Category: Asia

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Turkey Government and Political Parties

Turkey Government and Political Parties

According to Politicsezine, Turkey is located in the eastern Mediterranean region and borders eight countries. To the north, it shares a border with Bulgaria and Greece, while to the northwest it has a border with Georgia. To the east is Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran, while Iraq and Syria are to the southeast.

Each of these countries has unique characteristics that make them distinct from each other. Bulgaria is a Balkan country with a long coastline along the Black Sea, which provides access to many ports of call for ships from Turkey. Greece is an ancient Mediterranean country with beautiful islands and stunning beaches. Armenia is mountainous, with spectacular mountain views that have been home to many ancient civilizations throughout history. Azerbaijan has vast oil reserves which provide it with much of its wealth, while Iran has a rich cultural heritage and many historical sites to explore. Iraq is known for its deserts but also has lush green mountains in its northern regions. Finally, Syria is home to some of the oldest cities in the world and holds important religious sites for both Christianity and Islam.

Government of Turkey

According to programingplease, the government of Turkey is a unitary presidential republic, with the President as both head of state and head of government. The executive branch is headed by the President, who is elected by direct popular vote for a five-year term. The legislative branch consists of the unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey, which has 600 members. These members are also elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms. The judicial branch is made up of the Supreme Court and other lower courts. The Supreme Court is composed of 15 members appointed by the President with parliamentary approval.

The President wields significant power in Turkey’s government, including authority to appoint senior public officials and judges, veto legislation, declare states of emergency or martial law, and dissolve Parliament if it fails to pass a budget or other important laws within three months. The President can also call for early elections at any time during his or her tenure. In addition to these powers, the President has authority over foreign policy decisions as well as control over military appointments and promotions.

The Prime Minister serves as head of government in conjunction with the President and is responsible for carrying out laws passed by Parliament and implementing policies approved by Parliament or the president. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President from among members of Parliament who command a majority in that body; however, he or she must still be approved by Parliament before taking office.

The Constitution guarantees a range of civil liberties for citizens such as freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention, freedom from torture or cruel treatment, freedom from involuntary servitude, freedom from interference in private life except when necessary for public safety and order; protection against arbitrary interference with correspondence; protection against arbitrary search; protection against deprivation of property without due process; protection against ex post facto criminal laws; freedom from censorship; free speech rights; free press rights; free assembly rights; free association rights; religious liberty rights; political participation rights (including voting); labor union formation rights; privacy rights including prohibitions on discrimination based on race or gender as well as certain economic protections for Turkish citizens.

Recent Heads of Government of Turkey

The current head of government of Turkey is Recep Tayyip Erdogan. He assumed office on August 28, 2014, after being elected in the 2014 general elections. Erdogan has served as Prime Minister since 2003, and previously served as Mayor of Istanbul from 1994 to 1998. Erdogan is a member of the Justice and Development Party (AKP), which he co-founded in 2001. He is a prominent advocate for conservative social values and increased government involvement in the economy. His views have been controversial due to his stance on some issues such as freedom of speech, press censorship, and the status of minorities in Turkey. He has also been criticized for his authoritarian rule and alleged corruption scandals involving his family members. In addition to domestic issues, Erdogan has also taken a strong stance on foreign policy matters such as relations with Europe, Syria, Iraq, Iran, and Israel. Under his leadership Turkey has become increasingly involved in regional affairs and has sought to strengthen its ties with countries such as Russia and Qatar. As head of government, Erdogan has sought to increase Turkish influence abroad while maintaining stability at home through economic reform initiatives such as increasing foreign investment in the country’s infrastructure projects and introducing tax cuts to stimulate economic growth.

Major Political Parties in Turkey

The Justice and Development Party (AKP) is the leading political party in Turkey. It is a center-right, conservative political party founded in 2001 by Recep Tayyip Erdogan. The AKP has a strong base of support among the rural population, who are attracted to its promise of economic and social reforms. In addition to its conservative platform, the AKP also supports a moderate version of Islam and advocates for Turkey’s integration into Europe. The AKP has held a majority in Parliament since 2002 and has won every election since then.

The Republican People’s Party (CHP) is the main opposition party in Turkey. Founded in 1923 by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, it is seen as a secularist and nationalist party that seeks to protect Turkey’s secular identity and promote Turkish nationalism. The CHP currently holds around one-third of the seats in Parliament and has recently sought to move away from its traditional secularist platform towards more progressive policies such as LGBT rights and environmental protection.

The Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) is another major political party in Turkey. Founded in 1969, it is an ultranationalist right-wing populist party that emphasizes Turkish nationalism, conservative values, and Euroscepticism. The MHP has traditionally been popular among working-class voters who are attracted to its anti-establishment stance and support for traditional values. In recent years, however, it has become increasingly associated with far-right ideologies such as xenophobia, racism, and Islamophobia which have caused it to lose some of its popular support.

Turkey Government

Kutaisi, Georgia

Kutaisi, Georgia

Like many southern Caucasian cities, Kutaisi has suffered from time to time from raids by the Seljuk Turks, the tutelage of Tsarist Russia, and the violent transformations of the Soviet era. However, it is this rich history that has allowed it to turn into one of the most interesting places in Georgia. The city is full of monuments of historical architecture, ancient monasteries, temples and the richest archaeological museums and other objects under the protection of UNESCO. Check Topschoolsintheusa to learn more about Georgia.

How to get to Kutaisi

Due to the presence of the airport in Kutaisi, getting here is quite simple. And although the local air harbor does not receive flights from Moscow every day, you can always arrive via Tbilisi. Between the two capitals (the Parliament of Georgia sits in Kutaisi) there is a daily train and many buses. They cover 220 km in 3-4 hours. This time will fly by unnoticed for the pleasure of the Caucasian nature and the driving style of local drivers.


There are several hotels and hostels at the service of tourists in Kutaisi, which differ significantly in cost from each other. However, the most expensive room per day here costs no more than a hundred US dollars per person, the cheapest accommodation in a local hostel will allow you to spend no more than a dozen US dollars for a roof over your head.

In almost all hotels and hostels, the price includes wireless Internet access, parking for guests, luggage storage and other useful joys of civilization. In relatively expensive hotels, buffets, indoor pools and some other nice bonuses are practiced here.

Although, as a rule, 95% of hotels and hostels are modernized buildings of the Soviet era, with modern interior items and fresh cosmetic repairs.

Entertainment and attractions of Kutaisi

Among the sights of Kutaisi, most of them are occupied by ancient temples erected at the dawn of the formation of a centralized Georgian state.

Temple of Bagrat

So, the Bagrat temple, the construction of which was completed at the beginning of the eleventh century, is a kind of visiting card of Kutaisi. Since it is located at the highest point of the city, it is from it that it is better to study the modern Kutaisi panorama. The building itself, unfortunately, did not reach its contemporaries in its original form, since it managed to suffer from the ever-memorable Seljuk Turks. Nevertheless, ancient mosaics, stained-glass drawings on glass, frescoes and murals, typical of the religious centers of Orthodox culture of the late Middle Ages, are still preserved in the temple.

Monastery Motsameta

Fans of Christian hoaxes will surely like the Motsameta Monastery. According to legend, the building was built on the very spot where the Georgian princes David and Konstantin refused to accept Islam from the invaders under pain of death, after which they were immediately put to death. Later they were canonized as saints, their relics are still on the territory of the monastery, in a kind of ark, located in the very center of the shrine.

Sataply Reserve

Not far from Kutaisi is the Satapli Nature Reserve, located in the mountains, it is a unique natural monument, a corner of nature that has not changed at all since the dinosaurs lived here. By the way, some of their original traces remained marks on the plateau, not far from the mountain cave.


The best time to visit the resort is during the summer months when the air warms up to a comfortable temperature. Since the winter in this region of Georgia is quite noticeable, and the thermometer drops to -17 degrees Celsius.

Kutaisi, Georgia

How to Get to Side, Turkey

How to Get to Side, Turkey

According to, the nearest airport to Side is in Antalya, but for those who do not like to fly or are not in a hurry, there are other travel routes – by land and sea.

By plane

Air communication connects Antalya with Rostov-on-Don, Magnitogorsk, Omsk, Sochi and other cities. The schedule of the capital’s airports Domodedovo, Sheremetyevo and Vnukovo has direct flights from Aeroflot and Turkish Airline. You can fly cheaper, but longer and with transfers in Istanbul and Ankara – from 445 USD, the journey will take 5.5-18 hours. The flight is organized by Pegasus Airlines and Turkish Airlines. Prices on the page are for August 2022.

Aeroflot, Airfrance and Belavia run from Pulkovo in St. Petersburg. All flights with 1-2 transfers in Moscow, Paris, Istanbul and Minsk. Time spent – 10-14 hours.

From Antalya Air Gate to Side is about an hour drive. Taxi drivers are on duty at the exit from the terminals, a trip to the hotel will cost 370-450 TRY. From the bus station near the airport, regular minibuses – dolmushi – run.

By bus

You will have to spend more than 3 days on the way. There are many options – through Bulgaria, Greece, Georgia and other countries. You can get to the Georgian resort of Batumi – from Moscow, the journey will take 48 hours. Then you need to transfer to the bus to Antalya of the Turkish carrier Metro (off. site in English), spending another 26 hours. And from there – in Side by taxi or dolmush.

Traveling by bus in Turkey is comfortable – all cars are equipped with air conditioning, TVs, and Wi-Fi is available on some routes.

On a ferryboat

From the sea passenger port of Sochi every Tuesday and Friday, high-speed ships depart for Trabzon (off. website of the carrier “Olympia Line”). The cruise lasts 4.5 hours. Then you have to take a bus to Antalya – 21 hours and 170 TRY one way.

Side district

The resort of Side stretches for 20 km along the Turkish Mediterranean in both directions from a small cape – the historical center of the ancient Greek city. It is there that most of the attractions are concentrated. Those wishing to combine beach and sightseeing holidays are better off staying nearby.

To the west of the center is a popular tourist area. It is distinguished by clean and beautiful, but in the high season – very crowded beaches. There are many hotels and hotel complexes here. A large selection of housing on the first coastline, prices for a double room range from 370 to 2000 TRY.

There are also several hotels to the east of the peninsula. The beaches here are less lively, this area is usually chosen by adherents of secluded relaxation. However, it is easy to get to the historical center from here, so there will be no problems with excursions.

For those who want to relax on a budget, it is better to look for accommodation near the historical center. A 5-15 minute walk from the coast you can find rooms for 350 TRY per day.

On both sides of Side there are several settlements, which are sometimes included in this resort area. In Cholakly there are beaches convenient and safe for children, in Kyzylagach there is a market with a large selection of souvenirs and resort hotels for families, in Kumkoy there are youth clubs and parties until the morning.

Side hotels

Most of the accommodation options in Side are represented by hotels, there are also apartments and guest houses, but there are very few of them. Almost all hotels are within walking distance from the sea and operate on an all-inclusive basis, some have their own beaches. The resort has many 5 * hotels – large complexes with an appropriate level of service, swimming pools, water parks and various additional options. The range of prices is large – from 300 to 32,000 TRY per night in a double room.

The cost of living in Side is highly dependent on location. It is cheaper to settle on a cape, in the area of ​​​​the historical center, or away from the beaches.

The cheapest option is motels. An inexpensive hotel can be found for 200 TRY, without “stars” and food, some may include breakfast in the price. There are fewer middle-class hotels, “triples” and “fours”, in Side than “fives”. Prices start from 420 TRY per night in a double room, with all-inclusive offers starting from 1100 TRY.


You can move around Side by local minibuses – dolmushes – or taxis. There are no special tourist passes, as well as tickets – the fare is paid to the driver upon landing. A trip around the city and to nearby settlements will cost 4-5 TRY. Minibuses run from 5:00-7:00 to 22:00-1:00, the network is well developed – it is easy to get to the center even from the most remote areas. In the high season, transport is crowded.

The city has an official taxi – yellow cars with an inscription on the ceiling. Drivers willingly stop on the street, but you can also order a car at the hotel reception. The cost depends on the distance – 3 TRY per landing and 4.5 TRY per km. Recognizing a tourist as a passenger, taxi drivers sometimes overestimate it. The same is true with foreign currency – dollars and euros are accepted for payment, but the exchange rate is unfavorable. You can protect yourself by demonstrating your awareness. All taxi fares are fixed, cars are equipped with meters. When landing, it is better to remind the driver to turn it on. You should also carefully check the change from a large bill.

Many hotels in Side offer bicycles for rent, and there are specialized rental shops in nearby Manavgat. They cost from 70 to 180 TRY per day.

Rent a Car

Those who plan to visit many attractions in the vicinity of Side, Antalya and Manavgat should consider renting a car in order to travel in comfort and not depend on the schedule.

The roads are quiet, but the locals drive quite aggressively. There are almost no serious traffic jams, but often only one car can pass through the narrow streets. Drivers take turns driving away, reversing and letting each other pass. There are practically no parking lots in the central part of the city, closer to the outskirts there are free and paid parking lots (5-10 TRY for 2-5 hours, depending on the area, can reach 20 TRY per hour). At night, the car can most likely be left near the hotel.

Branches of large international companies are located at Antalya Airport – Bedget, Avis, Hertz and others. There are many small local offices in Side, in addition, sometimes you can rent a car right at the hotel. In small firms, prices are lower, but there is a high risk of running into unscrupulous distributors and overpaying. In large proven companies, an economy class car costs from 920 TRY per day.

Side, Turkey

Heihe, China

Heihe, China

Do you want to visit China just by crossing the river? Then welcome to Heihe – a border town, which is located next to the Amur Region, or to be more precise – Blagoveshchensk. There are several advantages of such a foreign voyage. Firstly, the absence of a visa for Russian citizens. Secondly, cheap and varied shopping. And, thirdly, new impressions from visiting, if not the capital of the Celestial Empire, but still one of its unique cities.

How to get there

Getting to Heihe is pretty easy. But for this, you first need to arrive in distant Blagoveshchensk. The flight from the Russian capital (flights to Blagoveshchensk are served by Domodedovo and Sheremetyevo airports) will take about eight hours. And this is provided that you fork out for direct flights. Check 3rjewelry for other cities and countries as well as geography in Asia.

In Heihe, you can buy anything: from trinkets and souvenirs to the latest computer equipment and telephones, car parts and even mink coats.

If traveling by train makes you feel purely romantic and nostalgic, you can take train tickets to Blagoveshchensk. Their prices are much lower than if you fly by plane. But, on the other hand, few will most likely agree to spend six days under the sound of wheels. In any case, we note that railway tickets in a reserved seat car will cost an average of 95-110 EUR, in a compartment – 145-160 EUR per person. True, this is the cost of tickets only to Blagoveshchensk, not counting the way back. We got to Blagoveshchensk, how to go further? Since Heihe stands on the banks of the Amur, tourists are brought to it by boat.

Passenger ships depart from the river port (which is on Tchaikovsky Street, 1) daily from 8:50 to 17:30. The first ship from the port of Heihe to Blagoveshchensk departs at 10:15, and the last one at 18:30.

Flights from the Chinese border are made according to the same schedule, that is, daily and every hour. Tickets for the ship (round trip) in a regular hall cost 1650 RUB, in a superior hall – 2250 RUB In principle, you don’t have to overpay, because it’s not long to sail to Heihe. But paying extra for exiting the VIP terminal in Heihe, so as not to stand in line at passport control, still makes sense. You will have to fork out for about 100 CNY, plus the same amount for the visa fee. Russian tourists do not need to apply for a visa itself (only a questionnaire is filled out at customs), but this is on condition that you will only stay in Heihe. To travel to other cities in China, a visa is still required.

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Where to stay

There are a lot of hotels in Heihe, but we note right away that you will not find five-star hotels here. Most hotels are “three rubles”, and with different conditions. In order not to be disappointed in the room, ask the reception to show the room and, if it suits you, make a payment. The fact is that in Heihe (however, probably, like any other city that lives at the expense of tourists) they do not like to return money to foreigners.

The average cost of a room in three-star hotels is 110-140 CNY.

There are hotels much cheaper (from 40-60 CNY per room), but the conditions there will be minimal (shower, shared toilet – on the floor). By the way, if you are not satisfied with the price of housing, you can always bargain and bring down the price to an acceptable one for you.

Food and shopping

Cuisine in Heihe is diverse. It is full of cafes and eateries where you can taste not only Chinese, but also dishes cooked in the Russian style. In addition, at almost every step there are street stalls that sell all kinds of food. The average check in popular establishments (for example, “Laguna”, “Xinyu”, “Putin”) is 20-40 CNY. What to try in Heihe? In fact, there are a lot of dishes from both meat and seafood. Most often, tourists in the local cafes order a salad called “Heihe”, fried dumplings, Peking duck and meat with pineapples.

Many people go to Heihe for cheap shopping. You can buy anything here: from trinkets and souvenirs to the most modern computer equipment and telephones, automotive parts and even fur products. But whatever you like, be sure to inspect the product up and down, and if it’s clothes, and even more so a mink coat, try it on and, of course, bargain.

The epicenters of trade in Heihe are the Huafu shopping complex (located in the city center), as well as Yuandong and Big Heihe Island (they are located next to the customs).

By the way, there is a flea market on Wenhua Street in the morning. Here you can buy anything you want and almost for free.

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Attractions and attractions in Heihe

In Heihe, there is something for tourists to do regardless of the time of year. As a walking tour, you can go to the city embankment and, admiring the panorama of the Amur, dream of something good. For active entertainment, you can go to the park, which is located near the customs, and ride the Ferris wheel and other attractions. You can literally sweat in the Tian Yi baths. It also offers massages and various beauty treatments.

