Category: Asia

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Sortavala, Russia

Sortavala, Russia

Of the architectural sights of the southern part, the buildings of the former seminary (1880), the Hospital (1898) and the former hospital of the society of sisters of mercy (1907) stand out. The Regional Museum and Tourist Center of the Northern Ladoga Region is also located here. The center is located in the house of doctor Winter, built in 1900 in the style of national romanticism, which is now an architectural monument. The museum was founded in 1992 and became the first museum in the Northern Ladoga region. His collections began to form on the basis of items from the funds of the Valaam Museum-Reserve. Nowadays, ethnographic, artistic and historical collections are presented here. Museum objects date from the 13th century to the present day. Be sure to head to Vakkosalmi City Park, where one of the best singing fields is located.

3 km from Sortavala in Taruniemi is Dr. Winter’s dacha, which today houses an elite hotel.

To the south of Sortavala, on the island of Riekkalansari, the wooden church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker has been preserved. It was built between the 18th and 19th centuries and was the only Orthodox church in the vicinity of the city.

To the north of Sortavala, just a few kilometers from the city, near the village of Helyulya, one of the most interesting archaeological sites of the Northern Ladoga region is located – the Karelian fortified settlement of Paaso. Paaso Fortress was built in the 12th century on the 83 m high Paasonvuori mountain to protect against attacks by the Swedes. In the 13th century, for unknown reasons, the settlement was wiped off the face of the Earth. On the site of the settlement, archaeologists have found objects of agriculture, pottery and jewelry crafts that are about a thousand years old.

According to THEINTERNETFAQS.COM, 17 km north of Sortavala on the river Tokhmajoki are picturesque Ruskeala waterfalls. They are small rapids with a height difference of about 2 m. The highest waterfall is the Ryumäkoski waterfall, 7 m high. In the vicinity of the waterfalls, there is a small lake and many boulders brought by the glacier. The Tohmajoki River together with the Janisjoki River are one of the main tourist attractions of the Sortavala region. They originate in Finland and flow into Ladoga. There are many rapids and low waterfalls on these rivers, which attract rafting enthusiasts here. Ruskeala village is located not far from Ruskeala waterfalls. It is first mentioned in Swedish documents under 1500. The village has long been known for its marble deposits. Even the Swedes in the 17th century were mining it here. Ruskeala marble was used in the decoration of the Kazan and St. Isaac’s Cathedrals in St. Petersburg. Currently, along the left bank of the Tokhmajoki River, three open pit mines have been formed in place of old workings. The quarries are cut by a system of mines, galleries and drifts and are partially flooded with water. In 2005, “Ruskeala Mountain Park” was founded on this site.. The central place in the park is occupied by the Marble Canyon, surrounded by sheer marble cliffs. Along its perimeter there is a hiking trail with viewing platforms from where you can admire the emerald water of the canyon. In addition, boats are offered here in order to swim around the quarry. Marble Canyon will be interesting for diving enthusiasts. Underwater visibility here is about 10 m, the depth of immersion ranges from 5 to 15 m. At the bottom of the quarry, you can see blocks of marble, trucks and wheels and explore numerous adits. On the territory of the park there are several monuments of industrial architecture – this is an old office building made of marble in the style of classicism, and lime kilns. There is an active quarry in the park, where you can get acquainted with the process of marble extraction.

If you go even further north to the Russian-Finnish border, then you will get to the international checkpoint “Vyartsilya”. Through it passes the road to the Scandinavian countries, which is called the “Blue Road”.

20 km east of Sortavala in the direction of Petrozavodsk, the village of Kiryavalahti is interesting, which is located on the shores of the bay of the same name on Lake Ladoga. Here is an architectural monument – the dacha of the pharmacist Jaskeläinen. It was built in 1935 by a Finnish architect at the foot of a cliff. From the rear, the cottage is surrounded by dense coniferous forests, and its facade overlooks the bay. The interior of the house is very beautiful. The walls here are made of black logs, the ceiling is decorated with matt beams, there is an old fireplace, and a monumental staircase leads to the second floor. Today, Jaskeläinen’s dacha is used as a hotel. Behind it, a little to the north, on the shore of Lake Haukkajärvi, Mount Petsivaara rises . This is the highest point of the Northern Ladoga region (187 m). Hiking trails are laid on the mountain, and a beautiful view opens from its top.

Sortavala region is known for its unique nature. This is the land of small bays, islands, cliffs, waterfalls, lakes and forests. The rocky islands of the region, one of which are the islands of the Valaam archipelago, are called Ladoga skerries. This is a unique natural area formed by the action of a glacier. Now projects are being developed to create a national park “Ladoga Skerries”. Many species of fish live in the waters of Lake Ladoga, the most valuable of which are salmon – salmon, trout, grayling, pike perch and whitefish, which attracts fishing enthusiasts.

To the south of the Sortavala region is the Lakhdenpokh region which is also famous for nature. However, local skerries and coastal cliffs are better known among lovers of wild and extreme tourism, official tourist routes do not pass through the area.

Sortavala, Russia

Vietnam in November

Vietnam in November

Travel destinations and travel itineraries expand their boundaries every year, offering amazing places. Vietnam is one of the few Asian countries that can offer tours for every taste in the last month of autumn. Therefore, in order to choose where it is better to go to Vietnam in November, it is important to understand what you expect from the trip.

We have studied the reviews about this incredible country and offer an overview of popular cities in Vietnam, where it is better to relax on the beach in November, and where hiking in the mountains will become a vivid memory of a lifetime.

Is it worth going in November?

A trip to Vietnam in late autumn will be a great cultural discovery even for those who have been here before. An extensive recreation program will help you plan a route where to go to Vietnam in November. You can:

  1. touch the wild and see real life in a typical fishing village;
  2. go on excursions to temples and ancient sights;
  3. see ancient outlandish buildings and castles;
  4. attend holidays and festivals.

To appreciate the natural scenery, framed by the majestic snowy peaks, it is worth noting the mountainous regions. On the eve of winter, people come here to improve their health at the thermal springs. The southern coast, where it is better to relax in Vietnam in November at sea, will delight you with sunbathing on comfortable sandy beaches.

Weather: air and sea water temperature

The weather in Vietnam in November defines the boundaries of individual zones of the coast of the South China Sea, where it is comfortable to relax, and where it is better to postpone travel. The level of precipitation and high air temperature here do not depend on the time of year.

The beginning of November in the south of Vietnam is a paradise for beach lovers. The air temperature reaches 35ºС. The tourist season is just beginning here, but the sea is already quite well warmed up. From mid-October to early November, a cyclone of rains and typhoons passes in the central part.

Resorts: where to go?

The resorts of Vietnam offer tourists a pleasant vacation by the sea, original research routes, colorful holidays and unusual cuisine, exotic seasonal fruits and hundreds of unforgettable experiences. Local architecture and cultural customs involve a real adventure, and walks along the ancient streets and bazaars will slightly open the curtain of ancient mysteries and secrets.


Unusual exotic nature in Dalat is closely intertwined with local customs and culture. It will be interesting here not only for those who are used to mountain hikes to waterfalls, but also for lovers of beautiful parks and unique landscapes.

We recommend visiting the famous Hang Nga Museum Hotel, made in an outlandish form, the summer palace of the last emperor Bao Dai. Surrounded by lush colors of flowers and plants, a huge statue of the Golden Buddha rises on the mountain.


Da Nang in November is a place for brave tourists, real adventurers. At this time, a calm beach holiday is replaced by numerous rains, the sea is restless, muddy with large waves. Despite the special weather conditions, Da Nang attracts tourists with excellent service and comfortable hotels. The cost of rest is high, but justified.

Nha Trang

Nyachag is perfect for families with children. The local amusement park Winpearl is the largest in all of Asia. The variety and quality of attractions is not inferior to Disneyland in August in Paris. For adults, the resort also has many interesting offers: you can go surfing, ride an elephant, visit monkey island or Neptune’s palace.

Phan Thiet

Phan Thiet can offer you to swim in the warm sea, take a break from the bustle of the city. The cost of tours to this small resort town is low, there are relatively few tourists. This is a great place for those who are looking for “recharging” for the body – sunbathing, soft sand and calm nature with a light rustle of waves will help you relax.

Phu Quoc

The tropical island of Phu Quoc in November is famous for the best beaches. Rest here will be many times cheaper than on the coast of the Gulf of Thailand in November, when it is better to relax in Thailand. This area is well suited for exploring the real, untouched culture of the Vietnamese. We recommend heading to the floating village of Rush Vem to feel the color and taste the local cuisine made from fresh seafood.

Things to do in Vietnam

In November, where you can go not only for a carefree beach holiday, but also amazing excursions and tours, feel free to go with the whole family. In attractive tropical surroundings, you can visit ancient temples, parks and natural mineral springs, go surfing or spend an unforgettable weekend in the largest amusement park in Asia.

Beach holiday

For a quiet and carefree beach holiday, we recommend the islands in the south of Vietnam, where you can go to the sea in late October or early November inexpensively. Rush Vem Beach is one of the most popular destinations and will be remembered for its azure waters, white sand and of course beautiful red starfish. Beaches in Halong Bay, Long Beach and Bai Sao are also comfortably equipped.

Entertainment and excursions

Vietnam offers unusual excursions and tours for guests of the country:

  1. to a snake or crocodile farm;
  2. kayaking in the caves of Halong Bay;
  3. to a pearl farm;
  4. to ancient temples and museums of history.

You will be able to see the wild tropical nature, feel the cheerful energy of the locals in small fishing villages. Large cities, in turn, will surprise you with a developed tourist infrastructure and high service in hotels.

Holidays and festivals

According to topschoolsintheusa, there are few holidays in November in Vietnam. We invite you to visit Ok Om Bok festival. Here you will be able to see the grandiose action when the fishermen ask the gods of the sea to increase their catch. In such an environment, it is easy to feel the culture and traditions of the locals.

Vietnam in November

Why Vietnam?

Why Vietnam?

Or 12 reasons for your trip to Vietnam

  1. 1. Vietnam is a country with an ancient history and culture, a huge number of valuable historical monuments, a diverse landscape and 3,000 km of coastline of the rich South China Sea. The cleanest beaches with white and golden sand, with crystal clear water. The maximum level of service. For photo lovers, Vietnam is a fantasy world with its unforgettable scenery of mountainous areas, coffee plantations, beaches, Halong Bay.
  2. You can go to Vietnam all year round, the air temperature at the most popular resorts is 28 degrees all year round.
  3. The choice of hotels in Vietnam is huge. Hotels 3 * -4 * -5 * + excellent staff, kind, smiling. All ranges of entertainment from elephant riding, visits to snake restaurants, skydiving, fishing, to bowling and casinos.
  4. The cheapness of everything. The value for money for Vietnam clearly outweighs quality, including hotel service and souvenirs: items made of silk and rare wood, mother-of-pearl and silver.
  5. The cheapest diving in the world. First-class instructors and a complete diving kit cost you much less than the hyped resorts and flora, the fauna of the South China Sea with coral reefs, fabulous fish of various colors, if you’re lucky, and shells with pearls.
  6. According to our tourists, Vietnamese cuisine is the most delicious in the world. If desired, you can also taste fried frog legs and sea snails boiled with ginger, and wrap beautiful, colored shells after them in a bag, they will decorate your favorite place in your house.
  7. In Vietnam, Russians are treated differently. For the Vietnamese, the Russians are still great friends.
  8. In Vietnam, you can not only have a good rest, but also cure various diseases using the methods of oriental medicine. The famous natural springs of warm mineral water (water temperature 40 degrees) with excellent healing properties of Binchau are waiting for you all year round.
  9. Exotic Asia and Buddhism, what people are looking for in Japan, China, India, Thailand… You will find in Vietnam in abundance.
  10. On the way to Vietnam, you can stop for two days in Bangkok (Thailand) and see two countries in one trip.
  11. Vietnam is considered the safest tourist destination in Southeast Asia.
  12. You have traveled all over the world and now you want something unusual, where you could not only have a good rest, but also get a lot of new impressions. Or maybe you just love the exotic? Just love the East?

With us you will see the rocks of Ha Long, lakes and waterfalls of mountainous Vietnam, the golden beaches of Nha Trang and Phan Thiet. Taste exotic Vietnamese cuisine, discover untouched islands and the underwater world of the South China Sea.

With us you will go to the past of Royal Vietnam, visit the imperial gardens and ancient tombs, visit Buddhist temples.

All year round, hospitable world-class hotels, experienced Russian-speaking guides are waiting for you, ready to reveal to you the secrets of the magical world on the shores of the Pacific Ocean.

Every year Vietnam is visited by 2 million tourists from Japan, France, Germany, America and China.

Official name: Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Geographical position: Southeast Asia.
Area: 330.3 thousand square meters km.
Highest point: 3143 m (Mount Fansipan).
Main river: Hongha.
Population: 79.9 million people
Population density: 235.7 people per sq. km.
Official language: Vietnamese.
Main religion: Buddhism.
Capital: Hanoi (2.7 million people). Major cities: Ho Chi Minh City, Haiphong, Da Nang. Monetary unit: dong.

Capital of Vietnam

According to topschoolsintheusa, Hanoi is the capital of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. This beautiful green city is a real shrine for all Vietnamese and is the center of politics, economy, culture and trade of the whole country.
Length : 921 sq km
Population: 3,007,000
Administrative divisions :
– Districts: Hoan Kiem, Ba Dinh, Dong Da, Hai Ba Trung, Tay Ho, Thanh Xuan, Cau Giay, Long Bien, Hoang Mai
Ethnic groups : Vietnamese, Chinese.


The monetary unit of Vietnam is dong, equal to 10 hao and 100 sous.

In circulation are banknotes of the series, the release of which began in 1985, in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000, 10,000, 20,000, 50,000 and 100 000 dong. All denominations, starting from 50 dong, are issued in several modifications, all denominations, starting from 20 dong, are decorated with a portrait of Ho Chi Minh. The new banknotes have a fundamental difference from all previously issued ones: they are made on a polymer basis and have a set of anti-counterfeiting features typical for such banknotes. The largest denomination in the series will be 500,000 VND.

The portrait of Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969) is placed on the right side of the front side of the polymer banknote of 50,000 dong (2004 series), 140 x 65 mm in size, and the state emblem is on the left. The reverse side of the banknote depicts a pagoda in the park. The transparent window on the banknote has a portrait of Ho Chi Minh and the letters VN. The main colors used in the design of the banknote are lilac, red and violet.

Why Vietnam

Science and Culture of Myanmar

Science and Culture of Myanmar

According to topschoolsintheusa, the education system is financed from the state budget. Primary education (5-9 years) is free and compulsory. In 2000, 91% of children of the appropriate age attended schools. Secondary (10-13 years old) – free, optional, attended by 23% of children. Paid advanced secondary schools (14-19 years old) were attended by 5%. Vocational-technical and secondary specialized educational institutions exist throughout the country to train semi-skilled specialists for various branches of the economy, sometimes on the basis of secondary schools. The system of higher education includes universities of academic education – universities and institutes (17) and branch universities of the university level (14). In 1997, 341,000 students studied in the former, and 14,000 in the latter. Education is paid for 80% of students. The leading university is Rangoon University (14 thousand students). In the administrative and national regions, 12 colleges with a two-year education (50 thousand people) have been opened. Universities offer distance learning and postgraduate courses. Scientific research in the field of natural and technical sciences is carried out at Rangoon, Mandalay and Dagon universities, at the Research Institute of Agriculture, the Department of Medical Scientific Research. In the field of social and human sciences – at universities, the Archaeological Department, the Historical Commission of Myanmar, the Central Statistical Organization, the National Library. at the Research Institute of Agriculture, Department of Medical Research. In the field of social and human sciences – at universities, the Archaeological Department, the Historical Commission of Myanmar, the Central Statistical Organization, the National Library. at the Research Institute of Agriculture, Department of Medical Research. In the field of social and human sciences – at universities, the Archaeological Department, the Historical Commission of Myanmar, the Central Statistical Organization, the National Library.

The culture of Myanmar has developed under the influence of the two largest world civilizations – India and China and Theravada Buddhism. Buddhism is a way of life, it has influenced literature and art. The origins of traditional literature lie in the folklore and literature of the Buddhist canon. To this day, approx. 3 thousand temples and pagodas in the ancient capital of Pagan, the origin of written literature belongs to the Pagan period. Myanmar is famous for its golden and white pagodas, which are an integral part of the landscape, the most famous being the Shwedagon Pagoda in Yangon. Myanmar is one of the few countries in the world that has managed to preserve its identity and national culture.

Education of Myanmar

History and Education of Singapore

History and Education of Singapore

History of Singapore

The first reliable sources for the early history of Singapore are a Javanese epic poem from the 16th century. “Nagarakertagama” and the Malay chronicle of the 17th century. “Sejarah Melayu”. However, in the 3rd c. the mention of the island (“Pulouchun Island”) is found in the Chinese chronicle. The Chinese name “Pulouchun” is consonant with the Malay “Pulau Ujong”, which means “island at the tip of the peninsula.” The name of the island in Sanskrit – Singapore (“City of the Lion”) was widely used in con. 14th c. Then he was involved in a fierce struggle between Siam (modern Thailand) and the Javanese Majapahit empire, which controlled the Malay Peninsula, part of Sumatra and other islands of the Indonesian archipelago. The settlement on the island had a Malay name – Tumasik. In the beginning. 15th c. became part of the Malacca Sultanate, founded by the Sumatran prince Parameswara.

Starting from the 16th century. Southeast Asia becomes the object of the colonial expansion of the European powers. The Portuguese were the first to appear on the Malay Peninsula and the adjacent islands. In 1511, they captured Malacca, turning it into the main stronghold, guarding trade dominance on the sea route from India to China, to the “Spice Islands”. Singapore came under the control of the Sultanate of Johor, a new Malay state that emerged after the fall of Malacca. The rulers of Johor waged a fierce struggle with the Portuguese. However, in 1587 the Portuguese managed to capture the capital of the Sultanate, and then destroy its port on the island of Singapore. The city fell into complete desolation, and the island became a haven for sea pirates.

