinese Communist Party took power in China in 1949, many Kuomintang sympathizers took refuge in Macau, where there would be many moments of tension between the two parties, particularly during the Cultural Revolution.

Like Portugal, struggling to hold Macau territory, it offered China its return twice, first in 1967 and then in 1974. In those times of political turmoil under Maoism, the Chinese government rejected the offer to take over the Macau administration. In 1984, in agreement with the United Kingdom for the return of Hong Kong, the People’s Republic of China informed Portugal of its intention to regain the administration of Macao on December 20, 1999.


Macau is made up of three parts: The Macau peninsula, attached to the mainland, and the two islands of Taipa and Coloane. Macau was an island, but thanks to the land reclaimed from the sea, Macau became a peninsula in the 17th century, as a result of which city gates were built to separate the peninsula from the mainland. Pre-colonial records indicated that Macao had an area of 2.78 km², but it began to grow because of the Portuguese settlements. The growth of the surface accelerated in the last quarter of the 20th century, from 15 km² in 1972 to 16.1 km² in 1983 and 21.3 km² in 1994. Where more ground has been gained from the sea has been with the aforementioned islands. In 2000, the total area was approximately 23.6 km². Macao’s border with the rest of China, the so-called Portas do Cerco, separate Macao from the Zhuhai Special Economic Zone (Guangdong Province), one of the most prosperous coastal cities, in part because of its proximity to Macao. The peninsula and the two islands have been linked for years by several bridges. See Macau facts.


In ancient times, the merchants of the area used an awl to mark foreign coins, and thus allow their circulation. There are two countermarks that were used for this purpose; the first, older, contained the legend “MACAO” in Chinese and was stamped on pieces of 5 Spanish pesetas, 5 French francs, 8 Mexican reales, 960 Brazilian reis, Maria Teresa of Austria talers and Philippine pesos. While the second, which is more contemporary, was used by Chinese gambling house merchants.

Today Macau’s economy is largely based on tourism and games. Macau receives a lot of visitors from Hong Kong and, lately, from mainland China.

Along with Macau’s rich historical heritage, the biggest draw for visitors is undoubtedly gambling. Since casinos are banned in both Hong Kong and mainland China, Macau is the only place in China where you can legally play money gambling. This fact, together with the growing purchasing power of the Chinese population, has led to spectacular economic growth in recent years.


Macau’s population is 98% Han Chinese, mainly Cantonese and some Hakka, both from nearby Guangdong province. There is also a population of Japanese and Filipino origin. The community of so-called Macanese, people of mixed Asian and Portuguese descent, make up about 1% of Macau’s current population. Macau has the highest life expectancy in the world at 84.36.

The most widely spoken Chinese dialect is Cantonese, although the number of Mandarin speakers has increased. The Portuguese, despite his co-official character, has a very limited presence in Macau. In fact, the Portuguese dialect spoken by the Macanese community is now practically extinct, and few maintain an active use of Portuguese. English, although unofficial, is already the second most used language in Macau.

Macau Overview

Taipei, Taiwan

Taipei, Taiwan

According to abbreviationfinder, Taipei is a city of 10.5 million people, the de facto capital of Taiwan since 1949. In traditional Chinese it is named 臺北市 or 台北市; In pinyin letter it is named Táiběi Shì.

It is the political, economic and cultural center of the country. The city has an elevated metro and is connected by high-speed rail to Kaohsiung. It is also home to several universities, the National Palace Museum and other cultural institutions such as the Academia Sinica, and Taipei 101, the eighth tallest building in the world.

Taiwan (calling itself the “ROC”) is an officially recognized state by only 21 countries.


Located in the extreme north of the island of Formosa, the city is an enclave of the municipality of New Taipei. It is located about 25 kilometers southwest of the port city of Keelung. Taipei is located in the eponymous basin, an ancient lake bounded by the two relatively narrow valleys of the Keelung and Xindian rivers, which join to form the Tamsui River along the western border of the city. [2]

In 2009, the city was home to an estimated population of 2.69 million, and formed the central part of the Taipei-Keelung metropolitan region, which includes the neighboring cities of New Taipei and Keelung, with a population of 6.9 million. of residents, which made it the 40th (fortieth) most populated metropolis in the world.

The name Taipei can refer to the entire metropolitan area or to the city itself.

Taipei is the political, economic, educational and cultural center of Taiwan, being one of the main centers of the Chinese-speaking world. Considered a global city, it is also part of a major high-tech industrial zone.

The city is connected to all parts of the island through bus lines, highways, railways, high-speed trains, and airports.

Taipei has two airports: Taipei Songshan and Taiwan Taoyuan.

The city is home to several world-famous architectural and cultural monuments, such as Taipei 101 and the Chiang Kai-shek Monument.

In political terms, the term “Taipei” may occasionally be used as a synecdoche for the sovereignty of Taiwan.

Due to the controversy over the political status of Taiwan, the name “Chinese Taipei” is used officially when Taiwanese representatives participate in national teams in some international organizations (which may require United Nations sovereignty), in order to avoid political controversies. on the use of other names.


Before the arrival of the Han Chinese, during the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), Taipei was occupied by the Ketagalán ethnic group. Until the beginning of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1912), this region was undeveloped and considered uninhabitable. The founding of the city of Taipei took place in 1709, when Cheng Lai Chang, a native of mainland China and a subject of the Qing dynasty, obtained permission to develop Wanhua, which would become the city’s first district.

At the end of the 19th century, Taipei gained importance thanks to the tea trade. In 1875 it was renamed Chengnei, and when in 1885, when Taiwan (made up of the island of Formosa) became a province of China, Taipei became its capital.

After the first Sino- Japanese war, in 1895, Japan invaded the entire island, and Taipei became the center of Japanese colonial rule under the new name Taihoku. During this period, the city grew and annexed the neighboring cities. Many outstanding buildings from the time of the Japanese government still remain in the current city.

In 1949, before the communist triumph in mainland China, the “nationalist” government of the Kuomintang, led by Chiang Kai-shek, settled in Taiwan and designated Taipei as the provisional capital of the country, pending a hypothetical reunification with China..

Taipei is the fun capital of Taiwan. It is a combination of modern shopping malls, ancient temples, beautiful palaces, and night markets. [3]

In the ROC, the capital of Taiwan shares an ancient lake basin with New Taipei City. The Tamsui River flows through both cities and interconnects them, despite being separate administrative entities. [3]

With the Tropic of Cancer to the south of Taipei, the city enjoys hot summers and warm winters, and is humid all year round. [3]

Taipei has a comfortable transportation system, a technology-loving population, and a unique culture. [3]

Approximately 6 million people visit Taipei each year. Many of them head straight for the iconic skyscraper, Taipei 101, the National Palace Museum and the glorious Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall.


In the city of Taipei the humid subtropical climate prevails. There, the winter season is generally short and mild, while the summer is rainy and is usually a time marked by storms and typhoons.


Almost all Taiwanese are descendants of immigrants from mainland China, who arrived between the 17th and 19th centuries, and especially in 1949, when Kuomintang supporters took refuge on the island.

Of the original residents of the island (Malay-Polynesians), only about 370,000 in the mountainous areas of the island still preserve the cultures and languages of their ancestors. Between 10% and 20% of the Chinese-speaking population, according to DNA-based studies, have a greater or lesser degree of Malay-Polynesian ethnic ancestry.

The total population is 22,400,000 residents (Nov. 2001). The population density is 622 residents per km 2, the third in East Asia after Hong Kong and Japan. Taipei, the capital, is the city with the largest population (2,800,000 residents) followed by Kaohsiung (2,700,000) and Taichung (850,000). See population of Taiwan.