In winter, you can break away, as they say, to the fullest, at the Longzhu ski resort, which is located in the suburbs of Heihe. For natural beauties, you can go to Wudalianchi Park with its picturesque lakes and thermal springs.

Heihe, China

Male, Maldives

Male, Maldives

According to wholevehicles, Male is one of the smallest capitals in the world – its area is only two square meters. km. Nevertheless, in this city, which almost entirely occupies the island of the same name, one third of the population of all the islands lives – about 90 thousand people.

A tourist who comes here on an excursion will be struck by the contrast of Male compared to other islands. After a tropical paradise of the outback islands, it impresses with its skyscrapers and highways – it doesn’t even have natural beaches. However, recently an artificial recreation area was created in the southwest of the island, where people living and working in Male often come – especially in the evenings when it gets cooler. However, tourists do not come here at all in order to lie on the beaches.

The main street of the city is the Boduthakurufaanu Magu embankment. Here are government buildings, banks and offices. In the middle is Jumhooree Maidhaan Square, to the right of which are berth No. 1 (presidential) and No. 9-10 (ferries to the airport).

How to get there

Male International Airport is located on a separate island – Hulhule, which is located just 2 km from the capital island. The airport receives flights from Moscow, Colombo, Qatar, Dubai, Trivandrum, Vienna, Kuala Lumpur and other cities. The terminals have all the services necessary for a tourist: an ATM, a bank, a pharmacy, the Internet, a left-luggage office (~ 3 USD per day). The pier from which ferries depart to Male is located to the right of the exit from the airport. Ferries depart every 10-15 minutes during the day (1.5 USD), and every half an hour in the evening (2 USD).

The beaches of Male

Male also has its own beach, which, of course, cannot be compared with resort islands. However, surfers will love it here. Artificial Beach is located in the east of the island, a 10-minute walk from berths No. 9-10.

Shopping and shops Male

Most of the souvenir shops are located at the northern end of one of Male’s main thoroughfares, Chaandani Magu. This place used to be called “Singapore Bazaar” because many of the goods sold there were imported from Singapore.

The most famous souvenirs from the Maldives are undoubtedly thudu kuna – Maldivian mats woven from local natural palm fiber. Another souvenir is miniature wooden dhonis – traditional fishing boats that can be seen almost everywhere in the Maldives.

By the way, when choosing a souvenir for yourself, you must remember that the export of products made from tortoise shell, black corals, pearl oyster shells and red corals from the country is prohibited. And customs, I must say, are on guard.

It is worth bringing home fish and seafood from the Maldives – both to give to friends and to remember yourself about a wonderful vacation in a tropical paradise. In Male, for this you can visit the fish market and all kinds of supermarkets. There you can buy canned fish (the most popular is canned tuna, which is caught in the traditional way), dried and dried fish – in general, the choice is the widest.

Entertainment and attractions in Male

The capital is not rich in attractions, but you should definitely visit it: the National Museum in Sultans Park, the shady park of Jumuri-Maidan, the Muliaage Palace (1913). The most revered shrines of the country are the chapel of Medu Ziyarat, the tomb of the country’s national hero Mohammed Takurufanu, the Islamic Center with the Great Friday Mosque, the Old Friday Mosque with a unique minaret and the tombs of national heroes and members of the royal family.

Male, Maldives

Azerbaijan Market Opportunities

Azerbaijan Market Opportunities

The year 2020 also led to a drop in GDP in Azerbaijan as a result of the covid-19 pandemic and a drop in oil prices on world markets. For the further development of the country, it will be essential if it is able to take advantage of the great successes it achieved at the end of 2020 – the victory over Armenia in the 2nd Karabakh War and the full operation of the Southern Gas Corridor.

The restoration of Baku’s control over most of the occupied territories will enable their development in the coming years, in which foreign investors will also participate, while the possible restoration of transport and infrastructure connections with Armenia would help build Azerbaijan’s position as a transport hub.

A sword of Damocles hangs over the cautiously optimistic economic outlook in the form of volatile oil prices; the oil sector continues to account for around 90% of exports and the majority of state budget revenues.

The aim of the medium-term economic strategy for the period following the last crisis, reflected in the government’s Action Plan of April 4, 2020, is to stimulate domestic production and consumption. Even in connection with the restoration of the previously occupied territories, hopes are pinned on the development of the agrarian sector, the construction industry and building the position of a transport-logistics hub, where, however, efforts to build a North-South corridor are still running into US anti-Iranian sanctions and another from Baku through Armenia to Nakhchivan the absence of a peace treaty.

Privatization of some state enterprises can be expected. In the early stages of the crisis, Azerbaijan relied on reserves from fatter years accumulated in the State Oil Fund, which are getting thinner along with Central Bank reserves as a result of maintaining the exchange rate of the national currency against the dollar. It has been fixed since 2016, when the manat lost half of its original value after a double-jump devaluation.

In their upcoming steps, the Azerbaijani government and the Central Bank must weigh, on the one hand, the social effect of a possible unpopular devaluation of the manat, and on the other hand, the consequences of accepting obligations associated with foreign loans.

In connection with the crisis, when the collapse of some banking houses in 2020 deepened concerns about the stability of the banking sector, the government embarked on the path of subsidizing bank loans and extending the validity of the state guarantee of bank deposits.

Post- COVID -19 opportunities for foreign exporters

Transport industry and infrastructure

According to allcountrylist, Azerbaijan considers the tripartite agreements concluded with Armenia and Russia following the 2nd Karabakh War from autumn 2020 as the basis for building railway and road corridors connecting the core of its territory by the shortest route with the Nakhchivan exclave and further with Yerevan and Turkish and Iranian territory.

After the successful construction of the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway corridor, which was connected with the largest Czech investment project in the country to date, Azerbaijan would also benefit from the construction of of the North-South corridor.

Czech companies can also apply for the planned expansion of the national railway network and the Baku metro. The development of infrastructure, including the renewal of the road network, the solution to the complex traffic situation in large cities and the modernization of airports, is also linked to opportunities for Czech entities. The Czech Republic can offer buses, trucks and specialized construction machinery, as well as technological solutions that can be used in the development of “smart cities”.

Energy industry

Azerbaijan is a key supplier of oil and natural gas to a number of countries in Europe and the Mediterranean; local oil covers, among other things, a full quarter of Czech consumption. The domestic production of electricity is based mainly on natural gas, in the field of renewable sources, investors from Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates have recently made their mark here.

The production of the state oil and gas company SOCAR includes, in addition to energy raw materials, a concentrated chemical industry in the city of Sumgait, including the production of polymers and production for the needs of the health sector. Regarding direct supplies to SOCAR, strong competition from global petrochemical companies must be taken into account; opportunities for Czech companies are offered in the area of ​​overhauls of existing equipment, which are several times cheaper than new products.

The expansion and modernization of the electrical transmission system includes the construction of new high and very high voltage lines, transformer stations and power plants. It is also planned to increase the electricity production capacity associated with the liberalization of the domestic electricity market, which should allow the involvement of independent producers for the first time in the history of Azerbaijan.

In the near future, Azerbaijan will also be forced to address the issue of reliable security of electricity and gas supplies in large areas where it regained its control in the fall of 2020 after years of occupation, and to remote mountainous areas. Another area where Czech business entities could find application are technologies for increasing the efficiency of energy use in industrial operations, public buildings and households.

The priorities of socio-economic development until 2030 announced by the President of Azerbaijan include, in addition to the diversification of the economy dependent on oil and gas production with their volatile prices and demand, as well as greater use of renewable energy sources, where the country will be able to rely on extensive reclaimed territories. Revolutionary changes in the field of electricity production in Azerbaijan bring a number of opportunities for Czech companies that have experience in the construction and operation of hydro, wind and solar power plants.

Construction industry

The construction industry is quite a proven “lifeline” of the Azerbaijani economy after the oil crises. The government is also betting on them in connection with the restoration of recaptured territories, which are to be repopulated by a large population of internally displaced persons after demining.

Modern residential complexes for the rapidly growing population of the Baku agglomeration are being built on brownfields, including places where environmentally unfriendly oil extraction took its toll. All of this also means an opportunity for companies dealing with land remediation, landscape design and stabilization building modifications.

Safety (e.g. fire protection) and construction technologies, 3D building models and other innovative technical solutions developed by the Czech research sphere may be of interest to Azerbaijani construction companies and developers.

Agricultural and food industry

In its plans for economic diversification, the Azerbaijani government considers the agrarian sector to be one of the most promising. The main agricultural crops are cotton, tobacco and tea, but the traditional areas of specialization also include animal husbandry, viticulture and horticulture, and the cultivation of vegetables and subtropical fruits is also very developed.

The interest is in joint production enterprises, agricultural machinery, technologies for processing agricultural production as well as equipment for processing animal waste into granular fertilizer, or in the construction of small biogas stations; supplies of small breweries and related equipment also have potential.

Development plans for the Baku Agropark complex, which is one of the most modern agricultural enterprises in the region and exports its production to other post-Soviet and European countries, include the expansion of the greenhouse area, which provides an opportunity to apply new technologies and innovative technical solutions from the Czech Republic. The interest of Azerbaijani farmers in technology also stems from the specifics of the mountain terrain.

The uncertainty resulting from the threat of restrictive measures by the state authorities of the Russian Federation, which is the main outlet for the export of Azerbaijani agricultural products, motivates local exporters and importers to look for new partners, among which Czech companies may also be.

The drought of recent years has highlighted the interest of the Azerbaijani government in investments in water management, which creates opportunities for Czech solutions in the field of irrigation and pond farming, as well as cleaning water and contaminated soils.

Embassy of the Czech Republic in Baku
e-mail: [email protected]

Azerbaijan Market Opportunities

Iraq Market Opportunities

Iraq Market Opportunities

MFA: Strategic opportunities for foreign exporters

The covid-19 pandemic and the collapse of oil prices in 2020 resulted in significantly reduced revenues to the state budget (over 90% of revenues are oil exports, the private sector is minimally represented and underdeveloped) and there was an unprecedented lack of liquidity as spending remained high at maintained amount of costs for civil servants’ wages and pensions.

The government has been dealing with the lack of liquidity by borrowing from the Central Bank of India (CBI) dollar reserves to pay nearly US$5 billion a month in the wage bill to the approximately million civil servants. In October 2020, the government approved a comprehensive “white paper” of policy and of economic reforms, which sets the plan for their distribution in the next 3 to 5 years. The document was initiated by the World Bank, and the government adapted it according to Iraqi priorities. If they are implemented, there could be a turnaround for the Iraqi economy.

After weeks of complicated negotiations, the Iraqi parliament only approved the 2021 state budget of $89 billion with a budget deficit of $19.79 billion on March 31. It is calculated on an average oil price of USD 45 per barrel. The KRI’s share of the budget will be billion USD and is conditional on the monthly supply of 250,000 barrels of oil to the federal organization SOMO, which ensures exports. The KRI must also prioritize the payment of salaries to its public sector workers and members of the armed Kurdish militia (peshmerga). Approving the budget opens up the opportunity for the government to apply for loans on international financial markets.

Until June 2020, there was no stable government in Iraq. The current government has a transitional mandate until the elections, which should be held in October 2021. The budget for 2020 has not been approved. The government’s preventive measures against the spread of the covid-19 pandemic by restricting movement, etc., were continuously applied. The Central Bank of Iraq (CBI) took several steps, e.g. an amount of IQD 45 billion (USD 35 million) was allocated to a special account and made available to the Iraqi Ministry healthcare and crisis staff in the fight against the pandemic.

The CBI, in cooperation with the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, administered a subsidy that the government allocated to poor families in a total amount of approximately IQD 300 billion (US$20 million), or announced a 6-month moratorium on borrowers’ loan repayments. The CBI also ordered all banks to reduce interest on loans from 4.8% to 3.5% (loans up to 20 million IQD) and from 6.3% to 4% (loans from 21 million to 1 billion IQD).

Post-COVID-19 opportunities

The largest export commodity is Škoda passenger cars (47% in 2020) and interest in them continues to grow.

Energy industry

In the field of energy, these are mainly refineries and power plants. It involves the construction of new investment units or the expansion of the capacity of existing investment units. In the case of refineries, the rehabilitation of refineries and the construction of a new refinery in Basra, which should have the same capacity or larger than the existing refinery in Shuaiba (US$ 500 million), are being considered, and the restoration of the refinery in Al Faw is in the preparatory phase. Furthermore, expansion of the capacity of smaller refineries in the cities of Amara, Samawa, Nasirije is being considered (in each case, the expansion of capacity represents the amount of USD 100 million).

According to allcountrylist, capacity expansion at small refineries in the Iraqi Kurdistan region is under consideration for the NOKAN GROUP ($100m) and KIRKUK ($100m) refineries. In the case of power plants, negotiations are underway for the construction of a steam-gas cycle for the Khormala power plant (USD 300 million). There are plans to build new gas-fired power plants (the country has the 12th largest gas reserves in the world).

The construction of hydroelectric power plants is also current. The Ministry of Electricity wants to continue the investment project to build seven solar power plants, suspended as a result of the war with ISIS and the poor security situation in recent years. New power plants are to be built by 2030 in the provinces of Karbala, Wasit, Babylon and Al-Muthanna with a total installed capacity of 10 GW.

Defense industry

In the defense industry, there is a constant demand for various types of ammunition and combat equipment, including tanks, guns, combat vehicles. The opportunity to expand in this sector has been strengthened by promising purchases from the Iraqi side in recent years. The Iraqi Ministry of Defense and Industry is also currently being consulted on the possibility of exporting an investment unit – a munitions factory – and one munitions factory for Baghdad ($350m) and another for Erbil ($350m) is being considered.

Construction industry

The war-ravaged country requires the restoration of buildings and structures, whether housing stock or industrial buildings. Opportunities are in the supply of machinery and equipment for the operations of cement or limestone plants, techniques for handling building materials, solutions for the transport of bulk materials or the export of mining machinery. For example, the investment project “Akashat” for the mining and processing of phosphates in 7 factories in Al-Anbar province is current. These factories fall under the Iraqi state enterprise the General Company for Phosphates. The “Akashat” project is important for Iraq in terms of fertilizer production and further development of Iraqi agriculture. “Contract award” for Finesta Group was issued by the Ministry of Industry and Mineral Resources of Iraq in 2020.

Agricultural and food industry

Although agriculture accounts for roughly 2% of GDP, it employs 18% of people. From the point of view of the Iraqi government, this is a preferred sector in which it will invest, and in cooperation with the organizations FAO and WFP, the goal is to significantly improve services for agricultural primary production and build the capacities of the food industry. The means of production are technically obsolete or damaged by wartime. It will be necessary to introduce modern technological procedures, which cannot do without supplies from developed countries, in order to significantly increase the quality of final products and competitiveness in exports, in which Iraq has great potential.

The Ministry of Industry and Minerals announced in March 2021 the start of investments in sugar mills in Maysan and Nineveh provinces to restore and modernize production lines. The medium-term plan includes the restoration and expansion of a total of 7 sugar mills.

Between 1970 and 1990, Zetor tractors were assembled in the city of Iskandariya, south of Baghdad. It was the largest Zetor factory abroad, over 80,000 of them were created here. In 2011, Zetor returned to the Iraqi market and delivered 70 new tractors. The interest of the Iraqi government representatives is, as in the past, to import tractor kits (SKD) so that the final assembly of the tractors can take place directly in Iraq.

Iraq Market Opportunities

Sortavala, Russia

Sortavala, Russia

Of the architectural sights of the southern part, the buildings of the former seminary (1880), the Hospital (1898) and the former hospital of the society of sisters of mercy (1907) stand out. The Regional Museum and Tourist Center of the Northern Ladoga Region is also located here. The center is located in the house of doctor Winter, built in 1900 in the style of national romanticism, which is now an architectural monument. The museum was founded in 1992 and became the first museum in the Northern Ladoga region. His collections began to form on the basis of items from the funds of the Valaam Museum-Reserve. Nowadays, ethnographic, artistic and historical collections are presented here. Museum objects date from the 13th century to the present day. Be sure to head to Vakkosalmi City Park, where one of the best singing fields is located.

3 km from Sortavala in Taruniemi is Dr. Winter’s dacha, which today houses an elite hotel.

To the south of Sortavala, on the island of Riekkalansari, the wooden church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker has been preserved. It was built between the 18th and 19th centuries and was the only Orthodox church in the vicinity of the city.

To the north of Sortavala, just a few kilometers from the city, near the village of Helyulya, one of the most interesting archaeological sites of the Northern Ladoga region is located – the Karelian fortified settlement of Paaso. Paaso Fortress was built in the 12th century on the 83 m high Paasonvuori mountain to protect against attacks by the Swedes. In the 13th century, for unknown reasons, the settlement was wiped off the face of the Earth. On the site of the settlement, archaeologists have found objects of agriculture, pottery and jewelry crafts that are about a thousand years old.