In the second floor. 18th century the British, expanding their possessions in India and trade with China, felt the need to create strongholds in the East Indies region in order to ensure the interests of their merchant fleet and counteract the expansion of the Netherlands in this area. To this end, they created their own trading posts in Penang (1786), in Malacca, recaptured from the Dutch in 1796, and in Singapore (1819). In the beginning. In 1819, Stamford Raffles, the governor of Bengkulen, the British possession in Sumatra, arrived on the island; he concluded an agreement with the Sultanate of Johor to establish a trading post in Singapore. During 1820–24, British possessions were formalized: first by agreement with the Netherlands (1824), then by agreement with the Johor Sultanate, which ceded the island for a large financial reward and the payment of a significant pension to the sultan. In 1826 Singapore,

The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 gave Singapore a powerful impetus to develop as one of the world’s most important commercial ports. The island has become a major processing and export center for natural rubber produced in neighboring Malaya. At the same time, there was an intensive influx of population, it increased 8 times, amounting to approx. 80 thousand people in 1913.

During World War II, Singapore was occupied by Japanese troops. The British authorities returned to the island in September 1945.

In April 1946, Singapore received the status of a crown colony and was separated from Malaya, and in 1959 it was proclaimed a self-governing state. In May of that year, general elections were held and the first fully elected Legislative Assembly was formed. The People’s Action Party (PAP) won the election. Its leader, Lee Kuan Yew, became the first prime minister.

In September 1963, Singapore joined the Federation of Malaysia along with Malaya and the British possessions in North Kalimantan. However, sharp contradictions between the Malay and Chinese political elites on the problem of the socio-ethnic construction of a new state led to the fact that in August 1965 Singapore was forced to leave the Federation. On August 9 of the same year, it was proclaimed an independent state. He was accepted as a member of the UN and the Commonwealth of Nations.

Science and culture of Singapore

According to searchforpublicschools, the system of free primary and secondary education is designed for 10 years and is aimed at mastering English and native languages, as well as basic knowledge in the exact sciences, mainly in mathematics. Graduation classes provide for specialization in the exact and humanitarian areas. Primary and secondary education is free.

Institutions of higher education are the National University of Singapore (founded in 1980 through the merger of the University of Singapore and Nanyang University); Nanyang Technological University (founded in 1991); Singapore Institute of Management (founded in 1964 as a private university); Institute of Southeast Asia, a leading center for studying the problems of regional security, socio-economic development of Southeast Asia; Singapore Polytechnic (founded in 1954 to train mid-level engineering and management personnel).

Cultural life is patronized by the National Arts Council. The Council provides funding for creative teams, plans the repertoire of theaters and organizes relevant competitions. The National Council manages four theatres: the Victoria Theatre, the Drama Centre, the Kallang Theatre, and the Singapore Convention Centre. It also leases buildings and premises to various amateur creative groups and associations. The country has a professional Singapore Symphony Orchestra.

There are the National Archives, the National Museum and the National Library.

Festivals of national arts (Chinese, Malay, Tamil) are held annually, usually timed to coincide with traditional and religious holidays.

Education of Singapore

Tours in Penang, Malaysia

Tours in Penang, Malaysia

Tour starts from the historic site – Fort Cornwallis. Francis Light landed here in 1786. Originally wooden, in 1804-05 it was rebuilt and replaced with stone buildings. And today the fort majestically rises above the sea, as if protecting the island from enemy attacks. Near the fort is City Hall, built in the late 19th century.

Next, you will follow the one built in 1821. Here you will find old photographs, ancient maps and other relics related to Penang’s past. Nearby is the Church of St. George, which was built in 1818. The main attraction of the cathedral is the painted dome dedicated to the memory of Francis Light.

Next you will see 2 mosques: the mosque of Captain Keling and the mosque of Achin Street. The Captain Keling Mosque is named after an Indian merchant and was built by the local ruler Mohouddin in the early 19th century. The Achin Street Mosque was built on land donated to the local ruler by Syed Aid of Aceh.

The duration of the tour is 4 hours, the walking part is 1 km.

Penang is famous for its Buddhist and Hindu temples.

At the Buddhist temple Wat Chayamangkalaram, built by a Thai architect, you can see the world’s third largest reclining Buddha statue, which is 33 meters long.

The famous Kek Lok Si temple is considered one of the largest temples in Southeast Asia and is a mixture of Chinese, Burmese and Thai architectural styles. Above the temple, built in 1890, rises a seven-tiered pagoda 30 meters long called Ban Po Tar.

The Temple of the Goddess of Mercy is considered the oldest temple in Penang. It was erected in 1800 and is a classic example of Chinese architecture of that time.

The snake temple was built in honor of the Buddhist monk Chor Su Kong. Poisonous snakes lie quietly around the altar and other objects in the temple, drugged by the smell of incense, and do not attack people. Vipers can be picked up, photographed for memory.

Sri Marriamman Temple was built in 1883 and is famous for its numerous statues of Indian deities, the most valuable of which is the statue of the god Subramaniam, decorated with gold, silver and precious stones.

Tour duration – 4-5 hours, temples should be entered without shoes

Discover Penang, the “Pearl of the Orient” – from its sandy beaches to picturesque villages and nostalgic George Town. The capital combines the best aspects of east and west, which are reflected in a charming collection of ancient exquisite buildings, each of which bears the stamp of the influence of different countries and their rich history. Attractions include: Batu Ferringhi (passing through), Teluk Bahang (passing through), Fisherman’s Village, Fruit Market (passing through), Malay Village, Serpent Temple, Penang Bridge (passing through) and George Town (passing through). If time permits, a visit to a local grocery outlet may be included. All entrance tickets are included in the price. Beginning at 9:00, average duration – 4 hours.

The Penang Hill Funicular, opened in 1923, has been providing service to Penang Hill for 88 years. The most recent renovation of the funicular has increased the number of passengers carried and the speed of the train.
Then you will visit one of the largest temples in Southeast Asia, Kek Lok Si Temple and the nearby turtle pond.
Attractions include Kek Lok Si Temple (including the inclined elevator to the statue of the Goddess of Mercy) and Turtle Pond, Penang Hill (including the funicular ride to the top of the mountain). All entrance tickets are included in the price. Beginning at 9:00, average duration – 4 hours.

On this day you can enjoy a romantic cycle rickshaw ride and a leisurely stroll through Georgetown. Look at the harmony in which a people with such a diverse culture can live.
Attractions include rickshaw ride to Cornwallis Fort (external view), Weld (Chew Pier), Khu Kong Si, Harmony Street, Little India (Mahamariamman Temple), Pinang Peranakan Mansion Museum and E&O Hotel. The price includes all entrance fees, cycle rickshaw ride and English afternoon tea.

Beginning at 9:00, average duration – 4 hours.

GEORGE TOWN NIGHT TOUR Tonight, experience
George Town like you never imagined it and dine at Penang’s one and only restaurant with breathtaking views of George Town’s night landscapes.
Attractions include Bayview Georgetown revolving restaurant and Penang Road cycle rickshaw ride. A cycle rickshaw ride and dinner are included in the price.

Check-out time – 18:00 (from beach hotels), 18:30 (from city hotels); average duration – 4 hours.

You have the opportunity to see the animals in all their natural grandeur. The zoo covers an area of ​​13.6 hectares, covered with rivers, lakes and lush vegetation. And it is also home to more than 180 animal species with a total of 1300 inhabitants, including: tigers, lions, elephants, hippos, giraffes, orangutans and others.

The price includes all entrance fees, round trip transfers and lunch.

Beginning at 9:00, average duration – 8 hours.

Penang, Malaysia

Turkey Arts and Music

Turkey Arts and Music


According to TOPSCHOOLSINTHEUSA, the most ancient products of Turkish art are goldsmiths and gold trimmings, already in use before the Christian era among the populations of the regions close to the Altai: they are generally called Scythians (fibulae etc., in the shape of stylized animals, worked cantilever). Textile art soon reached artistic level, both in the canvases for the decoration of the curtains and in the carpets. It is in these two fields that Turkey has made the greatest contribution to Islamic art, bringing a strong tendency to decoration since the 9th century. and with greater force from the 11th (➔ islam). In the Ottoman period, art and architecture were able to merge the experiences of previous eras by expressing themselves in original ways (➔ Ottoman, Empire).

The opening towards the West began in the 19th century. with the development, in painting, of new genres for Turkish culture (landscape, still life, study of the human figure): to remember Ahmet Paşa and S. Seyyit and above all O. Hamdi, director since 1881 of the Ottoman Imperial Museum and of Academy, founded in 1883 in İstanbul, the city leads even after the creation of the republic. The Association of Ottoman Painters, since 1917 Association of Turkish Painters, of which N. Güran was a member, with the magazine Naşir-i Efkâr («Promoter of ideas»), organized exhibitions, from 1923, also in Ankara. In 1933, group D, founded by N. Berk, was at the forefront of the avant-garde in Turkey while an interesting project sent artists to the various provinces.

In addition to cultural events such as the International Biennial of İstanbul and the Asia-Europe Biennial of Ankara, an important role in supporting contemporary art in Turkey has been played by both private galleries and institutions and exhibition centers such as the Center for Contemporary Art BM (1984) and the Museum of Contemporary Art (1992) in İstanbul. The attention to western expressive modes, from abstraction to pop art, from minimalism to conceptual art, and at the same time a recovery of tradition and the exploration of the border between East and West, have marked the research of the second half of the 20th century. . Influential personalities are A. Coker, A. Gürman. They have maintained a link with tradition, through the art of calligraphy, N. Okyay and H. Aytac, transmitted to the younger A. Alpaslan and H. Çelebi. K. Önsoy works in the field of material-gestural experiences; A. Öktem, E. Aksel, S. Kiraz are linked to conceptual researches, while M. Morova expresses himself through painting, collage and installation. H. Tenger creates committed installations, involved in contemporary reality; E. Ersen creates complex works, including photography, video, installation and action. He works in the field of video art Ö. Ali Kazma. In the use of advanced technologies and net art we remember G. Incirlioğlu, architect and photographer;, an acronym born in 2000 as an Internet initiative, uses the world wide web for artistic projects, and is open to anonymous external contributions.

In architecture, the opening to modernism and avant-garde languages, also initiated by the presence of R. D’Aronco in İstanbul, was accentuated with the Turkish Republic through the activity of architects such as C. Holzmeister, H. Poelzig, B. Taut, P. Bonatz. Among the Turkish architects active at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, SH Eldem emerges who, despite being influenced by Western ways, felt the need for a national language. Of the following generations we remember Turkey Cansever and B. Cinici, while among the younger ones we can distinguish H. Tumertekin and Studio GAD.


Turkish musical theory is based on an articulated scale in a profoundly different way from the European one, which identifies within 24 sounds (derived from the 24 keys of the main Turkish instrument, a lute called tanbur) and distinguishes a hundred modes on this basis. Cultured secular music is closely linked to the Arab tradition. Sacred music is divided into three basic genres: Ilahi, the hymns for the various months of the Muslim year, Tevchic (praises of the Prophet), Ayni Cherif, repertoire of dervishes. A singular aspect of the relationship between Turkish and European music is the popularity it had in Europe towards the end of the 18th century. the music of the Janissaries (the bodyguards of the sultans), with its characteristic percussion instruments (triangles, drums, cymbals): called Turkish, was the object of imitation or at least of allusion by numerous composers, including WA Mozart and L. van Beethoven. The creation of a Turkish national school is mainly due to a series of composers born in the first decade of the 20th century. and mainly trained in Paris and Vienna, such as DR Rey, UD Erkin, AA Saygun, NK Akses, F. Alnar. More recently, N. Kodalli, F. Tüzün, I. Baran, M. Su. A national conservatory was founded in İstanbul in 1915, which was later joined by some major musical institutions such as the İstanbul Municipal Theater and the Ankara State Theater.

Turkey MUSIC

Libya Politics and Defense

Libya Politics and Defense

Society, politics and rights

Gaddafi’s Libya, despite the absence of political and civil liberties, had a relatively high level of human development compared to its African neighbors. The literacy rate, for example, reached 100% among young people; the conditions of the general health services offered to the population were sufficient: according to data from the World Health Organization, 97% of the population had access to health facilities, but only 54.4% of drinking water. Infant mortality was quite low (17 per 1000 births). As for gender equality, Gaddafi had tried, at least publicly, to promote the status of women with respect to traditional culture and to discourage discrimination. In 2012 the National Transitional Congress (NTC) tried by law to reserve a quota of seats for women in the July elections, but had to give up by inserting only the obligation to alternate sex among the candidates of the proportional quota, which assigned to women a total of 80 seats. On the other hand, the situation has always been critical as regards civil and political rights. Political activity under the Gaddafi regime has always been highly controlled, freedom of assembly was allowed only to pro-government demonstrations, there were no independent trade unions and corruption was quite widespread. Post-regime Libya had initially offered encouraging data. In the elections of July 2012 a record number of 140 registered parties competed, but the political formations were more than 350. The elections produced a very heterogeneous congress from a political point of view. The electoral system allowed the election with the majority system on local constituencies of 120 independent members who therefore responded more to the community they belong to than to any party. However, the very low participation in numerical terms of the Libyan population in last votes of 2014 constituted an important indicator on the degree of disillusionment of the Libyan population towards a peaceful and democratic transition. In the new Libya, pluralism seemed to be guaranteed, as was freedom of expression: within a few months, many media, civil groups, associations and trade unions had sprung up. However, in the past two years, civil liberties and political rights have been severely constrained by threats, personal ambushes and intimidation, mostly exercised by Islamic radicals, but also by the militias that manage individual areas. The greatest danger derives from violent Salafist and jihadist groups and from the cross-vendettas of the old members of the Gaddafi regime.

Defense and security

The current chaotic situation in the country is characterized by the presence of numerous armed militias on Libyan territory. These did not disarm at the end of the 2011 conflict and currently remain the true holders of power in the country. The various national authorities that have succeeded since the fall of the regime have not been able to regain the monopoly of the use of force. The sanctions against the Gaddafi regime in March 2011 imposed an embargo on any type of armament, while the NATO intervention eliminated a large part of the regime’s land and air armed forces. For Libya defense and foreign policy, please check

After the end of the conflict there was also a rather significant flow of armaments out of the country and directed to conflict areas in Africa and the Middle East. Libya has a strong need to reconstitute its armed forces also from the point of view of means and structures. However, so far this has been prevented by the limitations still existing in the framework of the UN sanctions.Several Western countries, from the United States to Italy, to the United Kingdom, collaborated with the Libyan government during 2013-14 in the constitution and training of the police and army forces, however with modest results. The polarization in the field of security, which turned into open conflict between the two factions, has fueled a new race to arms, in an attempt to strengthen one side over the other. The international community, the Euin particular, it tried to collaborate with Libya in an attempt to strengthen the lack of border controls, which are the cause of the proliferation of trafficking in arms, people and drugs, but the effort was made in vain when Libya relapsed into a conflict between the two factions in mid-2014. On this front it should be noted that the return to Mali of dozens of Tuareg rebels who had fought alongside the pro-Gaddafi militias during the Libyan revolution and the rearmament of A qim (al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb), thanks to the Libyan regime’s arsenal, have constituted one of the causes of instability in Mali and the consequent takeover in the northern territories of Mali itself by the Islamic militias.

Since the last months of 2014, the penetration of I s in Libya has been reported by many international media. In reality, the jihadist landscape in Libya is very varied as many other Salafist-jihadist groups seem to have a sanctuary in Libya, including Aqim, Egyptian and Tunisian groups. Various avowedly jihadist formations have appeared on the Libyan scene since 2012 and have progressively strengthened with the crumbling of the Libyan state. Among these there are certainly groups that try to impose the constitution of a caliphate in Libya also through the use of force. Ansar al-Sharia Libya, responsible for the killing of the American Ambassador Christopher Stevens in September 2012, remains one of the most conspicuous military forces in the east of the country, particularly in the city of Benghazi where it is currently opposed by the military forces of Haftar, and was designated first by the US State Department, then by the United Statesas a terrorist organization. However, during 2015 the situation on the ground has become increasingly complicated due to the strengthening of all ‘related groups Is. The latter proclaimed their affiliation to the self-styled Caliphate, establishing two provinces in Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, with bases in Sirte and Derna.

Libya Defense

Indonesia Literature and Cinema

Indonesia Literature and Cinema

Literature. – In the Eighties, Indonesian literary life was characterized by a fruitful activity and by some events of primary importance. The greatest contemporary poet, Rendra (b. 1935), emphasizes the cutting character of his social criticism in the volume of verse Potret Pembangunan Dalam Puisi (“Portrait of evolution in poetry”, 1980), as well as in the recitals of his theater school, a true forge of high-level dramatic art, committed to the point that in 1980 it was forbidden to perform in public. Only in 1986 will the ban be lifted and its performances will attract large crowds.

Another distinguished poet, Sitor Situmorang (b.1923), who emigrated to Holland after his liberation (1973) from the concentration camp, where he was imprisoned for joining the Communist writers’ league in the Sukarnian era, returns to bookstores with Danau Toba (“The lake Toba”, 1981), a collection of short stories, and Angin Danau (“The wind of the lake”, 1982), in verse, both – as the titles say – inspired by the native land. Pengakuan Pariyem – Dunia Batin Seorang Wanita Jawa arouses considerable interest(“The confessions of Pariyem – The spiritual world of a Javanese”, 1981) by the young poet Linus Suryadi (b. 1951), who manages to summarize in the very singular form of a novel in rhythmic prose the essential features of the complex Javanese culture of the time current, recovering lines and narrative systems of the great didactic novels in verse of Javanese literature in the 18th and 19th centuries.

But the most important event of the Eighties – a novelty that goes beyond the literary sphere as it rises to an embarrassing political case for the state authorities – is the return of the narrator Pramoedya Ananta Toer (b.1925): long detained in a concentration camp For joining the League of Communist Writers, Toer wrote some extraordinarily happy historical novels during his captivity, which are greeted with warmth at first, but are then banned as the enormous success is interpreted as an indirect anti-government demonstration. The first of these novels, Bumi Manusia (“The land of men”, 1980) and Anak Semua Bangsa (“Son of All Nations”, 1980), are readily translated into English and Dutch. These two are followed by Jejak Langkah (“The footsteps”, 1985) and Rumak Kaca (“The glass house”, 1985), thus constituting a grandiose tetralogy carrying a great message: the degradation of human dignity under colonial tyranny. In 1985, Pramoedya also managed to publish Sang Pemula (“The initiator”), dedicated to the Javanese nobleman RM Tirto Adhi Soerjo (1875-1918), forerunner of the progressive journalists and writers of his country.