The population of Chinese origin, currently the majority, is divided into three distinct groups. On the one hand, those who arrived on the island before 1949 have their family backgrounds in the Chinese province of Fujian and mostly speak the southern Min language or Minayu (often called “Taiwanese” on the island). Minayu speakers make up 60% of the Taiwanese population, while around 10% of the population speak the Hakka language. Speakers of these languages are commonly referred to by the Chinese term běnshěngrén (本省人, literally “people of the province”, meaning “colonies before 1949”). In 1949, the island was the final destination of the exodus of more than a million mainland Chinese followers of the Kuomintang, who speak mainly Mandarin. To this last group,

Tensions between these groups have been one of the central axes of Taiwanese politics in recent years.

Taipei, Taiwan

Baku, Azerbaijan

Baku, Azerbaijan

According to abbreviationfinder, Baku is the capital of Azerbaijan, and the main Azerbaijani port on the shores of the Caspian Sea. Founded in the 6th century, it has an area of 1000 km 2, the region is the source of an important oil industry. In 2000, the city was declared a World Heritage Site and, in 2003, included in the list of “endangered assets” established by UNESCO.


It is located on the west coast of the Caspian Sea, on the southern side of the Abseron Peninsula, about 160 kilometers northeast of the border with Iran.


The origins of Baku date back to the 6th century; However, there is only written evidence of its existence since 885 ne. There are numerous theories about the origin of its name, but the most accepted are those that state that Baku comes from the Persian “bagh kuh” (the mountain of God) or from “bad kube” (the city of the winds. The city gained importance after the earthquake that destroyed the capital of the khanat of Xirvan, Xemakha (Shemakha or Samaxi), in the 12th century, when Ahistan I made Baku the new capital. In the early 19th century, the area was called Shirvan and was occupied by Russia ; from 1918 to 1920 it was chosen capital of the recently created Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan, of ephemeral existence; from 1922 it was the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic; and in 1991 it became the capital of the newly independent Republic of Azerbaijan.

In 1990 the so-called Black January occurs, a fact that consisted of a military invasion in the city of Baku, perpetrated by the so-called “Alpha” Special Forces of the once powerful Soviet Union, where one million Azerbaijanis were refugees [1] .


Humidity is high, both during its hot summers and in its harsh winters. Hurricane-force winds are produced during winter, driven by polar wind masses. Snowfalls are infrequent and it is rare for the temperature to drop below 0 ° C. Its average temperature is (14.2 ° C) is very similar to that of the Earth as a whole. The southwestern part of Greater Baku is much more arid, as annual rainfall is less than 150 mm. In the vicinity of the city there are several mud volcanoes (Keyraki, Bogkh-bogkha, Lokbatan and others) as well as salt lakes (Boyukshor, Khodasan etc.).

Economic development

The basis of Baku’s economy is oil, its existence was known since the 8th century. During the 15th century, the fuel for lighting was obtained by digging shallow wells. Commercial exploitation began in 1847 ; at the beginning of the 20th century the Baku oil field produced half the world’s oil. By the end of the 20th century, most of the onshore oil had been almost completely depleted, so prospecting was extended to the Cáspio Sea. Baku is one of the main centers for the production of equipment for the oil industry.

The Battle of Stalingrad, during World War II, was fought to determine who would control the Baku oil fields.

Social development


Baku is the largest educational center in Azerbaijan and has numerous schools and universities. After becoming an independent republic, and the shift to capitalism, numerous private institutions emerged. Baku is also home to the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, founded in 1945.

Public universities

  • Azerbaijan Medical University (founded in 1930)
  • Azerbaijan State Economic University (1930)
  • Azerbaijan State Petroleum Academy (1920)
  • Azerbaijan Technical University (1950)
  • Azerbaijani Languages University (1973)
  • Baku Academy of Music (1920)
  • Slavic University of Baku (1946)
  • Baku State University (1919)

Private universities

  • Azerbaijan International University (1997)
  • Khazar University (1991)
  • Odlar Yurdu University (1995)
  • Qafqaz University (1992)
  • Western University (1991)

Town planning

The excessive growth of the modern city, has occurred south of the old city, has originated after the massive exploitation of oil had begun at the beginning of the 20th century. It is characterized by an architecture that connects with the Fine Arts, with a grid planning. The modern city extends outside the walls of the old city. Its streets and buildings rise to the top of the hills that delimit Baku Bay.

The agglomeration of Baku is divided into 11 districts (Azizbayov, Binagadi, Garadagh, Narimanov, Nasimi, Nizami, Sabail, Sabunchu, Khatai, Surakhany and Yasamal) and 48 municipalities.

Baku today is three cities in one: the old city (or İçəri Şəhər), the expansion and the city built in Soviet times. Modern Baku lies beyond the walls, with the streets and buildings that climb the hills that surround Baku Bay. Greater Baku is divided into eleven districts and 48 municipalities.

The Martyrs Cemetery, in front of the Kirov Park, is dedicated to the memory of those who lost their lives in the war against Armenia and, also, of the 137 people who died on January 19 and 20, 1990 when tanks and Soviet troops are going to take to the streets of Baku. Photographs of the victims are on each grave. Precisely January 20 has been declared a national day. See population of Azerbaijan.

Baku, Azerbaijan

Jakarta, Indonesia

Jakarta, Indonesia

According to abbreviationfinder, Jakarta is the Indonesian political, industrial and financial center. Considered the capital and most populous city and the eleventh most populated city on the planet and its metropolitan area is known as Jabodetabek. Bahasa Indonesia is the official language. The people are predominantly Muslim, minority religious groups are Christians, Hindus and Buddhists.


Jakarta is located on the island of Java. The city sits above sea level, which favors the formation of the usual floods. The southern part of the city is more mountainous. Jakarta is geographically bordered by Java Barat province to the east and Banten to the west. Indonesia is an archipelago of 17,000 islands with an area of about 1.92 million square kilometers.

The Thousands of Islands (Kepulauan Seribu, in Indonesian, and Thousand Islands, in English), which are a part of the administrative region of Jakarta, are located in Jakarta Bay. The 105 islands that form them extend 45 km north of the city, although the closest island is only a few kilometers from the mainland.


There are approximately 13 rivers that flow through Jakarta, mostly from the mountainous southern parts of the city to the north and the Java Sea. The most important river is the Ciliwung, which divides the city into two areas: east and west.


Its climate is equatorial. Although Indonesia is hot and humid throughout the year, the official rainy season runs from October to August and is characterized by heavy rain storms. The city has high levels of humidity and the daily temperature ranges from 25 ° C to 38 ° C in the lowlands. Higher altitudes enjoy colder conditions Being located in the western part of Indonesia, its wettest season is January with average monthly rainfall of 350 mm, while its driest season is August, with an average of 60 mm.


A population of 8.49 million people is concentrated in an area of ​​650 km², adding up to 18.6 million in its metropolitan area. See population of Indonesia.

Economy and development

It maintains good economic development through its main connection links with the exterior, which are the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport and the Tanjung Priok seaport.

Under the Sutiyoso government, since 2004, and the city launched a new bus system called TransJakarta and in 2007 its monorail was abandoned.

In Jakarta you can find the Indonesian Stock Exchange, the Bank of Indonesia and the Monumen Nasional or Tugu Monas, the tower that symbolizes the independence of Indonesia.

Capital district

It obtained a status roughly equivalent to that of a state or province in 1966, when it was declared a capital district (Daerah khusus ibukota.

Lieutenant General Ali Sadikin served as governor from that time until 1977; he rehabilitated roads and bridges, encouraged the arts, built several hospitals, and a large number of new schools. It also empowered slum dwellers for new development projects and tried to remove the ban on rickshaws and street vendors. He also began to control migration to the city in order to curb overcrowding and poverty. Land redistribution and foreign investment contributed to a real estate boom that changed the face of the city.


Jakarta is not a city but a province with the special status of the capital of Indonesia. Its administration is like that of any other Indonesian city. For example: Jakarta has a governor (instead of a mayor), and it is divided into several regions with their own administrative systems. Jakarta as a province is divided into five cities (kota), formerly municipalities, each led by a mayor, and a regency (kabupaten) led by a regent. In August 2007, Jakarta held its first governor elections, which were won by Fauzi Bowo. The city governors are previously elected by the local parliaments. This is part of the Indonesian government’s drive to decentralize politics, holding direct local elections in some places.