According to THEINTERNETFAQS.COM, 17 km north of Sortavala on the river Tokhmajoki are picturesque Ruskeala waterfalls. They are small rapids with a height difference of about 2 m. The highest waterfall is the Ryumäkoski waterfall, 7 m high. In the vicinity of the waterfalls, there is a small lake and many boulders brought by the glacier. The Tohmajoki River together with the Janisjoki River are one of the main tourist attractions of the Sortavala region. They originate in Finland and flow into Ladoga. There are many rapids and low waterfalls on these rivers, which attract rafting enthusiasts here. Ruskeala village is located not far from Ruskeala waterfalls. It is first mentioned in Swedish documents under 1500. The village has long been known for its marble deposits. Even the Swedes in the 17th century were mining it here. Ruskeala marble was used in the decoration of the Kazan and St. Isaac’s Cathedrals in St. Petersburg. Currently, along the left bank of the Tokhmajoki River, three open pit mines have been formed in place of old workings. The quarries are cut by a system of mines, galleries and drifts and are partially flooded with water. In 2005, “Ruskeala Mountain Park” was founded on this site.. The central place in the park is occupied by the Marble Canyon, surrounded by sheer marble cliffs. Along its perimeter there is a hiking trail with viewing platforms from where you can admire the emerald water of the canyon. In addition, boats are offered here in order to swim around the quarry. Marble Canyon will be interesting for diving enthusiasts. Underwater visibility here is about 10 m, the depth of immersion ranges from 5 to 15 m. At the bottom of the quarry, you can see blocks of marble, trucks and wheels and explore numerous adits. On the territory of the park there are several monuments of industrial architecture – this is an old office building made of marble in the style of classicism, and lime kilns. There is an active quarry in the park, where you can get acquainted with the process of marble extraction.

If you go even further north to the Russian-Finnish border, then you will get to the international checkpoint “Vyartsilya”. Through it passes the road to the Scandinavian countries, which is called the “Blue Road”.

20 km east of Sortavala in the direction of Petrozavodsk, the village of Kiryavalahti is interesting, which is located on the shores of the bay of the same name on Lake Ladoga. Here is an architectural monument – the dacha of the pharmacist Jaskeläinen. It was built in 1935 by a Finnish architect at the foot of a cliff. From the rear, the cottage is surrounded by dense coniferous forests, and its facade overlooks the bay. The interior of the house is very beautiful. The walls here are made of black logs, the ceiling is decorated with matt beams, there is an old fireplace, and a monumental staircase leads to the second floor. Today, Jaskeläinen’s dacha is used as a hotel. Behind it, a little to the north, on the shore of Lake Haukkajärvi, Mount Petsivaara rises . This is the highest point of the Northern Ladoga region (187 m). Hiking trails are laid on the mountain, and a beautiful view opens from its top.

Sortavala region is known for its unique nature. This is the land of small bays, islands, cliffs, waterfalls, lakes and forests. The rocky islands of the region, one of which are the islands of the Valaam archipelago, are called Ladoga skerries. This is a unique natural area formed by the action of a glacier. Now projects are being developed to create a national park “Ladoga Skerries”. Many species of fish live in the waters of Lake Ladoga, the most valuable of which are salmon – salmon, trout, grayling, pike perch and whitefish, which attracts fishing enthusiasts.

To the south of the Sortavala region is the Lakhdenpokh region which is also famous for nature. However, local skerries and coastal cliffs are better known among lovers of wild and extreme tourism, official tourist routes do not pass through the area.

Sortavala, Russia

Vietnam in November

Vietnam in November

Travel destinations and travel itineraries expand their boundaries every year, offering amazing places. Vietnam is one of the few Asian countries that can offer tours for every taste in the last month of autumn. Therefore, in order to choose where it is better to go to Vietnam in November, it is important to understand what you expect from the trip.

We have studied the reviews about this incredible country and offer an overview of popular cities in Vietnam, where it is better to relax on the beach in November, and where hiking in the mountains will become a vivid memory of a lifetime.

Is it worth going in November?

A trip to Vietnam in late autumn will be a great cultural discovery even for those who have been here before. An extensive recreation program will help you plan a route where to go to Vietnam in November. You can:

  1. touch the wild and see real life in a typical fishing village;
  2. go on excursions to temples and ancient sights;
  3. see ancient outlandish buildings and castles;
  4. attend holidays and festivals.

To appreciate the natural scenery, framed by the majestic snowy peaks, it is worth noting the mountainous regions. On the eve of winter, people come here to improve their health at the thermal springs. The southern coast, where it is better to relax in Vietnam in November at sea, will delight you with sunbathing on comfortable sandy beaches.

Weather: air and sea water temperature

The weather in Vietnam in November defines the boundaries of individual zones of the coast of the South China Sea, where it is comfortable to relax, and where it is better to postpone travel. The level of precipitation and high air temperature here do not depend on the time of year.

The beginning of November in the south of Vietnam is a paradise for beach lovers. The air temperature reaches 35ºС. The tourist season is just beginning here, but the sea is already quite well warmed up. From mid-October to early November, a cyclone of rains and typhoons passes in the central part.

Resorts: where to go?

The resorts of Vietnam offer tourists a pleasant vacation by the sea, original research routes, colorful holidays and unusual cuisine, exotic seasonal fruits and hundreds of unforgettable experiences. Local architecture and cultural customs involve a real adventure, and walks along the ancient streets and bazaars will slightly open the curtain of ancient mysteries and secrets.


Unusual exotic nature in Dalat is closely intertwined with local customs and culture. It will be interesting here not only for those who are used to mountain hikes to waterfalls, but also for lovers of beautiful parks and unique landscapes.

We recommend visiting the famous Hang Nga Museum Hotel, made in an outlandish form, the summer palace of the last emperor Bao Dai. Surrounded by lush colors of flowers and plants, a huge statue of the Golden Buddha rises on the mountain.


Da Nang in November is a place for brave tourists, real adventurers. At this time, a calm beach holiday is replaced by numerous rains, the sea is restless, muddy with large waves. Despite the special weather conditions, Da Nang attracts tourists with excellent service and comfortable hotels. The cost of rest is high, but justified.

Nha Trang

Nyachag is perfect for families with children. The local amusement park Winpearl is the largest in all of Asia. The variety and quality of attractions is not inferior to Disneyland in August in Paris. For adults, the resort also has many interesting offers: you can go surfing, ride an elephant, visit monkey island or Neptune’s palace.

Phan Thiet

Phan Thiet can offer you to swim in the warm sea, take a break from the bustle of the city. The cost of tours to this small resort town is low, there are relatively few tourists. This is a great place for those who are looking for “recharging” for the body – sunbathing, soft sand and calm nature with a light rustle of waves will help you relax.

Phu Quoc

The tropical island of Phu Quoc in November is famous for the best beaches. Rest here will be many times cheaper than on the coast of the Gulf of Thailand in November, when it is better to relax in Thailand. This area is well suited for exploring the real, untouched culture of the Vietnamese. We recommend heading to the floating village of Rush Vem to feel the color and taste the local cuisine made from fresh seafood.

Things to do in Vietnam

In November, where you can go not only for a carefree beach holiday, but also amazing excursions and tours, feel free to go with the whole family. In attractive tropical surroundings, you can visit ancient temples, parks and natural mineral springs, go surfing or spend an unforgettable weekend in the largest amusement park in Asia.

Beach holiday

For a quiet and carefree beach holiday, we recommend the islands in the south of Vietnam, where you can go to the sea in late October or early November inexpensively. Rush Vem Beach is one of the most popular destinations and will be remembered for its azure waters, white sand and of course beautiful red starfish. Beaches in Halong Bay, Long Beach and Bai Sao are also comfortably equipped.

Entertainment and excursions

Vietnam offers unusual excursions and tours for guests of the country:

  1. to a snake or crocodile farm;
  2. kayaking in the caves of Halong Bay;
  3. to a pearl farm;
  4. to ancient temples and museums of history.

You will be able to see the wild tropical nature, feel the cheerful energy of the locals in small fishing villages. Large cities, in turn, will surprise you with a developed tourist infrastructure and high service in hotels.

Holidays and festivals

According to topschoolsintheusa, there are few holidays in November in Vietnam. We invite you to visit Ok Om Bok festival. Here you will be able to see the grandiose action when the fishermen ask the gods of the sea to increase their catch. In such an environment, it is easy to feel the culture and traditions of the locals.

Vietnam in November

Why Vietnam?

Why Vietnam?

Or 12 reasons for your trip to Vietnam

  1. 1. Vietnam is a country with an ancient history and culture, a huge number of valuable historical monuments, a diverse landscape and 3,000 km of coastline of the rich South China Sea. The cleanest beaches with white and golden sand, with crystal clear water. The maximum level of service. For photo lovers, Vietnam is a fantasy world with its unforgettable scenery of mountainous areas, coffee plantations, beaches, Halong Bay.
  2. You can go to Vietnam all year round, the air temperature at the most popular resorts is 28 degrees all year round.
  3. The choice of hotels in Vietnam is huge. Hotels 3 * -4 * -5 * + excellent staff, kind, smiling. All ranges of entertainment from elephant riding, visits to snake restaurants, skydiving, fishing, to bowling and casinos.
  4. The cheapness of everything. The value for money for Vietnam clearly outweighs quality, including hotel service and souvenirs: items made of silk and rare wood, mother-of-pearl and silver.
  5. The cheapest diving in the world. First-class instructors and a complete diving kit cost you much less than the hyped resorts and flora, the fauna of the South China Sea with coral reefs, fabulous fish of various colors, if you’re lucky, and shells with pearls.
  6. According to our tourists, Vietnamese cuisine is the most delicious in the world. If desired, you can also taste fried frog legs and sea snails boiled with ginger, and wrap beautiful, colored shells after them in a bag, they will decorate your favorite place in your house.
  7. In Vietnam, Russians are treated differently. For the Vietnamese, the Russians are still great friends.
  8. In Vietnam, you can not only have a good rest, but also cure various diseases using the methods of oriental medicine. The famous natural springs of warm mineral water (water temperature 40 degrees) with excellent healing properties of Binchau are waiting for you all year round.
  9. Exotic Asia and Buddhism, what people are looking for in Japan, China, India, Thailand… You will find in Vietnam in abundance.
  10. On the way to Vietnam, you can stop for two days in Bangkok (Thailand) and see two countries in one trip.
  11. Vietnam is considered the safest tourist destination in Southeast Asia.
  12. You have traveled all over the world and now you want something unusual, where you could not only have a good rest, but also get a lot of new impressions. Or maybe you just love the exotic? Just love the East?

With us you will see the rocks of Ha Long, lakes and waterfalls of mountainous Vietnam, the golden beaches of Nha Trang and Phan Thiet. Taste exotic Vietnamese cuisine, discover untouched islands and the underwater world of the South China Sea.

With us you will go to the past of Royal Vietnam, visit the imperial gardens and ancient tombs, visit Buddhist temples.

All year round, hospitable world-class hotels, experienced Russian-speaking guides are waiting for you, ready to reveal to you the secrets of the magical world on the shores of the Pacific Ocean.

Every year Vietnam is visited by 2 million tourists from Japan, France, Germany, America and China.

Official name: Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Geographical position: Southeast Asia.
Area: 330.3 thousand square meters km.
Highest point: 3143 m (Mount Fansipan).
Main river: Hongha.
Population: 79.9 million people
Population density: 235.7 people per sq. km.
Official language: Vietnamese.
Main religion: Buddhism.
Capital: Hanoi (2.7 million people). Major cities: Ho Chi Minh City, Haiphong, Da Nang. Monetary unit: dong.

Capital of Vietnam

According to topschoolsintheusa, Hanoi is the capital of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. This beautiful green city is a real shrine for all Vietnamese and is the center of politics, economy, culture and trade of the whole country.
Length : 921 sq km
Population: 3,007,000
Administrative divisions :
– Districts: Hoan Kiem, Ba Dinh, Dong Da, Hai Ba Trung, Tay Ho, Thanh Xuan, Cau Giay, Long Bien, Hoang Mai
Ethnic groups : Vietnamese, Chinese.


The monetary unit of Vietnam is dong, equal to 10 hao and 100 sous.

In circulation are banknotes of the series, the release of which began in 1985, in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000, 10,000, 20,000, 50,000 and 100 000 dong. All denominations, starting from 50 dong, are issued in several modifications, all denominations, starting from 20 dong, are decorated with a portrait of Ho Chi Minh. The new banknotes have a fundamental difference from all previously issued ones: they are made on a polymer basis and have a set of anti-counterfeiting features typical for such banknotes. The largest denomination in the series will be 500,000 VND.

The portrait of Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969) is placed on the right side of the front side of the polymer banknote of 50,000 dong (2004 series), 140 x 65 mm in size, and the state emblem is on the left. The reverse side of the banknote depicts a pagoda in the park. The transparent window on the banknote has a portrait of Ho Chi Minh and the letters VN. The main colors used in the design of the banknote are lilac, red and violet.

Why Vietnam

Science and Culture of Myanmar

Science and Culture of Myanmar

According to topschoolsintheusa, the education system is financed from the state budget. Primary education (5-9 years) is free and compulsory. In 2000, 91% of children of the appropriate age attended schools. Secondary (10-13 years old) – free, optional, attended by 23% of children. Paid advanced secondary schools (14-19 years old) were attended by 5%. Vocational-technical and secondary specialized educational institutions exist throughout the country to train semi-skilled specialists for various branches of the economy, sometimes on the basis of secondary schools. The system of higher education includes universities of academic education – universities and institutes (17) and branch universities of the university level (14). In 1997, 341,000 students studied in the former, and 14,000 in the latter. Education is paid for 80% of students. The leading university is Rangoon University (14 thousand students). In the administrative and national regions, 12 colleges with a two-year education (50 thousand people) have been opened. Universities offer distance learning and postgraduate courses. Scientific research in the field of natural and technical sciences is carried out at Rangoon, Mandalay and Dagon universities, at the Research Institute of Agriculture, the Department of Medical Scientific Research. In the field of social and human sciences – at universities, the Archaeological Department, the Historical Commission of Myanmar, the Central Statistical Organization, the National Library. at the Research Institute of Agriculture, Department of Medical Research. In the field of social and human sciences – at universities, the Archaeological Department, the Historical Commission of Myanmar, the Central Statistical Organization, the National Library. at the Research Institute of Agriculture, Department of Medical Research. In the field of social and human sciences – at universities, the Archaeological Department, the Historical Commission of Myanmar, the Central Statistical Organization, the National Library.

The culture of Myanmar has developed under the influence of the two largest world civilizations – India and China and Theravada Buddhism. Buddhism is a way of life, it has influenced literature and art. The origins of traditional literature lie in the folklore and literature of the Buddhist canon. To this day, approx. 3 thousand temples and pagodas in the ancient capital of Pagan, the origin of written literature belongs to the Pagan period. Myanmar is famous for its golden and white pagodas, which are an integral part of the landscape, the most famous being the Shwedagon Pagoda in Yangon. Myanmar is one of the few countries in the world that has managed to preserve its identity and national culture.

Education of Myanmar

History and Education of Singapore

History and Education of Singapore

History of Singapore

The first reliable sources for the early history of Singapore are a Javanese epic poem from the 16th century. “Nagarakertagama” and the Malay chronicle of the 17th century. “Sejarah Melayu”. However, in the 3rd c. the mention of the island (“Pulouchun Island”) is found in the Chinese chronicle. The Chinese name “Pulouchun” is consonant with the Malay “Pulau Ujong”, which means “island at the tip of the peninsula.” The name of the island in Sanskrit – Singapore (“City of the Lion”) was widely used in con. 14th c. Then he was involved in a fierce struggle between Siam (modern Thailand) and the Javanese Majapahit empire, which controlled the Malay Peninsula, part of Sumatra and other islands of the Indonesian archipelago. The settlement on the island had a Malay name – Tumasik. In the beginning. 15th c. became part of the Malacca Sultanate, founded by the Sumatran prince Parameswara.

Starting from the 16th century. Southeast Asia becomes the object of the colonial expansion of the European powers. The Portuguese were the first to appear on the Malay Peninsula and the adjacent islands. In 1511, they captured Malacca, turning it into the main stronghold, guarding trade dominance on the sea route from India to China, to the “Spice Islands”. Singapore came under the control of the Sultanate of Johor, a new Malay state that emerged after the fall of Malacca. The rulers of Johor waged a fierce struggle with the Portuguese. However, in 1587 the Portuguese managed to capture the capital of the Sultanate, and then destroy its port on the island of Singapore. The city fell into complete desolation, and the island became a haven for sea pirates.

In the second floor. 18th century the British, expanding their possessions in India and trade with China, felt the need to create strongholds in the East Indies region in order to ensure the interests of their merchant fleet and counteract the expansion of the Netherlands in this area. To this end, they created their own trading posts in Penang (1786), in Malacca, recaptured from the Dutch in 1796, and in Singapore (1819). In the beginning. In 1819, Stamford Raffles, the governor of Bengkulen, the British possession in Sumatra, arrived on the island; he concluded an agreement with the Sultanate of Johor to establish a trading post in Singapore. During 1820–24, British possessions were formalized: first by agreement with the Netherlands (1824), then by agreement with the Johor Sultanate, which ceded the island for a large financial reward and the payment of a significant pension to the sultan. In 1826 Singapore,

The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 gave Singapore a powerful impetus to develop as one of the world’s most important commercial ports. The island has become a major processing and export center for natural rubber produced in neighboring Malaya. At the same time, there was an intensive influx of population, it increased 8 times, amounting to approx. 80 thousand people in 1913.

During World War II, Singapore was occupied by Japanese troops. The British authorities returned to the island in September 1945.

In April 1946, Singapore received the status of a crown colony and was separated from Malaya, and in 1959 it was proclaimed a self-governing state. In May of that year, general elections were held and the first fully elected Legislative Assembly was formed. The People’s Action Party (PAP) won the election. Its leader, Lee Kuan Yew, became the first prime minister.

In September 1963, Singapore joined the Federation of Malaysia along with Malaya and the British possessions in North Kalimantan. However, sharp contradictions between the Malay and Chinese political elites on the problem of the socio-ethnic construction of a new state led to the fact that in August 1965 Singapore was forced to leave the Federation. On August 9 of the same year, it was proclaimed an independent state. He was accepted as a member of the UN and the Commonwealth of Nations.

Science and culture of Singapore

According to searchforpublicschools, the system of free primary and secondary education is designed for 10 years and is aimed at mastering English and native languages, as well as basic knowledge in the exact sciences, mainly in mathematics. Graduation classes provide for specialization in the exact and humanitarian areas. Primary and secondary education is free.