Cinema. – The first cinematographic activities began in the 1910s, sponsored by the Dutch, who held colonial power. The first feature film with an Indonesian subject is due to the pioneers G. Kruger and F. Carli, active in the documentary sector: Lutung Kasarung (“The loyal monkey”, 1926), inspired by a local legend. At the end of the 1920s, the Dutch entrepreneurs were joined by the Chinese ones: the Wong brothers, Tan Khoen Hian and Teng Chun who, in addition to being the director and producer of the first sound film (Cikenbang Rose, “The Rose of Cikenbang”, 1931), established in the 1930s as the main promoter of manufacturing on an industrial basis. For Indonesia 2002, please check

The cinema of this period is dominated by the revival of Indian and Chinese commercial trends, and by the imitation of American genres. The efforts made by A. Balink in a realistic direction appear completely counter-current who, with the collaboration of the Dutch documentary maker M. Franken, made Pareh (“Rice”) in 1934 and Terang Boelan (“Moonlight”) in 1937. singular film scripted by an indigenous (Saeroen), in which the modules and actors of the Indonesian folk theater (toneel) are used.

After a period of stagnation during the Japanese occupation (1942-45) and the war of independence (1945-49), production resumed in the early 1950s with two significant directors such as Djamaluddin Malik, owner of the Persari company, and above all Ismail. Usmar, who made his debut before the liberation with a Dutch company and founded the Perfiri company in 1950.

Kotot Sukardi, Huyung and Basuki Effendi also work alongside these authors who are protagonists of the ” rebirth ” of an authentically national cinema. From the mid-1950s a new productive crisis, which reached its peak in 1957, dragged on until the Communists left the government (1965) in a climate of ” ideological warfare ” and a boycott of non-left-aligned directors such as Djamaluddin Malik, Ismail Usmar and Asrul Sani (author, in 1961, of Pagar Kawat Berduri, “Behind the barbed wire”, whose circulation is forbidden). Bachtiar Siagian, who is able to use the camera not for mere propaganda purposes, is worth mentioning among the authors of communist culture.

From 1967 the government began to take an organic interest in national production by launching protectionist measures and creating bodies for reorganization and development (the DPFN, National Council of Film Production, in 1968; the DFN, National Council for Cinematography, in 1979). This paves the way for quality cinema represented in the 1970s and 1980s by three directors who trained in Moscow: Ami Prijono (Jakarta Jakarta, 1977; Roro Mendut, 1983), Wim Umboh (Pengantin Remaja, “Marriage between teenagers”, 1971) and Sjuman Djaja (Si Mamad, “Mother”, 1973; Opera Jakarta, 1985). Arifin C. Noer (Yuyun, Pasien Rumak Sakit Jiwa, “Yuyun, hospitalized”, 1980; Serangan Fajar, 1983) and Teguh Karya (November 1828, 1979; Ibunda, 1986) come from the Indonesian theater. While Asrul Sami is still active, new talents emerge, also largely linked to formative theatrical experiences: Franky Rorimpandey (Perawan Desa, “The girl from the village”, 1980), Ismail Subarjo (Perempuan Dalam Pasungan, “A woman in chains “, 1981), Edwat Pesta Siriat (Gadis Penakluk,” A girl who intimidates “, 1980) and finally Slamet Rahardjo, well-known actor of the Karya films (Rembulan Dan Matahari,” The sun and the moon “, 1981, and Kembang Kertas, “Paper Flowers”, 1985).

Indonesia Cinema

Turkey Major Cities by Population

Turkey Major Cities by Population

In relation to the great diversity of the natural environment are the significant differences that are noted in the rural settlement. The highest areas of the interior, wooded and grassy, ​​are crossed in summer by nomadic shepherds (called Juruchi, whose number is estimated at about 200 thousand), who live in mountain farmhouses (yaya), while in winter they they gather at the bottom forming villages of tents (kï Ş lak), which gradually become fixed.

On the slopes of the hills bordering the plateau, where there are dejection cones and there is no shortage of water, Turkish horticulturists and farmers have gladly built their homes, who grow wheat, opium poppies, vegetables and live in villages. to houses side by side, built with sun-dried bricks and with a flat roof, with a terrace, generally with two floors, of which the lower is used for stable and shed, the upper for housing. In older houses, the part reserved for women (harem) is still separate from that reserved for men (selamlik) and walls block the view of the courtyards to outsiders. In the steppes, which were better suited to grazing than to cultivation when this was practiced extensively, a vast colonization by refugees from Macedonia, Bulgaria and Dobruja began a few years ago. The houses, arranged for the most part in a checkerboard pattern, are larger than among horticulturists, given the need to have stables to shelter the cattle used for the heavy work of the fields, and the roof, similar to European houses, is slightly sloping. sloping, built with tiles and reeds. The part of the steppe where rainfall is too scarce to be able to attempt cereal cultivation, is the undisputed dominion of the Kurds and Turkmen, dedicated to livestock, who live in rather large villages, located near the springs; the houses are spacious, built of stone and the roof is flat. In the warmer regions of Kurdistān, which look towards Mesopotamia, the high night temperatures push the residents to sleep in the summer on the terraces, where the beds are brought, sheltered from mosquito nets. For Turkey 1999, please check

The houses are low, often built with earth mixed with straw, or with stones of the same color as the surrounding land. In N., in the forest area, wooden houses prevail, with frequent footprints left by the Greeks. Then corresponds to our farm the çiftlik, very common in western Anatolia, which mostly consists of a large farmyard, around which are the low settlers’ houses, with 3 or 4 rooms. In 1927 a census of buildings was also carried out and 2,770,000 residential houses were counted, 89,000 buildings not intended for habitation, but inhabited, and 800,000 other buildings, with a minimum of 237 residents for 100 houses in the Bilecik vilâyet and a maximum of 723 in the Istanbul vilâyet.

Just under a quarter of the population (23.5%) lives in cities and the rest in rural municipalities. There are 403 cities in all, but only 80 have a population of over 10 thousand. and 21 over 25 thousand residents The latter are as follows:

It should be noted that only 5 cities are located on the coast: two overlook the Black Sea, two the Mediterranean and one is where Europe and Asia almost meet. Although Istanbul is no longer the state capital, it retains its economic and military importance, given its location at the intersection of land and sea routes. Among the cities of the Black Sea, Trebizond, which overlooks the sea from a rocky platform, is the outlet of a vast hinterland (partly beyond the border); Samsun is in considerable progress, after the opening of the railway that connects it to the Mediterranean; Smyrna is still intent on repairing the damage of the fire (1922) which largely destroyed it; Mersina is in a favorable position with respect to the hinterland, a short distance from Adana, market of the Cilician plain and traffic junction, but suffers from the lack of a good port. Among the centers of the interior, among which the most important is Angora (870 msm), which is losing its appearance as a market place near a fortress, to increasingly assume that of capital (from 13 November 1923), Brussa should be remembered. (180 msm), ancient capital, rich in monuments, a city where the textile industry has a long tradition, which is located between two terraces on the slopes of the Olympus of Misia and which looks from above towards a well-cultivated plain. A SE. di Brussa EskiŞehir (752 msm) is an obligatory point of passage for those who have to go from the old to the new capital. Conia (1028 msm) is in a region that constitutes a well-identified unit, so much so that it resembles an oasis, and, little damaged by the exodus of Greeks, it now benefits from the crops grown in the irrigated area of ​​Çumra. While Conia is located at the western limit of the Lycaonia plain, on the eastern side there is Caesarea (1070 masl), a short distance from Kïzïl Ïrmak, near the slopes of the Aegean, a large andesitic ulcano 3830 m high, at the foot of the which gush out of the springs which allow an intensive cultivation; instead everything around dominates the steppe. NE. there is Sïvas (1220 masl), once an isolated locality located in the upper valley of the Kïzïl Ïrmak, while now a railway section connects it to the Samsun-Cesarea line; towards the east the railway will have to reach Erzerum (2038 meters above sea level). A SE. there are numerous cities, Gazi Antep (940 masl), a large center between the Euphrates valley and the plain of Cilicia; Diyarbekir, road and caravan junction on the right bank of the Tigris; Maraş (720 msm), railway junction near the buttresses of the Antitaurus; Malatya (870 msm), a short distance from the Euphrates in the midst of intensive cultivation; Urfa (660 msm), cities all oriented towards Mesopotamia and in which Kurdish and Arab aspects prevail.

Turkey Brussa

India in the 1990’s

India in the 1990’s

The end of the Eighties marked a profound turning point in the life of the country, with a progressive fragmentation of political representation and the consequent establishment of coalition governments. While the credibility of the INC (I) as guarantor of the secular state accused the repercussions induced by the explosion of violent conflicts between different communities, by the accentuation of separatist tendencies and by the emergence of terrorist groups, the following of regional parties grew and formations with strong ethnic and religious references, often bearers of fundamentalist visions. In particular, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) became one of the protagonists of the political scene, rooted in the states of the Hindu belt in the north of the country, especially in Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of the Union. and proponent of a program based on the affirmation of Hindu culture and caste representation.

The caste system was undermined by the very exercise of democracy which, by its nature, was progressively opening up spaces even to previously excluded sectors of the population: in many regions governments that expressed low castes came to power, while free-market economic transformations introduced further changes in social stratification, leading the lower castes and the ‘outcasts’ to demand new forms of participation. For India democracy and rights, please check The trend towards polarization of caste identities emerged clearly, for example, on the occasion of the reform (1990-92) of the quota system, which provided for an increase in the quota reserved in public employment for the rural lower castes and which aroused violent grievances from students, mostly belonging to the middle-upper castes and the urban bourgeoisie. The disintegration, however slow and partial, of such a complex social stratification obviously represented a vehicle of crisis and imbalance for the whole system. With the elections of November 1989 the government passed to the National Front, a heterogeneous coalition united only by the opposition to Gandhi’s party, formed by the Janata Dal, of social democratic tendency and expression of the lower castes, and by three powerful regional parties, with the support outside the BJP and the two communist parties. The coalition, led by Vishwanath Pratap Singh, minister in the previous legislature and then passed from INC (I) to Janata Dal, already divided originally, it split in November 1990. The fall of an ephemeral government, led by Chandra Shektar, leader of a splinter faction of the Janata Dal, with the external support of the INC (I) made it necessary to call early elections in June 1991. The election campaign was marked by new outbursts of violence, culminating on 21 May, when R. Gandhi was killed in a terrorist attack. The elections saw the defeat of the Janata Dal and a rise in both the BJP and INC (I), whose new leader Narasimha Rao formed a minority government. The Rao government was faced with the escalation of ethnic and religious conflicts already at the end of 1992, when in Ayodhya, in the state of Uttar Pradesh, Hindu fundamentalists destroyed the Babur mosque, the center of bitter disputes. Clashes followed that shook almost the whole country, with more than 2000 dead, and rekindled ethnic and religious particularisms, even different from the traditional conflict between Hindus and Muslims. The government, uncertain and worried about losing consensus, then reacted by outlawing the oldest Hindu nationalist organization, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS, “National Volunteer Corps”), and by dismissing, with a much discussed measure, some local governed administrations. from the BJP. Divided internally, the executive, however, was unable to accompany the repressive measures with other broader initiatives. On the other hand, the Rao administration demonstrated greater incisiveness, as well as in an active foreign policy, in the management of the economy, where the liberalizing choice, initiated from the very first measures launched by the executive and which had effectively dismantled the centralized system, it produced regular GDP growth, even if it greatly accentuated regional differences. Despite the successes reported internationally and the moderate results achieved in economic policy, the popularity of the government, involved more and more often in episodes of corruption and the path of increasingly strong internal conflicts, suffered a sharp decline, confirmed by the heavy defeat of the INC (I) in the regional elections held in the main states between the end of 1994 and the beginning of 1995.

The general political elections scheduled for the spring of 1996 were preceded by a new wave of corruption accusations, which affected both the executive, in the the person of the prime minister, and the main opposition figures. The consultations marked the defeat of the INC (I), increasingly compromised by scandals, the defection of numerous prominent personalities and the crisis of some important local federations, and recorded the affirmation of two opposing political forces: on the one hand the National Front-Left Front, a heterogeneous coalition comprising social democratic parties such as the Janata Dal, communist parties such as the ruling West Bengal, regional parties and other smaller forces; on the other hand, the BJP in alliance with other small groups. After an attempt by the BJP, whose government remained in office for only 13 days, the mandate was given to Haradanahalli Dodde Deve Gowda, who emerged, after arduous consultations, as candidate for prime minister of the United Front, a new name assumed by the coalition of 13 parties of center-left. A politician of regional stature, not from the upper castes – very unusual among national leaders – Deve Gowda started an executive with external support from the INC (I). Support fell short in the early months of 1997 following the redefinition of the internal balance of the INC (I), with the resignation of Rao from the leadership of the party and the entry of Sonia Maino Gandhi, widow of R. Gandhi. With the resignation of Deve Gowda, a minority government formed by the United Front and led by Inder Kumar Gujral, a senior and esteemed intellectual and political leader welcomed by the INC (I), took office, who continued to support him until, in late 1997, Gujral refused to grant the request to expel from the coalition a party involved in the investigation into the death of R. Gandhi for having had contact with the Tamil Tigers.

India democracy and rights

Cyprus Archaeology

Cyprus Archaeology

Extensive research on the prehistory of Cyprus was carried out during the period under review. There are some hints of a pre-Neolithic (late-Paleolithic?) Culture in a locality on the southern coast of the island (Akrotiri- Aetokremos).

Excavations in the two major Neolithic sites (Kalavassos- Tenta and Khirokitia) have cast ample light especially on the aceramic phase of the Neolithic. New dating through carbon 14, for the Ancient Neolithic period, at least for Kalavassos- Tenta, allow us to go back to the end of the 8th millennium. In both locations, circular buildings were discovered. A new aspect that has emerged is the fortification of both settlements: in Kalavassos with a moat and in Khirokitia with a massive wall, previously interpreted as a road. In Kalavassos, pisé was widely usedor mud bricks for the construction of the walls and there is evidence of the decoration with a red pigment of the plastered walls: in one case a composition with crudely rendered human figures was found.

New excavations in the Paphos district (Lemba- Lakkous and Kissonerga Mosphilia) have shed light on the Chalcolithic period. In both locations, large circular structures with concrete floors were discovered. Limestone and terracotta statuettes depicting nude female figures illustrate the religious beliefs of the 4th millennium Cyprus, which centered around a female fertility deity, connected with childbirth; the existence of a male god of fertility with phallic characteristics is also documented. A richly painted clay model of an open-air circular sanctuary, found at Kissonerga- Mosphilia, with 17 clay and stone human figurines, illustrates complex religious rituals in the Chalcolithic period.

The Early Bronze Age is documented by architectural remains and tombs discovered in Sotira- Kaminoudhia, near the southern coast. They can be dated to the Early Bronze Age I, corresponding to the so-called ” Philia cultural phase ” of the northern part of the island (early 3rd millennium). A pair of gold earrings or hair clips was found in one tomb, the oldest of its kind.

The excavation of tombs in the village of Kalavassos yielded a large amount of pottery and also bronze tools and weapons, which testify to the prosperity of this region located in an area rich in copper mines. The tombs cover the entire Middle Bronze Age. A settlement dating from the end of the Middle Bronze to the beginning of the Late Bronze has been excavated at Episkopi- Phaneromeni: large houses with many rooms have been found, often with traces of a foreground. Near the settlement, Middle Bronze Age tombs have been excavated.

Another Middle Bronze Age settlement has been excavated in Alambra, where large buildings with thick walls have also been unearthed.

The Late Bronze Age focused the greatest interest in research and excavation. The tombs excavated in Maroni- Kapsaloudhia near the southern coast and in Palaepaphos- Teratsoudhia illustrate relations with Syria and Egypt (a stone vase with the Ahmosis cartouche was found in Palaepaphos). An early 14th century tomb excavated in Kalavassos- Ayios Dhimitrios may be one of the richest ever discovered on the island: it contained Mycenaean pottery, gold jewelry (weighing 432 g), ivory and glass objects, evidence of the wealth of Cyprus and in particular of Kalavassos in this period, located near the copper mines. Several settlements dating to the Late Cypriot IIC-Late Cypriot IIIA period (c. 1200 BC) have been excavated, illustrating the prosperity of the island before the upheavals that caused the abandonment, destruction and reconstruction of numerous Late Cypriot locations. Large administrative buildings, built with ashlar blocks, were discovered in Maroni- Vournes and Kalavassos- Ayios Dhimitrios, both abruptly abandoned around 1200 BC, at the end of the Late Cypriot IIC period. In the administrative building of Kalavassos, clay cylinders were found with engraved signs of the Cyprominoic script and a large number of Mycenaean IIIB plates and cups and local imitations, illustrating the importance of this building from which the lord of the region probably administered the exploitation of copper mines. For Cyprus 2015, please check

Two fortified settlements, one in Pyla- Kokkinokremos on the south-east coast, the other in Maa- Palaeokastro on the west coast, illustrate the troubled period that affected the eastern Mediterranean after the fall of the Mycenaean “ empire ” and the activities of the so-called ” people of the sea ”. The first settlement was abandoned in the face of imminent danger towards or immediately after 1200 BC and was never re-inhabited; the second was destroyed by a fire immediately after 1200, rebuilt and abandoned towards the middle of the 12th century. Rich tombs, dating back to around 1200, have made funeral objects, such as ceramics, bronzes, gold jewels, ivory and alabaster objects. Such tombs were excavated in the area of ​​Palaepaphos, Liomylia. Part of a settlement and tombs from the period around 1200 BC were excavated in Alassa, north of Kourion.

The early Iron Age and the Archaic periods are illustrated by the discoveries made in the tombs of Palaepaphos- Skales. The grave goods were filled with bronze pottery, weapons, tools and jewelery. Phoenician objects found in these tombs show that the wealth of the residents of Palaepaphos in this period derived from trade with the Levantine coast. A bronze obelos found in an 11th-century tomb in this cemetery has an inscription in the Cypriot syllabary, a Greek proper name in the genitive, in a form proper to the Arcadian dialect: it is the first evidence we have of the use of the Greek language in Cyprus.

The cemetery of Amatunte, on the southern coast, has yielded a large amount of objects dating from the Cypro-geometric period to the Roman one. Of particular interest is the ceramics from the tombs, both local of the so-called ” Amatunte style ”, and imported, Greek and Phoenician. The tombs were also rich in terracotta, especially from the 6th century BC, both local and Phoenician. There were also bronze objects, gold and silver jewelry, etc., testifying to the wealth of this cosmopolitan port city.