As the political and economic capital of Indonesia, Jakarta is a cosmopolitan city with a diverse culture that attracts many foreign and domestic tourists. For this reason, many of the city’s immigrants come from different parts of the island of Java, bringing with them a mixture of dialects of the Javanese and Sundanese languages, as well as their own typical foods and products. It is a bustling urban metropolis, known for its overcrowding, traffic saturation, and income disparity.

The betawi (Orang Betawi, or Batavian people) is a term used to describe the descendants of the population living around Batavia and recognized as a tribe since the 18th-19th century. The Betawi are mostly descendants of South Asian ethnic groups drawn to Batavia for work needs and include people from various parts of Indonesia. The language and culture of these immigrants are different from those of Sundanese or Javanese. The language is more based on a dialect of the Eastern Malays and enriched by loanwords from Javanese, Mandarin Chinese and Arabic. Today, the Jakarta dialects used by the population in the city are loosely based on the Betawi language.

There is also a notable Chinese community in Jakarta that has been going on for several centuries. Officially they represent 6% of Jakarta’s population, although that estimate may be somewhat low.

Jakarta, Indonesia

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

According to abbreviationfinder, Kuala Lumpur is the capital of Malaysia and known worldwide for its famous Petronas Towers, currently the tallest twin buildings in the world and previously the world’s tallest buildings in an absolute way. The city has a population of 1,887,674 residents distributed over an area of ​​243.65 km², a metropolitan area of 7.2 million residents, and an average elevation of 21.95 m. above sea level. See population of Malaysia.

Geographic location

Kuala Lumpur is located to the south of the Malay Peninsula, in the Klang Valley, which lies between the Titiwangsa Mountains to the east, several minor mountain formations to the north and south, and the Straits of Malacca to the west.


Kuala Lumpur was founded in 1857 in the place where the Gombak and Klang rivers meet, with the arrival of Chinese mining experts, who went to the region and found important deposits of tin. They decided to settle in the vicinity of these sites, in a place called Kuala Lumpur, which means something like “dirty confluence”, since at that time it was swampy and infected with malaria.

Despite the unpleasantness of the place, the city grew at a dizzying rate thanks to tin and, later, to rubber and coffee. Thus, in 1896, the “swampy confluence” became the capital of Malaysia.

During World War II, the Japanese army captured Kuala Lumpur on January 11, 1942 and occupied the city for 44 months, until August 15, 1945, when the commander-in-chief of the Japanese Seventh Zone surrendered to the administration. after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Kuala Lumpur grew after the war and in 1957, the Federation of Malaya gained its independence from the British Empire and the city continued to be the capital, and in 1972 it achieved city status, becoming the first Malaysian settlement to obtain this status after the independence.

Economic development

Kuala Lumpur and the surrounding urban regions form the most industrialized and economically fast growing area in Malaysia.

The development of infrastructure in the surrounding areas, for example, the Kuala Lumpur International Airport in Sepang, the creation of the Multimedia Super Corridor and the expansion of Port Klang reinforce the economic importance of the city.

Other important economic activities in the city are education and health services. Kuala Lumpur also has advantages derived from the high concentration of educational institutions located within its borders, offering a wide range of courses.


Tourism plays an important role in the city’s economy, providing income, employment, and greater business opportunities. As a result, many global hotel chains are present in the city. Kuala Lumpur has also become an international destination for shopping, with a wide variety of shopping centers that host both local and international brands.

Some points of interest in the city include:

  • The Parliament of Malaysia
  • The Kuala Lumpur Tower
  • The Putra World Trade Center (PWTC),
  • The Mosque of the Federal Territory
  • The National Museum (Malaysia)

The Golden Triangle, the commercial hub of the city, contains the Petronas Towers and has a distinctive nightlife. Trendy nightclubs, bars and lounges such as Hard Rock Cafe, Zouk, Thai Club, Beach Club (voted best bar in Asia), Luna Bar, Rum Jungle, Nuovo, Espanda and many others are located in and around Jalan P. Ramlee, Jalan Sultan Ismail, and Jalan Ampang.

In the center you can find a compendium of the three cultures that make up Malaysia: China, India and the autochthonous. Here you can find the best of the three, enjoy each of the gastronomy. All this in a Southwest Asian city context, but unlike others like Hanoi or Bangkok, much cleaner and more orderly.

Social development


The architecture of Kuala Lumpur is a mix of colonial influences, Asian Islamic-Malay traditions, modern art and a mix of postmodern architecture. Unlike other capitals in Southeast Asia, Kuala Lumpur is a relatively young city and most of the colonial buildings were built in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These buildings are in the Mughal, Tudor, Neo-Gothic or Greco-Latin style.

Modern and postmodern architecture began to appear in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Large glass buildings appeared, with the most prominent example being the Petronas Towers and the Convention Center.

In this city you can find everything that Malaysia has. The most modern buildings such as the Petronas Towers, the Telecommunications Tower which has a spectacular view and the buildings around Merkana Square.


Kuala Lumpur is the hub of cultural activities and events in the country. Among the most important cultural sites is the National Museum located on the Mahameru Highway. Another place of great interest is the Museum of Islamic Arts which houses more than 7,000 objects related to Islam including exhibits from China and a library of books on Islamic art.

The Kuala Lumpur Center for the Performing Arts, located in Sentul West, is one of the country’s leading centers for the performing arts, with theater, music and film standing out.

Kuala Lumpur celebrates the Malaysian International Gourmet Festival every year. Another event held annually in the city is Kuala Lumpur Fashion Week, which features international brands alongside local designers.

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

According to abbreviationfinder, Riyadh is the capital and the largest city of Saudi Arabia. A large plateau located in the central part of the Arabian Peninsula serves as the stage for the development of this city, which is also the most populated in the country. This metropolis that is located in the Nejd region, in addition to being the national capital, is the head of the homonymous province.

Riyadh is located in a very arid area, where rainfall is low and the climate is desert. For that reason, the water used in this hot city where the temperature exceeds 45 degrees Celsius in summer is that which is collected from the sea of the Persian Gulf.


In 1824 this town was inhabited by the Banu Hanifa tribe and in 1902 the first king of Saudi Arabia Ibn Saud, began the conquest of a large part of the Arabian peninsula from Riyadh, organizing the Wahhabis, an Islamic reformist group residing in the area since the beginning of the 19th century. The city was declared the capital of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932. From the 1940s A portion of the country’s large income from international oil sales has been used to make Riyadh an expansive and cosmopolitan, yet relatively isolated, metropolis with lots of modern buildings.


It is the capital and the largest city of Saudi Arabia, located in the Nejd region, on a large plateau on the Arabian Peninsula.


It has a desert climate, with summers extremely hot and temperatures exceeding 45 ° C and winters are fairly mild but cold mornings. Winter is the only time of year where the city receives some precipitation or hail.


It has a population of just over 5 million, which comprises 66% of Saudis and 34% of foreigners from Africa, Asia Central and South – East, Europe and the Middle East. See population of Saudi Arabia.

Administrative divition

The city of Riyadh is divided into 15 municipalities, in addition to the Diplomatic Quarter, while in the northwest area, the ruins of the former Saudi capital Diriyah are located.

Economic development

Its manufactured products include construction materials, refined petroleum and processed foods.


Olaya is the commercial and residential area of the city, it offers tourists accommodation, restaurants, entertainment and purchases of various products. The Kingdom Center, Al Faisalyah and Al-Tahlya are the most recognized places in the area.

The Diplomatic Quarter is where embassies and international organizations reside. It is surrounded by beautiful gardens and an ideal place for sports activities. It is a popular area for its architecture and a model to be followed by other Islamic cities.