Institutions of higher education are the National University of Singapore (founded in 1980 through the merger of the University of Singapore and Nanyang University); Nanyang Technological University (founded in 1991); Singapore Institute of Management (founded in 1964 as a private university); Institute of Southeast Asia, a leading center for studying the problems of regional security, socio-economic development of Southeast Asia; Singapore Polytechnic (founded in 1954 to train mid-level engineering and management personnel).

Cultural life is patronized by the National Arts Council. The Council provides funding for creative teams, plans the repertoire of theaters and organizes relevant competitions. The National Council manages four theatres: the Victoria Theatre, the Drama Centre, the Kallang Theatre, and the Singapore Convention Centre. It also leases buildings and premises to various amateur creative groups and associations. The country has a professional Singapore Symphony Orchestra.

There are the National Archives, the National Museum and the National Library.

Festivals of national arts (Chinese, Malay, Tamil) are held annually, usually timed to coincide with traditional and religious holidays.

Education of Singapore

Tours in Penang, Malaysia

Tours in Penang, Malaysia

Tour starts from the historic site – Fort Cornwallis. Francis Light landed here in 1786. Originally wooden, in 1804-05 it was rebuilt and replaced with stone buildings. And today the fort majestically rises above the sea, as if protecting the island from enemy attacks. Near the fort is City Hall, built in the late 19th century.

Next, you will follow the one built in 1821. Here you will find old photographs, ancient maps and other relics related to Penang’s past. Nearby is the Church of St. George, which was built in 1818. The main attraction of the cathedral is the painted dome dedicated to the memory of Francis Light.

Next you will see 2 mosques: the mosque of Captain Keling and the mosque of Achin Street. The Captain Keling Mosque is named after an Indian merchant and was built by the local ruler Mohouddin in the early 19th century. The Achin Street Mosque was built on land donated to the local ruler by Syed Aid of Aceh.

The duration of the tour is 4 hours, the walking part is 1 km.

Penang is famous for its Buddhist and Hindu temples.

At the Buddhist temple Wat Chayamangkalaram, built by a Thai architect, you can see the world’s third largest reclining Buddha statue, which is 33 meters long.

The famous Kek Lok Si temple is considered one of the largest temples in Southeast Asia and is a mixture of Chinese, Burmese and Thai architectural styles. Above the temple, built in 1890, rises a seven-tiered pagoda 30 meters long called Ban Po Tar.

The Temple of the Goddess of Mercy is considered the oldest temple in Penang. It was erected in 1800 and is a classic example of Chinese architecture of that time.

The snake temple was built in honor of the Buddhist monk Chor Su Kong. Poisonous snakes lie quietly around the altar and other objects in the temple, drugged by the smell of incense, and do not attack people. Vipers can be picked up, photographed for memory.

Sri Marriamman Temple was built in 1883 and is famous for its numerous statues of Indian deities, the most valuable of which is the statue of the god Subramaniam, decorated with gold, silver and precious stones.

Tour duration – 4-5 hours, temples should be entered without shoes

Discover Penang, the “Pearl of the Orient” – from its sandy beaches to picturesque villages and nostalgic George Town. The capital combines the best aspects of east and west, which are reflected in a charming collection of ancient exquisite buildings, each of which bears the stamp of the influence of different countries and their rich history. Attractions include: Batu Ferringhi (passing through), Teluk Bahang (passing through), Fisherman’s Village, Fruit Market (passing through), Malay Village, Serpent Temple, Penang Bridge (passing through) and George Town (passing through). If time permits, a visit to a local grocery outlet may be included. All entrance tickets are included in the price. Beginning at 9:00, average duration – 4 hours.

The Penang Hill Funicular, opened in 1923, has been providing service to Penang Hill for 88 years. The most recent renovation of the funicular has increased the number of passengers carried and the speed of the train.
Then you will visit one of the largest temples in Southeast Asia, Kek Lok Si Temple and the nearby turtle pond.
Attractions include Kek Lok Si Temple (including the inclined elevator to the statue of the Goddess of Mercy) and Turtle Pond, Penang Hill (including the funicular ride to the top of the mountain). All entrance tickets are included in the price. Beginning at 9:00, average duration – 4 hours.

On this day you can enjoy a romantic cycle rickshaw ride and a leisurely stroll through Georgetown. Look at the harmony in which a people with such a diverse culture can live.
Attractions include rickshaw ride to Cornwallis Fort (external view), Weld (Chew Pier), Khu Kong Si, Harmony Street, Little India (Mahamariamman Temple), Pinang Peranakan Mansion Museum and E&O Hotel. The price includes all entrance fees, cycle rickshaw ride and English afternoon tea.

Beginning at 9:00, average duration – 4 hours.

GEORGE TOWN NIGHT TOUR Tonight, experience
George Town like you never imagined it and dine at Penang’s one and only restaurant with breathtaking views of George Town’s night landscapes.
Attractions include Bayview Georgetown revolving restaurant and Penang Road cycle rickshaw ride. A cycle rickshaw ride and dinner are included in the price.

Check-out time – 18:00 (from beach hotels), 18:30 (from city hotels); average duration – 4 hours.

You have the opportunity to see the animals in all their natural grandeur. The zoo covers an area of ​​13.6 hectares, covered with rivers, lakes and lush vegetation. And it is also home to more than 180 animal species with a total of 1300 inhabitants, including: tigers, lions, elephants, hippos, giraffes, orangutans and others.

The price includes all entrance fees, round trip transfers and lunch.

Beginning at 9:00, average duration – 8 hours.

Penang, Malaysia

Turkey Arts and Music

Turkey Arts and Music


According to TOPSCHOOLSINTHEUSA, the most ancient products of Turkish art are goldsmiths and gold trimmings, already in use before the Christian era among the populations of the regions close to the Altai: they are generally called Scythians (fibulae etc., in the shape of stylized animals, worked cantilever). Textile art soon reached artistic level, both in the canvases for the decoration of the curtains and in the carpets. It is in these two fields that Turkey has made the greatest contribution to Islamic art, bringing a strong tendency to decoration since the 9th century. and with greater force from the 11th (➔ islam). In the Ottoman period, art and architecture were able to merge the experiences of previous eras by expressing themselves in original ways (➔ Ottoman, Empire).

The opening towards the West began in the 19th century. with the development, in painting, of new genres for Turkish culture (landscape, still life, study of the human figure): to remember Ahmet Paşa and S. Seyyit and above all O. Hamdi, director since 1881 of the Ottoman Imperial Museum and of Academy, founded in 1883 in İstanbul, the city leads even after the creation of the republic. The Association of Ottoman Painters, since 1917 Association of Turkish Painters, of which N. Güran was a member, with the magazine Naşir-i Efkâr («Promoter of ideas»), organized exhibitions, from 1923, also in Ankara. In 1933, group D, founded by N. Berk, was at the forefront of the avant-garde in Turkey while an interesting project sent artists to the various provinces.

In addition to cultural events such as the International Biennial of İstanbul and the Asia-Europe Biennial of Ankara, an important role in supporting contemporary art in Turkey has been played by both private galleries and institutions and exhibition centers such as the Center for Contemporary Art BM (1984) and the Museum of Contemporary Art (1992) in İstanbul. The attention to western expressive modes, from abstraction to pop art, from minimalism to conceptual art, and at the same time a recovery of tradition and the exploration of the border between East and West, have marked the research of the second half of the 20th century. . Influential personalities are A. Coker, A. Gürman. They have maintained a link with tradition, through the art of calligraphy, N. Okyay and H. Aytac, transmitted to the younger A. Alpaslan and H. Çelebi. K. Önsoy works in the field of material-gestural experiences; A. Öktem, E. Aksel, S. Kiraz are linked to conceptual researches, while M. Morova expresses himself through painting, collage and installation. H. Tenger creates committed installations, involved in contemporary reality; E. Ersen creates complex works, including photography, video, installation and action. He works in the field of video art Ö. Ali Kazma. In the use of advanced technologies and net art we remember G. Incirlioğlu, architect and photographer;, an acronym born in 2000 as an Internet initiative, uses the world wide web for artistic projects, and is open to anonymous external contributions.

In architecture, the opening to modernism and avant-garde languages, also initiated by the presence of R. D’Aronco in İstanbul, was accentuated with the Turkish Republic through the activity of architects such as C. Holzmeister, H. Poelzig, B. Taut, P. Bonatz. Among the Turkish architects active at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, SH Eldem emerges who, despite being influenced by Western ways, felt the need for a national language. Of the following generations we remember Turkey Cansever and B. Cinici, while among the younger ones we can distinguish H. Tumertekin and Studio GAD.


Turkish musical theory is based on an articulated scale in a profoundly different way from the European one, which identifies within 24 sounds (derived from the 24 keys of the main Turkish instrument, a lute called tanbur) and distinguishes a hundred modes on this basis. Cultured secular music is closely linked to the Arab tradition. Sacred music is divided into three basic genres: Ilahi, the hymns for the various months of the Muslim year, Tevchic (praises of the Prophet), Ayni Cherif, repertoire of dervishes. A singular aspect of the relationship between Turkish and European music is the popularity it had in Europe towards the end of the 18th century. the music of the Janissaries (the bodyguards of the sultans), with its characteristic percussion instruments (triangles, drums, cymbals): called Turkish, was the object of imitation or at least of allusion by numerous composers, including WA Mozart and L. van Beethoven. The creation of a Turkish national school is mainly due to a series of composers born in the first decade of the 20th century. and mainly trained in Paris and Vienna, such as DR Rey, UD Erkin, AA Saygun, NK Akses, F. Alnar. More recently, N. Kodalli, F. Tüzün, I. Baran, M. Su. A national conservatory was founded in İstanbul in 1915, which was later joined by some major musical institutions such as the İstanbul Municipal Theater and the Ankara State Theater.

Turkey MUSIC

Libya Politics and Defense

Libya Politics and Defense

Society, politics and rights

Gaddafi’s Libya, despite the absence of political and civil liberties, had a relatively high level of human development compared to its African neighbors. The literacy rate, for example, reached 100% among young people; the conditions of the general health services offered to the population were sufficient: according to data from the World Health Organization, 97% of the population had access to health facilities, but only 54.4% of drinking water. Infant mortality was quite low (17 per 1000 births). As for gender equality, Gaddafi had tried, at least publicly, to promote the status of women with respect to traditional culture and to discourage discrimination. In 2012 the National Transitional Congress (NTC) tried by law to reserve a quota of seats for women in the July elections, but had to give up by inserting only the obligation to alternate sex among the candidates of the proportional quota, which assigned to women a total of 80 seats. On the other hand, the situation has always been critical as regards civil and political rights. Political activity under the Gaddafi regime has always been highly controlled, freedom of assembly was allowed only to pro-government demonstrations, there were no independent trade unions and corruption was quite widespread. Post-regime Libya had initially offered encouraging data. In the elections of July 2012 a record number of 140 registered parties competed, but the political formations were more than 350. The elections produced a very heterogeneous congress from a political point of view. The electoral system allowed the election with the majority system on local constituencies of 120 independent members who therefore responded more to the community they belong to than to any party. However, the very low participation in numerical terms of the Libyan population in last votes of 2014 constituted an important indicator on the degree of disillusionment of the Libyan population towards a peaceful and democratic transition. In the new Libya, pluralism seemed to be guaranteed, as was freedom of expression: within a few months, many media, civil groups, associations and trade unions had sprung up. However, in the past two years, civil liberties and political rights have been severely constrained by threats, personal ambushes and intimidation, mostly exercised by Islamic radicals, but also by the militias that manage individual areas. The greatest danger derives from violent Salafist and jihadist groups and from the cross-vendettas of the old members of the Gaddafi regime.

Defense and security

The current chaotic situation in the country is characterized by the presence of numerous armed militias on Libyan territory. These did not disarm at the end of the 2011 conflict and currently remain the true holders of power in the country. The various national authorities that have succeeded since the fall of the regime have not been able to regain the monopoly of the use of force. The sanctions against the Gaddafi regime in March 2011 imposed an embargo on any type of armament, while the NATO intervention eliminated a large part of the regime’s land and air armed forces. For Libya defense and foreign policy, please check

After the end of the conflict there was also a rather significant flow of armaments out of the country and directed to conflict areas in Africa and the Middle East. Libya has a strong need to reconstitute its armed forces also from the point of view of means and structures. However, so far this has been prevented by the limitations still existing in the framework of the UN sanctions.Several Western countries, from the United States to Italy, to the United Kingdom, collaborated with the Libyan government during 2013-14 in the constitution and training of the police and army forces, however with modest results. The polarization in the field of security, which turned into open conflict between the two factions, has fueled a new race to arms, in an attempt to strengthen one side over the other. The international community, the Euin particular, it tried to collaborate with Libya in an attempt to strengthen the lack of border controls, which are the cause of the proliferation of trafficking in arms, people and drugs, but the effort was made in vain when Libya relapsed into a conflict between the two factions in mid-2014. On this front it should be noted that the return to Mali of dozens of Tuareg rebels who had fought alongside the pro-Gaddafi militias during the Libyan revolution and the rearmament of A qim (al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb), thanks to the Libyan regime’s arsenal, have constituted one of the causes of instability in Mali and the consequent takeover in the northern territories of Mali itself by the Islamic militias.

Since the last months of 2014, the penetration of I s in Libya has been reported by many international media. In reality, the jihadist landscape in Libya is very varied as many other Salafist-jihadist groups seem to have a sanctuary in Libya, including Aqim, Egyptian and Tunisian groups. Various avowedly jihadist formations have appeared on the Libyan scene since 2012 and have progressively strengthened with the crumbling of the Libyan state. Among these there are certainly groups that try to impose the constitution of a caliphate in Libya also through the use of force. Ansar al-Sharia Libya, responsible for the killing of the American Ambassador Christopher Stevens in September 2012, remains one of the most conspicuous military forces in the east of the country, particularly in the city of Benghazi where it is currently opposed by the military forces of Haftar, and was designated first by the US State Department, then by the United Statesas a terrorist organization. However, during 2015 the situation on the ground has become increasingly complicated due to the strengthening of all ‘related groups Is. The latter proclaimed their affiliation to the self-styled Caliphate, establishing two provinces in Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, with bases in Sirte and Derna.

Libya Defense

Indonesia Literature and Cinema

Indonesia Literature and Cinema

Literature. – In the Eighties, Indonesian literary life was characterized by a fruitful activity and by some events of primary importance. The greatest contemporary poet, Rendra (b. 1935), emphasizes the cutting character of his social criticism in the volume of verse Potret Pembangunan Dalam Puisi (“Portrait of evolution in poetry”, 1980), as well as in the recitals of his theater school, a true forge of high-level dramatic art, committed to the point that in 1980 it was forbidden to perform in public. Only in 1986 will the ban be lifted and its performances will attract large crowds.

Another distinguished poet, Sitor Situmorang (b.1923), who emigrated to Holland after his liberation (1973) from the concentration camp, where he was imprisoned for joining the Communist writers’ league in the Sukarnian era, returns to bookstores with Danau Toba (“The lake Toba”, 1981), a collection of short stories, and Angin Danau (“The wind of the lake”, 1982), in verse, both – as the titles say – inspired by the native land. Pengakuan Pariyem – Dunia Batin Seorang Wanita Jawa arouses considerable interest(“The confessions of Pariyem – The spiritual world of a Javanese”, 1981) by the young poet Linus Suryadi (b. 1951), who manages to summarize in the very singular form of a novel in rhythmic prose the essential features of the complex Javanese culture of the time current, recovering lines and narrative systems of the great didactic novels in verse of Javanese literature in the 18th and 19th centuries.

But the most important event of the Eighties – a novelty that goes beyond the literary sphere as it rises to an embarrassing political case for the state authorities – is the return of the narrator Pramoedya Ananta Toer (b.1925): long detained in a concentration camp For joining the League of Communist Writers, Toer wrote some extraordinarily happy historical novels during his captivity, which are greeted with warmth at first, but are then banned as the enormous success is interpreted as an indirect anti-government demonstration. The first of these novels, Bumi Manusia (“The land of men”, 1980) and Anak Semua Bangsa (“Son of All Nations”, 1980), are readily translated into English and Dutch. These two are followed by Jejak Langkah (“The footsteps”, 1985) and Rumak Kaca (“The glass house”, 1985), thus constituting a grandiose tetralogy carrying a great message: the degradation of human dignity under colonial tyranny. In 1985, Pramoedya also managed to publish Sang Pemula (“The initiator”), dedicated to the Javanese nobleman RM Tirto Adhi Soerjo (1875-1918), forerunner of the progressive journalists and writers of his country.

Cinema. – The first cinematographic activities began in the 1910s, sponsored by the Dutch, who held colonial power. The first feature film with an Indonesian subject is due to the pioneers G. Kruger and F. Carli, active in the documentary sector: Lutung Kasarung (“The loyal monkey”, 1926), inspired by a local legend. At the end of the 1920s, the Dutch entrepreneurs were joined by the Chinese ones: the Wong brothers, Tan Khoen Hian and Teng Chun who, in addition to being the director and producer of the first sound film (Cikenbang Rose, “The Rose of Cikenbang”, 1931), established in the 1930s as the main promoter of manufacturing on an industrial basis. For Indonesia 2002, please check

The cinema of this period is dominated by the revival of Indian and Chinese commercial trends, and by the imitation of American genres. The efforts made by A. Balink in a realistic direction appear completely counter-current who, with the collaboration of the Dutch documentary maker M. Franken, made Pareh (“Rice”) in 1934 and Terang Boelan (“Moonlight”) in 1937. singular film scripted by an indigenous (Saeroen), in which the modules and actors of the Indonesian folk theater (toneel) are used.