A classical period building has been partially excavated in the Evreti locality in Palaepaphos; other contemporary buildings have been excavated in Idalion, along with part of the city defense wall. The remains of a sanctuary excavated in Tamassos can be dated to the same period . The early Hellenistic period was further illustrated by the underwater exploration of the port of ancient Amatunte, of which significant parts have been found. The fortifications of Nea Paphos, cut into the rock, of which a large part has been discovered along the western side of the city, with ramps, gates and towers, can be dated to the same period. Rich material from the Roman and Hellenistic periods was found in the tombs of Nea Paphos: these also include the monumental tombs of the part of the necropolis known as ” Tombs of the Kings ”. In Nea Paphos more villas of the Roman age have been found: we remember the ” Casa del Teseo ” with polychrome paved mosaics and the ” House of Aion ”, adjacent to it, with beautiful floor mosaics of the 4th century. AD, depicting mythological scenes. Finally we can mention the discovery of a Roman nymphaeum in Kourion and that of the temple of Aphrodite on the acropolis of Amatunte.

Cyprus excavations

Landmarks in Lebanon

Landmarks in Lebanon

Go on a group tour through Lebanon, a country in the Middle East on the Mediterranean Sea. This country is divided into four landscape zones that run parallel to the coast: the narrow, steep coastline, the rugged Lebanon mountains, the fertile Bekaa plain and the dry Antilebanon mountain range and Hermon. Visit the most important cities of Lebanon, such as the capital Beirut with the Grottes aux Pignons, Martyrs Square and Grande Mosque or the Place de l´Etoile; the city of Tripoli, the capital of Northern Lebanon; Zahlé with the Wadi El-Aarayesh (Valley of Wine) or the city of Sidon with the sea fortress or the coast. Let yourself be enchanted by a study tour through Lebanon!

Deir el Qamar

a jewel of Arab architecture in Lebanon

45 kilometers southeast of the Lebanese capital Beirut, at an altitude of 850 meters above sea level, there is a jewel of Arab architecture and one of the most beautiful villages in the country: Deir el Qamar. It can be translated as “Monastery of the Moon” and was once the spiritual center of the Emirate of Mount Lebanon. The roots of the mosque, which is well worth seeing, go back to the middle of the 15th century.

Secluded parks and fragrant gardens

According to topschoolsintheusa, Deir el Qamar has kept the traditional style of the previous century. Probably also because it is remote on a mountain slope, embedded in the forests of the Chouf. The streets of the city are still paved with their original cobblestones and the residents pride themselves on their secluded parks and fragrant gardens. The respective governors of the country resided here between the 16th and 18th centuries.

Wax figures in an Arab palace

The most important buildings of the city are grouped around a central square in Deir el Qamar – including the mosque from the time of the former ruler Fakhr ed-Din I from the beginning of the 16th century. The historical palace of the Fakhr ed-Din II, which was influenced by Egyptian architectural styles and is reminiscent of Arab palaces, is worth seeing. Today a private museum with seventy wax figures is housed here.

A stroll through cultural history

A stroll through Deir el Qamar is synonymous with a stroll through the cultural history of Lebanon. Winding alleys and stairways lead up to the beautiful town houses of the town, which has long been known for its harmonious coexistence of different denominations. The synagogue, which was completed in 1638 but is closed today, is well preserved. One of the religious sights of Christianity in Deir el Qamar is the Saydet at-Tella church, which is dedicated to the miraculous Virgin. This place of worship was built on the ruins of a Phoenician temple for the goddess Venus.

Baalbek temple complex

Before Syria was hit by a bloody civil war, the temple complex of Baalbek was considered the largest archaeological attraction in Lebanon. But the Bekaa plain, lapped by the Asi and Litani rivers, is located in the vicinity of Syria, so that a visit to the monumental evidence of the Roman era was discouraged for a long period of time. The UNESCO World Heritage Site is one of the most important sacred monuments in the Middle East.

Heliopolis – the city of the sun god

Baalbek, the ancient Heliopolis, was the city of Baal and was probably a sacred place as early as the Babylonian and Phoenician times. The Greeks worshiped the sun god here. The ruins of the earlier temples were built in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD. The temple from Roman times dedicated to Baccus is an impressive structure and has withstood conflagrations and earthquakes surprisingly well. It was fifty meters long and a little more than 33 meters wide, but in ancient times it was exceeded in size by the neighboring Parthenon temple.

A fire destroyed the temple of Jupiter

The state of Lebanon once acknowledged two landmarks – the cedar tree and the six pillars of the Temple of Jupiter in Baalbek. The twenty meter high monument can be seen from afar, was built in the Corinthian style and was almost 70 m long and 35 m wide. Originally it was surrounded by 42 mighty columns. The Jupiter Heliopolitanus was apparently destroyed by a conflagration in the sixth century AD.

The gigantic “stone of the pregnant woman”

Scientists are still puzzling as to how it was possible at that time to move such huge stones to build the sanctuaries of Baalbek. The largest building block in the world was discovered not far from the temple complex a few years ago. The cuboid weighs around 1650 tons and thus exceeds the so-called “stone of the pregnant woman”, which protrudes from the ground like a halfway sunken ship and weighs around a thousand tons. Both stones were to be transported to the temple district, eight hundred meters away.

Baalbek temple complex, Lebanon

Dhaka, Bangladesh

Dhaka, Bangladesh

According to abbreviationfinder, Dhaka is the largest city in Bangladesh and the capital of the country, it is also the capital of the District of Dhaka. The city located on the banks of the Buriganga River is the political, cultural and economic center of the country and has a population of more than 11 million residents in its metropolitan area, which is why it is considered one of the most populated cities in the world.

The current modernity of the city was carried out, to a large extent, by the British authorities who soon made it the second largest city in Bengal, after Calcutta.

With the independence of India, Dhaka became the administrative capital of East Pakistan, and later became the capital of Bangladesh when the state became independent in 1972.

Today the city enjoys the highest literacy rate in Bangladesh and a diverse economy.


As far back as the 7th century there were human settlements in the Dhaka area. Before the coming to power of the Sena dynasty in the 9th century and the region where the city is located had been ruled by the Buddhist kingdom of Kamarupa as well as by the Pala Empire, after this period in power of the Sena dynasty, Dhaka It was ruled by Turks and Afghans, who came from the Delhi Sultanate, and was later occupied by the Mongols in 1608.

Many believe that the name Dhaka (Dhaka: this is how it is called in Bengali) originated in the 12th century, when Ballal Sena established the temple of the goddess Dhakeshwari in this area, associated with which it is also estimated that in this period Bengalla began to be called to all that region including the space that included this city and its surroundings.

In 1608, mainly due to the development achieved and the significant growth of its population, the city was proclaimed the capital of Bengal, by order of the Mughal kingdom and according to historical data the greatest expansion of the city under Mongol rule took place under the command of General Shaista Khan..


Dhaka is located on the east bank of the Buri Ganga River and near the Ganges Delta in central Bangladesh, specifically between the coordinates of 23 ° 42′0 ″ N 90 ° 22′30 ″ E? /? 23.7, 90.375 covering a total area of 815.85 km².

Dhaka’s climate is hot, rainy and humid. The city is within the monsoon climate zone. The average temperature is 25 ° C, which varies from 18 ° C in January to 29 ° C in August. Approximately 80% of the rains occur between May and September with an average of 1,854 mm.

This Asian region, which is at sea level, which makes it very vulnerable to flooding, especially during the rainy period with the strong influence of monsoons and cyclones, is characterized by tropical vegetation and humid soil.

The rapid expansion of the city has caused the environment of Dhaka to be seriously threatened by pollution and industrial activities, especially air and water pollution, which is increasing due to urban and industrial waste and affects to a great extent the public health and quality of life of its residents, also threatening the biodiversity and natural habitats of the region.


The city has grown considerably with a population of more than 11 million residents in its metropolitan area, which is why it is considered one of the most populated cities in the world. See population of Bangladesh.


Dhaka has the most developed urban infrastructure in the country and is the commercial center of Bangladesh, for which most of the country’s skilled workers are employed in businesses and industries located in the metropolitan area of the city. In recent decades, Dhaka has experienced extraordinary modernization in the area of transportation, communications and public works, as well as a greater presence of tourists and investment from large companies.

Throughout history the city has attracted large numbers of migrant workers.


Dhaka has seven (7) main Thanas and fourteen (14) Auxiliary Thanas under its jurisdiction.

Subdivisions of Dhaka in Thanas with their area in km², their population (1991 Census) and density (inhab / km²).

Badda Surface 16.78 km², Population: 157,924 residents, Density: 9,411 (residents / km²).

Cantonment: Surface: 29.9 km², Population: 190,472 residents, Density: 6,362 (residents / km²).

Demra: Area: 47.3 km², Population: 521,160 residents, Density: 11,007 (residents / km²).

Dhanmondi: Surface: 9.74 km², Population: 201,529 residents, Density: 20,691 (residents / km²).

Gulshan: Surface: 53.59 km², Population: 281,337 residents, Density: 5,250 (residents / km²).

Hazaribagh: Surface 3.58 km², Population: 52,338 residents, Density: 35,247 (residents / km²).

Kafrul: Area 17.8 km², Population: 164,396 residents, Density: 9,236 (residents / km²).

Kamrangir: Char surface 2.67 km² 25,827 residents, Density: 8,999 (residents / km²).

Khilgaon: Surface 14.0 km², Population: 59,248 residents, Density: 9,861 (residents / km²).

Kotwali: Area 2.07 km², Population: 210,504 residents, Density: 101,693 (residents / km²).

Lalbagh: Surface 9.14 km², Population: 401,387 residents, Density: 43,915 (residents / km²).

Mirpur: Surface: 58.66 km², Population: 641,630 residents, Density: 10,938 (residents / km²).

Mohammadpur: Area: 11.65 km², Population: 316,203 residents, Density: 27,142 (residents / km²).

Motijheel: Surface: 4.69 km², Population: 223,676 residents, Density: 47,692 (residents / km²).

Pallabi: Surface: 17.0 km², Population: 364,000 residents, Density: 21,412 (residents / km²).

Ramna: Surface: 7.85 km², Population: 195,167 residents, Density: 24,862 (residents / km²).

Sabujbagh: Area: 18.2 km², Population: 354,989 residents, Density: 19,526 (residents / km²).

Shyampur: Surface: 2.32 km², Population: 60,152 residents, Density: 25,927 (residents / km²).

Sutrapur: Surface: 4.38 km², Population: 307,483 residents, Density: 70,202 (residents / km²).

Tejgaon: Surface: 8.75 km², Population: 220,012 residents, Density: 25,144 (residents / km²).

Uttara: Surface: 36.9 1km², Population: 108,077 residents, Density: 2,928 (residents / km²).

Dhaka: Surface: 815.85 km², Population: 5,057,371 residents, Density: 6,918 (residents / km²).

Dhaka, Bangladesh

Baghdad, Iraq

Baghdad, Iraq

According to abbreviationfinder, Baghdad is the capital of Iraq; It is the largest and most populous city in the country, with approximately 6.5 million residents, and one of the most populous in the Middle East after Cairo and Tehran. It is located on the banks of the Tigris River.


The city is situated on a vast plain divided by the Tigris River. It divides Baghdad in two, the eastern half, also known as “Rusafa”, and the western half, the “Karkh”. The land where the city itself is situated is flat and low, the product of an original flood due to the long and periodic floods caused by the river. Baghdad has a very hot and arid climate (BWh, according to the Köppen table), being one of the hottest cities in the world.


During the summer season, from June to August, the average temperature is 34.8 ° C and accompanied by a scorching sun. Rain is practically unprecedented in the area during this season. During the day, thermometers can shoot up to 60 ° C in the shade and drop to 15 ° C at night. Humidity is also very low due to the distance that separates the city from the Persian Gulf, which helps to form the common summer dust storms churning from the desert.

During winter, from December to February, temperatures are noticeably mild. The highs range between 25 and 26 ° C and the lows are usually above -6 ° C, although it is not unusual in Baghdad to experience winter temperatures below -10 ° C. The presence of the Tigris attenuates the effect of continentality. Annual rainfall is limited to the period from November to March, with averages of around 140 millimeters with maximum records of 215 and minimums of 0 mm. On January 11, 2008 there was an unusual scene in Baghdad, as the city woke up covered in a thin layer of ice, the first in 100 years.

Social development


Baghdad has always played an important role in Arab cultural life and has been home to prominent writers, musicians and artists. The dialect of Arabic spoken today in Baghdad differs from that of other large urban centers in Iraq. It is possible that this was caused by the repopulation of the city with residents of rural areas in the late Middle Ages.

Some of the important cultural institutions in the city include:

  • Iraqi National Symphony Orchestra – rehearsals and performances were briefly interrupted during the second Gulf War, but have since returned to normal.
  • Iraq National Theater – The theater was looted during the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, but attempts are being made to restore
  • Academy of Music, the Institute of Fine Arts and the Baghdad School of Music and Ballet.

Baghdad is also home to a number of museums that house artifacts and relics of ancient civilizations, several of which were stolen during museum looting sparked by widespread chaos after US forces entered the city.


95% of the population of Iraq is Muslim. That is why there are many mosques in Baghdad, the most famous of which is the Abu Hanifa mosque. Before the 2003 invasion, 65% of Muslims were Sunni and 35% Shiite. See population of Iraq.

Christianity has existed in Iraq since the earliest times and the various Iraqi Christian churches have had strong roots. During the rule of Saddam Hussein (after a secular party) there was wide religious freedom. The government came to have Christian ministers such as former Chaldean Catholic Prime Minister Tariq Aziz. About half of the Christians in Iraq live in Baghdad. Their share of the total population up to March 2003, which stood at around 10%, decreased due to the crises in Iraq until 2006, to around 5%.

Since the beginning of the war, according to the Auxiliary Bishop of Baghdad, Andreas Abouna, around 75% of the Christian population had left the capital, seeking protection in the Kurdish north of Iraq, or in neighboring countries such as Turkey, Syria or Jordan – The Baghdad-based Patriarch of Babylon heads the religious organization of the Chaldean Catholic Church. The Roman Catholic Church forms the Archdiocese of Baghdad.

Baghdad is also the historic seat of the Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East. The bishops of the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch, formerly organized as the “Maphrianat of the East,” also have their headquarters in Baghdad.


Baghdad is home to some of the most important soccer teams in Iraq, the largest being Al Quwa Al Jawiya (Aviation Club), Al Zawra, Al Shurta (Police) and Al Talaba (Students). The biggest stadium in Baghdad is the Al Shaab Stadium which was inaugurated in 1966. The city has also had an important horse racing tradition since the First World War. Islamists have lobbied to end this tradition, as the sport has an important betting sequence.

Baghdad, Iraq

Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Geography and climate

According to abbreviationfinder, Ulan Bator is located about 1,350 meters above mean sea level, slightly east of central Mongolia in the Tuul River Basin, a sub- tributary of the Selenge, in a valley at the foot of Mount Bogd Khan Uul. The Bogd Khan Uul Mountains are heavily forested and have a height of 2,250 meters, are located south of Ulan Bator and are part of the Khan Khentii mountain range that surrounds the city and are also the boundary between the steppe area to the south and the forest-steppe zone to the north. It is also one of the oldest reserves in the world, protected by law since the 18th century. The forests of the mountains around Ulan Bator are made up of pine trees evergreen, deciduous larch and birch trees while the riparian forest of the Tuul River consists of hardwood deciduous trees, poplars, elms and willows.

Due to its high altitude, its relatively high latitude, its location hundreds of kilometers from the coast, and the effects of the Siberian anticyclone, Ulan Bator is the coldest capital in the world, influenced by the monsoon, the cold semi-arid climate that it is very confined to a sub-arctic climate. The city has short hot summers and long, very harsh and dry winters. Cold January temperatures, usually just before sunrise, are between -36 C and -40 C with no wind, due to reversal. Most of the annual rainfall of 216 millimeters falls from June through September. The highest rainfall recorded in the city was 659mm at the Khureltogoot Astronomical Observatory on Mount Bogd Khan Uul. Ulan Bator has an average annual temperature of -2.4 C. The city is located in the discontinuous permafrost zone, which means that construction is difficult on protected areas that prevent thawing in the summer, but easier on those with more exposed fully thawed soils. Suburban residents live in traditional yurts that do not protrude from the ground. The extreme temperatures in the city range from -49 C to 38.6 C.

Administrative division

Ulaanbaatar, has a rank of municipality. It is surrounded by the province of Töv and is divided into nine districts: Baganuur, Bagakhangai, Bayangol, Bayanzürkh, Chingeltei, Khan Uul, Nalaikh, Songino Khairkhan and Sükhbaatar. Likewise, each district is subdivided into joroos. It has no territorial extension; Baganuur and Bagakhangai districts are exclaves, the former in Töv province and the latter in Hentiy.

The city is governed as a first-rate independent subdivision within the country. Its mayor’s office is made up of forty members who are elected every four years, who, in turn, elect the mayor.


The city is the industrial, financial and cultural center of the country, and also a transportation hub that connects it with other large cities in Mongolia by road, and by rail with China.



Its monumental complex is, perhaps, the main attraction of the city, the only stronghold of a certain modernity within a thick and unwelcoming country. As an island of its own, it is far from the rudimentary ways of life and customs of the rest of Mongolia. But this peculiarity and the oriental exoticism that it exudes give it an attraction that is difficult to be rejected by tourists.

The start of the tourist’s journey can begin with the well-known Peace Avenue, which runs along the south side of the central Sükhbaatar square. From here you reach the central market, the capital’s human souk, which is full of accessories related to Mongolian nomadic life and other typical handicraft products that visitors can purchase. The accommodation offer that exists in Ulaanbaatar is not very wide. Among which there is, the best possibility for the visitor is to rest in a hostel or motel such as UB Guesthouse, Nassan, Gobi Travel, Radiant-Sky or Khongor. Once in the country, you can hire packages that include accommodation, vehicles to get around, fuel, guides, food and attractions such as horseback riding or camel riding. at very affordable prices if you know how to negotiate or travel in a group.

Places of interest

  • Choijin Lama Monastery
  • Gandantegchinlin Monastery
  • Museum of Natural History
  • National Museum of Mongolian History
  • Bogd Khan Winter Palace
  • National Academic Theater of Opera and Ballet of Mongolia
  • Sujbaatarin Square
  • Zaisan Memorial
  • National Sports Stadium
  • Gorji-Terelzh National Park (70 km from Ulaanbaatar)


Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, preserves imposing Soviet-style architecture adorned with oriental touches, as evidenced by its Tibetan and Buddhist buildings.