Al-Dirah and Al-Bathaa are the heart of Riyadh and the old area, where the most outstanding monuments are located, such as the Al Masmaj fortress, one of the main monuments of the city, in the west are the History museums and Archeology of Riyadh and the prestigious palace of Murabba.


In the city is the University of Riyadh (1957), the Islamic University of Imam Muhammad ibn Saud (1953), the King Abd al-´Aziz Military Academy (1955), there are also several technical institutes, teaching, training centers public administration and the National Library.


The city is home to numerous educational, financial, agricultural, cultural, technical, and social organizations. The architecture is mostly modern, including tall contemporary towers, although the Al-Dirah district, the core of the city, has been rebuilt in a style reminiscent of old brick buildings from before the 20th century.

Some points of cultural interest are: the Museum of Archeology and Ethnology, the Royal Palace and the Jamida Mosque.

Highlights in Riyadh:

  • Old town riad: the old part of the city also includes Diriyah and many other old towns that are part of the city. It preserves many of the well-kept old buildings, the most popular being Al Masmaj Castle, Qasr Al Hokom, the water tower, the Clock Tower and the prestigious Battah neighborhood with its many markets.
  • Kingdom Center: it is the tallest skyscraper in Saudi Arabia, with a height of 303 meters, it is one of the tallest buildings in the world. The tower is home to the tallest mosque in the world.
  • Al Faisaliyah Tower: it is one of the most popular buildings in the city, being the first skyscraper built in Saudi Arabia. At the top of the tower is the golden ball and inside it is a restaurant and below it is an extensive shopping center, with the most prestigious brands in the world.
  • Al Anoud Tower: it is a large commercial building located on Rey Fahd Street, with a height of 146 meters.
  • Al-Masmaj Castle: located in the historical heart of King Abd al-Aziz, it is a kind of castle-palace, built in 1865 under the power of Mohammed Abdullah.
  • Botanical Garden of the King Saud University: it is a botanical garden located in Rida, with one hectare of extension.


It has an international airport and is connected to the Persian Gulf by rail and road.

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Manama, Bahrain

Manama, Bahrain

According to abbreviationfinder, Manama is the capital of Bahrain, it is the largest city in the country, with an estimated population of 156,872 residents for 2009, it is located on the shores of the Persian Gulf, in the northeast of the island. Manama was declared a free port in 1958 and, in 1971, it became the capital of independent Bahrain. In Manama is the headquarters of the University of Bahrain, founded in 1986. Manama is served by the Bahrain International Airport on the island of Al Muharraq. The economic base of this capital, like that of the rest of the country, is the oil industry, also highlighting fishing and obtaining pearls. See population of Bahrain.


From the beginning Manama was key in the commercial development of the island. Manama and its residents first discovered Islam during the 7th century and in the 9th century they began to lean towards it but with a conservative, almost socialist position, which caused considerable friction with the Muslim land environment.

Manama was first mentioned by chroniclers of Islam around the year 1345. The city was conquered by Portugal in 1521 crushing small local forces and later by the Persians in 1602. During colonial times, Fort Bahrain was built. Since 1783 it has been under the control of the Al-Khalifah dynasty, which is the one that governs Bahrain.

Before the Second World War more specifically in 1931 oil was discovered on the island about 30 kilometers (19 miles) south of Manama so it began to flourish rapidly. After World War II, Bahrain slowly moved towards independence and finally in 1971 the British withdrew leaving Manama in charge of its own affairs. This was the beginning of a period in which the city has grown and flourished, mainly thanks to considerable wealth accumulated through oil production and transformation.

Manama was declared a free trade zone in 1958, and in 1971 it became the capital of independent Bahrain.


The city is located in the extreme northeast corner of Bahrain on a small peninsula, due to this fact, the city has a nice promenade. As in the rest of Bahrain, the land is generally flat (or gently mobile) and arid.


In Manama as in the rest of Bahrain, extreme climatic conditions occur with temperatures ranging from 48 ° C (118 ° F) maximum in summer, to 15 ° C (59 ° F) minimum in winter with hail on some occasions. Average temperatures in winter are 17 ° C (63 ° F) and in summer 45 ° C (113 ° F). The most pleasant season in the capital of Bahrain is autumn, when the sun is low, along with warm temperatures, moderated by the gentle breeze.

Economic development

The tourism in the city is increasing greatly in recent years and now is has become one of the most important economic activities contributing much of the money generated by the economy. The city has a large number of two, three, four and five star hotels: one, four, fifteen and three respectively.

Social development


Alcohol is legal in the country and bars and clubs operate in the city, in contrast to neighboring Saudi Arabia, which bans alcohol in all circumstances. This for the majority of the population is seen as a sign that the country is strongly Islamic but open-minded and tolerant of other and other cultures. Manama like the rest of Bahrain is not fully Islamic and Arab, the country that attracts a large number of foreigners, at least ⅓ of the population has a large number of different traditions and cultural currents.


As in the rest of the country, soccer is the most practiced sport and the city has three teams that play in the Bahrain Premier League, which is the highest category of professional soccer in that country. Those three teams are: Al Ahli Club, Al Najma Club and Al Shabab Club.

In addition to football in the city, many other sports are also practiced, most of them in the Al Ahli Stadium, which is a multipurpose stadium with a capacity for approximately 10,000 people.


Manama has an extensive bus service that is much cheaper than other modes of transportation. A minimum fare of 150-200 fils allows you to travel by bus. There are bus routes to other cities such as Al Muharraq and Isa Town. The Bahrain International Airport is located on the island of A the Muharra about 7 km (4 miles) from the center of Manama. It is one of the main airports in the Middle East. It is strategically located in the northern Persian Gulf between the main markets of Saudi Arabia and Iran., the airport has one of the widest ranges and the highest frequency of regional services in connections with the main international destinations in Europe, Asia and Africa.

At the moment, the city’s road network is under a huge wave of development, due to the fact that the Ministry of Public Works is rushing to improve the road network in Manama, due to the fact that It is the capital and main city of the country as well as where most of the governments, commercial offices and facilities are located along with the entertainment centers. Various plans and projects have been established in order to improve the traffic situation in the city and eliminate most of the roundabouts in the city and replace them with marked traffic crossings. In addition, some of the crossings in the main routes of the city are being replaced in addition to the improvement of interchanges, tunnels, bridges and overpass exits.

Manama, Bahrain

Geography of Tehran, Iran

Geography of Tehran, Iran

According to abbreviationfinder, Tehran is located in the north of Iran, specifically between the coordinates 35 ° 41′46 ″ N 51 ° 25′23 ″ E, on a plain located on a plateau that slopes down towards the south at the foot of the Alborz Mountains. The city has an altitude of 1,191 meters above sea level, but to the south it is 1,100, in its center 1,200 and to the north of 1,700. The city covers an area of 716.9 km².

The city is located in an area where the transition occurs between the barren desert (kavir) and the Alborz mountain range. Therefore, it does not have important aquifer resources and the two most important hydrographic basins that collect the waters that come from the mountains located upstream are located several km away, they are the Karaj basin, to the west, and the Jajerud basin. to the east.

Under the Alborz chain there is a large fault very close to which Tehran is located, but it is not the only one as there are many smaller faults located in the plains of the south of the city, which keeps the entire city at permanent risk of earthquakes..


The location of the city between a mountainous area and a desert basin greatly influences the local climate as the confluence of the cool and semi-humid climate of the mountains with the hot and dry climate of the southern areas of the city, which are almost in direct contact with the Dasht-e Kavir desert, it is harmonized by a climate with warm months in the summer (mid- July to mid- September), where average temperatures range between 38 and 40 ° C and colder months in winter (December and January), where the average temperature reaches -9 ° C. Temperature difference that exists between the mountains and the plains circulates the air from the mountains to the plains at night, and from the plains to the mountains during the day. The rains are very scarce and the few that occur are concentrated during the winter as the summer is very dry.

In general, the climate of Tehran is mainly caused by the influence of three fundamental factors, one is the introduction of winds with hot air and dust from the Dasht-e Kavir desert, located south of the city, another factor is the chain Alborz mountain, located north of the city, which acts as a kind of barrier that stops the rains coming from the Caspian Sea and the third important factor is the western monsoon clouds that partially reduce the effects of the desert climate.


In 1788, the city had 15,000 residents, but already in 1950, it had grown to 1.05 million residents, and a few years later in 1995, due to its accelerated growth, there were already more than 6.8 million residents. those who lived in it. This accelerated population growth is mainly due to the administrative and industrial development of the city and immigration from other parts of the country. See population of Iran.

Currently the city of Tehran has a population of more than 8 million residents according to the last official census of 1996.

The city has a cosmopolitan air, Tehran shelters diverse ethnic and linguistic groups from all over the country and represents the ethnic-linguistic composition of Iran. It should be noted that more than 60% of the population of Tehran was born outside the city and therefore is not native to the place.

The minorities of the city include Kurds, Mazandarani, Gilaks, Luros, Baluchos, Qashqai, Turks, Arabs, Armenians, Bakhtiari, Assyrians, Talysh, Jews etc. There are also a number of other established minorities, who speak Punjabi & Domari and Romani. A number of Levantine Arabic speakers from Lebanon and Syria also live in Tehran.

The residents of Tehran are mostly Shiites and the minority is Sunni, Zoroastrian, Baha’i, Jewish and Christian ; including adherents of the Catholic Assyrian Church of the East, Armenian Apostolic Church, Catholic Church, Chaldean Catholic Church, Protestant Church, Church Irani, Evangelical Church Armenia, Church Jama’at-e Rabbani, Church of the Brethren Armenia, Russian Orthodox Church, and Churches presbyterian.

There are also small groups of Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs, Mandaeans, Spiritualists, Atheists, Azalis, Yazidis, Yarsan, Septimans, Secular Muslims, and many followers of Sufism.


The metropolis of Tehran has increased enormously in area since the second half of the 20th century and today it already covers several departments of the province of Tehran. Most of the city is occupied by the department of Tehran but the gigantic city also extends through the departments of Eslamshahr, Ray and Shemiranat.

The department of Tehran borders the department of Shemiranat to the north, Damavand to the east, Eslamshahr, Pakdasht and Ray to the south, and Karaj and Shahriar to the west.

The municipality of Tehran is divided into 22 municipal districts, each with its own administrative center. Which are numbered to be identified.

Tehran is divided into 112 neighborhoods, among which the following stand out: Abbas Abad, Afsariyeh, Amir Abad, Bagh Feiz, Baharestan, Darakeh, Darband, Dardasht, Dar Abad, Darrous, Dibaji, Djannat Abad, Elahiyeh, Evin, Farmanieh, Gheytarieh, Gholhak, Gisha, Gomrok, Hasan Abad, Jamaran, Javadiyeh, Jomhuri, Jordan, Lavizan, Nazi Abad, Niavaran, Park-e Shahr, Pasdaran, Punak, Ray, Sadeghiyeh, Shahrara, Shahr-e ziba, Shahrak-e Gharb, Shemiran, Tajrish, Tehranpars, Vanak, Velenjak, Yaft Abad and Zafaraniyeh. Although administratively separated Ray, Shemiran and Karaj are often considered part of the city of Tehran.

Tehran, Iran

Malé, Maldives

Malé, Maldives

According to abbreviationfinder, Malé is the capital of the Republic of the Maldives. It is located on the island that bears the same name, on the southern edge of Malé Atoll in Kaafu Atoll. It is the seat of government and the business, commercial, corporate, health and educational center. Malé has a population of approximately 105,000 people. See population of Maldives.


Malé was part of a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, when it became the capital of the newly independent Maldives (a country that adopted the name of the Republic of Maldives in 1968).

In 1953 he tried to establish a republic but a few months later the sultanate was reimposed, Malé being the capital of the same, in 1968 the republic was reinstated, continuing as the capital.

In 2004 the sixth division of the city called Hulhumalé was inaugurated, an artificial island populated since that same year, on December 26, 2004, the devastating earthquake in Sumatra (2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake) occurred and the subsequent tsunami flooded two thirds parts of the city. The tsunami and the earthquake caused 220,000 deaths throughout the entire Indian Ocean.

The 29 of September of 2007 exploded a bomb near a mosque, wounding 12 tourists. It is considered the first bomb to have exploded in the city.


Malé, the capital and largest population of the Maldives, is located on the island of the same name, on the southern edge of the Malé Atoll, in the Indian Ocean, near the Earth’s equator. It has an area of 5.79 km² and a population of approximately 105 thousand residents.


The climate is tropical and they have two seasons. One dry, between November and March, with average temperatures of about 26ºC and the other wet. In this season the sky is usually overcast and it rains normally.

Economic development

Malé is the economic and administrative center of the Maldives and its main commercial port. The city is highly urbanized and is divided into six areas; among which are Henveiru, Galolhu, Maafannu, Machangolhi and Hulhumalé.

Among its important economic activities are the fish canning industry; In addition, there is trade in derivatives of local products such as the fiber of the coconut bark, palm trees, copra and shells and tourism that is gaining great importance, since it has paradisiacal beaches of coconut and palm trees with fine white sands and crystal clear waters. ideal for rest.

The city is connected by boat to Sri Lanka and is close to the Hulule International Airport. It also has a seaplane base and a boat anchorage.


Male in particular, although not all the Maldives islands, has all the basic services of any city in the world that is within a continent, there are banks, ATMs throughout the city and international courier services that allow common operations. In addition, public and private health centers, taxis, bars, restaurants and much more.

Social development


Western fashions, pop music and videos are common in the Capital.


  • The National Holiday, the day that Mohamed Takurufán and his men expelled the Portuguese from Malé in 1573, and which takes place on the first day of the third month of the lunar calendar.
  • The most important religious celebration is in charge of Ramadan (known locally as rorda mas), the Islamic month of fasting.


There are public and private health centers.


The Maldives Islands are a very interesting country within the global framework since 99% of its territory is made up of water. There are almost 2000 islands in the Indian Ocean that form a spectacular territory where the tropical paradise is its main offer for the rest of the world. A world that is beginning to realize that the Maldives is a unique and extremely beautiful place when it comes to natural beauty. The Maldives Islands have emerged on the world scene as a place to escape from the daily routine and live a dream vacation that so few places in the world can offer. This is why the economy in the Maldives is basically dependent on tourism.


Tourism as the main aspect of the economy in the Maldives

When talking about the economy of the Maldives, the first thing that springs to mind is the tourism that these paradisiacal islands generate. Being the largest industry in the Maldives islands with 20% of GDP and 60% of foreign exchange; The economy of the Maldives Islands is based more than anything on tourism and tourism-related activities. In the Maldives there are almost 200 inhabited islands and most of them are made up of 5-star hotels (where each hotel is an island) that offer tourists the opportunity to spend the best vacations of their lives. Also, more than 90% of all taxes received by the government are related to tourism and import taxes; aspect that favors the economy of the Maldives Islands in an incredible way.


Another very important industry, when talking about the economy of the Maldives, has to do directly with fishing. In a country where 99% is water, it is not difficult to deduce that there is a lot of fishing and that this is a great reason why the economy of the Maldives has been growing over the years. Many native people of the Maldives are engaged in fishing as their main source of income which is also a very important aspect of the economy of an amazing country.


The economy of the Maldives Islands is not based only on tourism and fishing, but there are other activities that contribute to the forging of an important economy in that country. Forced by the lack of land for farming and domestic labor, agriculture and manufacturing play only a very small role in the Maldives economy; however that does not mean that they do not exist. Other economic activities in the Maldives include clothing production, boat building, and handicrafts. However, these are not activities that generate a lot of income and only make up 16% of GDP.

Malé, Maldives

Singapore Politics and Economy

Singapore Politics and Economy


Singapore’s constitution is inspired by English parliamentarism. Members of the single parliamentary chamber represent the various electoral districts. Most of the executive power is in the hands of the Cabinet, led by the Prime Minister, currently Lee Hsien Loong. Although the Singapore presidency is a symbolic role, the President has been given the right to veto in certain matters, such as the use of financial reserves and the appointment of judges. The legislative body of the Government is Parliament. Parliamentarians bridge the gap between the community and the government and ensure that the views of their constituents are considered in Parliament. The current Parliament has 94 members, of which 84 are elected, nine are appointed and one appointed without an electoral district. See population of Singapore.

Although the country has minority parties, such as the Workers’ Party, the Singapore Democratic Party and the Singapore Democratic Alliance, the People’s Action Party or People’s Action Party has dominated the country’s politics since independence. The Economist Intelligence Unit describes the government system as “a hybrid regime” that has democratic and authoritarian features. The Freedom House describes Singapore as “partially free.”

Lee Kuan Yew, considered the father of the country, was the only prime minister from 1959 to 1990, when of his own free will he decided to leave office to make way for the next generation of politicians. When Goh Chok Tong took over as Prime Minister, he created a ministry without a portfolio for Lee Kuan Yew and appointed him Senior Minister. Years later, Goh Chok Tong made a similar decision and decided to leave the position to the replacement generation, and in 2004, Lee Hsien Loong, son of Kuan Yew, assumed the position of Prime Minister; at that time his father went from being called Senior Minister to Mentor Minister, and Goh Chok Tong became Senior Minister.

Economic development

According to abbreviationfinder, Singapore has a prosperous free market economy characterized by an open environment. It has stable prices and one of the highest GDP per capita in the world. Along with Hong Kong, South Korea and Taiwan, Singapore is considered one of the “ four Asian threes ”.

The economy depends mainly on exports and the refinement of imports, particularly those of the electronic and industrial sector. The manufacturing sector constituted 26% of the country’s GDP in 2005 and has diversified into the chemical, petroleum refining, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences sectors, among others. Specifically, the largest oil refinery in Asia is located in Singapore.

Singapore has the seaport that handles the highest volume of annual cargo, both in tonnage and number of containers, in the world. The country is also an important international financial center and has the fourth largest foreign exchange market in the world, behind London, New York and Tokyo. In addition, the economy of Singapore is considered one of the most welcoming economies in the world, for which there are thousands of expatriates in the country working in multinational companies.

In 2001, the global recession and the fall in the technology sector had a major impact on the country’s economy (GDP fell by 2%).


Singapore is a popular tourist destination, making tourism one of the largest economic sectors in the country. Approximately 7.8 million tourists visited the country in 2006 and that number rose to 10.2 million in 2007.

The Orchard Road shopping district is one of the most famous attractions that Singapore has to offer. To attract more visitors, the government decided in 2005 to legalize gambling and allow two integrated casinos or resorts to be built in the Marina South area and Sentosa Island. To compete with regional rivals such as Bangkok, Hong Kong, Tokyo and Shanghai, the government gave permission to use lights on the facades of public and private buildings to transform the central area into a more exciting place. Also, food has been promoted as an element of Singapore’s attraction, which is why the Singapore Food Festival is organized every July.

The country’s reputation as a center for medical tourism has grown in recent years. 200,000 foreigners visit Singapore a year to get medical care. It is estimated that one million tourists will visit the country for the same reason in 2012, while creating 13,000 new jobs. 2010 World Competitiveness Index and Ranking prepared by the Swiss Business School: Institute For Management Development (IMD), in its 2010 edition, places this nation as the most competitive above Honkong and the United States, respectively.

Singapore, Crescent Island

When sailor Thomas Stamford Raffles first hoisted the British flag in Singapore in 1819, he came across a small island whose space was shared by natives, fishermen and pirates.

In one of the great engineering projects ever undertaken, Singapore has expanded its territory meter by meter, ton of sand by ton of sand, increasing in size by the equivalent of two Manhattan New Yorkers in the last forty years, thanks to land reclaimed from the sea.

Some of the smaller islets of Riau have been flooded until they are submerged under the sea, and other larger islands have seen their beaches reduced in size:

“When you take the sand with you, smaller islands lose their ability to resist wave erosion and can eventually disappear”

, assures Nur Hidayati, coordinator of the campaign initiated by several Indonesian NGOs to stop the extraction of more sand from their territory.

Singapore used land from its mountains in the early 1960s until its territory was practically flat. The government then began to buy sand from Malaysia and Indonesia in quantities that have been increasing as the needs of the engineers did in their work to gain ground from the sea.

Secondary islands

The main island of Singapore is shaped like a diamond, but the territory includes sixty-four other nearby, smaller islands. Among the secondary islands, we find:

  • Jurong Island
  • Pulau Tekong
  • Pulau Ubin
  • Sentose
  • Brani
  • Bukon
  • Hantu
  • Jong
  • Serangoon
  • Subar Laut
  • Palawan
  • Kusu
  • Pedra Branca
  • Pawai
  • Sakijang bendera
  • Sekudu
  • Semakau
  • Senang
  • Sudong

Singapore Politics

Seoul, South Korea

Seoul, South Korea

According to abbreviationfinder, Seoul or Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest city of South Korea. A megacity with a population of more than 10 million, Seoul is one of the largest cities in the world. The Seoul National Capital Area is the second largest metropolitan area in the world with more than 24.5 million residents, which includes the metropolis Incheon and the majority of Gyeonggi province. Almost half of South Korea’s population lives in the Seoul National Capital Area and almost a quarter in Seoul itself, making it the main economic, political and cultural center of the country.


Seoul is located in the northwest of South Korea. Seoul comprises 605.25 km², with a radius of approximately 15 km, roughly bisected into two halves, north and south by the Han River. The Han River and its surroundings have played an important role in Korean history.. The Three Kingdoms of Korea strove to take control of this land, where the river is used as a trade route to China (via the Yellow Sea). The river is no longer actively used for navigation, because its estuary is located on the borders of the two Koreas, with the entry of civilians prohibited. The city is surrounded by eight mountains, as well as the highest lands of the Han River Plain and western areas.


Seoul is located in the border region between a humid subtropical and humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Cwa / DWA), depending on the definition. Summers are generally hot and humid, with the East Asian monsoon occurring between June and July. August is the hottest month, with an average temperature of 22.4 to 29.6 ° C with the highest possible temperatures. Winters are usually relatively cold with an average temperature in January of -5.9 to 1.5 ° C and are generally much drier than summers, with an average of 28 days of snow per year.


As the headquarters of Samsung, LG, Hyundai, Kia and SK, Seoul has become a major commercial center. Despite accounting for only 0.6 percent of South Korea’s land area, Seoul generates 21 percent of the country’s GDP.


A relatively large number of TNCs are based in Seoul. International banks with branches in Seoul include Citigroup, Deutsche Bank, HSBC, Goldman Sachs, JPMorgan Chase, Barclays, Grupo Santander, UBS, Credit Suisse, Unicredit, Société Générale, Calyon, BBVA, Macquarie Group, ING Bank, and Standard Chartered. The Korea Exchange Bank is also based in the city.


The most modern shopping center is Times Square, which also has a Starium CGV cinema with the largest screen in the world of cinema, certified by Guinness World Records. South Korea’s largest market, Dongdaemun Market, is located in Seoul. Myeongdong is a shopping and entertainment center in central Seoul, with medium and high-end stores, boutiques, and international brand stores. The nearby Namdaemun Market, named after the Namdaemun Gate, is the oldest market in Seoul. Sinchon is a commercial area that caters mainly to a young audience and university students.

Insadong is the cultural art market of Seoul, Korea, where modern and traditional works of art such as paintings, sculptures and calligraphies are sold. Hwanghak-dong Flea Market and Janganpyeong Old Market also offer vintage goods. Some local designer shops have opened in Samcheong-dong, where many small art galleries are located. Itaewon is mainly geared towards foreign tourists and American soldiers based in the city. Gangnam District is one of the most prosperous areas in Seoul and is characterized by the Apgujeong-dong and Cheongdam-dong areas of fashion and luxury and the COEX mall. Wholesale markets include the Noryangjin Wholesale Fishing Market and the Garak Market. Yongsan Electronics market is the largest electronics market in Asia. The Gasan Digital complex also has an extensive variety of electronic products.


There are also religious buildings that have an important role in Korean society and politics. The Wongudan altar was a sacrificial site where the rulers of Korea held celestial rituals since the Three Kingdoms period. Since the Joseon dynasty adopted Confucianism as a national ideology in the 14th century, the state built many Confucian temples. The descendants of the Joseon royal family still hold ceremonies to commemorate the ancestors in Jongmyo., the oldest preserved Confucian royal sanctuary where ritual ceremonies follow a tradition established in the 14th century. Munmyo and Dongmyo were built during the same period. Although Buddhism was suppressed by the Joseon state, it has continued its existence. Jogyesa is the headquarters of the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism. Hwagyesa and Bongeunsa are also the main Buddhist temples in Seoul. See population of South Korea.

Myeongdong Cathedral is a landmark of the Myeongdong district and the largest established Catholic church in Korea. It is a symbol of Christianity in Korea. It was also a focus of political dissent in the late 20th century.

There are many Protestant churches in Seoul. The largest number are Presbyterian, but there are also Methodists, Baptists, and Lutheran churches.

The Seoul Central Mosque, which is located in Hannam-dong, Yongsan-gu was the first mosque built in Korea after the Korean War. It remains the only mosque in Seoul, and is a tourist attraction for Koreans who visit on weekends to listen to talks about Islam.

Seoul, South Korea

Colombo, Sri Lanka

Colombo, Sri Lanka

According to abbreviationfinder, Colombo is the executive and judicial capital city of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. In 2004, Colombo had 672,743 residents, while the Colombo conurbation had 2,490,300 residents. Kotte – a tiny district within Colombo, 12.5 km southeast of the city center – is the legislative capital of Sri Lanka. See population of Sri Lanka.


The city of Colombo is located on the west coast of the island. It was founded 9 km south of the Kelani River. Colombo is a major port on the Indian Ocean. It has one of the largest man-made ports in the world and handles most of Sri Lanka’s foreign trade. [2]

Etymology of the name

The name Colombo was given to it by the Portuguese colonizers in 1505.

It is believed to derive from the Sinhalese word ‘kolon thota’, which means ‘harbor on the Kelani river’ or from ‘kola-amba-thota’, which means ‘harbor with lush mango trees’, being kola (leaves), and amba (mango).


The first written mention of the port may be that of Fa-hsien (337-422), a Chinese traveler of the fifth century of our era, who referred to the port as Gaolanbu.

In the 8th century AD, Arab merchants settled near the site of the present modern. Starting in the 16th century, the port was developed by the Portuguese, the Dutch and the British, who, in turn, settled on the island.

In 1815, when the Sinhalese chiefs deposed the king of the city of Kandy in the heart of Sri Lanka, and ceded their territory to the British, Colombo became the island’s capital. Western influence in the city has waned since Sri Lanka gained its independence in 1948.

The oldest districts of the city, which are closer to the port and north of Lake Beira, are known as the Fort and the Pettah (a name derived from the Tamil word pettai, which means ‘the city outside the fort’). El Fuerte continues to be a focal point of commercial and government activity, although less than in the past. Pettah has become a district of small shops, markets, and sidewalk stalls, with all the hallmarks of an oriental bazaar.

During the Dutch period, the urbanized area of Cinnamon Gardens, which lies south of Lake Beira, was an important cinnamon- producing region. [2]

Important buildings

Colombo has traditionally been considered the financial and economic center of the country, due to its port status. Today it is populated by huge modern buildings, including its own World Trade Center. [3]

In its narrow streets you can discover traces of its Portuguese, Dutch and British colonial past.

Colombo’s important buildings include:

  • the Secretary,
  • City Hall,
  • Clock Tower,
  • Negombo Fortress, built by the Dutch in 1644; here you can admire its original door,
    • the Clock Tower, which welcomed visitors,
    • the walls and warehouses that served as weapons warehouses,
    • the Sacred Tree, from Anuraghapura, which was planted by King Valagamba, [3]
  • the Cathedral of Santa Lucia,
  • the Galle Face Green (Colombo’s waterfront), [3]
    • the Galle Face Hotel,
  • the Wolvendahl church (built by the Dutch in 1749),
  • the Pettah bazaar, full of shops and stalls where you can make all kinds of purchases, from the typical delicacies of the country to precious stones and silver, [3]
  • Vijara-mahadevi park, the largest in the city
    • the National Museum, the largest in the country, located in the Cinnamon Gardens. The building is colonial in style and was inaugurated in the 19th century by “Sir” William Henry Gregory, British colonial ruler of Ceylon; It contains the country’s historical and cultural heritage, from paintings and sculptures, to maps, toys or movies. One of the most valuable objects that this museum houses are the jewels of the last king of Kandy, from the 17th century; [4]
    • the National Gallery of Art
    • the Natural History Museum
  • the hospital complex;
  • the University of Colombo (from 1921);
  • various Buddhist and Hindu temples,
  • The Queen’s House is another of the wonders that Colombo houses; This set of colonial buildings houses the official residence of the President of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka.


The city’s manufacturing industries are based on the processing of raw materials exported through the port. The general engineering industries are related to public services and to the sale, service, repair and assembly of motor vehicles and other machinery; light manufacturers process food, beverages, and tobacco.

Many factories are located on the outskirts of the city.

Colombo is also the commercial center of the island; the central offices of local and foreign banks, the Insurance Corporation (which has the insurance monopoly), brokerage houses and government corporations are located in the city. [2]


Trains connect Colombo with other major cities on the island.

There are also bus services within the city and to all parts of Sri Lanka.

The international airport is located in Katunayake and the Ratmalana airport handles domestic flights. [2]


Colombo has numerous parks and playing fields. Among them are Galle Face Green by the sea, Vihara Maha Devi Park and Ridgeway Golf Links. Cricket and football (soccer and rugby) fields are located throughout the city. Tennis and track events are also popular. You can enjoy bathing in the sea and surfing at Mount Lavinia Beach, located 11 km south of the city.

The National Zoological Gardens of Sri Lanka are located near Dehiwala.

Colombo, Sri Lanka

Damascus, Syria

Damascus, Syria

According to abbreviationfinder, Damascus is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic. At six thousand years old, it is one of the oldest cities in the world and is a bustling mix of cultures and eras. It is lavish in markets, monuments and mosques. A lot of history passed through Damascus, a city that, in addition, was for centuries an obligatory point of resupply and rest for the caravans of twenty thousand people and ten thousand camels that were on their way to the sacred Mecca ; there was still a month to go in the desert.

Between the mountains of the Anti – Lebanon and the desert of Syria, Damascus upward in the oasis of Ghouta, on a branch of the land route of silk. Here Venetians and Genoese came to meet the caravans.


The city began to be inhabited around 3000 BC. n. and., which is why it is recognized as one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, along with

  • Belgrade (Serbia), from 5200 a. n. and.
  • Byblos (Lebanon), from 5000 BC n. and.
  • Susa (Iran), from 4400 a. n. and.
  • Aleppo (Syria), from 4300 a. n. and.
  • Luxor (Egypt), from 3200 a. n. and. and
  • Jericho (Palestine) from 3000 BC. n. and.

It went through various golden ages: in the 7th century, for example, when it ceased to be in the hands of Eastern Rome, Byzantium, and became the seat of a Muslim empire.

In 1078 entrusted by Sultan Malik Shah I to his brother Tutush I, who then conquered Aleppo and proclaimed himself Sultan of Syria. Upon his death, his emirates were divided between his two sons. This was followed by the rivalry between the two emirates that continued for a long time until the extinction of the descendants of Tutush I.