After a period of stagnation during the Japanese occupation (1942-45) and the war of independence (1945-49), production resumed in the early 1950s with two significant directors such as Djamaluddin Malik, owner of the Persari company, and above all Ismail. Usmar, who made his debut before the liberation with a Dutch company and founded the Perfiri company in 1950.

Kotot Sukardi, Huyung and Basuki Effendi also work alongside these authors who are protagonists of the ” rebirth ” of an authentically national cinema. From the mid-1950s a new productive crisis, which reached its peak in 1957, dragged on until the Communists left the government (1965) in a climate of ” ideological warfare ” and a boycott of non-left-aligned directors such as Djamaluddin Malik, Ismail Usmar and Asrul Sani (author, in 1961, of Pagar Kawat Berduri, “Behind the barbed wire”, whose circulation is forbidden). Bachtiar Siagian, who is able to use the camera not for mere propaganda purposes, is worth mentioning among the authors of communist culture.

From 1967 the government began to take an organic interest in national production by launching protectionist measures and creating bodies for reorganization and development (the DPFN, National Council of Film Production, in 1968; the DFN, National Council for Cinematography, in 1979). This paves the way for quality cinema represented in the 1970s and 1980s by three directors who trained in Moscow: Ami Prijono (Jakarta Jakarta, 1977; Roro Mendut, 1983), Wim Umboh (Pengantin Remaja, “Marriage between teenagers”, 1971) and Sjuman Djaja (Si Mamad, “Mother”, 1973; Opera Jakarta, 1985). Arifin C. Noer (Yuyun, Pasien Rumak Sakit Jiwa, “Yuyun, hospitalized”, 1980; Serangan Fajar, 1983) and Teguh Karya (November 1828, 1979; Ibunda, 1986) come from the Indonesian theater. While Asrul Sami is still active, new talents emerge, also largely linked to formative theatrical experiences: Franky Rorimpandey (Perawan Desa, “The girl from the village”, 1980), Ismail Subarjo (Perempuan Dalam Pasungan, “A woman in chains “, 1981), Edwat Pesta Siriat (Gadis Penakluk,” A girl who intimidates “, 1980) and finally Slamet Rahardjo, well-known actor of the Karya films (Rembulan Dan Matahari,” The sun and the moon “, 1981, and Kembang Kertas, “Paper Flowers”, 1985).

Indonesia Cinema

Turkey Major Cities by Population

Turkey Major Cities by Population

In relation to the great diversity of the natural environment are the significant differences that are noted in the rural settlement. The highest areas of the interior, wooded and grassy, ​​are crossed in summer by nomadic shepherds (called Juruchi, whose number is estimated at about 200 thousand), who live in mountain farmhouses (yaya), while in winter they they gather at the bottom forming villages of tents (kï Ş lak), which gradually become fixed.

On the slopes of the hills bordering the plateau, where there are dejection cones and there is no shortage of water, Turkish horticulturists and farmers have gladly built their homes, who grow wheat, opium poppies, vegetables and live in villages. to houses side by side, built with sun-dried bricks and with a flat roof, with a terrace, generally with two floors, of which the lower is used for stable and shed, the upper for housing. In older houses, the part reserved for women (harem) is still separate from that reserved for men (selamlik) and walls block the view of the courtyards to outsiders. In the steppes, which were better suited to grazing than to cultivation when this was practiced extensively, a vast colonization by refugees from Macedonia, Bulgaria and Dobruja began a few years ago. The houses, arranged for the most part in a checkerboard pattern, are larger than among horticulturists, given the need to have stables to shelter the cattle used for the heavy work of the fields, and the roof, similar to European houses, is slightly sloping. sloping, built with tiles and reeds. The part of the steppe where rainfall is too scarce to be able to attempt cereal cultivation, is the undisputed dominion of the Kurds and Turkmen, dedicated to livestock, who live in rather large villages, located near the springs; the houses are spacious, built of stone and the roof is flat. In the warmer regions of Kurdistān, which look towards Mesopotamia, the high night temperatures push the residents to sleep in the summer on the terraces, where the beds are brought, sheltered from mosquito nets. For Turkey 1999, please check

The houses are low, often built with earth mixed with straw, or with stones of the same color as the surrounding land. In N., in the forest area, wooden houses prevail, with frequent footprints left by the Greeks. Then corresponds to our farm the çiftlik, very common in western Anatolia, which mostly consists of a large farmyard, around which are the low settlers’ houses, with 3 or 4 rooms. In 1927 a census of buildings was also carried out and 2,770,000 residential houses were counted, 89,000 buildings not intended for habitation, but inhabited, and 800,000 other buildings, with a minimum of 237 residents for 100 houses in the Bilecik vilâyet and a maximum of 723 in the Istanbul vilâyet.

Just under a quarter of the population (23.5%) lives in cities and the rest in rural municipalities. There are 403 cities in all, but only 80 have a population of over 10 thousand. and 21 over 25 thousand residents The latter are as follows:

It should be noted that only 5 cities are located on the coast: two overlook the Black Sea, two the Mediterranean and one is where Europe and Asia almost meet. Although Istanbul is no longer the state capital, it retains its economic and military importance, given its location at the intersection of land and sea routes. Among the cities of the Black Sea, Trebizond, which overlooks the sea from a rocky platform, is the outlet of a vast hinterland (partly beyond the border); Samsun is in considerable progress, after the opening of the railway that connects it to the Mediterranean; Smyrna is still intent on repairing the damage of the fire (1922) which largely destroyed it; Mersina is in a favorable position with respect to the hinterland, a short distance from Adana, market of the Cilician plain and traffic junction, but suffers from the lack of a good port. Among the centers of the interior, among which the most important is Angora (870 msm), which is losing its appearance as a market place near a fortress, to increasingly assume that of capital (from 13 November 1923), Brussa should be remembered. (180 msm), ancient capital, rich in monuments, a city where the textile industry has a long tradition, which is located between two terraces on the slopes of the Olympus of Misia and which looks from above towards a well-cultivated plain. A SE. di Brussa EskiŞehir (752 msm) is an obligatory point of passage for those who have to go from the old to the new capital. Conia (1028 msm) is in a region that constitutes a well-identified unit, so much so that it resembles an oasis, and, little damaged by the exodus of Greeks, it now benefits from the crops grown in the irrigated area of ​​Çumra. While Conia is located at the western limit of the Lycaonia plain, on the eastern side there is Caesarea (1070 masl), a short distance from Kïzïl Ïrmak, near the slopes of the Aegean, a large andesitic ulcano 3830 m high, at the foot of the which gush out of the springs which allow an intensive cultivation; instead everything around dominates the steppe. NE. there is Sïvas (1220 masl), once an isolated locality located in the upper valley of the Kïzïl Ïrmak, while now a railway section connects it to the Samsun-Cesarea line; towards the east the railway will have to reach Erzerum (2038 meters above sea level). A SE. there are numerous cities, Gazi Antep (940 masl), a large center between the Euphrates valley and the plain of Cilicia; Diyarbekir, road and caravan junction on the right bank of the Tigris; Maraş (720 msm), railway junction near the buttresses of the Antitaurus; Malatya (870 msm), a short distance from the Euphrates in the midst of intensive cultivation; Urfa (660 msm), cities all oriented towards Mesopotamia and in which Kurdish and Arab aspects prevail.

Turkey Brussa

India in the 1990’s

India in the 1990’s

The end of the Eighties marked a profound turning point in the life of the country, with a progressive fragmentation of political representation and the consequent establishment of coalition governments. While the credibility of the INC (I) as guarantor of the secular state accused the repercussions induced by the explosion of violent conflicts between different communities, by the accentuation of separatist tendencies and by the emergence of terrorist groups, the following of regional parties grew and formations with strong ethnic and religious references, often bearers of fundamentalist visions. In particular, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) became one of the protagonists of the political scene, rooted in the states of the Hindu belt in the north of the country, especially in Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of the Union. and proponent of a program based on the affirmation of Hindu culture and caste representation.

The caste system was undermined by the very exercise of democracy which, by its nature, was progressively opening up spaces even to previously excluded sectors of the population: in many regions governments that expressed low castes came to power, while free-market economic transformations introduced further changes in social stratification, leading the lower castes and the ‘outcasts’ to demand new forms of participation. For India democracy and rights, please check The trend towards polarization of caste identities emerged clearly, for example, on the occasion of the reform (1990-92) of the quota system, which provided for an increase in the quota reserved in public employment for the rural lower castes and which aroused violent grievances from students, mostly belonging to the middle-upper castes and the urban bourgeoisie. The disintegration, however slow and partial, of such a complex social stratification obviously represented a vehicle of crisis and imbalance for the whole system. With the elections of November 1989 the government passed to the National Front, a heterogeneous coalition united only by the opposition to Gandhi’s party, formed by the Janata Dal, of social democratic tendency and expression of the lower castes, and by three powerful regional parties, with the support outside the BJP and the two communist parties. The coalition, led by Vishwanath Pratap Singh, minister in the previous legislature and then passed from INC (I) to Janata Dal, already divided originally, it split in November 1990. The fall of an ephemeral government, led by Chandra Shektar, leader of a splinter faction of the Janata Dal, with the external support of the INC (I) made it necessary to call early elections in June 1991. The election campaign was marked by new outbursts of violence, culminating on 21 May, when R. Gandhi was killed in a terrorist attack. The elections saw the defeat of the Janata Dal and a rise in both the BJP and INC (I), whose new leader Narasimha Rao formed a minority government. The Rao government was faced with the escalation of ethnic and religious conflicts already at the end of 1992, when in Ayodhya, in the state of Uttar Pradesh, Hindu fundamentalists destroyed the Babur mosque, the center of bitter disputes. Clashes followed that shook almost the whole country, with more than 2000 dead, and rekindled ethnic and religious particularisms, even different from the traditional conflict between Hindus and Muslims. The government, uncertain and worried about losing consensus, then reacted by outlawing the oldest Hindu nationalist organization, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS, “National Volunteer Corps”), and by dismissing, with a much discussed measure, some local governed administrations. from the BJP. Divided internally, the executive, however, was unable to accompany the repressive measures with other broader initiatives. On the other hand, the Rao administration demonstrated greater incisiveness, as well as in an active foreign policy, in the management of the economy, where the liberalizing choice, initiated from the very first measures launched by the executive and which had effectively dismantled the centralized system, it produced regular GDP growth, even if it greatly accentuated regional differences. Despite the successes reported internationally and the moderate results achieved in economic policy, the popularity of the government, involved more and more often in episodes of corruption and the path of increasingly strong internal conflicts, suffered a sharp decline, confirmed by the heavy defeat of the INC (I) in the regional elections held in the main states between the end of 1994 and the beginning of 1995.

The general political elections scheduled for the spring of 1996 were preceded by a new wave of corruption accusations, which affected both the executive, in the the person of the prime minister, and the main opposition figures. The consultations marked the defeat of the INC (I), increasingly compromised by scandals, the defection of numerous prominent personalities and the crisis of some important local federations, and recorded the affirmation of two opposing political forces: on the one hand the National Front-Left Front, a heterogeneous coalition comprising social democratic parties such as the Janata Dal, communist parties such as the ruling West Bengal, regional parties and other smaller forces; on the other hand, the BJP in alliance with other small groups. After an attempt by the BJP, whose government remained in office for only 13 days, the mandate was given to Haradanahalli Dodde Deve Gowda, who emerged, after arduous consultations, as candidate for prime minister of the United Front, a new name assumed by the coalition of 13 parties of center-left. A politician of regional stature, not from the upper castes – very unusual among national leaders – Deve Gowda started an executive with external support from the INC (I). Support fell short in the early months of 1997 following the redefinition of the internal balance of the INC (I), with the resignation of Rao from the leadership of the party and the entry of Sonia Maino Gandhi, widow of R. Gandhi. With the resignation of Deve Gowda, a minority government formed by the United Front and led by Inder Kumar Gujral, a senior and esteemed intellectual and political leader welcomed by the INC (I), took office, who continued to support him until, in late 1997, Gujral refused to grant the request to expel from the coalition a party involved in the investigation into the death of R. Gandhi for having had contact with the Tamil Tigers.

India democracy and rights

Cyprus Archaeology

Cyprus Archaeology

Extensive research on the prehistory of Cyprus was carried out during the period under review. There are some hints of a pre-Neolithic (late-Paleolithic?) Culture in a locality on the southern coast of the island (Akrotiri- Aetokremos).

Excavations in the two major Neolithic sites (Kalavassos- Tenta and Khirokitia) have cast ample light especially on the aceramic phase of the Neolithic. New dating through carbon 14, for the Ancient Neolithic period, at least for Kalavassos- Tenta, allow us to go back to the end of the 8th millennium. In both locations, circular buildings were discovered. A new aspect that has emerged is the fortification of both settlements: in Kalavassos with a moat and in Khirokitia with a massive wall, previously interpreted as a road. In Kalavassos, pisé was widely usedor mud bricks for the construction of the walls and there is evidence of the decoration with a red pigment of the plastered walls: in one case a composition with crudely rendered human figures was found.

New excavations in the Paphos district (Lemba- Lakkous and Kissonerga Mosphilia) have shed light on the Chalcolithic period. In both locations, large circular structures with concrete floors were discovered. Limestone and terracotta statuettes depicting nude female figures illustrate the religious beliefs of the 4th millennium Cyprus, which centered around a female fertility deity, connected with childbirth; the existence of a male god of fertility with phallic characteristics is also documented. A richly painted clay model of an open-air circular sanctuary, found at Kissonerga- Mosphilia, with 17 clay and stone human figurines, illustrates complex religious rituals in the Chalcolithic period.

The Early Bronze Age is documented by architectural remains and tombs discovered in Sotira- Kaminoudhia, near the southern coast. They can be dated to the Early Bronze Age I, corresponding to the so-called ” Philia cultural phase ” of the northern part of the island (early 3rd millennium). A pair of gold earrings or hair clips was found in one tomb, the oldest of its kind.

The excavation of tombs in the village of Kalavassos yielded a large amount of pottery and also bronze tools and weapons, which testify to the prosperity of this region located in an area rich in copper mines. The tombs cover the entire Middle Bronze Age. A settlement dating from the end of the Middle Bronze to the beginning of the Late Bronze has been excavated at Episkopi- Phaneromeni: large houses with many rooms have been found, often with traces of a foreground. Near the settlement, Middle Bronze Age tombs have been excavated.

Another Middle Bronze Age settlement has been excavated in Alambra, where large buildings with thick walls have also been unearthed.

The Late Bronze Age focused the greatest interest in research and excavation. The tombs excavated in Maroni- Kapsaloudhia near the southern coast and in Palaepaphos- Teratsoudhia illustrate relations with Syria and Egypt (a stone vase with the Ahmosis cartouche was found in Palaepaphos). An early 14th century tomb excavated in Kalavassos- Ayios Dhimitrios may be one of the richest ever discovered on the island: it contained Mycenaean pottery, gold jewelry (weighing 432 g), ivory and glass objects, evidence of the wealth of Cyprus and in particular of Kalavassos in this period, located near the copper mines. Several settlements dating to the Late Cypriot IIC-Late Cypriot IIIA period (c. 1200 BC) have been excavated, illustrating the prosperity of the island before the upheavals that caused the abandonment, destruction and reconstruction of numerous Late Cypriot locations. Large administrative buildings, built with ashlar blocks, were discovered in Maroni- Vournes and Kalavassos- Ayios Dhimitrios, both abruptly abandoned around 1200 BC, at the end of the Late Cypriot IIC period. In the administrative building of Kalavassos, clay cylinders were found with engraved signs of the Cyprominoic script and a large number of Mycenaean IIIB plates and cups and local imitations, illustrating the importance of this building from which the lord of the region probably administered the exploitation of copper mines. For Cyprus 2015, please check

Two fortified settlements, one in Pyla- Kokkinokremos on the south-east coast, the other in Maa- Palaeokastro on the west coast, illustrate the troubled period that affected the eastern Mediterranean after the fall of the Mycenaean “ empire ” and the activities of the so-called ” people of the sea ”. The first settlement was abandoned in the face of imminent danger towards or immediately after 1200 BC and was never re-inhabited; the second was destroyed by a fire immediately after 1200, rebuilt and abandoned towards the middle of the 12th century. Rich tombs, dating back to around 1200, have made funeral objects, such as ceramics, bronzes, gold jewels, ivory and alabaster objects. Such tombs were excavated in the area of ​​Palaepaphos, Liomylia. Part of a settlement and tombs from the period around 1200 BC were excavated in Alassa, north of Kourion.

The early Iron Age and the Archaic periods are illustrated by the discoveries made in the tombs of Palaepaphos- Skales. The grave goods were filled with bronze pottery, weapons, tools and jewelery. Phoenician objects found in these tombs show that the wealth of the residents of Palaepaphos in this period derived from trade with the Levantine coast. A bronze obelos found in an 11th-century tomb in this cemetery has an inscription in the Cypriot syllabary, a Greek proper name in the genitive, in a form proper to the Arcadian dialect: it is the first evidence we have of the use of the Greek language in Cyprus.

The cemetery of Amatunte, on the southern coast, has yielded a large amount of objects dating from the Cypro-geometric period to the Roman one. Of particular interest is the ceramics from the tombs, both local of the so-called ” Amatunte style ”, and imported, Greek and Phoenician. The tombs were also rich in terracotta, especially from the 6th century BC, both local and Phoenician. There were also bronze objects, gold and silver jewelry, etc., testifying to the wealth of this cosmopolitan port city.

A classical period building has been partially excavated in the Evreti locality in Palaepaphos; other contemporary buildings have been excavated in Idalion, along with part of the city defense wall. The remains of a sanctuary excavated in Tamassos can be dated to the same period . The early Hellenistic period was further illustrated by the underwater exploration of the port of ancient Amatunte, of which significant parts have been found. The fortifications of Nea Paphos, cut into the rock, of which a large part has been discovered along the western side of the city, with ramps, gates and towers, can be dated to the same period. Rich material from the Roman and Hellenistic periods was found in the tombs of Nea Paphos: these also include the monumental tombs of the part of the necropolis known as ” Tombs of the Kings ”. In Nea Paphos more villas of the Roman age have been found: we remember the ” Casa del Teseo ” with polychrome paved mosaics and the ” House of Aion ”, adjacent to it, with beautiful floor mosaics of the 4th century. AD, depicting mythological scenes. Finally we can mention the discovery of a Roman nymphaeum in Kourion and that of the temple of Aphrodite on the acropolis of Amatunte.

Cyprus excavations

Landmarks in Lebanon

Landmarks in Lebanon

Go on a group tour through Lebanon, a country in the Middle East on the Mediterranean Sea. This country is divided into four landscape zones that run parallel to the coast: the narrow, steep coastline, the rugged Lebanon mountains, the fertile Bekaa plain and the dry Antilebanon mountain range and Hermon. Visit the most important cities of Lebanon, such as the capital Beirut with the Grottes aux Pignons, Martyrs Square and Grande Mosque or the Place de l´Etoile; the city of Tripoli, the capital of Northern Lebanon; Zahlé with the Wadi El-Aarayesh (Valley of Wine) or the city of Sidon with the sea fortress or the coast. Let yourself be enchanted by a study tour through Lebanon!

Deir el Qamar

a jewel of Arab architecture in Lebanon

45 kilometers southeast of the Lebanese capital Beirut, at an altitude of 850 meters above sea level, there is a jewel of Arab architecture and one of the most beautiful villages in the country: Deir el Qamar. It can be translated as “Monastery of the Moon” and was once the spiritual center of the Emirate of Mount Lebanon. The roots of the mosque, which is well worth seeing, go back to the middle of the 15th century.

Secluded parks and fragrant gardens

According to topschoolsintheusa, Deir el Qamar has kept the traditional style of the previous century. Probably also because it is remote on a mountain slope, embedded in the forests of the Chouf. The streets of the city are still paved with their original cobblestones and the residents pride themselves on their secluded parks and fragrant gardens. The respective governors of the country resided here between the 16th and 18th centuries.

Wax figures in an Arab palace

The most important buildings of the city are grouped around a central square in Deir el Qamar – including the mosque from the time of the former ruler Fakhr ed-Din I from the beginning of the 16th century. The historical palace of the Fakhr ed-Din II, which was influenced by Egyptian architectural styles and is reminiscent of Arab palaces, is worth seeing. Today a private museum with seventy wax figures is housed here.

A stroll through cultural history

A stroll through Deir el Qamar is synonymous with a stroll through the cultural history of Lebanon. Winding alleys and stairways lead up to the beautiful town houses of the town, which has long been known for its harmonious coexistence of different denominations. The synagogue, which was completed in 1638 but is closed today, is well preserved. One of the religious sights of Christianity in Deir el Qamar is the Saydet at-Tella church, which is dedicated to the miraculous Virgin. This place of worship was built on the ruins of a Phoenician temple for the goddess Venus.

Baalbek temple complex

Before Syria was hit by a bloody civil war, the temple complex of Baalbek was considered the largest archaeological attraction in Lebanon. But the Bekaa plain, lapped by the Asi and Litani rivers, is located in the vicinity of Syria, so that a visit to the monumental evidence of the Roman era was discouraged for a long period of time. The UNESCO World Heritage Site is one of the most important sacred monuments in the Middle East.

Heliopolis – the city of the sun god

Baalbek, the ancient Heliopolis, was the city of Baal and was probably a sacred place as early as the Babylonian and Phoenician times. The Greeks worshiped the sun god here. The ruins of the earlier temples were built in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD. The temple from Roman times dedicated to Baccus is an impressive structure and has withstood conflagrations and earthquakes surprisingly well. It was fifty meters long and a little more than 33 meters wide, but in ancient times it was exceeded in size by the neighboring Parthenon temple.

A fire destroyed the temple of Jupiter

The state of Lebanon once acknowledged two landmarks – the cedar tree and the six pillars of the Temple of Jupiter in Baalbek. The twenty meter high monument can be seen from afar, was built in the Corinthian style and was almost 70 m long and 35 m wide. Originally it was surrounded by 42 mighty columns. The Jupiter Heliopolitanus was apparently destroyed by a conflagration in the sixth century AD.

The gigantic “stone of the pregnant woman”

Scientists are still puzzling as to how it was possible at that time to move such huge stones to build the sanctuaries of Baalbek. The largest building block in the world was discovered not far from the temple complex a few years ago. The cuboid weighs around 1650 tons and thus exceeds the so-called “stone of the pregnant woman”, which protrudes from the ground like a halfway sunken ship and weighs around a thousand tons. Both stones were to be transported to the temple district, eight hundred meters away.

Baalbek temple complex, Lebanon

Dhaka, Bangladesh

Dhaka, Bangladesh

According to abbreviationfinder, Dhaka is the largest city in Bangladesh and the capital of the country, it is also the capital of the District of Dhaka. The city located on the banks of the Buriganga River is the political, cultural and economic center of the country and has a population of more than 11 million residents in its metropolitan area, which is why it is considered one of the most populated cities in the world.

The current modernity of the city was carried out, to a large extent, by the British authorities who soon made it the second largest city in Bengal, after Calcutta.

With the independence of India, Dhaka became the administrative capital of East Pakistan, and later became the capital of Bangladesh when the state became independent in 1972.

Today the city enjoys the highest literacy rate in Bangladesh and a diverse economy.


As far back as the 7th century there were human settlements in the Dhaka area. Before the coming to power of the Sena dynasty in the 9th century and the region where the city is located had been ruled by the Buddhist kingdom of Kamarupa as well as by the Pala Empire, after this period in power of the Sena dynasty, Dhaka It was ruled by Turks and Afghans, who came from the Delhi Sultanate, and was later occupied by the Mongols in 1608.

Many believe that the name Dhaka (Dhaka: this is how it is called in Bengali) originated in the 12th century, when Ballal Sena established the temple of the goddess Dhakeshwari in this area, associated with which it is also estimated that in this period Bengalla began to be called to all that region including the space that included this city and its surroundings.

In 1608, mainly due to the development achieved and the significant growth of its population, the city was proclaimed the capital of Bengal, by order of the Mughal kingdom and according to historical data the greatest expansion of the city under Mongol rule took place under the command of General Shaista Khan..


Dhaka is located on the east bank of the Buri Ganga River and near the Ganges Delta in central Bangladesh, specifically between the coordinates of 23 ° 42′0 ″ N 90 ° 22′30 ″ E? /? 23.7, 90.375 covering a total area of 815.85 km².

Dhaka’s climate is hot, rainy and humid. The city is within the monsoon climate zone. The average temperature is 25 ° C, which varies from 18 ° C in January to 29 ° C in August. Approximately 80% of the rains occur between May and September with an average of 1,854 mm.

This Asian region, which is at sea level, which makes it very vulnerable to flooding, especially during the rainy period with the strong influence of monsoons and cyclones, is characterized by tropical vegetation and humid soil.

The rapid expansion of the city has caused the environment of Dhaka to be seriously threatened by pollution and industrial activities, especially air and water pollution, which is increasing due to urban and industrial waste and affects to a great extent the public health and quality of life of its residents, also threatening the biodiversity and natural habitats of the region.


The city has grown considerably with a population of more than 11 million residents in its metropolitan area, which is why it is considered one of the most populated cities in the world. See population of Bangladesh.


Dhaka has the most developed urban infrastructure in the country and is the commercial center of Bangladesh, for which most of the country’s skilled workers are employed in businesses and industries located in the metropolitan area of the city. In recent decades, Dhaka has experienced extraordinary modernization in the area of transportation, communications and public works, as well as a greater presence of tourists and investment from large companies.

Throughout history the city has attracted large numbers of migrant workers.


Dhaka has seven (7) main Thanas and fourteen (14) Auxiliary Thanas under its jurisdiction.

Subdivisions of Dhaka in Thanas with their area in km², their population (1991 Census) and density (inhab / km²).

Badda Surface 16.78 km², Population: 157,924 residents, Density: 9,411 (residents / km²).

Cantonment: Surface: 29.9 km², Population: 190,472 residents, Density: 6,362 (residents / km²).

Demra: Area: 47.3 km², Population: 521,160 residents, Density: 11,007 (residents / km²).

Dhanmondi: Surface: 9.74 km², Population: 201,529 residents, Density: 20,691 (residents / km²).

Gulshan: Surface: 53.59 km², Population: 281,337 residents, Density: 5,250 (residents / km²).

Hazaribagh: Surface 3.58 km², Population: 52,338 residents, Density: 35,247 (residents / km²).

Kafrul: Area 17.8 km², Population: 164,396 residents, Density: 9,236 (residents / km²).

Kamrangir: Char surface 2.67 km² 25,827 residents, Density: 8,999 (residents / km²).

Khilgaon: Surface 14.0 km², Population: 59,248 residents, Density: 9,861 (residents / km²).

Kotwali: Area 2.07 km², Population: 210,504 residents, Density: 101,693 (residents / km²).

Lalbagh: Surface 9.14 km², Population: 401,387 residents, Density: 43,915 (residents / km²).

Mirpur: Surface: 58.66 km², Population: 641,630 residents, Density: 10,938 (residents / km²).

Mohammadpur: Area: 11.65 km², Population: 316,203 residents, Density: 27,142 (residents / km²).

Motijheel: Surface: 4.69 km², Population: 223,676 residents, Density: 47,692 (residents / km²).

Pallabi: Surface: 17.0 km², Population: 364,000 residents, Density: 21,412 (residents / km²).

Ramna: Surface: 7.85 km², Population: 195,167 residents, Density: 24,862 (residents / km²).

Sabujbagh: Area: 18.2 km², Population: 354,989 residents, Density: 19,526 (residents / km²).

Shyampur: Surface: 2.32 km², Population: 60,152 residents, Density: 25,927 (residents / km²).

Sutrapur: Surface: 4.38 km², Population: 307,483 residents, Density: 70,202 (residents / km²).

Tejgaon: Surface: 8.75 km², Population: 220,012 residents, Density: 25,144 (residents / km²).

Uttara: Surface: 36.9 1km², Population: 108,077 residents, Density: 2,928 (residents / km²).

Dhaka: Surface: 815.85 km², Population: 5,057,371 residents, Density: 6,918 (residents / km²).

Dhaka, Bangladesh

Baghdad, Iraq

Baghdad, Iraq

According to abbreviationfinder, Baghdad is the capital of Iraq; It is the largest and most populous city in the country, with approximately 6.5 million residents, and one of the most populous in the Middle East after Cairo and Tehran. It is located on the banks of the Tigris River.


The city is situated on a vast plain divided by the Tigris River. It divides Baghdad in two, the eastern half, also known as “Rusafa”, and the western half, the “Karkh”. The land where the city itself is situated is flat and low, the product of an original flood due to the long and periodic floods caused by the river. Baghdad has a very hot and arid climate (BWh, according to the Köppen table), being one of the hottest cities in the world.


During the summer season, from June to August, the average temperature is 34.8 ° C and accompanied by a scorching sun. Rain is practically unprecedented in the area during this season. During the day, thermometers can shoot up to 60 ° C in the shade and drop to 15 ° C at night. Humidity is also very low due to the distance that separates the city from the Persian Gulf, which helps to form the common summer dust storms churning from the desert.

During winter, from December to February, temperatures are noticeably mild. The highs range between 25 and 26 ° C and the lows are usually above -6 ° C, although it is not unusual in Baghdad to experience winter temperatures below -10 ° C. The presence of the Tigris attenuates the effect of continentality. Annual rainfall is limited to the period from November to March, with averages of around 140 millimeters with maximum records of 215 and minimums of 0 mm. On January 11, 2008 there was an unusual scene in Baghdad, as the city woke up covered in a thin layer of ice, the first in 100 years.

Social development


Baghdad has always played an important role in Arab cultural life and has been home to prominent writers, musicians and artists. The dialect of Arabic spoken today in Baghdad differs from that of other large urban centers in Iraq. It is possible that this was caused by the repopulation of the city with residents of rural areas in the late Middle Ages.

Some of the important cultural institutions in the city include:

  • Iraqi National Symphony Orchestra – rehearsals and performances were briefly interrupted during the second Gulf War, but have since returned to normal.
  • Iraq National Theater – The theater was looted during the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, but attempts are being made to restore
  • Academy of Music, the Institute of Fine Arts and the Baghdad School of Music and Ballet.

Baghdad is also home to a number of museums that house artifacts and relics of ancient civilizations, several of which were stolen during museum looting sparked by widespread chaos after US forces entered the city.


95% of the population of Iraq is Muslim. That is why there are many mosques in Baghdad, the most famous of which is the Abu Hanifa mosque. Before the 2003 invasion, 65% of Muslims were Sunni and 35% Shiite. See population of Iraq.

Christianity has existed in Iraq since the earliest times and the various Iraqi Christian churches have had strong roots. During the rule of Saddam Hussein (after a secular party) there was wide religious freedom. The government came to have Christian ministers such as former Chaldean Catholic Prime Minister Tariq Aziz. About half of the Christians in Iraq live in Baghdad. Their share of the total population up to March 2003, which stood at around 10%, decreased due to the crises in Iraq until 2006, to around 5%.

Since the beginning of the war, according to the Auxiliary Bishop of Baghdad, Andreas Abouna, around 75% of the Christian population had left the capital, seeking protection in the Kurdish north of Iraq, or in neighboring countries such as Turkey, Syria or Jordan – The Baghdad-based Patriarch of Babylon heads the religious organization of the Chaldean Catholic Church. The Roman Catholic Church forms the Archdiocese of Baghdad.

Baghdad is also the historic seat of the Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East. The bishops of the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch, formerly organized as the “Maphrianat of the East,” also have their headquarters in Baghdad.


Baghdad is home to some of the most important soccer teams in Iraq, the largest being Al Quwa Al Jawiya (Aviation Club), Al Zawra, Al Shurta (Police) and Al Talaba (Students). The biggest stadium in Baghdad is the Al Shaab Stadium which was inaugurated in 1966. The city has also had an important horse racing tradition since the First World War. Islamists have lobbied to end this tradition, as the sport has an important betting sequence.

Baghdad, Iraq

Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Geography and climate

According to abbreviationfinder, Ulan Bator is located about 1,350 meters above mean sea level, slightly east of central Mongolia in the Tuul River Basin, a sub- tributary of the Selenge, in a valley at the foot of Mount Bogd Khan Uul. The Bogd Khan Uul Mountains are heavily forested and have a height of 2,250 meters, are located south of Ulan Bator and are part of the Khan Khentii mountain range that surrounds the city and are also the boundary between the steppe area to the south and the forest-steppe zone to the north. It is also one of the oldest reserves in the world, protected by law since the 18th century. The forests of the mountains around Ulan Bator are made up of pine trees evergreen, deciduous larch and birch trees while the riparian forest of the Tuul River consists of hardwood deciduous trees, poplars, elms and willows.

Due to its high altitude, its relatively high latitude, its location hundreds of kilometers from the coast, and the effects of the Siberian anticyclone, Ulan Bator is the coldest capital in the world, influenced by the monsoon, the cold semi-arid climate that it is very confined to a sub-arctic climate. The city has short hot summers and long, very harsh and dry winters. Cold January temperatures, usually just before sunrise, are between -36 C and -40 C with no wind, due to reversal. Most of the annual rainfall of 216 millimeters falls from June through September. The highest rainfall recorded in the city was 659mm at the Khureltogoot Astronomical Observatory on Mount Bogd Khan Uul. Ulan Bator has an average annual temperature of -2.4 C. The city is located in the discontinuous permafrost zone, which means that construction is difficult on protected areas that prevent thawing in the summer, but easier on those with more exposed fully thawed soils. Suburban residents live in traditional yurts that do not protrude from the ground. The extreme temperatures in the city range from -49 C to 38.6 C.

Administrative division

Ulaanbaatar, has a rank of municipality. It is surrounded by the province of Töv and is divided into nine districts: Baganuur, Bagakhangai, Bayangol, Bayanzürkh, Chingeltei, Khan Uul, Nalaikh, Songino Khairkhan and Sükhbaatar. Likewise, each district is subdivided into joroos. It has no territorial extension; Baganuur and Bagakhangai districts are exclaves, the former in Töv province and the latter in Hentiy.

The city is governed as a first-rate independent subdivision within the country. Its mayor’s office is made up of forty members who are elected every four years, who, in turn, elect the mayor.


The city is the industrial, financial and cultural center of the country, and also a transportation hub that connects it with other large cities in Mongolia by road, and by rail with China.



Its monumental complex is, perhaps, the main attraction of the city, the only stronghold of a certain modernity within a thick and unwelcoming country. As an island of its own, it is far from the rudimentary ways of life and customs of the rest of Mongolia. But this peculiarity and the oriental exoticism that it exudes give it an attraction that is difficult to be rejected by tourists.

The start of the tourist’s journey can begin with the well-known Peace Avenue, which runs along the south side of the central Sükhbaatar square. From here you reach the central market, the capital’s human souk, which is full of accessories related to Mongolian nomadic life and other typical handicraft products that visitors can purchase. The accommodation offer that exists in Ulaanbaatar is not very wide. Among which there is, the best possibility for the visitor is to rest in a hostel or motel such as UB Guesthouse, Nassan, Gobi Travel, Radiant-Sky or Khongor. Once in the country, you can hire packages that include accommodation, vehicles to get around, fuel, guides, food and attractions such as horseback riding or camel riding. at very affordable prices if you know how to negotiate or travel in a group.

Places of interest

  • Choijin Lama Monastery
  • Gandantegchinlin Monastery
  • Museum of Natural History
  • National Museum of Mongolian History
  • Bogd Khan Winter Palace
  • National Academic Theater of Opera and Ballet of Mongolia
  • Sujbaatarin Square
  • Zaisan Memorial
  • National Sports Stadium
  • Gorji-Terelzh National Park (70 km from Ulaanbaatar)


Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, preserves imposing Soviet-style architecture adorned with oriental touches, as evidenced by its Tibetan and Buddhist buildings.

Art and history demand the attention of the visitor. Specifically museums of Ulan Bator, such as Natural History, which has fossils of dinosaurs and pieces of meteorites are found in the Gobi Desert, the history of the country that recalls the glorious past of the Mongol Empire and Genghis Khan, or Zanabazar of Fine Arts. Among the monasteries, no less outstanding, it is worth visiting that of Gandan and, especially, that of Choijin Lama, one of the oldest that also has the large gold statue of Migjid Janraisig, 25 meters high. height.


Ulaanbaatar has five major universities: the National University of Mongolia, the Mongolian University of Science and Technology, the University of Health and Medical Sciences, the Pedagogical University, and the University of Art and Culture. The National Library of Mongolia presents an extensive collection of texts in English on Mongolian subjects. Ulaanbaatar American School and Ulaanbaatar International School provide Western-style education in English for Mongolians and foreign residents. The historical library houses a considerable number of Mongolian, Chinese and Tibetan manuscripts. See population of Mongolia.


The city is a great communications center linked by road with the most important cities of Mongolia. A large part of the roads are not paved, which makes it difficult to move on this road even within the city.

Railway transport

One of the most interesting options for transporting in Ulaanbaatar is to be able to do it through the Trans-Mongolian, a railway extension of the mythical Trans-Siberian that reaches the Asian country. It is an extensive route of 9,000 kilometers of distance full of surprises for the traveler, since it crosses landscapes as varied as deserts, lakes, tundras, wooded areas, mountains and places as popular as the spectacular, inhospitable and arid Gobi desert or the steppe of Mongolia where nomadic tribes coexist. Without a doubt, it becomes an experience in which you can see unique places from the train window.

Air transportation

For air transportation, the city has: Genghis Khan International Airport formerly called Buyant Ukhaa, located 18 km southwest of the city. International flights are made to: Beijing, Berlin, Irkutsk, Moscow, Seoul and Tokyo, while the main domestic trips are to Khovd and Mörön.

Urban transport

There are some private companies that operate several bus lines around the city. These lines are completed by minibuses, which travel the same lines.


In Ulaanbaatar, as in most of the country, regional sports predominate, among which Naadam stands out, which could be considered the national sport. But world-famous sports such as soccer, basketball, etc. are also practiced, although to a lesser degree.

Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Thimphu, Bhutan

Thimphu, Bhutan

According to abbreviationfinder, Thimphu is the capital of Bhutan and the district of the same name, it is the most inhabited city and also the largest economic center in the country, where agriculture accounts for 45%. The city is located along the Chu (Wang Chu) River. It has an estimated population of 74,175 residents (2006).

The city is reduced to a few paved streets, buildings of three or four floors at most, restless pedestrians dressed in traditional costumes (gho, for men, and Kira, for women) and some road traffic, which is regulated by itself. Same, given that there are no traffic lights (the neighbors asked to remove them because they did not see them in their daily landscape), no traffic guards (except for one, in the most ‘congested’ roundabout), no zebra crossings or signs.


Formerly it was only the winter capital (Punaja was the summer capital), but in 1962 it became the permanent capital of the State



The city is located along the Chu (Wang Chu) River and is located in the western part of the country, in a valley that is high up in the Himalayas.


The climate varies from the subtropical monsoon, to the cold of high mountains passing through the temperate, from cold winters and hot summers, The average annual precipitation, in general, is high.

Natural environment

Due to its geographical location, Thimphu serves as the start of various excursions around its surroundings, discovering and exploring the beautiful mountainous landscapes that surround it.


Thimphu has an estimated population of 74,175 residents (2006). See population of Bhutan.

Economic development

The city is the market for the agricultural products of the surrounding valley. Manufacturing activity is based on the food and wood industry.

The products that are mainly traded are: rice, wheat, corn and potatoes. The Cardamom and fruits such as apples, pears and plums, are intended for export.


The city hosts every year, at the end of summer, a dance festival (tsechhu) where the participants wear colorful masks. This is one of the most popular events among tourists. Among the buildings of interest are the royal palace and one of the largest monasteries in the country



The official languages are Dzongkha and English.


In Thimphu, you can see monasteries of great antiquity and traditional architecture, represented by the dzongs, which are large fortress-monasteries that have governmental and religious functions, the lhakhangs and the stupas, which are religious buildings.

Some of those sites are:

  • The Dechencholing Palace, which is the official residence of the king, is located to the north of the capital.
  • The Tashichoedzong a Buddhist monastery built in the 13th century and which has been the seat of government since 1952.
  • The Dzong Simtoka and the Dechen Phodrang Monastery.
  • The Dechenphu, Tango and Cheri monasteries located around the city.


The craftsmanship made in bronze and silver is found in all the temples and is the best known in the country


Bhutan is the only country in the world that has the Tantric Mahayana Buddhism as its official religion

Holidays and traditions

Every year the Dance Festival (tsechhu) is held, where the participants dress up with masks of multiple colors, which becomes a very worthy show to enjoy.


Although it is communicated with other areas of the country and with India to the south, through a network of roads, it does not have an airport or railway. It is a characteristic of the roads of Thimphu that they do not have traffic lights, entrusting their function to traffic guards.

There is a regular bus service Fuentsholing – Siliguri (an Indian city in West Bengal). From Fuentsholing there are daily buses to Thimphu, as well as city bus lines. There are also taxis in the city.


It is a small, mountainous landlocked country located in South Asia. It is located in the eastern stretch of the Himalayas, between India (Sikkim state, which separates it from Nepal) and China (Tibet region). The local name of the country, Druk Yul, means “the land of the thunder dragon”, because in local beliefs thunder is the sound of roaring dragons. Its capital is the city of Thimphu.

This small country is almost entirely mountainous, stretching on the southern slopes of the Himalayas from the highest heights on the border with China.. The highest peak is Kula Kangri (7,554 m). It descends steeply to the Duars Plain, on the southern border with India. The rivers, none of which are navigable, are all tributaries of the Brahmaputra River. The climate in the south is subtropical with great rainfall, in the valleys the climate is more temperate even with hot summers and cold winters and in the mountains they have cool summers and glacial winters. The precipitations diminish with the height and towards the east. Apart from the capital of Thimbu, other cities are Paro and Punakha, the former winter capital (it was the capital until 1955). The Himalayas dominate the north of the country where many peaks exceed 7,000 m.

Thimphu, Bhutan

Jerusalem, Israel

Jerusalem, Israel

According to abbreviationfinder, Jerusalem is a city located in Israel and Palestine. It has 763,800 residents in an area of 125.1 square kilometers (if East Jerusalem is included). Situated in the Judean Mountains, between the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Dead Sea, it has spread well beyond the Old City limits.

  • יְרוּשָׁלַיִם in Hebrew
  • القُدس in Arabic

The status of the eastern part of the city, conquered by force in 1967 by Israel, is disputed, since in this sector – usually referred to as East Jerusalem or East Jerusalem, which includes the Old City – is where the Palestinian National Authority he claims to establish the capital of his State. The Israeli State, after the Six Day War, considered the city as a unified whole and a single municipality, declaring it as its “eternal and indivisible” capital by means of the “Jerusalem Law of 1980”. This annexation is not recognized by the majority of the international community, and, in protest of this unilateral act, the member states of the United Nations they moved their embassies to the coastal city of Tel Aviv.

Jerusalem is one of the oldest cities in the world, inhabited by the Jebusites before the invasion of the Hebrew tribes to Canaan at the beginning of the 13th century BC. n. and.

Jerusalem’s Old City was declared a World Heritage Site by Unesco in 1981.

Etymological origin

The precise origin of the Hebrew name (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushalayim) is uncertain and scholars offer different interpretations. Some claim that it comes from the Hebrew words yeru (ירו), (house) and shalem or shalom (שלם ‘, peace), which is why Jerusalemliterally means “house of peace.” This may be because it is generally known as the land of God. Another interpretation says that it could refer to Salem, an ancient name of the city, which appears in the Book of Genesis.

Also, it is very likely that the name comes from the ancient pagan god of the peoples that inhabited that area, Salem “god of the setting sun”, where Jeru-Salem means “place of the God Salem”. After the Israelite conquest this name lost its original meaning. In the fourteenth century a. C., when the Hebrews appeared in Canaan, the name of Salem was confused by “Shalom” peace.

The Arabic name is Al-Quds (القدس), which means the sacred, or more rarely Bayt al-Maqdes (بيت المقدس), House of the Sacred. The State of Israel frequently uses as a denomination in Arabic the archaic name Urshalim (أورشليم), which has no use in the spoken language and very little in the written one, or the mixed form Urshalim Al-Quds’ (أورشليم القدس).

The gentilicio in Spanish of the resident of Jerusalem is Jerosolimitano or Hierosolimitano.

Holy places for Judaism, Christianity and Islam

Jerusalem is considered a holy city by the three great monotheistic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. For Judaism, it is there where King David established the capital of the Kingdom of Israel and the settlement of the Ark of the Covenant, and where his son Solomon built the Temple, where prayers should be directed; for Christianity it is there where Jesus preached and was crucified; Islam picks up from these religions the sacred character of the city, which the first Muslims looked at when praying, before going on to do so facing Mecca. See population of Israel.

According to the Muslim religion

  • The Dome of the Rock: The most important Muslim temple in Jerusalem. Located in the center of the Temple Mount, it is a shrine – not a mosque – built between the years 687 and 691 by the ninth caliph, Abd al-Malik, around the rock on which Abraham was about to sacrifice his son. Ishmael and from which Muhammad by means of an ayah, ascended to the throne of God in the course of a night trip to the city from Medina.

According to the Jewish religion

  • The Wailing Wall: This is the most important place for Jews. Last remnant of the Jewish temple built by Herod on the ruins of Solomon’s temple. It includes the Western Wall, the main section of the Wall, located in the Jewish neighborhood of the Old City; and the Little Wall, an extension of the Western Wall, located in an Arab neighborhood, is a place of prayer for Jews of different currents. The Temple was built on the site where, according to Jewish tradition, Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son, Isaac. The Temple Mount (where today the Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa Mosque are located) is considered the most sacred place, since it was the Sanctosantorum, where the Tables of the Law were housed. Until 1967, while the city was under Arab rule, the Wailing Wall was used as the city’s garbage dump.

According to the Christian religion

  • Church of the Holy Sepulcher: There is Calvary where Jesus was crucified, as well as the “Sepulcher of the Savior”. It is the holiest place in Christianity.
  • Cenacle: Room on the upper floor where Jesus celebrated the Last Supper, and where he appeared to the apostles and where they received the Holy Spirit at Pentecost.
  • Basilica of the Nations or of the Agony: Located on the Mount of Olives, where Jesus spent his last moments before being arrested.
  • Dominus Flevit Church: From there, Jesus contemplated the holy city and wept for it on Palm Sunday.
  • Church of the Our Father: Place where Jesus taught that prayer to the disciples.
  • San Pedro in Gallicantu: Church that remembers the place where the house of Caiaphas was, where Jesus was tried and where he was denied by Peter.
  • Lithostrotos: Pavement of the ancient Antonia Fortress of the Romans where Jesus was crowned with thorns and outraged by Roman soldiers.
  • Via Dolorosa: The path that Jesus followed with the cross from the Antonia Fortress to Calvary. The stations are marked on it, the last being in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulcher.
  • Hagia Maria or Dormition Abbey: It recalls the place where according to Christian tradition the Virgin died, surrounded by the apostles. In its crypt there is an image of the Reclining Virgin.
  • Church of Santa Ana: In the place where it is found, according to Christian tradition, the Virgin Mary was born.
  • Edicule of the Ascension: Place from which Jesus ascended to heaven.

Jerusalem, Israel

Naypyidaw, Myanmar

Naypyidaw, Myanmar

According to abbreviationfinder, Naypyidaw is the current capital of the Republic of Myanmar, was officially made the capital on November 6th of the year 2005 replacing Rangoon ancient capital. The population of the city according to the calculations made is around one hundred thousand residents.


Naypyidaw was converted into the administrative capital of Burma, officially a republic of Myanmar on November 6, 2005 by decision of the military junta. Who decided that it should replace Rangoon, the capital until then.

The city was built on a field that was formerly a training area for the soldiers and officers of the Burmese Independent Army who first fought against the British, and where later General Aung San placed his headquarters, which achieved victory against the occupation Japanese during World War II. Pyinmana became a symbol for the Burmese army, as it was there that the Burmese defeated the invading armies.

The city is located more or less in the center of the country, in a railway network and communication center very close to the states of Shan, Chin and Karen, maintaining a continuous military presence close to the most belligerent regions. Another advantage of the new facility is its setting far from Rangoon, a city agglomerated due to its excessive population and which made it impossible to expand government buildings.

Burmese opposition to the country’s military regime has stated that the main cause of the capital’s transfer has been to move it away from the coast to protect it from a potential attack from abroad led by the United States.

As a result of the 2007 anti-government protests, the UN commissioned a special envoy to examine the situation. The 30 of September of 2007 the envoy met with the head of the Burmese military junta in Naypyidaw and later moved to Yangon, where he met with opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi.

The 23 of maypole of 2008 the Secretary General of the UN, Ban Ki-moon became the first foreign personalities who visited the new capital of Burma in the context of the humanitarian crisis unleashed in the wake of the cyclone Nargis in the country, obtaining on the part of the leader of the military Junta, Generalissimo Than Swe, “the commitment to approve the entry of all humanitarian workers, whatever their nationality,” as well as the consent of the regime for the Yangon airport to be used as an international platform for aid distribution.



Known as Naipyidó or Nay Pyi Taw. This city is located in the town of Kyatpyae in the municipality of Pyinmana, in the Mandalay division, approximately 320 kilometers from Rangoon the old capital and only 3 kilometers west of the city of Pyinmana.


The population of the city of Naypyidaw is doubtful, although the estimates made are around one hundred thousand residents, with a vast majority of Burmese and a minority of Chinese and Indians. See population of Burma.


Although the city has good water and electricity services, many public employees have declared their refusal to the government measure that forced them to move to Naipyidó. This is due to the almost non-existence of shopping centers and restaurants in the city, and many employees have decided not to move with their families, at least initially.


The religion that predominates in the population is Buddhism, although some Christians also inhabit, although to a lesser extent.

In November 2006, the opening ceremony of the construction of a large religious complex was held in the new capital, much like Shwedagon in Rangoon. The complex will be crowned with a 98-meter pagoda, the same height as Shwedagon’s, and should be seen from a large part of the city.


Among the customs of the country is not to touch adults on the head, or to make physical expressions of affection in public. Most Burmese do not wear shoes inside the houses and it is recommended, in the case of being invited, to take off shoesto enter. The monks, even if they are children, should be treated with respect and it is forbidden for women to speak to them.


There is transport by train from Yangon to Naipyidó, the journey lasts nine hours. Trains depart at 12:00 and arrive at 21:00 local time.

To serve the city, Ela airport was remodeled so that it could fly with large planes. The airport is located about ten miles southeast of Kyatpyae. All the country’s airlines include Naipyidó as a destination for their flights, they also provide flights between the capital and other cities in the country.

In March 2006, Air Mandalay put into service a line of flights between Yangon and Naipyidó. On June 5, 2006, between Naipyidó and Thandwe and Sittwe, in the state of Rakhine, to improve access to the west of the country.


With respect to some curiosities of this place, it should be noted that its name Naypyidaw, means “royal city” or “seat of kings”, which was announced during the course of the Armed Forces Day, celebrated in March 2006, a date that is also considered the inaugural date of the city.

Naypyidaw, Myanmar

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei

According to abbreviationfinder, Bandar Seri Begawan is the capital of Brunei. One of the greatest distinctions of this city is its port. As a tourist attraction, the charm of its markets stands out. As constructions worth visiting are, the University of Brunei Darussalam, the Royal Palace and its great Mosque.


The golden age of the city and the entire Sultanate of Brunei was between the 14th and 16th centuries, when it spread to the southern Philippines. But its power gradually weakened due to European influence and in 1888 it became an English protectorate.


Bandar Seri Begawan is located in the Sultanate of Brunei, located on the island of Borneo. It has a small coastal strip towards the South China Sea, and its only neighbor is Malaysia. It is bathed by the Brunei River.


Bandar Seri Begawan is the capital of Brunei, a 5,765-square-kilometer sultanate located northwest of the island of Borneo, in Southeast Asia.


The climate of the capital of Bruni is tropical, hot and rainy, the city receives heavy rainfall throughout the year, with March being the driest month, on average the city receives 120 mm of rain per year. October and December are the rainiest months, when rainfall is received in two out of every three days on average. As is natural in cities with a tropical climate, the average temperatures are relatively constant throughout the year, the maximum temperatures in the city are around 32 ° C and the minimum temperatures average 23 ° C.


Wasai Kandal is an area adjacent to the city with large forests, waterfalls and lakes. Also, that most of the Sultanate is made up of thick forests and rivers.


Bandar Seri Begawan is the capital of the Sultanate of Brunei and has a population of approximately 140,000 residents as of August 2010, reaching 278,000 within the metropolitan area. The vast majority of the citizens are ethnic Malay, the Chinese being the largest minority group. A large number of transitional workers live in the city, mostly from Indonesia, the Philippines and the Indian subcontinent. See population of Brunei.


The production of furniture, textiles, wood and handicrafts are the main sources of wealth in the city. He previously based his wealth on oil extraction, although his field is depleted.


The Palace of the Sultan of Brunei is undoubtedly the most iconic building in the city, as it is one of the largest palaces in the world. Next to it another prominent building is the Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque. The University of Brunei Darussalam is another must-see. A walk through one of its markets is a very popular activity in the city. As for museums, the Brunei Art Gallery and the Brunei Museum stand out. On its coast you can go scuba diving.

Culture and art

The Kapmpong Ayer water district is the most interesting part of the city. It is the old neighborhood, and it is located on the river, communicating through numerous bridges. The visit is also a must to the Sultan’s Palace, the Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque and the tomb of Sultan Bolkiah. The University of Brunei Darussalam is also interesting. The Brunei Art Gallery and the Brunei Museum make up the city’s museum offering.


The crafts that are sold in Bandar are of great beauty. Materials such as brass and silver are used. Gongs, cannons or kitchenware are some of those products. The textile is characterized by the coloring of the female costumes and the use of goldfor decorations.

Holidays and traditions

Brunei is an Islamic state, so the main holidays are those of that religion, such as Ramadan, Hegira or the anniversary of Muhammad. Given its proximity to China and its colony of citizens of that country, the Chinese New Year’s Eve is also celebrated.


Just 11 kilometers from the city center is Brunei International Airport and can be reached in just 10 minutes via the Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Highway. Among the airlines that operate flights to the airport are: Royal Brunei Airlines, Singapore Airlines, Malaysia Airlines, AirAsia, Cebu Pacific and Thai Airways International. There is a water taxi service known as “penambang” that is used as transportation between the center of Bandar Seri Begawan and Kampong Ayer. These water taxis are the most common means of getting around Kampung Ayer’s waterways. They can be approached from the numerous “berths” along the banks of the Brunei River. The prices are negotiable.

Important personalities

The Sultan Omar Saifuddin, which gives its name to the main mosque in the capital, was the ruler who led Brunei independence.

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei

Geography of Tokyo, Japan

Geography of Tokyo, Japan

According to abbreviationfinder, Tokyo is the capital of Japan, located in the center-east of the island of Honshu, specifically in the Kanto region. Together it forms one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, although its official name is metropolis or capital. The city is the center of politics, economy, education, communication and popular culture of the country. It also has the highest concentration of corporate headquarters, financial institutions, universities and colleges, museums, theaters, and commercial and entertainment establishments in all of Japan.

Tokyo is subdivided into 23 neighborhoods (ku); 26 cities (shi); a district (gun) subdivided into three towns (chō or -machi) and a village (son or -mura); and four sub-prefectures (shichō) subdivided into two towns and seven villages, representing several small islands south of Honshu that extend beyond 1,800 km from Shinjuku, capital of the metropolis and seat of the governorate. The center of Tokyo, with its 23 neighborhoods, occupies a third of the metropolis, with a population close to 8,340,000 residents; This area is what is known internationally as the city of Tokyo. Its metropolitan area has 34.5 million residents (2007), thus becoming the largest urban agglomeration in the world.

Although Tokyo is the most common romanization of the name in Japanese, the name of the city is Tokyo in Spanish and other languages, including German and Dutch. In English and other languages Tokyo is written, although formerly Tokyo was also written. In the past, the city was referred to as Tokei, Edo or Yedo. The name of Tokyo is Tokyo.

Tokyo is divided into two main areas: the mainland and the island. The continental area is located on the northwest margin of Tokyo Bay and is located in the center-west of the island of Hondo or Honshu, forming part of the Kanto region. The Image: Tokyo 1.jpg | thumb | right coordinates of the center of Tokyo are 35 ° 41 ‘North, 139 ° 46’ East. It is bordered by Chiba prefecture to the east, Yamanashi to the west, Kanagawa to the south, and Saitama to the north.

The island area of Tokyo encompasses two chains of islands in the Pacific Ocean, heading south: the Izu Islands, which run parallel to the Izu Peninsula, in Shizuok Prefecture, and the Ogasawara Islands that lie more than one thousand kilometers from the mainland area of Tokyo. The most distant is Minami Torishima which is 1,850 kilometers away.

Tokyo includes lakes, rivers, dams, farms, and national parks, in addition to structures that have been built by man. Tokyo is also part of the Greater Tokyo Area, which includes the prefectures of Kanagawa, Saitama, and Chiba.

Metropolitan or continental region

Today Tokyo is one of the most important urban centers on the planet. It is one of the main financial centers and the political capital of Japan. The city has fewer skyscrapers compared to other cities of its size, mainly due to the risk of earthquakes. For this reason, most of its buildings do not have more than 10 floors. Tokyo is also home to the most complex train system in the world.

Japanese law designates Tokyo as a to (often translated as “metropolis”). Its administrative structure is similar to that of other Japanese prefectures. The Tokyo metropolitan region includes 23 Special Wards (ku) which, until 1943, comprised the City of Tokyo proper. Tokyo also has 26 satellite cities (shi), five towns (chō or -machi), and eight villages (son or -mura), each of which has its own government.

It can be summarized that Tokyo has three geographical distinctions in its meaning.

Tokyo Prefecture is the local government by the name of Tokyo. Its population is 12,527,115 residents and its surface area is 2,187.08 km². 2. Although there is no municipality called Tokyo, the city of Tokyo as it was known in 1943 Today it is the largest city in Japan, with a population of 8,336,611 residents and an area of 621.3 km². 3. The metropolitan area of ​​the southern region of Kanto, made up of Tokyo and three other neighboring prefectures, is often considered the largest metropolitan area in the world, the Greater Tokyo Area. The four prefectures together have a population of 37,818,369 residents and an area of 13,555.8 km² and make up the Kanto conurbation. It is an urban continuum that constitutes the largest conurbation in Japan and, as has been said, one of the largest in the world if not the largest, with 35% of its surface reclaimed from the sea based on accumulations of gomi. Gomi is a Japanese term derived from the acronym formed by the words Go, which means 5 and Mi, which means 3. This material is obtained from selected and pressed garbage and is used for urban foundations. An estimated 40% of Tokyo stands on gomi.


Tokyo has a temperate climate, with a relative humidity of 63%. Approximately 45% of the year is rainy days, 40% cloudy days, 10% clear days, and the rest are snowy days. The average temperature in Winter is 4 ° C with occasional snowfall, and in Summer it is 24 ° C. The average annual temperature is 14.7 ° C. Annual precipitation is usually in the form of rain and reaches 152 centimeters per year. The maximum rainfall recorded in one day was in 2003, with 171 mm. Hours of sunshine average 1,894 per year.


Tokyo has more jobs and places of cultural recreation than any other city in Japan, attracting many people from the rest of the country (especially young people). Its population density is extremely high: 14 thousand people per square kilometer, almost twice as many as New York, being the most populous city in the world.

97% of the population of the prefecture is of Japanese descent. The two main ethnic minority groups in Tokyo are the Chinese and Koreans. See population of Japan.

Religion in Tokyo presents similar patterns to the rest of the country, where Buddhism, Shintoism and other religions coexist. There is a constant syncretism, where it is common for the population to integrate two or more religions into their daily practices. Of the more than 9,000 religious organizations in the prefecture, 38% are Buddhist, 21% are Shinto, and Christianity occupies 13%.

Living place

Tokyo’s huge population has created a huge demand for residences. In the past, most of the city’s residents lived in one- or two-story houses made of wood, each with its own garden, patio and religious chapel (called Butsudan in Buddhist homes). As Tokyo’s population grew, those houses were demolished and apartment buildings were built in their place. Given the immense population density of the region, most of the apartments and houses in the city are small, and are designed for a family of two adults and two or three children.

Despite the intense activity in the construction of buildings, the demand for residences continued to be higher than the supply, which increased the prices of land and rent, especially within the 23 Special Neighborhoods. As a result, beginning in the 1970s, many people left the 23 Special Wards region, moving to Tama (part of Tokyo prefecture), or even more distant neighboring cities. In Tama, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government created a cheap housing project for low-income families. However, these residences are located very far from the main commercial and industrial centers, and many of these workers spend more than four hours a day only within some means of public transport.


By area (data from October 1, 2003)

  • Tokyo: 12.36 million (fixed population)
  • Tokyo: 14.667 million (during the day, when people from other neighboring cities come to Tokyo to work or study)
  • Greater Tokyo (Tokyo and surrounding areas) 30 million residents
  • 23 districts: 8.34 million
  • Tama urban region: 4 million
  • Pacific Islands: 27 thousand


Tokyo is the largest Japanese connection for national and international travel, because it has train stations, land transport and airports. Transportation in Tokyo has been termed as an extensive network of control of trips, which are carried out quickly and efficiently.

Tokyo, Japan

Kathmandu, Nepal

Kathmandu, Nepal

According to abbreviationfinder, Kathmandu is the capital and largest city of Nepal. It was founded in the 8th century. by King Guna Kama Deva. It is located in the center of the country, on the fertile valley of the same name, right at the confluence of the Bagmati and Vishnumati rivers. More than 1,400,000 people live in Kathmandu, mainly of Indian origin and whose majority religion is Hinduism.

The 25 of April of 2015 occurs the devastating earthquake of magnitude 7.8 on the Richter scale. The earthquake was registered at 06:11 GMT, and its epicenter was located in the Lamjung district 81 kilometers northwest of the capital, Kathmandu, and at a depth of 15 kilometers. The death toll exceeded 8,700 and the total injured 20,000, not including the total missing, which amounted to 273 people, including 80 foreigners. Most of the deceased were concentrated in the districts of Sindhupalchowk, north of the Nepalese capital, and in the administrative district of Kathmandu, while other people died in Nuwakot [1] [2] [3] . The Nepal’s National Emergency Operations Center indicated that the earthquake totally destroyed 10,744 buildings and caused partial damage to 14,741. The number of irrecoverable houses exceeded 191,000, while another 175,000 suffered serious damage [4] . The government estimated that some $ 2 billion would be required for reconstruction. The earthquake caused widespread destruction throughout the country and extensive material damage. A significant part of the most emblematic and historical buildings of the so-called Kathmandu Valley, declared a World Heritage Site, were reduced to rubble.


Nepal is the country of the Himalayas, the mountain range where Mount Everest is located, the highest peak on Earth. The deep valleys and alpine lakes are the keynote of a rugged landscape full of beauty. The impressive Himalayan range is Nepal’s greatest natural attraction. In addition, the crystal clear waters of Lake Kathmandu offer the visitor a beautiful picture.


Kathmandu is located in the center of the country, on the fertile valley of the same name, more than 1,300 m above sea level and right at the confluence of the Bagmati and Vishnumati rivers.


Kathmandu’s climate is a fairly rigid continental climate, with heavy rains in the summer months.


The population of Nepal suffers from a deep division between peoples of Mongolian origin and those of Indo-Aryan origin, which determines languages, religions and cultures. This division does not mean that the two groups cannot coexist peacefully. In Kathmandu live more than 1,400,000 people, mainly of Indian origin and whose majority religion is Hinduism. See population of Nepal.

Economic development

Kathmandu’s economy is largely powered by agriculture (rice, millet, wheat, potatoes, jute), forestry exports and livestock. An incipient tourist industry is beginning to develop quite successfully in the capital.


Places of interest

The entire city and its surroundings are dotted with a multitude of temples such as the Kasthamandap, Ashok Vinayak, Akash Bhairab, Bhadrakali or Sankhu ensembles that give it an extremely picturesque appearance. In addition, some places such as the Bodnath Sanctuary, the National Museum of Nepal and the Royal Palace (1576) are of great interest, which allows tourists to access some of its rooms.



You can find typical caps, called topis that Nepalese must wear when visiting an official place, knitted gloves, woolen socks, cotton shirts and Tibetan dresses that are buttoned at the side. Red, black and orange polka dot shawls are typical, as are multi-colored jackets.


The staple food is rice which is usually accompanied by dhal, lentil soup, vegetables seasoned with curries and meat. Chapatis, fried pancakes are also eaten with meals. The most popular meats are pork, goat, chicken, buffalo and yak, never cow, since this animal is sacred just like in India. Sweets can be bought from street stalls or in grocery stores. To drink, in addition to milk, Nepalese people usually drink tea, with a very strong flavor, so milk or spices are added. Charg, the Tibetan beer, also has a strong flavor.

Holidays and traditions

Nepalese celebrate their National Day on February 18.


Religion: 90% Hindu, There are also Buddhists, Muslims, among other religions


To travel to Nepal you need a passport and visa. The passport must have a minimum validity of six months and with the tourist visa you can only access the Kathmandu Valley, Pokhara and its surroundings. The best way to get to the country is by plane as there are flights from the main international airports.

Once in the country, the best way to get to know it and tour its peaks is by plane or helicopter, from where the traveler will enjoy splendid views. The buses are also common, comfortable and affordable, even for short trips are advised to use the taxi.

Illustrious people

The most important character in Kathmandu is Gyanendra, the King of Nepal. He ascended the throne on June 4, 2001.

Kathmandu, Nepal

Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Phnom Penh, Cambodia

According to abbreviationfinder, Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia. It is strategically located at the confluence of the Mekong and Tonlé Sap rivers. It is the most European city in Southeast Asia. It still conserves the great avenues, the boulevards, and the beautiful houses from its colonial era, in different states of conservation. It is characteristic, the bustle, the disorder in which the city lives, the constant din of horns and motorcycles that come and go as in Hanoi or Saigon. And the markets, with their peculiar smell, a mixture of all smells, where you can find from memory cards for the camera to socks, from cleaning products to snails., everything mixed.

For the French, Phon Penh was the jewel in the crown. Tradition says that it owes its name to a lady who saw a log floating in the river one day with four small statues of Buddha. On the only hill that stands out in the plain of the city, he founded the first pagoda of what would later become the city of Phnom Penh. “Phnom” in Khmer language means “hill” and “Penh” was the name of the aristocrat. The pagoda, with its colorful images and offerings, is worth visiting. For some unknown reason, Phnom Penh is full of monkeys running around everywhere. They climb trees and facades and enter houses where they steal, in addition to food, any object that catches their attention. They seem not to fear pedestrians or cars or motorcycles. They only draw attention to the few tourists who are. And at the National Museum of Phnom Penh, you can discover dazzling Khmer art, a collection of sculptural pieces from the temples of Angkor, in the Cambodian jungle. The sculptures represent the gods Shiva and Vishnu, Khmer kings and emperors, dancers. A beauty.


Of the nearly 1.5 million people living in the Cambodian capital, the vast majority are ethnic Khmer. The Chinese and Vietnamese can also be considered when analyzing the population but they are not very representative. See population of Cambodia.

Economic development

The manufacturing textiles is the most important industry in the capital of Cambodia although food production and export also has a very specific weight. Above all, rice stands out, and the distilleries.

The gemstones and reserves of iron are the most important resources that the floor of Phnom Penh.

Regarding tourism, it can also be considered that in recent years it has influenced the country’s economy.


The main tourist attractions in Phnom Penh include, the Royal Palace, the Silver Pagoda, the National Museum or the Independence Monument.


Phnom Penh is a picturesque Asian city that still maintains the flavor of the former French colony, it is home to many cultural and educational institutions.

In the Museum of the Buddhist Institute you can see a collection of works of art from the Khmer dynasties, and the National Museum houses a collection of antiquities dating from the 6th century. Among the educational institutions are higher education institutions such as: the University of Phnom Penh (1960), the Buddhist University (1954), the University of Decorative Arts (1965) and the University of Agricultural Sciences (1965). Due to their historical importance, we must highlight the palaces of the ancient kings of Cambodia and some Buddhist temples.


Fabrics with peasant motifs embroidered in gold and silver lamé are the great attraction of the Cambodian capital.

It is also a tradition to be able to enjoy miniature busts that are exposed in the National Museum.

Finally, the silver boxes and salt shakers or even the steel hangers that are very popular can be highlighted.


The rice is the traditional food for the like other countries in the area. Noodles also have some importance in your kitchen that also uses the meat of chicken and pork in your meals.

Vegetable or fish soups always open Cambodian banquets.

As for beverages, the ranking is made up of tea, coffee, beer and the traditional liquor made with the fermentation of rice.

Holidays and traditions

In addition to the national holiday that is celebrated on November 9 in commemoration of Independence, there is the Bon Om Touk, a festival also called the Reverse Current, which is celebrated between October and November, coinciding with the reversal of the current of the Tonlé River. Sap. In this festivity it is traditional to make offerings in the temples and folkloric manifestations.

Places of interest

  • The Royal Palace of the Kingdom of Cambodia (XIX).
  • Independence Monument. Opened in 1958 to celebrate Cambodia’s independence from foreign laws.
  • The Silver Pagoda. It is so called because its floor is made up of 5,000 silver tiles.


The predominant religion is Theravada Buddhism

Illustrious people

Preah Bat Samdech Preah Norodom Sihanouk Varman, was born in 1922 and has been one of the most important political figures in the country. He has been prime minister, head of state, president and king of the country.

It is considered the promoter of the Independence of Cambodia in 1953. In 1970 he was dethroned by a coup in which the US collaborated, but in 1993 he became king again.

In 2004 he had to abdicate for health reasons.

Phnom Penh, Cambodia