Art and history demand the attention of the visitor. Specifically museums of Ulan Bator, such as Natural History, which has fossils of dinosaurs and pieces of meteorites are found in the Gobi Desert, the history of the country that recalls the glorious past of the Mongol Empire and Genghis Khan, or Zanabazar of Fine Arts. Among the monasteries, no less outstanding, it is worth visiting that of Gandan and, especially, that of Choijin Lama, one of the oldest that also has the large gold statue of Migjid Janraisig, 25 meters high. height.


Ulaanbaatar has five major universities: the National University of Mongolia, the Mongolian University of Science and Technology, the University of Health and Medical Sciences, the Pedagogical University, and the University of Art and Culture. The National Library of Mongolia presents an extensive collection of texts in English on Mongolian subjects. Ulaanbaatar American School and Ulaanbaatar International School provide Western-style education in English for Mongolians and foreign residents. The historical library houses a considerable number of Mongolian, Chinese and Tibetan manuscripts. See population of Mongolia.


The city is a great communications center linked by road with the most important cities of Mongolia. A large part of the roads are not paved, which makes it difficult to move on this road even within the city.

Railway transport

One of the most interesting options for transporting in Ulaanbaatar is to be able to do it through the Trans-Mongolian, a railway extension of the mythical Trans-Siberian that reaches the Asian country. It is an extensive route of 9,000 kilometers of distance full of surprises for the traveler, since it crosses landscapes as varied as deserts, lakes, tundras, wooded areas, mountains and places as popular as the spectacular, inhospitable and arid Gobi desert or the steppe of Mongolia where nomadic tribes coexist. Without a doubt, it becomes an experience in which you can see unique places from the train window.

Air transportation

For air transportation, the city has: Genghis Khan International Airport formerly called Buyant Ukhaa, located 18 km southwest of the city. International flights are made to: Beijing, Berlin, Irkutsk, Moscow, Seoul and Tokyo, while the main domestic trips are to Khovd and Mörön.

Urban transport

There are some private companies that operate several bus lines around the city. These lines are completed by minibuses, which travel the same lines.


In Ulaanbaatar, as in most of the country, regional sports predominate, among which Naadam stands out, which could be considered the national sport. But world-famous sports such as soccer, basketball, etc. are also practiced, although to a lesser degree.

Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Thimphu, Bhutan

Thimphu, Bhutan

According to abbreviationfinder, Thimphu is the capital of Bhutan and the district of the same name, it is the most inhabited city and also the largest economic center in the country, where agriculture accounts for 45%. The city is located along the Chu (Wang Chu) River. It has an estimated population of 74,175 residents (2006).

The city is reduced to a few paved streets, buildings of three or four floors at most, restless pedestrians dressed in traditional costumes (gho, for men, and Kira, for women) and some road traffic, which is regulated by itself. Same, given that there are no traffic lights (the neighbors asked to remove them because they did not see them in their daily landscape), no traffic guards (except for one, in the most ‘congested’ roundabout), no zebra crossings or signs.


Formerly it was only the winter capital (Punaja was the summer capital), but in 1962 it became the permanent capital of the State



The city is located along the Chu (Wang Chu) River and is located in the western part of the country, in a valley that is high up in the Himalayas.


The climate varies from the subtropical monsoon, to the cold of high mountains passing through the temperate, from cold winters and hot summers, The average annual precipitation, in general, is high.

Natural environment

Due to its geographical location, Thimphu serves as the start of various excursions around its surroundings, discovering and exploring the beautiful mountainous landscapes that surround it.


Thimphu has an estimated population of 74,175 residents (2006). See population of Bhutan.

Economic development

The city is the market for the agricultural products of the surrounding valley. Manufacturing activity is based on the food and wood industry.

The products that are mainly traded are: rice, wheat, corn and potatoes. The Cardamom and fruits such as apples, pears and plums, are intended for export.


The city hosts every year, at the end of summer, a dance festival (tsechhu) where the participants wear colorful masks. This is one of the most popular events among tourists. Among the buildings of interest are the royal palace and one of the largest monasteries in the country



The official languages are Dzongkha and English.


In Thimphu, you can see monasteries of great antiquity and traditional architecture, represented by the dzongs, which are large fortress-monasteries that have governmental and religious functions, the lhakhangs and the stupas, which are religious buildings.

Some of those sites are:

  • The Dechencholing Palace, which is the official residence of the king, is located to the north of the capital.
  • The Tashichoedzong a Buddhist monastery built in the 13th century and which has been the seat of government since 1952.
  • The Dzong Simtoka and the Dechen Phodrang Monastery.
  • The Dechenphu, Tango and Cheri monasteries located around the city.


The craftsmanship made in bronze and silver is found in all the temples and is the best known in the country


Bhutan is the only country in the world that has the Tantric Mahayana Buddhism as its official religion

Holidays and traditions

Every year the Dance Festival (tsechhu) is held, where the participants dress up with masks of multiple colors, which becomes a very worthy show to enjoy.


Although it is communicated with other areas of the country and with India to the south, through a network of roads, it does not have an airport or railway. It is a characteristic of the roads of Thimphu that they do not have traffic lights, entrusting their function to traffic guards.

There is a regular bus service Fuentsholing – Siliguri (an Indian city in West Bengal). From Fuentsholing there are daily buses to Thimphu, as well as city bus lines. There are also taxis in the city.


It is a small, mountainous landlocked country located in South Asia. It is located in the eastern stretch of the Himalayas, between India (Sikkim state, which separates it from Nepal) and China (Tibet region). The local name of the country, Druk Yul, means “the land of the thunder dragon”, because in local beliefs thunder is the sound of roaring dragons. Its capital is the city of Thimphu.

This small country is almost entirely mountainous, stretching on the southern slopes of the Himalayas from the highest heights on the border with China.. The highest peak is Kula Kangri (7,554 m). It descends steeply to the Duars Plain, on the southern border with India. The rivers, none of which are navigable, are all tributaries of the Brahmaputra River. The climate in the south is subtropical with great rainfall, in the valleys the climate is more temperate even with hot summers and cold winters and in the mountains they have cool summers and glacial winters. The precipitations diminish with the height and towards the east. Apart from the capital of Thimbu, other cities are Paro and Punakha, the former winter capital (it was the capital until 1955). The Himalayas dominate the north of the country where many peaks exceed 7,000 m.

Thimphu, Bhutan

Jerusalem, Israel

Jerusalem, Israel

According to abbreviationfinder, Jerusalem is a city located in Israel and Palestine. It has 763,800 residents in an area of 125.1 square kilometers (if East Jerusalem is included). Situated in the Judean Mountains, between the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Dead Sea, it has spread well beyond the Old City limits.

  • יְרוּשָׁלַיִם in Hebrew
  • القُدس in Arabic

The status of the eastern part of the city, conquered by force in 1967 by Israel, is disputed, since in this sector – usually referred to as East Jerusalem or East Jerusalem, which includes the Old City – is where the Palestinian National Authority he claims to establish the capital of his State. The Israeli State, after the Six Day War, considered the city as a unified whole and a single municipality, declaring it as its “eternal and indivisible” capital by means of the “Jerusalem Law of 1980”. This annexation is not recognized by the majority of the international community, and, in protest of this unilateral act, the member states of the United Nations they moved their embassies to the coastal city of Tel Aviv.

Jerusalem is one of the oldest cities in the world, inhabited by the Jebusites before the invasion of the Hebrew tribes to Canaan at the beginning of the 13th century BC. n. and.

Jerusalem’s Old City was declared a World Heritage Site by Unesco in 1981.

Etymological origin

The precise origin of the Hebrew name (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushalayim) is uncertain and scholars offer different interpretations. Some claim that it comes from the Hebrew words yeru (ירו), (house) and shalem or shalom (שלם ‘, peace), which is why Jerusalemliterally means “house of peace.” This may be because it is generally known as the land of God. Another interpretation says that it could refer to Salem, an ancient name of the city, which appears in the Book of Genesis.

Also, it is very likely that the name comes from the ancient pagan god of the peoples that inhabited that area, Salem “god of the setting sun”, where Jeru-Salem means “place of the God Salem”. After the Israelite conquest this name lost its original meaning. In the fourteenth century a. C., when the Hebrews appeared in Canaan, the name of Salem was confused by “Shalom” peace.

The Arabic name is Al-Quds (القدس), which means the sacred, or more rarely Bayt al-Maqdes (بيت المقدس), House of the Sacred. The State of Israel frequently uses as a denomination in Arabic the archaic name Urshalim (أورشليم), which has no use in the spoken language and very little in the written one, or the mixed form Urshalim Al-Quds’ (أورشليم القدس).

The gentilicio in Spanish of the resident of Jerusalem is Jerosolimitano or Hierosolimitano.

Holy places for Judaism, Christianity and Islam

Jerusalem is considered a holy city by the three great monotheistic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. For Judaism, it is there where King David established the capital of the Kingdom of Israel and the settlement of the Ark of the Covenant, and where his son Solomon built the Temple, where prayers should be directed; for Christianity it is there where Jesus preached and was crucified; Islam picks up from these religions the sacred character of the city, which the first Muslims looked at when praying, before going on to do so facing Mecca. See population of Israel.

According to the Muslim religion

  • The Dome of the Rock: The most important Muslim temple in Jerusalem. Located in the center of the Temple Mount, it is a shrine – not a mosque – built between the years 687 and 691 by the ninth caliph, Abd al-Malik, around the rock on which Abraham was about to sacrifice his son. Ishmael and from which Muhammad by means of an ayah, ascended to the throne of God in the course of a night trip to the city from Medina.

According to the Jewish religion

  • The Wailing Wall: This is the most important place for Jews. Last remnant of the Jewish temple built by Herod on the ruins of Solomon’s temple. It includes the Western Wall, the main section of the Wall, located in the Jewish neighborhood of the Old City; and the Little Wall, an extension of the Western Wall, located in an Arab neighborhood, is a place of prayer for Jews of different currents. The Temple was built on the site where, according to Jewish tradition, Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son, Isaac. The Temple Mount (where today the Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa Mosque are located) is considered the most sacred place, since it was the Sanctosantorum, where the Tables of the Law were housed. Until 1967, while the city was under Arab rule, the Wailing Wall was used as the city’s garbage dump.

According to the Christian religion

  • Church of the Holy Sepulcher: There is Calvary where Jesus was crucified, as well as the “Sepulcher of the Savior”. It is the holiest place in Christianity.
  • Cenacle: Room on the upper floor where Jesus celebrated the Last Supper, and where he appeared to the apostles and where they received the Holy Spirit at Pentecost.
  • Basilica of the Nations or of the Agony: Located on the Mount of Olives, where Jesus spent his last moments before being arrested.
  • Dominus Flevit Church: From there, Jesus contemplated the holy city and wept for it on Palm Sunday.
  • Church of the Our Father: Place where Jesus taught that prayer to the disciples.
  • San Pedro in Gallicantu: Church that remembers the place where the house of Caiaphas was, where Jesus was tried and where he was denied by Peter.
  • Lithostrotos: Pavement of the ancient Antonia Fortress of the Romans where Jesus was crowned with thorns and outraged by Roman soldiers.
  • Via Dolorosa: The path that Jesus followed with the cross from the Antonia Fortress to Calvary. The stations are marked on it, the last being in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulcher.
  • Hagia Maria or Dormition Abbey: It recalls the place where according to Christian tradition the Virgin died, surrounded by the apostles. In its crypt there is an image of the Reclining Virgin.
  • Church of Santa Ana: In the place where it is found, according to Christian tradition, the Virgin Mary was born.
  • Edicule of the Ascension: Place from which Jesus ascended to heaven.

Jerusalem, Israel

Naypyidaw, Myanmar

Naypyidaw, Myanmar

According to abbreviationfinder, Naypyidaw is the current capital of the Republic of Myanmar, was officially made the capital on November 6th of the year 2005 replacing Rangoon ancient capital. The population of the city according to the calculations made is around one hundred thousand residents.


Naypyidaw was converted into the administrative capital of Burma, officially a republic of Myanmar on November 6, 2005 by decision of the military junta. Who decided that it should replace Rangoon, the capital until then.

The city was built on a field that was formerly a training area for the soldiers and officers of the Burmese Independent Army who first fought against the British, and where later General Aung San placed his headquarters, which achieved victory against the occupation Japanese during World War II. Pyinmana became a symbol for the Burmese army, as it was there that the Burmese defeated the invading armies.

The city is located more or less in the center of the country, in a railway network and communication center very close to the states of Shan, Chin and Karen, maintaining a continuous military presence close to the most belligerent regions. Another advantage of the new facility is its setting far from Rangoon, a city agglomerated due to its excessive population and which made it impossible to expand government buildings.

Burmese opposition to the country’s military regime has stated that the main cause of the capital’s transfer has been to move it away from the coast to protect it from a potential attack from abroad led by the United States.

As a result of the 2007 anti-government protests, the UN commissioned a special envoy to examine the situation. The 30 of September of 2007 the envoy met with the head of the Burmese military junta in Naypyidaw and later moved to Yangon, where he met with opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi.

The 23 of maypole of 2008 the Secretary General of the UN, Ban Ki-moon became the first foreign personalities who visited the new capital of Burma in the context of the humanitarian crisis unleashed in the wake of the cyclone Nargis in the country, obtaining on the part of the leader of the military Junta, Generalissimo Than Swe, “the commitment to approve the entry of all humanitarian workers, whatever their nationality,” as well as the consent of the regime for the Yangon airport to be used as an international platform for aid distribution.



Known as Naipyidó or Nay Pyi Taw. This city is located in the town of Kyatpyae in the municipality of Pyinmana, in the Mandalay division, approximately 320 kilometers from Rangoon the old capital and only 3 kilometers west of the city of Pyinmana.


The population of the city of Naypyidaw is doubtful, although the estimates made are around one hundred thousand residents, with a vast majority of Burmese and a minority of Chinese and Indians. See population of Burma.


Although the city has good water and electricity services, many public employees have declared their refusal to the government measure that forced them to move to Naipyidó. This is due to the almost non-existence of shopping centers and restaurants in the city, and many employees have decided not to move with their families, at least initially.


The religion that predominates in the population is Buddhism, although some Christians also inhabit, although to a lesser extent.

In November 2006, the opening ceremony of the construction of a large religious complex was held in the new capital, much like Shwedagon in Rangoon. The complex will be crowned with a 98-meter pagoda, the same height as Shwedagon’s, and should be seen from a large part of the city.


Among the customs of the country is not to touch adults on the head, or to make physical expressions of affection in public. Most Burmese do not wear shoes inside the houses and it is recommended, in the case of being invited, to take off shoesto enter. The monks, even if they are children, should be treated with respect and it is forbidden for women to speak to them.


There is transport by train from Yangon to Naipyidó, the journey lasts nine hours. Trains depart at 12:00 and arrive at 21:00 local time.

To serve the city, Ela airport was remodeled so that it could fly with large planes. The airport is located about ten miles southeast of Kyatpyae. All the country’s airlines include Naipyidó as a destination for their flights, they also provide flights between the capital and other cities in the country.

In March 2006, Air Mandalay put into service a line of flights between Yangon and Naipyidó. On June 5, 2006, between Naipyidó and Thandwe and Sittwe, in the state of Rakhine, to improve access to the west of the country.


With respect to some curiosities of this place, it should be noted that its name Naypyidaw, means “royal city” or “seat of kings”, which was announced during the course of the Armed Forces Day, celebrated in March 2006, a date that is also considered the inaugural date of the city.

Naypyidaw, Myanmar

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei

According to abbreviationfinder, Bandar Seri Begawan is the capital of Brunei. One of the greatest distinctions of this city is its port. As a tourist attraction, the charm of its markets stands out. As constructions worth visiting are, the University of Brunei Darussalam, the Royal Palace and its great Mosque.


The golden age of the city and the entire Sultanate of Brunei was between the 14th and 16th centuries, when it spread to the southern Philippines. But its power gradually weakened due to European influence and in 1888 it became an English protectorate.


Bandar Seri Begawan is located in the Sultanate of Brunei, located on the island of Borneo. It has a small coastal strip towards the South China Sea, and its only neighbor is Malaysia. It is bathed by the Brunei River.


Bandar Seri Begawan is the capital of Brunei, a 5,765-square-kilometer sultanate located northwest of the island of Borneo, in Southeast Asia.


The climate of the capital of Bruni is tropical, hot and rainy, the city receives heavy rainfall throughout the year, with March being the driest month, on average the city receives 120 mm of rain per year. October and December are the rainiest months, when rainfall is received in two out of every three days on average. As is natural in cities with a tropical climate, the average temperatures are relatively constant throughout the year, the maximum temperatures in the city are around 32 ° C and the minimum temperatures average 23 ° C.


Wasai Kandal is an area adjacent to the city with large forests, waterfalls and lakes. Also, that most of the Sultanate is made up of thick forests and rivers.


Bandar Seri Begawan is the capital of the Sultanate of Brunei and has a population of approximately 140,000 residents as of August 2010, reaching 278,000 within the metropolitan area. The vast majority of the citizens are ethnic Malay, the Chinese being the largest minority group. A large number of transitional workers live in the city, mostly from Indonesia, the Philippines and the Indian subcontinent. See population of Brunei.


The production of furniture, textiles, wood and handicrafts are the main sources of wealth in the city. He previously based his wealth on oil extraction, although his field is depleted.


The Palace of the Sultan of Brunei is undoubtedly the most iconic building in the city, as it is one of the largest palaces in the world. Next to it another prominent building is the Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque. The University of Brunei Darussalam is another must-see. A walk through one of its markets is a very popular activity in the city. As for museums, the Brunei Art Gallery and the Brunei Museum stand out. On its coast you can go scuba diving.

Culture and art

The Kapmpong Ayer water district is the most interesting part of the city. It is the old neighborhood, and it is located on the river, communicating through numerous bridges. The visit is also a must to the Sultan’s Palace, the Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque and the tomb of Sultan Bolkiah. The University of Brunei Darussalam is also interesting. The Brunei Art Gallery and the Brunei Museum make up the city’s museum offering.


The crafts that are sold in Bandar are of great beauty. Materials such as brass and silver are used. Gongs, cannons or kitchenware are some of those products. The textile is characterized by the coloring of the female costumes and the use of goldfor decorations.

Holidays and traditions

Brunei is an Islamic state, so the main holidays are those of that religion, such as Ramadan, Hegira or the anniversary of Muhammad. Given its proximity to China and its colony of citizens of that country, the Chinese New Year’s Eve is also celebrated.


