Category: Asia

Best Travel Time and Climate for the Maldives

Best Travel Time and Climate for the Maldives

The Maldives is a palm-fringed atoll in the Indian Ocean. You can decide whether you prefer to relax in an underwater spa in the Maldives or go on snorkeling tours and diving on the house reef. In any case, you should pay attention to the best time to travel to the Maldives.

Take a dive, spot manta rays and even whale sharks, and swim in beautiful lagoons. Take a boat trip in the evening to see dolphins or enjoy an hour-long picnic on your own thila (sandbar).

Best travel time

According to politicsezine, the Maldives are hot and sunny all year round with average temperatures of 23–31 ° C. The best weather – and therefore the best time to travel to the Maldives – is between November and April . The main season is between December and March. The monsoons last from May to October and peak in June. The northern atolls have the highest rainfall from May to November; the southern atolls from November to March. It’s worth paying the higher prices for travel in the dry season as there isn’t much to do in the Maldives on rainy days other than drink, exercise, or dive.

For divers, both the dry and the wet season have their charm: In the dry season, the underwater visibility is excellent due to the current, which increases in November from the northeast. In February these currents weaken. During the rainy season, water temperatures are a few degrees lower, but this causes larger numbers of hammerhead and reef sharks to congregate in shallower waters. On the one hand, this is very attractive, but the other side of the coin is poor visibility due to the decreasing current.

Optimal travel time after months

January

With lots of sun and warmth, January is a great time for a beach vacation. There is also good visibility for diving and snorkeling. This is a very popular time to travel and it is recommended that you book in advance.

February March

These are the two driest months with warm temperatures, low humidity and excellent visibility for diving and snorkeling. As these months are also very popular, you should book your vacation in good time.

April

Another good month to travel with lots of sunshine and good visibility in the water. However, there is a slightly increased risk of rain, especially towards the end of the month.

May – September

These months are still warm and there is a lot of sun, but the chance of rain increases and there is a risk of storms. In addition, the plankton increases, so that the visibility is somewhat clouded when diving. However, lower prices and great deals make it a good time to travel. August in particular is still a popular month to travel.

October November

As in the previous months, warm temperatures and lots of sunshine are balanced with the increasing probability of rain and storm. In October and November, you can see whale sharks and manta rays feeding on plankton in the Maldives. There are many great offers to take advantage of this time of year.

December

December is warm with many hours of sunshine, but the likelihood of rain and storms increases. Until just before Christmas, many hotels usually have great deals, so earlier in the month is a good time to travel.

Climate in Malé

The Maldives has a tropical climate that is hot all year round and is influenced by the monsoons. The southwest monsoons, from late April to September, are stronger in the northern islands and are accompanied by winds that can make the sea rough and make activities such as diving difficult. In addition, the humidity is higher and more often cloudy. The northeastern monsoons from October to December are quieter and only bring brief showers and thunderstorms in the afternoon or evening, especially in the southern atolls. The driest time outside of the monsoons is from January to April and is more noticeable on the northern atolls.

The temperatures are stable all year round: The maximum values ​​are around 30 ° C and usually only drop to 25 ° C. Throughout the year the humidity is very high and is around 80%. Rainfalls usually occur in the form of short and heavy showers or thunderstorms. They are a little more common in the southern atolls, but less so in the north. Sunshine is constant in the Maldives, an average of about 7 hours a day. The sunniest months are February and March. The sea is warm all year round, with a water temperature between 28 ° C and 30 ° C.

Food and drink

In the resorts around the Maldives you will find a large selection of international cuisine with excellent fish dishes and seafood. Most resorts also offer a selection of Asian and European dishes as a buffet or à la carte. All drinks are imported and alcoholic drink prices can be high.

Social conventions

With all the luxury the resorts offer, it’s easy to forget that the Maldives is an Islamic country. While bikinis and alcohol are allowed in the resorts, the inhabited islands, including Malé, insist on more decency. It is recommended that women wear closed clothing and not show too much skin.

Language

The Maldivian language is Divehi, a dialect of Sinhala (spoken by the majority in Sri Lanka). Recently, the Arabic language is becoming more and more important. Most of the officials speak English, which is also spoken in almost all holiday resorts.

Tip

Some resorts automatically increase the cost of additional services by 10%. A tip of 10% is expected where not included.

Best Travel Time and Climate for the Maldives

Nepal in Asia

Nepal in Asia

According to a2zgov, Nepal is among the poorest countries in the world. A crucial step towards progress is a showdown with discriminatory societal structures that restrict women, ethnic groups and people from lower castes.

FACTS ABOUT NEPAL

Population: 29,717,587 million inhabitants (2018)

Proportion of population below national poverty line: 25 percent

Can read and write: Men: 76.4 percent Women: 53.1 (2015)

Life expectancy: Men: 70.6 Women: 72 (2018)

Location measured by prosperity and development: 149 out of 189 countries (Human Development Index 2018)

GDP per capita (2016): $ 2.5 (number 199 out of 230)

On an elongated strip of land between India and China, 29 million people live in the mountainous nation of Nepal . The country is among the poorest in the world.

Discrimination, stereotypical gender roles and a hierarchical structure of society are crucial obstacles in the pursuit of prosperity and prosperity. In many places in Nepal, the caste system is rigidly maintained, making some people from birth considered less valuable than others. There are also a large number of ethnic minorities in the country, some of whom rank high in the social order, while others are hardly considered full citizens of the state of Nepal . For example, they end up at the back of the queue at the health clinics and have to fight to ensure a proper schooling for their children.

As in many other developing countries, many people seek out the big city to try to improve their living situation. This has led to large slums in the capital Kathmandu, where residents are struggling to be evicted from their humble homes, but also fighting discrimination and the stigma associated with living in a slum.