For a long period Damascus preferred to ally itself with the Kingdom of Jerusalem against Zengi, but the armies of the Second Crusade besieged it, and Unar, the emir of Damascus requested help from Nur al-Din and Sayf al-Din, sons of Zengi, who they got the crusaders to lift the siege. After the death of Nur al-Din it fell under the control of Saladin. After his death, the emirate of Damascus was sometimes linked to Egypt, and was finally destroyed by the Mongols.

It had another golden age in the 13th century, although already a hundred years before, when Jerusalem fell to the crusaders, the city had been transformed into a site of Islamic resistance against the attacks of the “army of God”. The Mongols and the Mamluks passed by and in the 18th century, already in the hands of the Turks of the Ottoman Empire, it regained its brightness that had dimmed a bit. The Old City of Damascus was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979. It occupies an area of 135 hectares, and was surrounded by a Roman wall, of which the north and east sides remain, and part of the south side. Eight gates are preserved, of which the oldest, Bab Sharqi, dates back to the Roman period.

Although the city still preserves Roman and Byzantine vestiges, most of the 125 buildings and monuments included in the UNESCO declaration correspond to Islamic art.

Urban morphology

A fortified wall, with its gates, surrounds the old city that has maintained, since the Umayyad era, its Islamic character, preserving at the same time Roman and Byzantine traces (streets oriented towards the cardinal points).

Covered markets, caravanserai, palaces, minarets and domes bear witness to the Islamic character of the old city. Among its many monuments, the Great Mosque, in which the main stages of Damascus history are inscribed, remains a prominent pilgrimage site and one of the holiest sites in Islam. Its architectural plan influenced those of several other mosques in Syria (Aleppo and Hama), in Turkey (Diyar Bakr), in Spain (Córdoba) and elsewhere.

Current population

Damascus has 4,700,000 residents (2007). 75% are Sunni Muslim, 15% of the population is Christian (from various churches), and the remaining 10% is subdivided into Muslim Alawis, Druze and Shiites. See population of Syria.


In general, Damascus is divided into two parts: the new city, with its modern buildings and promenades, and the old city, where the attractions of this 6,000-year-old capital are grouped, which is already mentioned in texts from four years ago. millennia and a half.


Syria has a Mediterranean climate with hot, arid summer and mild, rainy winter. The climate becomes more arid and hostile towards the interior of the country. On the coast, the average temperatures in July are 29 ° C, and in January 10 °. In the steppes, where most cities are located, temperatures are around 35 ° in the summer and 12 ° in the winter, while in the desert the temperature can reach up to 46 °. In the whole country there is not much rain, and it is concentrated on the coast.

Damascus, Syria

Dushanbe, Tajikistan

Dushanbe, Tajikistan

According to abbreviationfinder, Dushanbe is the most populous city in Tajikistan as well as the capital of the country. Nowadays it is a safe city if it is contrasted with previous decades, it is also the seat of the government and its most important commercial center. It has just over 700,000 residents, with a high population density.

Dushanbe is a clean European-style city that has recovered from the damage caused by the civil war of the 1990s, becoming a booming capital and cultural center. Little known for tourism, it is a green, quiet and pleasant city with neoclassical architecture, museums, cafes, markets and monuments, as well as an opera and ballet theater, surrounded by impressive mountainous areas good for activities such as hiking, climbing and horse riding.


Although the history of Dushanbe dates back to the 5th century BC, the city was a small town until about eight decades ago.

The town was formed by the union of three towns, the largest of which was named Diushanbe, the city was renamed Stalinabad, in honor of Iósif Stalin. It became the capital of the Tajik Soviet Autonomous Republic in 1924. After the triumph of the Red Army and the arrival of the railway in 1929, the town became the capital of the Tajikistan Soviet Socialist Republic. The Soviets turned it into a cotton and silk production center, and welcomed thousands of people from other republics of the Soviet Union into the city. The city regained its old name in 1961, during the Khrushchev era The population grew because of the thousands of ethnic Tajiks who migrated to Tajikistan after the integration of Bukhara and Samarkand into the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. At the time of the Soviet Union, Dushanbe was a quiet and prosperous city.

There were some riots in the 1990s as plans to shelter tens of thousands of Armenians were revealed, triggering local nationalist sentiment. During the clashes that followed, twenty-two people were killed.

As a result of the Tajik civil war, which developed after independence, between 1992 and 1997, the city was seriously deteriorated. During that period the situation was very confusing.



The Hissor Mountains offer various attractions and activities, including the 13th century Hissar Fort, 10 kilometers from the city and the beautiful Varzob hill station just five kilometers from Dushanbe. The tallest dam in the world is near Dushanbe: The Nurek Dam on the Vaksh River is 300 meters high and produces most of Tajikistan’s electricity, while also offering great views. Hiking around Dushanbe is a popular activity, with several routes to choose from, and climbing can be done at Fansky Gory, northwest of Dushanbe. Horseback riding and mountain bike tours are a popular way to see the stunning mountain areas around Dushanbe.


The city is located in the foothills of the Hissar Mountains, above the Kafimigan Valley in western Tajikistan.


Dushanbe has a continental climate with hot, dry summers and cold, snowy winters. There are important variations in temperatures according to altitude, and the mountain areas around the city have more extreme climatic conditions than in the city. Spring and summer are good times to visit Dushanbe. The city receives a lot of rain, most of it usually during the spring.


Dushanbe is a political, scientific, industrial, historical and cultural center. The city houses the Presidential Palace, Parliament, all ministries and institutions, embassies, as well as the offices of commercial banks, large corporations and humanitarian organizations.

Administrative division

The city of Dushanbe is made up of five districts:

  • Frunzensky I
  • Frunzensky II
  • Ismoila Somoni
  • Zheleznodorozhny
  • Center


The city is inhabited mainly by Tajiks, but there are also many minority groups living in Dushanbe, including Uzbeks and Russians. Tajik is the official language, but Russian is widely used in business and government offices. See population of Tajikistan.


The city is important in textile production, especially cotton, although it also manufactures silk, machinery, household appliances, leather goods, tractor components, and food products. In the vicinity of Dushanbe there are some coal, lead, and arsenic mines. Lately drug trafficking has reached a great boom in the city’s economy.


Dushanbe is not a very touristy town but it has a good range of things to see, and the surrounding mountain areas are excellent for many activities such as hiking, climbing and horse riding.

The main points of interest in Dushanbe are located near the main avenue, Prospekt Rudaki. Among them are the Ismael Somoni Monument, a statue of a historical leader with a golden crown, the Haji Yacob Mosque and a Russian Orthodox church, as well as a 19th century synagogue. The Unity Palace, also called Vahdat Palaces, is a congress center and the headquarters of the People’s Democratic Party.


You can travel to Dushanbe by air, rail or road. The city has an international airport with flights to Dushanbe, mainly from Russia and Asia. You can also travel to Dushanbe by train from Moscow. There are also trains to Dushanbe from neighboring Uzbekistan. There are minibuses and cars to Dushanbe from Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as from other parts of Tajikistan. However, Dushanbe’s mountain roads are closed in winter. There are domestic flights to Dushanbe from Khojandand Khorog.

Local public transport is mainly run by buses. In Dushanbe there are also taxis. Renting a car in Dushanbe with a local driver is a good option. You can rent a car in Dushanbe from tourist agencies. The city lacks street names, so driving can be difficult at times.

Art and culture

Dushanbe has many interesting museums, such as the National Museum of Antiquities, the Ethnographic Museum and the Unified Museum of Tajikistan, a national museum with, for example, exhibits on natural history. There is also a modern Opera and Ballet Theater in Dushanbe, as well as several art studios and many interesting and cheap markets. The Victory Park offers good views of the city, and has botanical gardens and a zoo.

Places of interest

  • Haji Yakoub Mosque
  • Ethnography Museum
  • Unified Tajik Museum
  • Old Synagogue of Dushanbe

Dushanbe, Tajikistan