Just 11 kilometers from the city center is Brunei International Airport and can be reached in just 10 minutes via the Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Highway. Among the airlines that operate flights to the airport are: Royal Brunei Airlines, Singapore Airlines, Malaysia Airlines, AirAsia, Cebu Pacific and Thai Airways International. There is a water taxi service known as “penambang” that is used as transportation between the center of Bandar Seri Begawan and Kampong Ayer. These water taxis are the most common means of getting around Kampung Ayer’s waterways. They can be approached from the numerous “berths” along the banks of the Brunei River. The prices are negotiable.

Important personalities

The Sultan Omar Saifuddin, which gives its name to the main mosque in the capital, was the ruler who led Brunei independence.

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei

Geography of Tokyo, Japan

Geography of Tokyo, Japan

According to abbreviationfinder, Tokyo is the capital of Japan, located in the center-east of the island of Honshu, specifically in the Kanto region. Together it forms one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, although its official name is metropolis or capital. The city is the center of politics, economy, education, communication and popular culture of the country. It also has the highest concentration of corporate headquarters, financial institutions, universities and colleges, museums, theaters, and commercial and entertainment establishments in all of Japan.

Tokyo is subdivided into 23 neighborhoods (ku); 26 cities (shi); a district (gun) subdivided into three towns (chō or -machi) and a village (son or -mura); and four sub-prefectures (shichō) subdivided into two towns and seven villages, representing several small islands south of Honshu that extend beyond 1,800 km from Shinjuku, capital of the metropolis and seat of the governorate. The center of Tokyo, with its 23 neighborhoods, occupies a third of the metropolis, with a population close to 8,340,000 residents; This area is what is known internationally as the city of Tokyo. Its metropolitan area has 34.5 million residents (2007), thus becoming the largest urban agglomeration in the world.

Although Tokyo is the most common romanization of the name in Japanese, the name of the city is Tokyo in Spanish and other languages, including German and Dutch. In English and other languages Tokyo is written, although formerly Tokyo was also written. In the past, the city was referred to as Tokei, Edo or Yedo. The name of Tokyo is Tokyo.

Tokyo is divided into two main areas: the mainland and the island. The continental area is located on the northwest margin of Tokyo Bay and is located in the center-west of the island of Hondo or Honshu, forming part of the Kanto region. The Image: Tokyo 1.jpg | thumb | right coordinates of the center of Tokyo are 35 ° 41 ‘North, 139 ° 46’ East. It is bordered by Chiba prefecture to the east, Yamanashi to the west, Kanagawa to the south, and Saitama to the north.

The island area of Tokyo encompasses two chains of islands in the Pacific Ocean, heading south: the Izu Islands, which run parallel to the Izu Peninsula, in Shizuok Prefecture, and the Ogasawara Islands that lie more than one thousand kilometers from the mainland area of Tokyo. The most distant is Minami Torishima which is 1,850 kilometers away.

Tokyo includes lakes, rivers, dams, farms, and national parks, in addition to structures that have been built by man. Tokyo is also part of the Greater Tokyo Area, which includes the prefectures of Kanagawa, Saitama, and Chiba.

Metropolitan or continental region

Today Tokyo is one of the most important urban centers on the planet. It is one of the main financial centers and the political capital of Japan. The city has fewer skyscrapers compared to other cities of its size, mainly due to the risk of earthquakes. For this reason, most of its buildings do not have more than 10 floors. Tokyo is also home to the most complex train system in the world.

Japanese law designates Tokyo as a to (often translated as “metropolis”). Its administrative structure is similar to that of other Japanese prefectures. The Tokyo metropolitan region includes 23 Special Wards (ku) which, until 1943, comprised the City of Tokyo proper. Tokyo also has 26 satellite cities (shi), five towns (chō or -machi), and eight villages (son or -mura), each of which has its own government.

It can be summarized that Tokyo has three geographical distinctions in its meaning.

Tokyo Prefecture is the local government by the name of Tokyo. Its population is 12,527,115 residents and its surface area is 2,187.08 km². 2. Although there is no municipality called Tokyo, the city of Tokyo as it was known in 1943 Today it is the largest city in Japan, with a population of 8,336,611 residents and an area of 621.3 km². 3. The metropolitan area of ​​the southern region of Kanto, made up of Tokyo and three other neighboring prefectures, is often considered the largest metropolitan area in the world, the Greater Tokyo Area. The four prefectures together have a population of 37,818,369 residents and an area of 13,555.8 km² and make up the Kanto conurbation. It is an urban continuum that constitutes the largest conurbation in Japan and, as has been said, one of the largest in the world if not the largest, with 35% of its surface reclaimed from the sea based on accumulations of gomi. Gomi is a Japanese term derived from the acronym formed by the words Go, which means 5 and Mi, which means 3. This material is obtained from selected and pressed garbage and is used for urban foundations. An estimated 40% of Tokyo stands on gomi.


Tokyo has a temperate climate, with a relative humidity of 63%. Approximately 45% of the year is rainy days, 40% cloudy days, 10% clear days, and the rest are snowy days. The average temperature in Winter is 4 ° C with occasional snowfall, and in Summer it is 24 ° C. The average annual temperature is 14.7 ° C. Annual precipitation is usually in the form of rain and reaches 152 centimeters per year. The maximum rainfall recorded in one day was in 2003, with 171 mm. Hours of sunshine average 1,894 per year.


Tokyo has more jobs and places of cultural recreation than any other city in Japan, attracting many people from the rest of the country (especially young people). Its population density is extremely high: 14 thousand people per square kilometer, almost twice as many as New York, being the most populous city in the world.

97% of the population of the prefecture is of Japanese descent. The two main ethnic minority groups in Tokyo are the Chinese and Koreans. See population of Japan.

Religion in Tokyo presents similar patterns to the rest of the country, where Buddhism, Shintoism and other religions coexist. There is a constant syncretism, where it is common for the population to integrate two or more religions into their daily practices. Of the more than 9,000 religious organizations in the prefecture, 38% are Buddhist, 21% are Shinto, and Christianity occupies 13%.

Living place

Tokyo’s huge population has created a huge demand for residences. In the past, most of the city’s residents lived in one- or two-story houses made of wood, each with its own garden, patio and religious chapel (called Butsudan in Buddhist homes). As Tokyo’s population grew, those houses were demolished and apartment buildings were built in their place. Given the immense population density of the region, most of the apartments and houses in the city are small, and are designed for a family of two adults and two or three children.

Despite the intense activity in the construction of buildings, the demand for residences continued to be higher than the supply, which increased the prices of land and rent, especially within the 23 Special Neighborhoods. As a result, beginning in the 1970s, many people left the 23 Special Wards region, moving to Tama (part of Tokyo prefecture), or even more distant neighboring cities. In Tama, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government created a cheap housing project for low-income families. However, these residences are located very far from the main commercial and industrial centers, and many of these workers spend more than four hours a day only within some means of public transport.


By area (data from October 1, 2003)

  • Tokyo: 12.36 million (fixed population)
  • Tokyo: 14.667 million (during the day, when people from other neighboring cities come to Tokyo to work or study)
  • Greater Tokyo (Tokyo and surrounding areas) 30 million residents
  • 23 districts: 8.34 million
  • Tama urban region: 4 million
  • Pacific Islands: 27 thousand


Tokyo is the largest Japanese connection for national and international travel, because it has train stations, land transport and airports. Transportation in Tokyo has been termed as an extensive network of control of trips, which are carried out quickly and efficiently.

Tokyo, Japan

Kathmandu, Nepal

Kathmandu, Nepal

According to abbreviationfinder, Kathmandu is the capital and largest city of Nepal. It was founded in the 8th century. by King Guna Kama Deva. It is located in the center of the country, on the fertile valley of the same name, right at the confluence of the Bagmati and Vishnumati rivers. More than 1,400,000 people live in Kathmandu, mainly of Indian origin and whose majority religion is Hinduism.

The 25 of April of 2015 occurs the devastating earthquake of magnitude 7.8 on the Richter scale. The earthquake was registered at 06:11 GMT, and its epicenter was located in the Lamjung district 81 kilometers northwest of the capital, Kathmandu, and at a depth of 15 kilometers. The death toll exceeded 8,700 and the total injured 20,000, not including the total missing, which amounted to 273 people, including 80 foreigners. Most of the deceased were concentrated in the districts of Sindhupalchowk, north of the Nepalese capital, and in the administrative district of Kathmandu, while other people died in Nuwakot [1] [2] [3] . The Nepal’s National Emergency Operations Center indicated that the earthquake totally destroyed 10,744 buildings and caused partial damage to 14,741. The number of irrecoverable houses exceeded 191,000, while another 175,000 suffered serious damage [4] . The government estimated that some $ 2 billion would be required for reconstruction. The earthquake caused widespread destruction throughout the country and extensive material damage. A significant part of the most emblematic and historical buildings of the so-called Kathmandu Valley, declared a World Heritage Site, were reduced to rubble.


Nepal is the country of the Himalayas, the mountain range where Mount Everest is located, the highest peak on Earth. The deep valleys and alpine lakes are the keynote of a rugged landscape full of beauty. The impressive Himalayan range is Nepal’s greatest natural attraction. In addition, the crystal clear waters of Lake Kathmandu offer the visitor a beautiful picture.


Kathmandu is located in the center of the country, on the fertile valley of the same name, more than 1,300 m above sea level and right at the confluence of the Bagmati and Vishnumati rivers.


Kathmandu’s climate is a fairly rigid continental climate, with heavy rains in the summer months.


The population of Nepal suffers from a deep division between peoples of Mongolian origin and those of Indo-Aryan origin, which determines languages, religions and cultures. This division does not mean that the two groups cannot coexist peacefully. In Kathmandu live more than 1,400,000 people, mainly of Indian origin and whose majority religion is Hinduism. See population of Nepal.

Economic development

Kathmandu’s economy is largely powered by agriculture (rice, millet, wheat, potatoes, jute), forestry exports and livestock. An incipient tourist industry is beginning to develop quite successfully in the capital.


Places of interest

The entire city and its surroundings are dotted with a multitude of temples such as the Kasthamandap, Ashok Vinayak, Akash Bhairab, Bhadrakali or Sankhu ensembles that give it an extremely picturesque appearance. In addition, some places such as the Bodnath Sanctuary, the National Museum of Nepal and the Royal Palace (1576) are of great interest, which allows tourists to access some of its rooms.



You can find typical caps, called topis that Nepalese must wear when visiting an official place, knitted gloves, woolen socks, cotton shirts and Tibetan dresses that are buttoned at the side. Red, black and orange polka dot shawls are typical, as are multi-colored jackets.


The staple food is rice which is usually accompanied by dhal, lentil soup, vegetables seasoned with curries and meat. Chapatis, fried pancakes are also eaten with meals. The most popular meats are pork, goat, chicken, buffalo and yak, never cow, since this animal is sacred just like in India. Sweets can be bought from street stalls or in grocery stores. To drink, in addition to milk, Nepalese people usually drink tea, with a very strong flavor, so milk or spices are added. Charg, the Tibetan beer, also has a strong flavor.

Holidays and traditions

Nepalese celebrate their National Day on February 18.


Religion: 90% Hindu, There are also Buddhists, Muslims, among other religions


To travel to Nepal you need a passport and visa. The passport must have a minimum validity of six months and with the tourist visa you can only access the Kathmandu Valley, Pokhara and its surroundings. The best way to get to the country is by plane as there are flights from the main international airports.

Once in the country, the best way to get to know it and tour its peaks is by plane or helicopter, from where the traveler will enjoy splendid views. The buses are also common, comfortable and affordable, even for short trips are advised to use the taxi.

Illustrious people

The most important character in Kathmandu is Gyanendra, the King of Nepal. He ascended the throne on June 4, 2001.

Kathmandu, Nepal

Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Phnom Penh, Cambodia

According to abbreviationfinder, Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia. It is strategically located at the confluence of the Mekong and Tonlé Sap rivers. It is the most European city in Southeast Asia. It still conserves the great avenues, the boulevards, and the beautiful houses from its colonial era, in different states of conservation. It is characteristic, the bustle, the disorder in which the city lives, the constant din of horns and motorcycles that come and go as in Hanoi or Saigon. And the markets, with their peculiar smell, a mixture of all smells, where you can find from memory cards for the camera to socks, from cleaning products to snails., everything mixed.

For the French, Phon Penh was the jewel in the crown. Tradition says that it owes its name to a lady who saw a log floating in the river one day with four small statues of Buddha. On the only hill that stands out in the plain of the city, he founded the first pagoda of what would later become the city of Phnom Penh. “Phnom” in Khmer language means “hill” and “Penh” was the name of the aristocrat. The pagoda, with its colorful images and offerings, is worth visiting. For some unknown reason, Phnom Penh is full of monkeys running around everywhere. They climb trees and facades and enter houses where they steal, in addition to food, any object that catches their attention. They seem not to fear pedestrians or cars or motorcycles. They only draw attention to the few tourists who are. And at the National Museum of Phnom Penh, you can discover dazzling Khmer art, a collection of sculptural pieces from the temples of Angkor, in the Cambodian jungle. The sculptures represent the gods Shiva and Vishnu, Khmer kings and emperors, dancers. A beauty.


Of the nearly 1.5 million people living in the Cambodian capital, the vast majority are ethnic Khmer. The Chinese and Vietnamese can also be considered when analyzing the population but they are not very representative. See population of Cambodia.

Economic development

The manufacturing textiles is the most important industry in the capital of Cambodia although food production and export also has a very specific weight. Above all, rice stands out, and the distilleries.

The gemstones and reserves of iron are the most important resources that the floor of Phnom Penh.

Regarding tourism, it can also be considered that in recent years it has influenced the country’s economy.


The main tourist attractions in Phnom Penh include, the Royal Palace, the Silver Pagoda, the National Museum or the Independence Monument.


Phnom Penh is a picturesque Asian city that still maintains the flavor of the former French colony, it is home to many cultural and educational institutions.

In the Museum of the Buddhist Institute you can see a collection of works of art from the Khmer dynasties, and the National Museum houses a collection of antiquities dating from the 6th century. Among the educational institutions are higher education institutions such as: the University of Phnom Penh (1960), the Buddhist University (1954), the University of Decorative Arts (1965) and the University of Agricultural Sciences (1965). Due to their historical importance, we must highlight the palaces of the ancient kings of Cambodia and some Buddhist temples.


Fabrics with peasant motifs embroidered in gold and silver lamé are the great attraction of the Cambodian capital.

It is also a tradition to be able to enjoy miniature busts that are exposed in the National Museum.

Finally, the silver boxes and salt shakers or even the steel hangers that are very popular can be highlighted.


The rice is the traditional food for the like other countries in the area. Noodles also have some importance in your kitchen that also uses the meat of chicken and pork in your meals.

Vegetable or fish soups always open Cambodian banquets.

As for beverages, the ranking is made up of tea, coffee, beer and the traditional liquor made with the fermentation of rice.

Holidays and traditions

In addition to the national holiday that is celebrated on November 9 in commemoration of Independence, there is the Bon Om Touk, a festival also called the Reverse Current, which is celebrated between October and November, coinciding with the reversal of the current of the Tonlé River. Sap. In this festivity it is traditional to make offerings in the temples and folkloric manifestations.

Places of interest

  • The Royal Palace of the Kingdom of Cambodia (XIX).
  • Independence Monument. Opened in 1958 to celebrate Cambodia’s independence from foreign laws.
  • The Silver Pagoda. It is so called because its floor is made up of 5,000 silver tiles.


The predominant religion is Theravada Buddhism

Illustrious people

Preah Bat Samdech Preah Norodom Sihanouk Varman, was born in 1922 and has been one of the most important political figures in the country. He has been prime minister, head of state, president and king of the country.

It is considered the promoter of the Independence of Cambodia in 1953. In 1970 he was dethroned by a coup in which the US collaborated, but in 1993 he became king again.

In 2004 he had to abdicate for health reasons.

Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Amman, Jordan

Amman, Jordan

According to abbreviationfinder, Amman is the Capital of Jordan and of the homonymous governorate, in addition to being its commercial, industrial and administrative center. Its population is about 2 million residents (2008), it is located in the north of the country, near the city of Jerusalem.


It was the capital of the Kingdom of Ammon in times of the Iron Age. It became, respectively, a Helinistic, Roman, Byzantine city; then, in the heart of the Umayyad province of Al-Balqa´; in an abandoned ruined site and, in the late 19th century, in an Ottoman town. Today, it is the capital of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

The first settlements took place in Jabal el-Qala’a, supplied with water from a pool dug into the rock. Rabbath Ammon, or Rabbah, is first referred to in the Bible as the place where King Og of Bashan’s massive iron bed frame was moved as spoils of war (Deut. 3). 3). Later, when King David’s troops attacked the city’s water supplies (2 Sam, 12:27), he ordered Uriah the Hittite to die on the front line of battle, so that he could marry his beautiful widow, Bathsheba. At the beginning of the 6th century BC, the prophecies of Jeremiah (49: 2) and Ezekiel (21: 2; 25: 3-5) about the destruction of Rabbah at the hands of King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon were not fully fulfilled although, it is true that Rabbath Ammon, like the entire region, became a province more of the Kingdom of Babylon and, later, of the Persian.

In the Hellenistic period, during which the Middle East was divided between the successors of Alexander the Great, pitted against each other, the Egyptian Ptolemaics and the Syrian Seleucids periodically took control of the city. Ptolemy IIPhiladelphus (238-246 BC) rebuilt the city, which he named Philadelphia. The Nabataeans also had control of the city for some time.

The time of greatest prosperity of the city was experienced under the control of the Romans, becoming part of the Decapolis. The result was new buildings such as the theater, the odeon and the forum in the lower part of the city that were connected to the new temples, located in the citadel, by means of a monumental staircase. Philadelphia boasted wealth during the Byzantine period, when it was named the seat of the Bishopric, as well as after the Arab conquest in 636, which is witnessed by the remains of a beautiful 8th-century Umayyad palace and an administrative complex. From this period on, the city recovered its original name, of Semitic origin: Amman

The time of the city’s decline came when the Abbasids moved the center of the Islamic world from Damascus to Baghdad in the mid- eighth century. By the 15th century, Amman was an abandoned city in ruins. And that way it remained until 1878, when the Ottomans settled a group of Circassians in the area, who had fled Russia for practicing the Islamic faith. It kept its small size (in 1918, IE Lawrence called it “town”) and only began to grow after the Emir Abdullah of Amman made the capital of his Emirate in 1921., expanding from one hill to another in a dizzying way in the form of concrete or light honey-colored stone. In 1946, the Emirate of Transjordan became a kingdom with Amman as the capital, seat of government, commercial, legal and administrative center of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

Amman today

Amman is currently a modern city, welcoming both Muslims and Christians. In it, modern-style buildings coexist in the new urbanizations to the west of the city with the traditional souk in the center. Very close to about 45 minutes by car you can find the place where, according to tradition, Jesus was baptized, in the waters of the Jordan River.