Inter-People’s Cooperation collaborates with local Nepalese organizations. We bring together poor people in village groups who work to gain access to public pools for local development and to hold government officials accountable for providing proper schooling and health services to all Nepalese citizens. The village groups not least give women the opportunity to step out of the men’s all-dominating shadow.

Inter-People’s Cooperation in Nepal also helps to give a voice to young people in Nepal who are passionate about creating a more just society. This is done through Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke’s international youth network Activista.

DEMOCRATIC EFFORTS

Nepal is taking small steps towards a more democratic society. In 2008, a historic election put an end to a 10-year civil war started by Maoist rebels, and the new parliament definitively abolished the kingdom of Nepal. Thus also began a process of writing a new constitution to provide better conditions for Dalits (people from the lower castes), ethnic minorities and women.

In 2017, elections have been held in the country’s provinces for the first time since 1997. And although the elections have been surrounded by some chaos, they show that the democratic process in Nepal is, after all, back on track.

SHOCKING SETBACK

In April 2015, the already fragile mountain nation was shaken by a violent earthquake . About 9,000 people lost their lives, 602,257 homes were destroyed and a further 285,099 homes and buildings, as well as much of the country’s infrastructure, were damaged.

Reconstruction is still slow and there is still a risk of buildings collapsing. The reconstruction has been pulled out, i.a. because the government has hesitated to pay the promised subsidies to the people who lost their homes.

Inter-People’s Cooperation was present with emergency relief after the earthquake . The effort has helped more than 133,000 people with i.a. temporary housing, temporary training centers, hygiene kits and grain silos.

The youth network Activista helped mobilize young Nepalese who helped in the chaotic weeks and months after the earthquake.

Today, we continue to work on a reconstruction program that puts local communities at the forefront of comprehensive efforts. The program runs until 2018, and will hopefully help to get the country back on its feet.

And hopefully more than that.

Nepal in Asia

Bahrain Economy

Bahrain Economy

Compared to the countries of the Persian Gulf, these islands have always enjoyed a certain prosperity: the presence of numerous freshwater springs allows for flourishing agriculture (dates, tomatoes, citrus fruits and other fruits, rice, vegetables); this, which was once associated with a decent breeding, has however suffered, as well as the competition from other sectors, the growing salinity of the soil; the shoals of pearl oysters are among the richest in the Persian Gulf (the relative fishing is however clearly in decline today); finally, the strategic position favors maritime trade, already relevant since ancient times. The discovery, which took place in 1932 in Awali, on the island of Bahrain, and the exploitation of oil have radically transformed the country’s economy; however, this sector has given cause for concern, partly linked to the fall in prices on the international market but above all derived from the prospect of an imminent depletion of the fields, which we tried to remedy, on the one hand, also by resorting to policies of conservation and containment of production, as well as the use of other resources; on the other hand, by relaunching the search for submarine fields N and W of the archipelago. More than oil production is actually the large Awali refinery, one of the largest in the Middle East, which processes mostly crude oil from Saudi Arabia. In addition to the sectors related to the extraction and processing of oil, the secondary sector is also active above all in the chemical, petrochemical and metallurgical fields, with an aluminum foundry that has reached a level of world rank.

According to allcountrylist, the industrialization process of Bahrain is part of the economic and social development of the country, which in addition to its numerous food complexes (including one for fish processing), cement factories and modern manufacturing industries, has invested in the sector of telecommunications (to guarantee the country its role as an important financial center) and the construction of a seawater desalination plant in Hidd, powered by a new power plant. Further sources of wealth derive from the exploitation of natural gas (also used in the production of electricity), and above all financial activities, stimulated in 1975 by the decision to allow it to be carried out under the offshore: since then Bahrain has been one of the channels for the investment of Arab petrodollars in the world market. Based on this role, the establishment of a scholarship to serve the wider surrounding region was approved (a common university was also built for the same purpose). In 2000, following the censorship by the OECD which has marked Bahrain as one of the “tax havens”, the country has taken steps to enact anti-money laundering regulations. Foreign trade takes place mainly with Saudi Arabia, the United States, Japan and, in the European Union, Great Britain and Germany. The main imported goods are manufactured goods, electrical machinery and for the oil industry, textiles; among those exported, in addition of course to oil and aluminum, there is a high percentage of re-exported goods. Over the past decades, the country’s trade relations and communications to the outside have also drawn considerable impetus from the construction of the highway linking Saudi Arabia to Bahrain (1986), which has thus ceased to be properly a ‘ Island. Free of railways, the country has an efficient system of infrastructures linked to road transport, in addition to the commercial port of Mina Sulman, the oil terminal of Sitra and the airport of Al Muharraq. The breakdown of the active population (overall equal to more than half of the total) indicates the good degree of development achieved by the country: only a small part of the residents of Bahrain are employed in traditional activities, agriculture and fishing, more than half work in industry (oil, construction, manufacturing, etc.) and the remainder is used in the tertiary sector. The GDP recorded in 2018 was 38,291 ml US $, settling around a variation of about 1.8%. Wealth too settling around a variation of approximately 1.8%. Wealth too settling around a variation of approximately 1.8%. Wealth too per capita of the residents has undergone a marked increase reaching 25851 in 2018.

Bahrain Economy

United Arab Emirates Human Geography

United Arab Emirates Human Geography

GENERALITY

State of Asia, located in the Arabian Peninsula at the mouth of the Persian Gulf, overlooking what was once called, with clear reference to the activity carried out by the coastal populations, the Pirate Coast.The seven Emirates of Abu Dhabi arepart of the State , Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm al Qaiwain, Ras al Khaimah and Fujayrah, also known in the past as the Truce States, in memory of the peace concluded in 1853 between Great Britain and the pirates of the area. Dedicated for centuries to sea raids, pearl fishing and nomadism, ruled by the Persians, Portuguese and English before the rise of the two tribal confederations Bani Yas and Qawassim (respectively ancestors of the rulers of four of the current domains), the United Arab Emirates United remained until the discovery of oil a fundamentally depressed region divided by conflicts between the various sheikhdoms. Within a few decades, the collapse of the pearl market (1930) and the beginning of the exploitation of black gold reserves (starting from the 1960s) changed the configuration of the country and its perspective, transforming it into one of the richest states in the world. Modernization and widespread well-being in the area are eloquently exemplified by the urban and architectural development of the city of Dubai, a candidate to quickly become the true nerve center of the Middle East for foreign investments, services and trade and whose urban symbols (from the tallest skyscrapers of the world, to artificial beaches to futuristic projects of cities under the sea) are now intrinsically connected with the imaginary of the entire country. However, economic growth and transformations have not found an equal response in the political and social sphere: the process of democratic reform has in fact only been started in recent times and the oligarchic power expressed by the emirs still informs most of the institutions, as well as the tradition still invests many of the costumes.

HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

Over the last few decades, the population of the Emirates has undergone a particular evolution: the country’s growth rate in the period 2002-2007 was 4.5%; according to localtimezone, the residents of the country amounted to over 4 million people, a surprising figure, if compared with that of less than twenty years earlier (179,000 residents in 1968). Between 2005 and 2017, the population increased from just over four million to almost 9.5 million. Between 2015 and 2020, the growth rate stood at 1.4%. This demographic increase is largely due to massive immigration from the Asian countries of the Middle East, attracted by the demand for manpower linked to mining activities and by the wave of well-being following the discovery and exploitation of oil fields in Abu Dhabi and Dubai: it is estimated that about 70% of the workforce is of foreign origin. This massive presence regulated during the nineties of the twentieth century also by legislative measures aimed at containing the phenomenon of illegal immigration, is also the cause of the disproportion between the sexes within the population: with two thirds of the residents of male gender, the UAE is the country in the world with the largest number of men. The ethnic composition of the United Arab Emirates is made up of This massive presence regulated during the nineties of the twentieth century also by legislative measures aimed at containing the phenomenon of illegal immigration, is also the cause of the disproportion between the sexes within the population: with two thirds of the residents of male gender, the UAE is the country in the world with the largest number of men. The ethnic composition of the United Arab Emirates is made up of This massive presence regulated during the nineties of the twentieth century also by legislative measures aimed at containing the phenomenon of illegal immigration, is also the cause of the disproportion between the sexes within the population: with two thirds of the residents of male gender, the UAE is the country in the world with the largest number of men. The ethnic composition of the United Arab Emirates is made up of Arabs for 15% and Asians for 75%. If the former are concentrated above all in the oases and are dedicated to agricultural activities, the latter populate urban centers and deal with commercial activities. The population density of the country 111.5 residents / km² has also increased by almost one and a half times compared to the latest surveys; urbanization is quite widespread and two thirds of the population is concentrated in cities. The rest of the population lives along the coasts, dedicated to activities related to fishing, while about 10% of the residents are nomads. The largest and most populous of the Emirates is that of Abu Dhabi, which extends from the border with Qatar to Oman and Dubai; it includes some villages of the fertile and well-populated oasis of Buraimi, however, claimed by Oman and Saudi Arabia. The demographic size of Dubai is also relevant, extending between the Pirate Coast and the Gulf of Oman, whose center is one of the most lively and populous in the country. The residents of the other emirates, who are more scarce in resources, instead seek accommodation in the coastal centers economically enlivened by oil and related traffic.

United Arab Emirates Human Geography

Georgia History

Georgia History

Independence proclaimed on April 9, 1991, Georgia effectively became autonomous with the definitive dissolution of the USSR (December 1991). The new state was, however, soon hit by a bloody civil war between the opposition and the supporters of President Zviad Gamsakurdia forced to flee (January 1992), while the South Ossetians proclaimed the secession to join the Russian Federation. Apparently resolved the internal crisis with the appointment of EA Ševardnadze, former foreign minister of MS Gorbačëv, as president of the State Council, Georgia obtained its first international recognition and was admitted to the CSCE. An agreement between Ševardnadze and BN Elcin (June 1992) favored a truce in South Ossetia, but the following month a new secessionist front was opened by the Abkhazians. In this way a new phase of instability was inaugurated, also characterized by the resumption of activity of the partisans of Gamsakurdia. In the impossibility of resolving the intricate situation and despite Russia having played a precise role in the secessionist events that had upset the life of Georgia, Ševardnadze, in the meantime elected president of the Parliament (October 1992), was forced to come to terms with Elcin and to sign Georgia’s membership of the CIS (October 1993). A new agreement in early 1994 sealed a sort of Russian protectorate over Georgia with the granting of military bases and border control without, however, the situation could really return to normal. In addition, a peace treaty was signed with the Abkhaz rebels. At the end of 1993 mriva Gamsakurdia and in October 1995 a new constitution came into force (approved by a large majority by the Parliament) which made Georgia a presidential republic by recognizing the head of state, elected by universal suffrage, broad powers, including the to appoint the head of government. The presidential elections of November 1995 were won by Ševardnadze, supported by the Union of Citizens party, which established himself as the first political force in the contemporary elections of the Legislative assembly.

According  to globalsciencellc, the Abkhazians, however, did not recognize the legitimacy of the consultations, like the South Ossetians, who on November 10, 1996 elected Ljudvig Chibirovcon as their president. The stipulation of a military cooperation agreement between Georgia and Russia was worth nothing to resolve the issue of secessionisms, stemming mainly from the latter’s intention to restore its authority in the region. Likewise, the negotiations started in 1997 with the South Ossetians and the Abkhazians were resolved in a failure. Adžaristan and the Samtskhe-Djavakhei, located along the delicate Turkish and Armenian border marks. Moreover, the undeniable economic progress of the country did not contribute to solving its structural problems, linked to the shortage of electricity and massive unemployment, nor to undermining its endemic mafia corruption. Ševardnadze had to foil in 1998 an uprising of troops loyal to the late president Gamsakurdia, suffer the downsizing of his party in local elections and escape, after the one in 1995, a second attack behind which the Moscow director was suspected, interested in maintaining control of the very rich energy reserves (gas and oil) of the Caucasian region, while Georgia, supported by the United States and Europe, Caspian to the West. The serious tensions with the Kremlin worsened between the end of 1999 and 2001, on the occasion of the Russian offensive against the rebels of neighboring Chechnya, which the Moscow government believed protected by the Georgians.

To this was added the setback suffered by Western investment projects for the exploitation of Caspian energy resources, due to the high costs necessary to carry them out. This penalized Ševardnadze’s pro-Western foreign policy, which nevertheless obtained Georgia’s entry into the Council of Europe (1999) and the World Trade Organization (2000), negotiating with good prospects that of NATO.. Between 1999 and 2000, Ševardnadze saw a decline in popularity but managed to win the elections again by defeating former Communist Dzhumber Patiashvili. In 2003 there was a violent protest against the government and the president resigned in order not to drag the country into a civil war (Revolution of the Roses); in his place was designated Nino Burdzhanadze with the task of calling new elections (2004); they saw a landslide victory by Mikheil Saakašvili, leader of the opposition in Ševardnadze. In the same year, elections were held in South Ossetia not recognized by the government and followed by several armed clashes. In early 2005, Prime Minister Zurab Jvania died under unclear circumstances. In November 2007, a popular protest against the president erupted, declaring a state of emergency and resigning. Parliament spokesman Nino Burdzhanadze was recalled to take over the country until January 2008, the year in which Saakašvili was reconfirmed as president. In the next elections, in May 2008, the president’s party the United National Movement (UNM) won with over 50% of the votes. In August 2008, riots in South Ossetia provoked the advance of Georgian military forces into the region. The Russian army reacted by causing the conflict to widen, siding with the secessionists in Ossetia and in August 2008 Riots in South Ossetia provoked the advance of Georgian military forces in the region. The Russian army reacted by causing the conflict to widen, siding with the secessionists in Ossetia and in August 2008 Riots in South Ossetia provoked the advance of Georgian military forces in the region. The Russian army reacted by causing the conflict to widen, siding with the secessionists in Ossetia and in Abkhazia, formally recognized by the Moscow government. In October 2012 the political elections took place which saw the victory of the political group Sogno Georgiano, led by the magnate Bidzina Ivanishvili and the defeat of the UNM, linked to President Saakašvili; in the following days, Parliament approved the birth of a new government headed by Ivanishvili himself. Presidential elections were held in October 2013, won by Giorgi Margvelashvili.

Georgia History

Taiwan (Republic of China)

Taiwan (Republic of China)

Created in 1949, the State of Taiwan (or the National Republic of China) is a presidential republic, as established by the Chinese Constitution of 1947, still in force and last amended in 2005. The President of the Republic, elected by direct suffrage with a four-year mandate, appoints the head of government. The power to legislate is entrusted to a Legislative Assembly, made up of 225 members elected by universal suffrage and in office for 3 years. The dissolution of the National Assembly, active until 2005 with constitutional tasks, has in fact assigned to the instrument of the popular referendum any possible modification to the Fundamental Charter. Martial law was abolished in the country in 1987; at the same time, the parliamentary opposition was legalized. On a legal level, the enactments of the International Court of Justice are accepted with reservation and the death penalty is still in force. Justice is administered through a collegial body, the Judicial yuan, whose members are appointed by the president with the consent of the Legislative Assembly. The defense system of the state is organized according to the classic tripartition: army, navy and air force, to which are added paramilitary corps.

The military service is compulsory and lasts 16 months; a reduction of the detention period is foreseen to 12 months by 2008. The system contemplates the participation of women in the aviation corps in roles that do not involve combat. Primary education is compulsory and free from 6 to 15 years. The secondary school is divided into middle school, normal school and technical institutes. According to educationvv, middle schools in turn are divided into two cycles. Primary teacher training for rural areas is equated with the first cycle of middle school, while the training of other elementary teachers is equivalent to the second cycle of middle school. The specialized technical institutes have 2 cycles, one lower and one higher. In the country there are numerous universities and several independent colleges. The percentage of illiterate people is particularly low: in 2005 it stood at 2.8%, almost halved compared to the estimate recorded ten years earlier.

ENVIRONMENT

The spontaneous vegetation has been partially destroyed, above all due to the recent thickening of the population, but it is still present in its original luxuriant form, especially on the eastern mountainous slopes; the most typical and widespread species are the lauraceae, the bamboos and the camphor tree. Over 2000 m there are conifer woods and, near the peaks, pastures and shrubs. The different types of forest, especially the less inhabited mountainous areas, are home to a great variety of fauna: mammals (Formosan brown bear, macaque, wild boar, sika, pangolin, sambar), birds (pheasant, sparrow), reptiles, amphibians (Formosa salamander, various species of frog), insects; territorial waters are rich in fish. Some protected species are subject to illegal trade. The frenetic growth of industry, starting from the 1950s, initially accompanied by a lack of ecological sensitivity, has caused extensive damage to the environment: air and water pollution and groundwater contamination due to illicit disposal. of radioactive waste, although since the 1990s the authorities have passed laws aimed at safeguarding the natural heritage and established sustainable development policies. 18.8% of the country is considered a protected area; in particular, 6 national parks have been created, several nature reserves, naturalistic shelters,

ECONOMY

The tertiary sector is the largest voice of GDP and employs more than half of the workforce. Banking, financial and insurance services are highly developed and Taiwan is one of the largest business centers in Asia. Due to the now high standard of living achieved by the country, internal trade is quite lively. Foreign trade is essential for the Taiwanese economy; the country mainly exports electrical and electronic equipment, machinery, optical and precision instruments, mining products (iron, steel, copper), plastic objects, dolls and toys, sports equipment, clothing, while it mainly imports oil, machinery and means of transport, minerals, agricultural products. The trade balance is constantly in surplus; the exchange takes place eminently with the United States, China, Japan and South Korea, followed by Saudi Arabia (for oil imports); exports are also directed towards Hong Kong, which has long been the leading market also because it acted as an intermediary in relations with China, and some countries of the European Union. The morphology of the island hinders communications, which are lacking, especially between the coasts and inland areas. The railways follow the coastal contour and cover a total of 4,600 km (of which, however, only a little more than a thousand are national railways); the most important section is the one that runs along the island on the western side, from Keelung to N to Kaohsiung to S. The situation is better with regard to the road network (approx. 37,000 km, mostly asphalted, in 2002). Maritime transport has been developed, which mainly refer to the four international ports of Kaohsiung, Chilung, Taichung and Hualien. Taiwan also strengthened its airport structure; the international airport of Taoyuan, near T’aipei, joins the international ones of Kaohsiung and Hualien as well as various national airports. Tourism is developing strongly: the island has been visited every year for approx. 2.8 million foreigners (2005). The government has launched programs to promote the country’s natural and historical wealth; the 2008 Beijing Olympics are an important step in this program. Kaohsiung and Hualien as well as various domestic airports. Tourism is developing strongly: the island has been visited every year for approx. 2.8 million foreigners (2005). The government has launched programs to promote the country’s natural and historical wealth; the 2008 Beijing Olympics are an important step in this program. Kaohsiung and Hualien as well as various domestic airports. Tourism is developing strongly: the island has been visited every year for approx. 2.8 million foreigners (2005). The government has launched programs to promote the country’s natural and historical wealth; the 2008 Beijing Olympics are an important step in this program.

Taiwan (Republic of China)

South Korea Literature and Cinema

South Korea Literature and Cinema

LITERATURE

After the Second World War, two literary currents were formed. The first was formed by authors from the North, such as Im Hwa (1908-1953), who remained faithful to the motifs of the proletarian literature of the early twentieth century. The other instead tends to safeguard the traditional values ​​of Korean culture, according to a concept of “pure literature” free from political alignments. After the civil war of 1950-53, Korean poets and writers also found themselves divided between North and South, some by ideological choice, others by necessity. In South Korea it certainly presented more varied aspects. In the fifties, in full reconstruction, the national tragedy was naturally the favorite theme of poets and writers, who now returned to gather around literary circles, including that of the “Green Deer” founded by Pak Tujin (1916-1998) with Cho Chihun (1920-1968) and Pak Mogwol (1916-1978). Regarding the prose, Hüngnam ch’ŏ isu (The Retreat from Hüngnam) by Kim Tongni, is one of the most significant novels; but also writers such as Yi Pǒmsǒn (1920-1982), Sun Ch’angsŏp (b.1922), Pak Kyŏngni (b.1927) and Hwang Sunwon (1915-2000) deserve to be mentioned as among the busiest in this period. In particular, the latter achieved notoriety with the novel K’ain-ui huye (Descendants of Cain). In the 1960s, a literary genre based on psychological introspection and inner reflection emerged. Kim Suyŏng (1921-1968), Kim Ch’unsu (b.1941) and Kim Namjo were certainly among the most active poets in those years.

In the following two decades, Ko Ǔn (b.1933), Hwang Tonggyu (b.1938), Kim Chiha (b.1941), Hwang Chiu (b.1952), Ch’oe Sŭngho (b.1954). Among the novelists, Yi Mungu (b. 1941), Kim Wonil (b. 1942), Cho Sehüi (b. 1942) and Hwang Sŏgyŏng (b. 1943); new names such as the writer O Chŏn ghŭi (b.1947) and, above all, Yi Munyol, were then brought to the attention of critics (no. 1948). After decades of intense political passions and painful moments of repression, the last decade of the twentieth century saw the affirmation of greater cultural freedom and an opening towards North Korea. With the authors almost eager to allow themselves a pause for reflection aimed at a serene and critical examination of the whirling historical-political events experienced since the post-war period, South Korean literature appeared rich in retrospective works and analyzes of sociological, political and cultural events of previous years. While waiting for a decisive generational change, it was the most successful poets and writers who occupied the first places in the charts of the titles sold. Cho Chongnae and Pyon’gyong (Changes) by the aforementioned Yi Munyol. Even the fascination of the everyday found those who knew how to illustrate it admirably, and this was the case of Yi Kyunyong (1951-1996) and his Noja-wa Changja-ui nara (The Country of Laozi and Zhuangzi), while political-existential reminiscences characterized the works by other authors, such as Ch’oe Yun (b. 1953). Centered on science and Korean nationalism are the works of Bok Geo-il. A very important strand within Korean literature is fantasy, with works such as Lee Yeongdo’s Dragon Raja, Jeon Min-Hee’s The Rune Children, and Lee Woo-hyouk’s The Soul of the Guardians. As for poetry, there was a revival by no longer young authors, whose works, juxtaposed with those of the younger generation, helped to enhance that climate of reflection on the past typical of the period. Since the end of the twentieth century, according to itypeauto, Korean literature has enjoyed a certain response from the international public (there are specialized series in Korean literature from French, German and Italian publishers), on the one hand thanks to the new translations of the classics, such as Hŏ Kyun (1569-1618), and of the great writers of the post-war generation, such as the autobiographical novel Mr. Han by the aforementioned Hwang Sŏgyŏng or The Shaman of Chatsil by Kim Tong-ni, who tackles the crucial theme of the meeting of the most atavistic indigenous tradition with the new Western spirituality. On the other hand, Korean literature returned to international attention in 2005 when South Korea was the host country of the Frankfurt Book Fair; narrators such as EUN Heekyung (b.1959) and JO Kyung Ran (b.1969), and, among poets, Hwang Ji-U (b.1952), whose multifaceted interests they also turn to theater and sculpture.

CINEMA

The first decades of the twentieth century saw the beginnings of Korean film art under Japanese domination, which greatly influenced productions and artists. Government conditioning was a widespread practice, which, under another sign remained, and still is present, in the art and culture of North Korea. The division of the country into two areas was consequently followed by the formation of two distinct cinemas. South Korea, which suffered strong US penetration, was experiencing a period of considerable development and expansion in the decade between the 1960s, with an annual production of over 200 films; among the names of some ambitions of the time, we remember Kim Song Min, Ri Hwa Sam, An Jong Hwa, Kim Tae Soo (Patate, 1969),, 1965). Over all, however, dominated Shin Sang Ok, the most important director of the Sixties, known as “the Korean Kurosawa” for his mastery in period films as well as in contemporary films (The guest and my mother, 1961, considered his masterpiece; The dream, 1967; Eunuch, 1968, to name just a few titles by an author who was also active in the following decades). South Korean cinema declined in the seventies and eighties, to then experience the start of a great recovery thanks above all to the work of Jang Sun Woo (The age of success, 1988; The lovers of Woomuk-Baemi, 1991; Un petalo, 1996) and Park Kwang Su, which debuted in 1988 with Chil-Su and Man-su. In the following years, directors such as Park Ki-Yong (Motel Cactus, 1997; Camel (s), 2001), Lee Chang-dong (Green Fish, 1997; Peppermint Candy, 2000; Oasis, presented at the Venice International Film Festival, established themselves in the following years. of 2002). Among the directors who emerged in the 1990s, Kim Ki-Duk (b.1960) (Birdcage Inn, 1998; Bad Guy, 2001; Samaritan Girl, 2004; Time, 2006) deserves a particular mention. dissemination and international recognition of South Korean cinema. A determining role was played by Hong Sang-soo (b. 1961), director of Turning Gate (2002), Woman Is the Future of Man (2004) and Woman on the Beach (2006), winner of international awards and formed thanks to important experiences abroad (USA). The new millennium has also seen the rebirth of an important line of independent productions, a natural counterpoint to national works that have been too seduced by Western canons. A note that testifies to the importance of the South Korean film movement is the Pusan ​​International Film Festival, which reached its twelfth edition in 2007 with 271 works and more than 198,000 spectators, which undoubtedly attest to the very first places among film festivals in Asia. In 2020 the South Korean film Parasite by director Bong Joonho, was awarded the Oscar for Best Picture. Parasite was the first non-English language film to win this award in Academy Award history. The film also won the Palme d’Or at the Cannes Film Festival in 2019, a Golden Globe (2020) for best foreign film, and four other Oscars (2020) for best international film, best director and best original screenplay.

South Korea Literature

Study Regional Sciences from the Near and Middle East Abroad

Study Regional Sciences from the Near and Middle East Abroad

Hardly any other region appears as frequently in the media as the Near and Middle East. The region is of great international interest . It is based primarily on historical and economic interdependencies. Because of Germany’s responsibility for the acts of the National Socialists, the FRG has maintained close political and economic relations with Israel since the 1960s.

The international economy depends on the oil reserves in countries like Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Iran. At the same time, countries like Turkey or the United Arab Emirates are popular holiday regions that are associated with sunshine and oriental flair. Against this background, experts are in demand who are familiar with politics, the economy and the cultural history of the region.

Course content

According to thembaprograms.com, the courses in the area of ​​regional studies in the Near and Middle East or Middle East studies are still quite new in Germany. So far, they are only offered at a few universities .

They differ from the established courses of study in Arabic, Jewish and Oriental Studies in the following respects: There is not only an occupation with either the Arabic language and culture or the Jewish language and culture, but both areas flow into the course.

Set priorities

At most universities, however, students can set priorities and specialize in a region such as Turkey or a topic such as Judaism in the Middle East.

In addition, at most universities, students have the opportunity to choose a minor and thus specialize even further. Depending on the university, you can choose from subjects such as political science , history or communication studies .

In the bachelor’s degree

Language acquisition is initially the focus of the bachelor’s degree programs . The students decide on two languages ​​that they learn in the further course of their studies. Depending on the university, you can choose between Arabic, Turkish, Hebrew, Persian and ancient languages ​​such as Syriac or Greek . In language courses, they learn vocabulary and grammar rules, but aspects of geography and culture are always highlighted.

In the further course of their studies, the students then deal more intensively with their chosen region or focus . Depending on the university, the focus can be on cultural, historical, economic, social or political topics. The students then deal, for example, with the Middle East conflict, but also with Islam, post-colonial theories or the economy in the United Arab Emirates.

In the master’s degree

Most of the graduates add a master’s degree to their bachelor’s degree. This serves on the one hand to further specialize in content and on the other hand prepares for management positions in business or an academic career . The individual universities offer master’s programs with very different focuses.

There is a choice of courses with a linguistic focus, but also programs that focus on the politics, culture or economy of the Middle East. In most master’s courses, students also have the opportunity to learn a third foreign language .

Requirements

Applicants should first and foremost be interested in the region to which they are devoting their studies. A certain talent for languages is also helpful in learning two foreign languages. Most universities do not require any language skills, but first knowledge of Arabic or Hebrew at the beginning of the course is definitely helpful. In addition, applicants must have a good command of English in order to understand the English-language specialist literature.

Career prospects for Middle East experts

The study of regional sciences in the Near and Middle East does not provide training for any specific occupational field . The choice of the minor is all the more important. Internships completed alongside your studies are also helpful in order to orientate yourself professionally and acquire additional qualifications.

With their language skills and their cultural background knowledge, graduates have a wide range of career opportunities. Many aspire to work for an international organization, an NGO, a foundation or another development cooperation institution .

Most of the graduates work there in scientific and advisory roles . With knowledge of Arabic, positions in the diplomatic service are also possible.

The inner-German migration policy has to rely on the expertise of Middle East experts. Those who prefer to work in the cultural field can, for example, work in museums and other cultural institutions related to the Middle East.

A journalistic activity is conceivable. In addition, graduates can work as translators or in the tourism industry. Master’s graduates are free to pursue a doctorate and pursue an academic career.

Stay abroad

A stay abroad in a country in the Near or Middle East is compulsory for students. On the one hand, it serves to improve language skills . On the other hand, a semester abroad gives students the opportunity to really experience and understand the culture of the respective country.

However, one or two semesters abroad are also recommended, because studying on-site opens up a new perspective on the subject. This can also be interesting in the context of thesis or research. In addition, the students have the opportunity to make international contacts that can prove to be valuable when starting their careers.

Study Regional Sciences from the Near and Middle East

Children Education in Lebanon

Children Education in Lebanon

Lebanon, on the Mediterranean coast, has been hit hard by civil wars and there are still conflicts between different groups in society. The war in Syria has put further pressure on the country with millions of people fleeing. More than half of Lebanon’s Syrian refugees are children.

Since the outbreak of the war in Syria in 2011, around one million Syrians have sought refuge in Lebanon. Even before that, many Palestinian refugees lived in camps around the country. Children, and especially girls, are hard hit by conflicts and disasters. A total of 1.4 million children in Lebanon are expected to grow up in vulnerability, without access to the essentials such as protection and clean water.

Poor finances affect children

To cope with everyday life, families become dependent on the children contributing to their livelihood. Children are forced to work in agriculture, in a factory or as a street vendor in the middle of traffic. The most vulnerable children are at risk of being exploited in prostitution, falling victim to human trafficking or being recruited by armed groups.

Deteriorating situation for girls

Girls and women are negatively affected by the difficult economic situation and an unequal view of girls and women in particular, both among Lebanese and refugees. Among other things, girls are forced to stay at home to take care of the household and can therefore not go to school. Without education, their ability to control their own lives diminishes.

Six percent of children in Lebanon have been forced into child marriage. But for the girls who have fled Syria, it looks even worse, among them just over one in five has been forced to marry before they have turned 19 years old. Young girls are married off because someone is responsible for them or because the family is poor and needs money. Girls in child marriage are particularly vulnerable to violence.

Lebanon

This is what Plan International in Lebanon is doing

Plan International has been in place in Lebanon since 2016. Our highest priority in the country is to prevent children from being married off or forced to work, by focusing on the right to education and protection from violence. We work on several levels to increase girls’ power over their lives and opportunities to avoid child marriage and sexual violence.

In Tripoli, northern Lebanon, we work to support teenage girls’ schooling, which gives them a more stable foundation for the future and at the same time reduces the risk of them getting married early. We also work to ensure that the sexual and reproductive health and rights of girls and young women are met. We do this by informing, working to change attitudes and ensuring that girls have better access to health care and relevant products.

Plan International Lebanon informs and provides support to both children and adults to counter violence and to let them know where to turn if they are exposed. We also run preschools where both children and parents receive support. We educate young people so that they can support themselves and take a place and influence society in a positive way.

Plan International has a series of reports on the situation of teenage girls in humanitarian crises . One of the reports is about girls on the run in Lebanon and describes how violence is part of their everyday lives, that many are married off and how the economy affects their opportunities to go to school.

Together with girls of different ages, we discuss what their rights are and how they can take power over their lives.

Children Education in Lebanon

Youngest and strongest in the family

Ten-year-old Kholud was only three years old when the war broke out and her family was forced to leave Syria. The family sought refuge in the city of Tripoli in northern Lebanon, where they now live in poverty.

The difficult situation has forced Kholud’s family to marry off her older sisters. Her two brothers have also been forced to leave school to work.

Despite the challenges, Kholud is determined to follow his dream and train as a lawyer. She has joined one of Plan International’s programs that we run together with one of our partner organizations in the city where Kholud lives.

– I want to become a lawyer so that I can defend the rights of all people and make my voice heard in the society where I live, says Kholud.

The program that Kholud is part of is developed for children who are at risk of getting married or forced to perform harmful work. Together with the other children, she gets to learn more about her rights but also practice different skills. She also gets to learn basic reading and writing skills so that she can start studying and have better opportunities to support herself.

Kholud says that her sister is introverted and that their mother often underestimates her potential and says that she will soon be married off. But Kholud refuses to accept that her sister’s fate is already predetermined and urges her to decide for herself about her future.

– My sister can neither read nor write but I try to teach her everything I learn in the lessons so that she can become a stronger person, says Kholud.

Kholud’s stubborn struggle for his sister’s future has finally paid off. The family has agreed to let her sister take part in Plan International’s program.

– I can already see a difference in my sister’s personality and I am very happy about that, says Kholud.

Facts about Lebanon

Facts about Lebanon

Capital: Beirut
Population: 6 million
Life expectancy: 80 years
Infant mortality rate: 4.5 per 1000 births
Proportion of children starting school: 86.3%
Literacy: 91%
Proportion of women in parliament: 3%

Kyoto Travel Guide

Kyoto Travel Guide

The former capital of Japan, Kyoto, is the embodiment of Japanese culture colored by world heritage sites.

KYOTO

KYOTO AS A DESTINATION

Imperial Japanese crown jewel

The Kyoto legend originated about 1,500 years ago. The most significant turning point in the city’s glamorous history saw the light of day a few centuries later when Kyoto became the capital of Imperial Japan.

Although the residence of the country’s emperor and the importance of the city to the country varied over the years, Kyoto maintained its position as the capital for almost an entire millennium.

The years have passed, but surprisingly little has changed. Once so glorious, the capital is still glorious Kyoto today, even though it is no longer the administrative center of the country.

The splendor of Kyoto persisted over the war

KYOTO AS A DESTINATION

Unlike almost all other major Japanese cities, Kyoto survived the devastating World War II virtually intact.

Due to this good fortune, Kyoto is Japan at its most authentic and flowering. Centuries-old temples of the capital era, Shrines and other impressive buildings still stand in the same places as proud as ever.

As many as 17 of the Kyoto monuments have been classified as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The most famous examples of these are probably the Kiyomizu-dera Temple and Nijo Castle.

In addition to individual top attractions, the city is worth the same without a precise destination. In the midst of nearly endless history and stagnant architecture, the mind rests.

Districts of Kyoto

By Japanese standards, Kyoto is at most a medium-sized city. In Finnish terms, however, with a population of one and a half million, it is a giant with many things to see.

The city center is an interesting combination of new and old. The Imperial Palace and Nijo Castle bring a historic touch, counterbalanced by a state-of-the-art train station.

Western Arashiyama, on the other hand, is a little more natural because of its lush hills. The eastern part, Higashiyama, is again known especially for its geishas. The southern part is largely the area of ​​the old capital, while the northern part is home to many World Heritage sites.

At its best in spring and fall

Most tourists head to Kyoto in the spring and fall, largely due to favorable weather. Temperatures revolve around twenty degrees on either side, and rain doesn’t do much of a headache.

In summer, of course, it is hot, but also very humid. Winter frosts are instead a congestion-avoiding choice.

FLIGHTS, ACCOMMODATION AND MOVEMENT IN KYOTO

FLIGHTS, ACCOMMODATION AND MOVEMENT IN KYOTO

Trips to Kyoto

There is no airport in Kyoto, but the connections from Finland to the rest of Japan are so great that you should not miss the trip.

The most convenient way to get there is by flying from Helsinki on a Finnair direct flight to Osaka and continuing the journey by high-speed train to your destination.

The flight takes about ten hours and usually costs 800 to 1,000 euros for the round trip. By train from Osaka to Kyoto in just over an hour.

Many accommodation options

According to DigoPaul, Kyoto offers accommodation for every taste. As a rule of thumb, hotel accommodation in the city center is expensive, a little further away a little cheaper. Also in high season, prices follow the increase in passenger numbers.

At a cheaper price, you can stay in a more traditional hostel or, in Japanese, a capsule hotel, if you are not bothered by the cramped place. In Finnish, internet cafes also represent a rather exotic accommodation option.

For the experiential, the right direction is temple accommodation instead. While the language barrier and bedtime may be surprising at first, the morning devotion of the temple certainly begins the day out of everyday life.

The train is the best ride game

With public transportation, Kyoto makes an exception when compared to many Japanese metropolises. The two-line metro is quite modest in the city, and you can’t get anywhere from it.

It is still worth favoring railways in Kyoto as well, albeit overground. The trains cross and cross almost everywhere. Buses, in turn, patch the shadows left by the train network.

KYOTO ATTRACTIONS

KYOTO ATTRACTIONS

The splendor of the Imperial Temple

There are a total of four imperial temples in Kyoto, the most famous of which is probably Kyoto-gosh, simply the Imperial Temple, right in the center.

The whole thing is absolutely beautiful and the historical hum is palpable. The palace garden with its cherry trees is also enchanting, especially in spring. The temple still occasionally serves as a stage for state events.

However, those intending to attend the temple should note that access to all Imperial temples must be requested from the Imperial Household Agency, and during the busiest seasons, there will not be enough time for guided tours for all applicants.

Other Imperial Monuments include Sento Imperial Temple, Katsura Villa and Shugakui Villa. Access to these must also be requested, but unlike the Central Temple, they do not offer English-language tours.

The rugged beauty of Ryoanji’s rock garden

When the mind gallops after overtaking a rally of sightseeing, it is worth taking the direction of Ryoanji Temple.

The Temple of the Peaceful Dragon, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is considered the most impressive example of Zen Buddhist achievements in the whole country.

There are a total of 15 larger boulders in the temple courtyard, of which only 14 can be seen at a time — regardless of location — according to Buddhists, all the stones can only be seen after the tent , the Enlightenment.

Stopping Kiyomizu-dera

Kijomizu-dera’s history goes far, in fact, further than the entire Kyoto story. The temple, from its place, on the slope of a mountain, has seen all the colorful stages of the city.

The view from the temple over the city is impressive, but there are plenty of wonders inside the building as well. Namely, there is a waterfall in Kiyomizu-dera, where the water of the mountains flows.

The temple is one of the city’s most popular attractions, and for good reason. It is definitely a must-see for every visitor to Kyoto.

THE BEST OF KYOTO

THE BEST OF KYOTO

The best attractions

  1. Imperial temple
  2. Kiyomizu-deran Temple
  3. Ryoanji Stone Garden
  4. Nijo Castle
  5. Gionin geishat