The city is located in the northern part of Jordan, and is built on nineteen hills. Therefore, the maximum height recorded in Amman is more than 900 meters above sea level. These hills serve to delimit the neighborhoods and trace the communication nodes.


Amman is in the north of Jordan, an Asian country located in the area known as the Middle East. Jordan is bordered to the north by Syria, to the south and southeast by the Red Sea and Saudi Arabia, and to the east by Iraq. The City of Petra is around 200 km south of the Jordanian capital.


Ammám enjoys a pleasant temperature for most of the year, with an average of 23º between the months of May to October, while between November and April it is 12º. The country’s climate is Mediterranean.

Natural inventory

If you visit Amman, it is essential to go see the Dead Sea and the Jordan River. Both natural enclaves are a very short distance from the capital.

Political division

It is divided into 27 districts:

· 1 Al Abdali· 2 Abu Nseir

· 3 Umm-Othaina

· 4 Al Qweismeh, Al Jweideh, Abu ‘Alanda and Al Raqim

· 5 Al Yarmouk

· 6 Al-Jezah

· 7 Al-Mowaqar

· 8 Al-Mqabalain

· 9 Badr

· 10 Badr Al Jadeeda

· 11 Basman

· 12 Husban

· 13 Jbeiha

· 14 Khraibet Essouq

· 15 Marj Al Hamam· 16 Marka

· 17 Medina

· 18 Nawoor (Na’our)

· 19 Ohud

· 20 Ras Al-ain

· 21 Sahab

· 22 Shafa Badran

· 23 Sweileh

· 24 Tariq

· 25 Tla ‘Al’ Ali

· 26 Wadi Al Seer

· 27 Zahran


Ammám has a population of over one and a half million residents. The official language is Arabic but English is used as a second language. Some minorities also speak French, German, Spanish and Italian. See population of Jordan.

Economic development

Amman is a city dedicated to services of all kinds. In fact, three-quarters of its GDP is related to this concept. The agriculture occupies a testimonial place, and the industry is dedicated mainly to the manufacture of chemicals. It is a commercial, administrative and industrial center based on the manufacture of textiles, batteries, leather goods, tiles, cement, flour and other food products. Other important industries are those dedicated to the extraction of phosphates and the refining of petroleum.


The visitor will find in Ammám numerous monuments of artistic interest. The most important is undoubtedly the Al-Qasar Palace, which was built as the residence of the Umayyad governor. The temple of Hercules, a Byzantine church and other buildings are still preserved from the period of Arab domination. Among the civil buildings, the monument to the Fallen, the Palace of Culture and the Bank of Jordan stand out, and among the religious constructions the tourist cannot miss two of its many mosques: Malik Abdallah and Abu Darwish.

As for the museum offer, the Museum of Popular Traditions stands out, with objects still used by some Bedouin tribes, and the Folklore or Archaeological Museum. The citadel, dominating the city on the top of the hill, is an ancient Roman acropolis and very close to there is the Roman Theater, which is the largest in the entire East. Finally, very close to Ammám we can find numerous buildings, castles such as that of Qasr el-Kharana, as-Qastal or the fortress of Qasr el-Azraq, known because Lawrence of Arabia turned it into one of his barracks at the beginning of the 20th century..


Amman is marked by two fundamental influences: the Roman and Islamic heritage, present in its urbanism, crafts and architecture. The cultural life of the city is remarkable: it has numerous art galleries and its artists are renowned. The Al Hussein Cultural Center is the channel for all the cultural concerns of the city.


In Amman you can buy everything. A visit to the souk is recommended, located between the al-Husseini mosque and the Citadel, where there are numerous shops with all kinds of objects, in which haggling is mandatory. The jewels are expensive, but other types of articles, such as pipes, daggers, rich ceramics, glass or even jugs with desert sand, although the tastiest souvenir of the city is its pastry.

Holidays and traditions

Official holidays are those of the Muslim countries, in addition to those related to local politics, such as Arab League Day (May 2), Independence Day (May 25) or the anniversary of the coronation of King Abdullah, June 9.

The Museum of Jordanian Folklore, together with the Roman Theater, and the Museum of Popular Traditions offer the visitor the option of knowing in detail the traditions of the city and the nation.

Places of interest

Amman offers great appeal for people looking for the trace of ancient civilizations. A visit to the Citadel is essential, since there are remains of fortifications from the Bronze Age to the Islamic period.

In terms of buildings, the Roman temple of Hercules, the Umayyad Palace, the Roman Theater (impressive for its capacity for more than 6,000 people) and the Great Mosque of Hussein stand out.


It has an airport and excellent communications by rail.

Amman, Jordan

Pyongyang, North Korea

Pyongyang, North Korea

According to abbreviationfinder, Pyongyang is the capital and most important city of North Korea. It is located southwest of the central part of Korea. In the period of the Korean war (1950 – 1953) the US imperialists dropped more than 428 thousand bombs on the city, a figure greater than its population at that time, reducing it to ashes. However, the heroic Korean people completely restored the wounds of the war in less than ten years.


Pyongyang’s history as a city began in the early 30th century BC According to legends, the city was founded in 2333 BC as Wanggŏmsŏng. during the Ko-Josŏn Dynasty it grew to become an important city. In 427 Koguryŏ made it a capital. The Tang and Silla Dynasty defeated Goguryŏ in 668, being taken by Silla in 676 until the Koryŏ Dynasty, when it was revitalized as Sŏgyŏng (the capital of the west, but it was not the capital). The city became the capital of the P’yŏngan Province during the Josŏn Dynasty.

becoming the provisional capital of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, hoping to regain the official capital, Seoul, occupied by South Korean forces.

In August (1945) of the Juche era, President Kim Il Sung restored the Homeland and founded the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, and its new history as the capital of a sovereign and independent state began.

In the period of the Korean war (1950 – 1953) the US imperialists dropped more than 428 thousand bombs on the city, a figure greater than its population at that time, reducing it to ashes. However, the heroic Korean people fully restored the wounds of the war in less than ten years.

Today Pyonyang has risen as an emerging modern city, center of the country’s politics, economy and culture. The downtown area of the city extends with the People’s Study Palace situated on Namsan Hill as its architectural axis and Kim Il Sung Square in front of it as the center.

The avenues formed from the center to the suburbs of the capital have been built to ensure the conditions of work, residence and rest for citizens. Since the 1970s, the avenues of Chollima, Munsu, Changgwang, Kwangbok, Thongil, Chongchun, etc. have been built one after another, completely renewing the physiognomy of Pyongyang.

Mangyongdae Revolution Historic Place, Kumsusan Memorial Palace, Korean Revolution Museum, Mansudae Hill Great Monument, Juche Idea Monument, Triumphal Arch, Party Foundation Monument and other places Revolution history and monuments show the proud fighting traditions and history of the Korean people.

Pyongyang, once a consumer city with backward handicrafts, agriculture and commerce, has become a productive one with modern heavy and light industries and agriculture. Here are magnificent institutions of education, science, culture and public health and sports facilities.

Pyongyang is one of the cradles of the culture of humanity, that is, that of the “Culture of Taedonggang,” one of the five great cultures of the world, where there are the historical remains of Komunmoru of the Sangwon district, and other relics of primitive society of a million years ago and of the ancient and medieval ages. Thanks to the great urbanization project of the Leader Kim Jong Il Pyongyang is transformed as the days go by in a typical city that combines classic and modern beauties.

Administrative division

Pyongyang is made up of 19 districts (“Kuyŏk” or “guyŏk”) and 4 counties (“Kun” or “gun”).

· Chung-guyŏk· P’yŏngch’ŏn-guyŏk

· Pot’onggang-guyŏk

· Moranbong-guyŏk

· Sŏsŏng-guyŏk

· Sŏn’gyo-guyŏk

· Tongdaewŏn-guyŏk

· Taedonggang-guyŏk

· Sadong-guyŏk

· Taesŏng-guyŏk

· Man’gyŏngdae-guyŏk

· Hyŏngjesan-guyŏk

· Ryongsŏng-guyŏk· Samsŏk-guyŏk

· Sŭngho-guyŏk

· Ryŏkp’o-guyŏk

· Rakrang-guyŏk

· Sunan-guyŏk

· Ŭnjŏng-guyŏk

· Kangnam-gun

· Chunghwa-gun

· Sangwŏn-gun

· Kangdong-gun


Pyongyang is the capital of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. It is located southwest of the central part of Korea and has an average height above sea level of 84 meters. The harmony offered by the low elevation hills spread like screens, the countryside, the crystal clear waters of the Taedong River has made Pyongyang recognized since ancient times as a pleasant place.


Pyongyang is located in the central west of the country a few kilometers from the coast. The Taedong River passes near the city limits.


Pyongyang’s climate is continental with hot summers and cold winters. The maximum temperatures are at 24 degrees and the minimum temperatures drop below zero. The precipitations usually take place mainly in the summer months.


Pyongyang’s population is mostly Buddhist or Confucian, although there are also Christians. Despite this, the public practice of religion is practically non-existent. See population of North Korea.

Economic development

Pyongyang is a very important industrial center in North Korea and almost a quarter of the country’s industry is in this city. They are dedicated to iron, steel, locomotives or railroad cars.


Among the tourist visits are usually: The Museum of the Korean Revolution, the Tombs of the Revolutionary Heroes and the Triumphal Arch, built with marble and granite and with a height of sixty meters.



Korean fabrics are highly sought after by visitors.


North Korea ‘s main diet is summarized in the meat, the fish and poultry flocks.

As in the south, kimchi, which is a stew made from spicy marinated vegetables, and pulgogi are the traditional prepared dishes of his kitchen.

Holidays and traditions

The most important days of celebration are:

  • On January 1: With the arrival of the new year, the first two days become a continuous family reunion.
  • The April 15th: the National Day. The anniversary of the birth of Kim Il-Sung, former president of North Korea, who died in 1994, is commemorated.
  • On October 3: Day of the Foundation of the Nation. Carried out by Tangun, in 2333 BC

Places of interest

  • Triumphal arch.
  • Tombs of the Revolutionary Heroes.
  • Korean Revolution Museum


As part of public transportation, Pyongyang has a Metro system (metropolitan subway train – Pyongyang subway) consisting of 2 lines and 17 stations.

There is also a tram that runs for 53 kilometers and a trolley bus service with 150 kilometers.

The city has an international train service that connects it with the cities of Beijing and Moscow. Pyongyang is also connected to the Trans-Siberian.

Pyongyang, North Korea

History and Geography of Beijing, China

History and Geography of Beijing, China


Historically Beijing was one of the ancient capitals of China. Since the Shang Dynasty (between the 16th century – 11th century BC) was overthrown by King Wu of the Zhou Dynasty, who enforced the region of Yan to Prince Shao, it has a history of more than 3,000 years.

Called Ji in ancient times, it was the capital of the Yan State in the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC). Later in the Liao Dynasty (Number 907 1125), it was the temporary capital, called Yanjing, and the Jin Dynasty, Beijing was established as its capital with the name of Zhongdu. See population of China.

It acquired the name Dadu in the Yuan dynasty, and was later called Jingshi during the Ming and Qing dynasties, with the generic name of Beijing, which means “northern capital.” Beijing, as a capital from the Jin dynasty to later dynasties, has enjoyed a history of more than 800 years. There the hardworking Chinese people with their intelligence and hard effort have created a brilliant civilization.

Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing 1995.

Between August 8 and 24, 2008, it hosted the XXIX Olympic Games in Beijing 2008.


The four seasons are very marked. In winter the climate is cold and dry; in Summer there is a tropical heat and abundant rain; and fall is cool and pleasant. The annual rainfall level is 600 millimeters on average.


Located in the temperate monsoon zone, it is quite pleasant during spring and fall. The hottest month is July, with an average temperature of 30ºC, and the coldest, January, with an average of almost -5ºC.

This is a summary of the most representative average temperatures in each of the seasons of the year:

Station Climate Average minimum temperature Average maximum temperature
Spring Sunny days 12 (month of May) 25 (month of May)
Summer Hot days,Rainy time 28 (August) 19.9 (August)
Autumn Temperatures,nice, clear skies 6.8 (month of October) 18.7 (month of October)
Winter Cold and dry weather -9.7 (January) 1.7 (January)

Flora and fauna

According to abbreviationfinder, Beijing has rich resources of flora and fauna, and the most numerous poultry species. Its gymnosperms rank first in the world in terms of species. It is one of the countries with the greatest Biodiversity. However, it also faces a difficult situation in this area, since between 15% and 20% of the higher plants are in danger of extinction, and the subsistence of 40 thousand biological species related to these plants is threatened.

As one of the first signatory countries of the Biodiversity Convention, China always takes an active part in the matters related to the Convention and issues opinions on the important problems that arise in the international compliance of the Convention.

Furthermore, it is one of the few countries that has fully complied with the Convention’s Plan of Action. China’s Biodiversity Protection Action Plan, drawn up in 1994, constitutes the standard to be followed for the many activities aimed at protecting the Ecosystem and the Environment.

In accordance with the Law for the Protection of Wild Fauna, any act that violates the protection of wild zoological resources will be punished. Relevant government departments pay attention to the effective protection of biological resources.

More than 400 deposits and gene banks of varieties of wild flora have been founded in the country, so that more than a thousand varieties of wild flora have managed to establish their stable artificial population. In January 2003, the Chinese Academy of Sciences sponsored an Endangered Flora Rescue Project, which plans to increase the botanical species of 12 botanical gardens under its supervision from 13,000 to 21,000 within 15 years, and build the largest botanical garden in the world with an area of 458 square kilometers.

In this project, the money destined to collect precious, rare and threatened plants will exceed 300 million yuan, and gene banks will be created, with Qinling, Wuhan, Xishuangbanna and Beijing as centers.

The Project for the Salvation of Endangered Wild Fauna has already paid off. To date, 250 centers for the reproduction of wild animals have been founded in the country, dedicated especially to saving seven important species, including the Pandaand the Red Ibis (Nippon nippon).

The panda is considered a “national treasure” and a “living zoo fossil”, its wild population has grown from 1,100 to more than 1,596 specimens, and its pen population to 183 specimens, thanks to ever-improving subsistence conditions.

The population of red ibis increased from the original 7 to more than a thousand specimens, thus countering the threat of extinction. The number of artificially propagated Chinese alligators is close to 10,000. Of the Deer Cervus eldi of Hainan there were only 26 copies left, but now they already exceed 1,600. The hereditary gull has also increased its population from 2,000 to more than 10,000 members.

The Tiger, rarely seen, appears from time to time in Northeast, East and South China. The populations of the South China and Northeast China tigers have risen to 68 and 1,300, respectively. The Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) of Tibet, believed extinct by international zoological circles, was discovered in the 20th century and its population has grown steadily. China leads the way in scientific research and study on the white dolphin, a species of freshwater dolphin, and its artificial reproduction.

Thanks to the tenacious fight against illegal hunting and the coordination of several organizations of the international animal protection community, the Tibetan antelope, whose numbers were falling precipitously for this reason, now enjoys a rest that favors reproduction, currently the species has 190 thousand copies.

Beijing, China

Astana, Kazakhstan

Astana, Kazakhstan

According to abbreviationfinder, Astana is the capital of Kazakhstan since 1998 when it replaced Almaty, it is also the capital of a federal district. The name of the city before June 1998 was Akmola. The city is located in north-central Kazakhstan, within the Akmola province, although it is politically independent from the rest of the province, which has its own capital Kokshetau. The city’s population was 750,700, according to a November 2008 estimate.

The word Astana in the Kazakh language literally means Capital City. Formerly it had the name Tselinogrado and then Akmola, which means white tomb.

In June 2008, the parliament proposed to change the name of the city to “Nursultan”, in honor of the current president, but the idea was rejected by the president himself, who suggested that future generations should decide to change the name. name the city.


In 1824 a troop of Siberian Cossacks reached the upper reaches of the river Ishim and there they founded a fort that prospered over the years and became known as Akmolinsk.

In 1961 it was renamed Tselinograd and became the capital of the Soviet Virgin Lands Territory and the center of the Virgin Lands Campaign led by Nikita Khrushchev in the 1950s, in order to make the state a second producer. of grain for the Soviet Union.

With the independence of Kazakhstan the city and the oblast were renamed Aqmola (White Tomb).

In 1994 it was promoted as the future capital of the country. When the capital was transferred from Almaty (previously called Almá-Atá).

In 1997, it was renamed under its current name, which means capital in the Kazakh language.

Astana was modernized by running one of the world’s largest and most expensive urbanization projects, although the quality of the architectural design is not the best. This great project was financed with oil money.

It is said that the transfer of capital was to dominate the northern region of the country, with a Russian majority and thus avoid a possible secession; Another theory suggests that it was tried to move the capital away from the borders, since Almaty is only 60 km from China and 50 from Kyrgyzstan. In any case, both theories have their strategic function, but officially the reason was the lack of space for the expansion of Almaty, the former capital of the country and because it is located in a seismic zone.


The city is located in a very flat semi-desert steppe in the center of Kazakhstan, at about 347 meters above sea level, being irrigated by the Ishim River, which divides it into two neighborhoods.


The city has a continental climate, with exceptionally cold winters and moderately hot, arid and semi-arid summers. The average annual temperature in Astana is 1 ° C. January is the coldest month with an average temperature of -16 ° C. July is the warmest month with an average temperature of 20 ° C.

After Ulaanbaatar the capital of Mongolia, Astana is the second coldest capital in the world with temperatures between -35 to -40 ° C.


The development of the new capital has attracted thousands of immigrants from Kazakhstan, and from neighboring states such as Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, especially workers and young professionals who aspire to develop their careers. This immigration produced a change in the demographics of Astana, increasing the number of more ethnic Kazakhs in a city with a predominantly Slavic population, which brought the ethnic population of Kazakhs to increase in 1989 to 60%, well above 17 % before that date.

In 1999, Astana already had a population of 281,000, with an ethnic mix that included Kazakhs, Russians, Ukrainians ], Volga Germans, among others. The% of the population by ethnicity was as follows: 40.5% of the population were Russians; 5.7%, Ukrainians ; 3% were German; 2.6% were Tatars ; 1.8% Belarusians and 0.8% Polish.

Although the Kazakh population outnumbers the Russian with 41.8%, Russians form the largest ethnic group in the city, while Ingush and Koreans each account for 0.8% of the total. Other notable minorities are the Uzbeks, with 3.8% of the population.

According to surveys carried out in 2009, by that date Astana already had a population of over 700,000 residents. See population of Kazakhstan.


Astana is considered one of the largest urban growth projects in the world and its execution is linked to the strong contributions linked to oil. The purpose of the project, in addition to making the city the center of Kazakhstan, is to be the capital of Central Asia, although at present the capital of this area is still Tashkent.

Public policies and government administration are the main economic activities of the capital, which also forms a special economic zone.


The neighborhoods of the city that were built in the first phases are located to the north of the river while those of new construction are located to the south of it.

The construction standards indicate that the quality of the buildings is considerably high, the buildings are modern, however there are divisions among the experts about the real quality of the new buildings.

Places of interest

Avenida de la República is the main center of activity in the city, where there are shops, cafes, restaurants and nightclubs.

Among the main sites of the city we can mention:

  • The Bayterek Tower: symbol of the new Astana.
  • The Avenue of the Republic.
  • The Oceanarium.
  • The Islamic Center.
  • The Catholic Cathedral.
  • The Central National Mosque of Astana.
  • The Palace of Peace and Reconciliation.
  • Among the museums we can mention:
  • The Presidential Center of Culture.
  • The Mausoleum of Kabanbay batır.
  • The Atameken Ethical Memorial Complex.
  • The S. Seyfullïn Museum.
  • The Museum of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Among the theaters we can mention:

  • The Gorka Russian Dramatic Theater.
  • The Kazakh Theater K.Qwanışbaev.
  • The National Opera of K. Baysetova.

Among the monuments we can mention:

  • The Otan qorğawşılar.
  • The one built in homage to the victims of political repression.
  • The one built in honor of the Kazakhs killed in the war in Afghanistan.
  • The central square.
  • The one built in honor of Kenesarı khan.

Among the architectural monuments we can mention:

  • Buzok City.
  • The Church of Konstantin and Jelena.
  • The Green Mosque.


In the city there is an extensive sports development where the soccer team FC Astana should be highlighted, which plays in the Kazakhstan Super League, winner of the national championship three times, the basketball team Astana Tigres, winner of the 2004 season title / 2005, as well as Barys Astana of the Kazakh Ice Hockey League.

In the city there is a great development of cycling and the government sponsors a team of this sport that is licensed by the UCI ProTour, this team called Astana participated in the 2007 Tour de France, they also participated in the 2009 edition with excellent results.

Astana, Kazakhstan

Muscat, Oman

Muscat, Oman

According to abbreviationfinder, Muscat is the cultural and modern capital city of Oman, it is located on the shores of the Gulf of Oman. It is the most important city in the country and the main administrative center. Its population is 769,090 residents.


Muscat was under the rule of the Portuguese in the periods 1507 to 1580 and 1640 to 1650, of Spain between 1580 and 1640. It is one of the oldest cities in the Middle East. Evidence of communal activity has been found in the areas around the city dating back to the 6th century BC. In the area south of the city, remains of Harappan pottery were found indicating some level of contact with the Indus civilization. Muscat’s fame as a port has been recognized as early as the 1st century dne by the Greek geographer Ptolemy, who names it Cryptus Portus (the Hidden Port), and by Pliny the Elder, who calls it Amithoscuta.

In the 3rd century AD, the port fell into a Sassanid invasion, under the rule of Sapor I, while the conversion to Islam occurred during the 7th century. Muscat’s importance as a commercial port grew in subsequent centuries, under the influence of the Azd dynasty, a local tribe. The establishment of the first Imamate in the 9th century AD was the first step in consolidating the disparate Omani tribal factions under the flag of the Ibadi state. However, tribal skirmishes continued, allowing the Abbasids of Baghdad to conquer Oman and occupied the region until the 11th century, when they were driven out by the local Yahmad tribe.. Power over Oman shifted from the Yahmad tribe to the Azdi clan of Nahahinah, during which time the populations of coastal ports such as Muscat prospered through maritime trade and close alliances with the Indian subcontinent, at the cost of alienation from the population of the interior of Oman.

In July 1507 the Portuguese conqueror Afonso de Albuquerque attacked Muscat, which produced a bloody battle between the Portuguese and forces loyal to the Persian governor of the city. When the city fell, Albuquerque massacred most of the residents, including men, women, and children — after which the town was occupied and looted. The Portuguese and Spanish held their post in Muscat for more than a century, despite challenges from Persia and the bombardment of the town by the Turks in 1546. The Turks captured twice Portuguese Muscat, Muscat Sequestration (1552) and 1581 -88.

The election of Nasir bin Murshid al-Yaribi as Imam of Oman in 1624 brought about a shift in the balance of power once again in the region, from the Persians and Portuguese to local Omanis. On August 16, 1648, the Imam organized an army in Muscat, which captured and demolished the steep towers of the Portuguese, resulting in a weakening of their control over the city. Decidedly, in 1650, a small but determined body of the Nasir’s troops attacked the port during the night, finally forcing the surrender of the Portuguese on January 23, 1650. A civil war, and repeated raids by the Persian king Nadir Shah in the 18th century destabilized the region, and closer relations between the interior of the region and Muscat. This lack of power in Oman led to the rise of the Al Bu Sa’id dynasty, which has ruled Oman ever since.

Muscat’s naval and military supremacy was reestablished in the 19th century by Said bin Sultan, who gained control over Zanzibar, eventually moving his capital to Stone Town, the old quarter of Zanzibar City, in 1840. However, after his death in 1856, control over Zanzibar was lost when it became an independent sultanate under his sixth son, Majid bin Said (1834 / 5–1870), while his third son, Thuwaini bin Said, was became Sultan of Oman.

During the second half of the 19th century, the fortunes of the Al Bu Said declined and friction with the magnets within the interior re-emerged. Muscat and Matrah were attacked by inland tribes in 1895 and again in 1915. An attempted ceasefire was broken by the British, who offered the interior greater autonomy. However, conflicts between the disparate tribes of the interior, and with the Sultan of Muscat and Oman continued throughout the 1950s, eventually reaching the Dhofar rebellion (1962).

The rebellion forced Sultan Said bin Taimur to seek assistance from the British to quell the revolts in the interior. The failure of the assassination attempt on Said bin Taimur led to the subsequent isolation of the Sultan, who moved his resident from Muscat to Salalah, amid conflict between armed civilians. The 23 of July of 1970 Qabus bin Said, son of Sultan, carried out a coup bloodless palace in Salalah with the presence of the British, and took over as ruler.


The city is surrounded by mountains and is located on the shores of the Gulf of Oman. It occupies an area of 3,500 km². Muscat is also called one of the governorates into which Oman is divided, composed in turn by six vilayatos they are: Muscat, Matrah, Bousher, Seeb, Al Amirat and Qurayyat.


Muscat is the main administrative center and the most important city in the country. Modern highways, built in the 1970s, link the city with other cities in Oman and with its neighboring country the United Arab Emirates. Muscat was the main port in the country, until a new port located in Mina Qaboos was built in 1974. Near the city are a cargo terminal for giant tankers, through which refined oil is imported, as well as the international airport.


Capital of the Sultanate of Oman, Muscat is a unique city. Oasis in the desert, it is not only the smallest but also the warmest in the world… In other words, It is true that with its walls and the Blue Palace flanked by the forts of Jalali and Mirani, Muscat has the charm of the ancient cities of legend. From the port of Mutrah to Old Muscat, passing the iconic incense burner on the Corniche.

Places of interest

  • Bait Al-Zubair Museum
  • Franco-Omani Museum
  • Bahla
  • Route of the Rustaq Forts,
  • Nizwa
  • Nakhl
  • Jabrin, the village of Tanuf and the great mosque.


Influenced by Middle Eastern and Indian recipes, Omani cuisine is as delicious as it is colorful. From the taverns in the old town to the restaurants on the seafront, you just have to decide where to discover Muscat’s culinary specialties. From the meat skewers (chawarma) inherited from the Lebanese to the Indian “biryanis” of fish, chicken or lamb, each dish reflects Muscat’s important cultural miscegenation. The fresh fish barbecues are delicious too. Recommended: makbou (biryanis with tomato sauce), chicken masala, falafel, mezze and rose water drinks.


It is very easy to have fun during a stay in Muscat. You can start by exploring the Muttrah neighborhood. With its souk full of life, it is an ideal place to linger for a while and find bargains such as fabrics, incense, jewelry, kandjiares… The artisan stalls located around the old Muscat are full of cafes ideal to stop for a while. Locals and foreigners meet here in the afternoon to enjoy the lively atmosphere of these picturesque taverns, full of people of all kinds. It is highly advisable to take a walk along the Muscat Corniche, relax on the main beach of the city and cycle along the Muttrah cove.

Recommended itinerary

The Route of the Forts is an inseparable walk from the Muscat cruises. The first place to discover is the Nizwa Fort, surrounded by a beautiful palm grove that has dominated the city since its construction in the 17th century. At 45 km, the Jabrin Fort was built around the same time, although lovers of Islamic architecture will surely prefer the Bahla Fort, made entirely of earth and famous for being the oldest building of its kind in the region. However, the most impressive of this cruise stopover are Rustaq and Nakhl: one has 12 well-preserved towers and the other, built on a rock, is considered the best in the country.


Most of the population is Muslim, there is also a minority of Hindu and Christian people. See population of Oman.

Muscat, Oman

Dili, East Timor

Dili, East Timor

According to abbreviationfinder, Dili is a city that is located in East Timor of which it is the capital. It is located on the north coast of the island of Timor.


Dili was founded by the Portuguese in 1520 and in 1769, then it became the new capital of Portuguese Timor, replacing Lifau, in the current enclave of Oecussi-Ambeno, since it was too vulnerable to the attacks of the Dutch. During World War II, Dili was occupied by the Japanese. The 28 of November of 1975 East Timor made a unilateral declaration of independence from Portugal. But nine days later, on December 7, Indonesian forces invaded Dili. On 17 July as as 1976 Indonesia annexed East Timor, who called Timor Timur, with Dili as its capital.

In 1991, the Dili massacre occurred, which gave international support to the independence cause of East Timor. On May 20, 2002, Dili became the capital of the independent state of East Timor.

International campaign for the liberation of East Timor

The international campaign by human rights organizations in favor of East Timor was intense, and in 1996 Amnesty International called for observers to be allowed into the country. That same year, exiled activists José Ramos Horta and Catholic Bishop Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo received the Nobel Peace Prize. Thanks to international pressure, in 1998 Indonesia proposed limited autonomy for East Timor. Portugal entered into talks with Indonesia and reached an agreement to convene a “popular consultation” to find out if the Timorese accepted relative autonomy from the Republic of Indonesia. On Voting Day, August 30, 1999, 98% of the registered electoral roll went to the polls to cast their vote. The vast majority of voters rejected the Indonesian autonomy plan and called for their independence.

After the elections, a wave of violence began throughout the territory. Many Timorese died and others sought refuge in Australia. The UN decidedly assumed the solution of the conflict and got multinational forces to enter the island to control the situation and restore peace and security. At the same time, humanitarian organizations brought basic services and food to the island. Indonesian authorities began to leave East Timor until they completely abandoned it. The 28 of Septemberof 1999 Indonesia and Portugal agreed to transfer the authority of East Timor to the United Nations With the idea of managing the transition to independence, the United Nations Transitional Administration (UNTAET) was created. However, UNTAET faced many difficulties. In different parts of the island the activity of guerrillas armed by the Indonesians continued, the economy was in bankruptcy and it was necessary to provide accommodation and food to more than 150 thousand refugees who returned to their country.


It is located on the northern coast of the island of Timor, which is located between Australia and Sulawesi. It was the capital and the main port of Portuguese Timor until 1975, when its control ended and that of Indonesia began. The city is built on a series of rocky hills, opens to the Ombai Strait and the Banda Sea and is protected by a coral reef.

It is the most populous city with 67,000 residents at the beginning of 2002, according to the Transitional Administration for East Timor (UNTAET). They are followed in population size by Baucau, Manatuto and Los Palos.


It has a subtropical climate that is generally hot and humid, characterized by a rainy period and a dry period.

Economic development

The city’s economy is based on the production of coffee and the manufacture of soaps, perfumes and textiles, and on the export of products such as cotton, rice, coffee or sandalwood. The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception is the largest Catholic church in Southeast Asia. Population (2003), 48,731 residents. See population of East Timor.

It is the main port and commercial center of the country. It has an airport, renamed after independence as Nicolau Lobato, used for commercial and military flights.

Social development


The health system is precarious, the Dili General Hospital is a prime example of the health system situation throughout East Timor. Since the precipitous withdrawal of the Indonesians in early 1999, the ICRC has managed it. Today, this 210-bed hospital is fully operational with some 350 employees, 26 of them expatriates, most of whom were made available by National Red Cross Societies.

The most common diseases are malaria, tuberculosis, and gastroenteritis. Obstetric complications and road accidents are on the rise and need to be addressed without delay. Although there are many Timorese nurses, the country’s doctors are very few: only three in the Dili hospital. On average, there are two for every 100,000 residents, that is, about 20 for all of East Timor.


Destruction of your union’s offices: The offices of the East Timor Teacher Union (ETTU), an affiliate of Education International, were destroyed during the violence that affected Dili in February and March 2008. The teachers’ union has not been able to function normally since then.

Dili, East Timor

Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

According to abbreviationfinder, Bishkek is the capital and most populated city of Kyrgyzstan, it is also the administrative center of the Chuy province within which it is geographically located, but curiously it is not part of said province. It is located in the valley of the Chu River, in the course of the Alaarcha and Alamedín rivers, at the foot of the Kyrgyz Mountains, a few kilometers from Kazakhstan. Its altitude is 800 m. above sea level. It has a population of 906,000 residents according to the 2009 census.

Between 1926 and 1991 in honor of the revolutionary leader and general of the Red Army, Mikhail Frunze, who was born in the city. the city took its name.

The city is also known as Bishkek and its name is believed to derive from a Kyrgyz word related to the fermentation of mare’s milk, which is the country’s national drink.


The first settlements that were established in the area where the city is located date from the Neolithic.

In the 10th century the civilizations that were established in the territory were defeated by the Mongol hordes that invaded the entire region.

At the end of the 18th century the region was invaded and conquered by the Uzbek from Kokand, who established a fortress there in 1825.

In 1862 the fortress was razed by the troops of Tsarist Russia and they later built a new fortress next to the ruins of the previous one.

In 1878, in the place occupied by the old fortress, the Russian colonists founded a city which they called Pispek, which quickly prospered, becoming an important administrative center in the region and the most important of the district in which it was located. In 1924, due to the progress obtained and its geographical location, the city was designated the capital of the oblast.

In 1925 the city was elevated to the highest rank of capital of the newly created Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.

In 1928 the Soviet government changed its name to Frunze, in honor of the revolutionary leader and general of the Red Army Mikhail Vasilievic Frunze, who was originally from this city, where he was born in 1885.

In 1936 it became the capital of the Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic, within the former Soviet Union.

During World War II, Bishkek became one of the main industrial centers of the entire country.

In June 1990, after several riots in the south of the country, a state of emergency was declared as they threatened to dangerously spread to the city.

In 1991 with the independence of the Kyrgyz Republic, the city regained the name of Bishkek and was declared the capital of the country.


Bishkek is located in the valley of the Chu River, in the course of the Alaarcha and Alamedín rivers, at the foot of the Kyrgyz Mountains, in the extreme north of the Kyrgyz Mountains, in the western part of the Tian Shan mountain range. The city lies at an altitude of 800 m. above sea level.

Its relief is wavy typical of the steppes of Kazakhstan.

North of the city runs the river Chu and is named after the administrative district surrounding Bishkek. Several of the tributaries of this river also flow through the city, such as the Ala Artscha and the Alamedin.


Due to its location south of the continental climate of temperate latitudes, the city has a very harsh and extreme climate with very few hours of sunlight in winter where it can be below 126 hours.

The average air temperature is 10.2 ° C. The coldest month is January with an average of -4.7 ° C and the warmest is July with an average of 24.5 ° C. The monthly average relative humidity is 44% in June and July and 74% in March, the annual average is 60%.


Most of the country’s residents are native to the country and in 1999 52.1% of the population was from Kyrgyzstan, 33.2% was from Russia, and 2.8% from other European origins; At present, these percentages have varied and Russians and Europeans represent only less than 30% of the population, which is why the downward trend has been maintained since the 70s when most of the population was of Russian origin, a decrease that is it increased after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. See population of Kyrgyzstan.


The economy of the city is supported by industrial development and its main factories are dedicated to the production of machinery for construction and the metallurgical industry, although there are also others dedicated to the production of preserves and food products.

In Bishkek you will find one of the largest markets in the entire country, the Dordoy Bazaar.


Biskek is a developed city with a grid shape that despite its modernization still preserves its Soviet appearance in its architecture, with the buildings and gardens built during that time that still prevail over the new constructions. An example of this are the famous and typical Soviet buildings Khrushchevkas. Much of the city streets are lined with trees that reduce the heat on hot summer days. One fifth of the city’s surface is occupied by green areas.


The city has a teaching system that covers all educational levels from primary to university education, it is located an important university in the country and is the headquarters of the Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences and the Polytechnic Institute of Agriculture.

Educational institutions found in Bishkek:

  • Kyrgyz International University.
  • American University of Central Asia.
  • Bishkek University of Humanities.
  • Kyrgyz State Medical Academy.
  • Ataturk-Alatoo International University.
  • Kirgiz Technical University.
  • National University of the Kyrgyz State.
  • Arab University of the Kyrgyz State.
  • Slavic University of Kyrgyz
  • Kyrgyz-Russian State University.
  • Kyrgyz-Turkish MANAS University.
  • Kyrgyz Uzbek University.

Places of interest

Ala-Artscha National Park, is only 45 minutes drive from Bishkek about 40 km south of the city in the mountains of Kyrgyzstan. This park offers good hiking trails and a stunning landscape of alpine mountains.

Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan