Category: Africa

For the complete list of nations in Africa, please visit neovideogames.com.

Egypt Between 1950s and 1970’s

Egypt Between 1950s and 1970’s

The 1950s had seen the affirmation of the figure, work and myth of ‛Aled en-Nāṣer, champion of an Egyptian-led pan-Arabism. The victory in the Suez crisis of 1956, due to Soviet and American support, the union with Syria in 1958 and that (which remained nominal) with Yemen, seemed to spur the steps towards the formation of the United Arab States under the leadership of the prestigious leader Egyptian. But the following decade must have reserved for him and his country painful developments. Already in 1961 the United Arab Republic ceased to exist, except in a meticulous survival of nomenclature, due to Syrian secession. Neither the active further intervention of Egypt in the internal affairs of Syria and ‛Irāq, still relying on the Nasserian myth, he managed to bring together the many times longed for unity. Even more negative was the Egyptian armed intervention in Yemen (starting from 1962), in support of the republican revolution of as-Sallāl, which had risen against the Zaydite imamate: the long, exhausting Followitan guerrillas, saw the monarchist faction still resist long, and eventually yielding the field to the Republicans, without this entailing any significant gain, of direct influence and prestige, for Egypt,

But the major card of Nasserian politics continued to be played against Israel throughout the decade, stirring up the religious and national sentiment of the whole Arab world towards the enemy intruder.

The crisis of the spring of 1967 (six-day war, June 5-10), perhaps not entirely wanted and orchestrated by the Egyptian dictator, nevertheless had a disastrous outcome for Egypt and for the prestige of its leader, who with the closure of the Gulf of ‘Aqaba and the forced withdrawal of the United Nations forces from the Gaza Strip had given Israel the justification for the lightning-fast pre-emptive attack. For Egypt 1996, please check pharmacylib.com.

Faced with the disaster of the loss of Sinai and the near-annihilation of the Egyptian armed forces, Nāṣer first resigned, but then agreed to remain in the direction of the state, concentrating in his hands the office of President of the Republic, President of the Council and Secretary General of the ‘Arab Socialist Union (the single Egyptian party). Upon his sudden death (September 1970), Egypt he was under the material and moral weight of a military defeat, economically exhausted despite Soviet aid, and subjected to a harsh police regime. The convulsive and impulsive work of ‘Aled en-Nāṣer, although animated by an idealistic selflessness, had failed.

The successor of the late dictator, Anwar as-Sādāt, immediately showed, even in formal homage and in the alleged continuity with the aims of war and peace of his predecessor, a much greater flexibility and political prudence. Internally, cautious liberalization gave the country some respite. In foreign policy, the political and technical support of the Soviet Union was resolutely balanced by the jealous reaffirmation of Egyptian sovereignty, arriving (1971) at the request for a recall of all Russian military and technical advisers. At the same time, the claim to leadership diminished Egypt on the rest of the Arab world, and proposals for further unions and mergers were thwarted, such as that of the dynamic Gaddafī for a union between Libya and Egypt. But the Palestinian problem weighed heavily on the internal life of Egypt as on the other neighboring Arab states. And in the autumn of 1973, in agreement with Syria, the solution of arms was once again attempted.

The “Kippūr War”, with the double surprise attack of the two Arab countries against Israel, finally gave Egypt, rearmed by the Soviets but also prepared spiritually for the test, the possibility of erasing the painful memories of 1967, and of achieving some successes in a partial recovery of the Sinai, of considerable importance, rather than strategic, political and moral. Although the Israeli counter-offensive had brought the enemy to real Egyptian soil on this side of the Canal, breaking the myth of Israel’s invincibility had a strengthening effect on the country, and allowed Sādāt to subsequently welcome, under pressure and the United Nations, the armistice and then the disengagement on the Sinai, a prelude to peace negotiations. The just convened Geneva conference stopped in the bud, but the truce of arms on the Canal and on the Sinai stabilized allowing the development of tenacious diplomatic action. The repeated trips of the American Secretary of State Kissinger to the Near East established and sealed a climate of personal trust and friendship between him and Sādāt, which culminated in the re-establishment of formal diplomatic relations between the two countries. From the absolute intransigence of Nāṣer, Egypt thus passed, on the Palestinian problem, to a possibility no less than that previously contested against Jordan, and which favorable circumstances could further advance. In 1975, in fact, Sādāt reopened the Suez Canal; at the end of 1976, in close collaboration with Syria, he confirmed solidarity with Syria’s action in the Lebanese crisis, and the readiness for a global negotiated solution to the Palestinian problem. While the tension with Libya worsened, the coincidence of views with the USA was reiterated through a visit by Foreign Minister I. Fahmi to Washington (September 1977). A month later, economic policy and international relations considerations suggested a government reshuffle: after the resignation of the Ministers of Planning and Industry, an agreement was signed with Ford and confirmed the refusal to repay credits to the USSR. Finally, direct relations were established with Israel: Sādāt’s sensational visit to Tel Aviv (November 1977), harshly criticized by other Arab states, expressed the remarkable openness of current Egyptian politics.

Egypt Between 1950s and 1970's

Ethiopia Politics and Military

Ethiopia Politics and Military

Political order. – The new constitution was issued on November 4, 1955; in its drafting, developed by experts before Europeans then Americans, had begun to put its hands since 1948. It has been called “amended constitution” (Engl. revised c., Amharic Yata š Å lä h E GGA ??? Mang E st), at the suggestion of the experts themselves, so that it does not seem that the new constitutional act abrogates the rather rudimentary constitution of 1931, with respect to which, in reality, little or nothing it innovates in substance, while it is clear the intention to reiterate the power of supreme regulator of the state recognized to the sovereign. For the first time, the Ethiopian Church is institutionally framed in the structure of the state, entrusting itself to the sovereign with its temporal order and the appointment of its bishops. The parliament is composed of the Chamber of deputies (YaH and g mämriy  m and k and r b í and t “Council to initiate legislation”), elective, and the Senate (yah E g mawåssañ  m E k E r b ï ê t “Council for the decision of the laws”), imperial nomination. In accordance with the time limits set by the new constitution, from 11 September to 10 October (period corresponding to the month of maskarram with which the Ethiopian year begins) 1957 were held, for the first time, the political elections for the appointment of the members of the Chamber of Deputies, in number of 210 (of which 14 Eritreans). Political parties not being admitted, the candidates were independent; with the voluntary registration of the voters, the lack of a registry status was made up for; women were also allowed to vote, direct and secret. In relation to the number of elected deputies, the Senate was made up of 105 members (of which 9 Eritreans). For Ethiopia political system, please check cancermatters.net.

On the way to the establishment of the juridical instruments regulating the life of the modernized Ethiopian society, provision is also being made for the emanation of organic norms codes for the various branches of law. In 1957 the new penal code was promulgated (which entered into force in 1958), drawn up by a Swiss jurist, who was part of a committee that included other French jurists, charged with preparing the civil, commercial and maritime codes, promulgated in 1960.

The written rules, which the Ethiopian state is gradually giving itself to regulate the conduct of public life, made known in the Amharic and English languages ​​(the first, the official national language; the second, an official foreign language) have the form of aw ḡ ǧ (Engl. proclamation), t is ‘ and z  z (Engl. order), DANB (Engl. decree), m ā st ā wåqiy Å (Engl. notice), which, in turn, can also be T aql ā ll (Engl. general) and YaH and g (Engl. legal). The faculty to legislate is exercised, as well as by the sovereign and the parliament, by the executive power (ministers), as authorized to do so for matters on which the legislative power has already initially ruled; the executive power then issues all internal regulations (yäwus ṭ dänb). The formal structure of the provisions is that of the West, to which the experts with whose assistance they are developed belong belong. It is up to the sovereign or to several members of parliament to propose laws, but no law is actually proposed without the consent of the first.

Ministers and deputy ministers are chosen and appointed by the sovereign; the bills they propose pass to parliament after sovereign approval. The powers, functions and organization of the ministries are, formally, those of the West, from which, almost always, come the experts who are actually entrusted with the functioning of the administrative apparatus; in reality, the traditional customs of Ethiopian feudal society weigh on their functioning.

Administrative order. – The peripheral administration of the state takes place with the division of the territory into 12 provinces divided into 72 districts and these into districts and sub-districts. At the head of the provinces is a governor general of royal appointment, assisted by a director also of royal appointment, assisted by an advisory council.

The municipal order has been adopted in major city centers, whose administration presides over a mayor (käntib Å in Addis Ababa and Gondar, yäkatam  š um “end of town” elsewhere), dependent on the governor general of the province or, in Addis Abeba, by the Minister of Internal Affairs.

Armed Forces. – Public order and defense have their own military corps, whose education and organization have been entrusted to foreigners, mostly Europeans (including military aviation, with school in Debrä ??? Zäìt, formerly Bisoftu); elite troops form the body of the Sovereign’s Guard.

Judicial system. – A supreme court of the sovereign has been created, presided over by afa n ĕ gùs (traditional office inserted in the new structure) and usually also including a non-Ethiopian judge (belonging to the High Court), although many of the cases submitted to it pass to the personal decisions of the sovereign; a High Court (commissioned by the British government, with the 1942 treaty, to protect the judgment of Europeans), composed of a variable number of sections, also includes European judges, who preside over some sections, and temporary adjunct judges of imperial and has no limits to its jurisdiction (it can also act as a court of first instance), which extends to administrative justice and particular civil disputes of a public nature.There are, then, the provincial, district or regional, district and sub-district courts, where European judges do not sit and with jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters. An appeal is foreseen by the lower court than the higher one, and the judgment pronounced on the appeal is final. In 1947 the local judge was established with pre-eminent function of conciliator judge, appointed by the minister (Ministry of the Interior). The particular court is the State Security Court (established in 1947), with its related Court of Appeal; the ecclesiastical authorities, moreover, continue to exercise traditional jurisdictional rights, of limited extent. Muslims have their own courts competent in private matters.

Ethiopia Politics and Military

Tunisia Geopolitics

Tunisia Geopolitics

Tunisia is a country in the Maghreb, the coastal strip of North Africa that extends from Morocco to Libya. From a geopolitical point of view it differs from other players in the area – such as Algeria and Libya – because it is not rich in natural resources; this feature unites it to Morocco and makes the country more dependent on relations with partners on the northern shore of the Mediterranean. Its strategic geographical location, on the southern shore of the Strait of Sicily and in the middle of the Mediterranean routes, makes Tunisia an important player for all the countries of southern Europe. Relations with the European Union (Eu), with which Tunisia signed an association agreement as early as 1998, represent one of the foreign policy priorities. In particular, the country has the closest ties with France, which was a colonial power in Tunisia for decades (until independence in 1956), and with Italy, for reasons of geographical proximity and historical relations. In the Maghreb area and, more generally, in the Middle East, Tunisia maintains good relations with all its neighbors and with all the Arab countries, although there are some tensions with Algeria, due to geostrategic and political reasons. Historically a second-rate country from a political and diplomatic point of view, both due to its marginal position with respect to the heart of the Middle East and its small size. For Tunisia political system, please check cancermatters.net.

In 2011, former president Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali, in office since 1987, was forced to flee to Saudi Arabia following two weeks of popular demonstrations and protests, in which about 80 people died. Since that moment, Tunisia has started a process of political transition, which was established with the election of a constituent assembly in October 2011. This body, in addition to having the task of writing the new constitutional charter of the country, also carried out legislative functions, pending the 2014 elections. Before this date, the assembly was composed of a majority that gravitated around the Islamic party Ennahda, which ruled in coalition with Ettakatol and the Congress for the republic. Despite the political and social divisions and the climate of polarization created in the aftermath of the victory of the Islamic party, after more than two years of discussion the assembly approved the new Constitution in January 2014. This was only the first step towards a more structured democratization process, continued with the national dialogue between the parties for the establishment of a technical government in 2014 – in a tense climate due to the assassination of two politicians belonging to the opposition forces, Chokri Belaid and Mohamed Brahmi -, that would lead the country to new elections. This phase was led by the so-called ‘quartet’, i.e. by four civil society associations (the largest trade union, This was only the first step towards a more structured democratization process, continued with the national dialogue between the parties for the establishment of a technical government in 2014 – in a tense climate due to the assassination of two politicians belonging to the forces of opposition, Chokri Belaid and Mohamed Brahmi -, leading the country to new elections. This phase was led by the so-called ‘quartet’, i.e. by four civil society associations (the largest trade union, This was only the first step towards a more structured democratization process, continued with the national dialogue between the parties for the establishment of a technical government in 2014 – in a tense climate due to the assassination of two politicians belonging to the forces of opposition, Chokri Belaid and Mohamed Brahmi -, leading the country to new elections. This phase was led by the so-called ‘quartet’, i.e. by four civil society associations (the largest trade union,Uggt; the association of industrialists; that of lawyers; the Tunisian League for Human Rights) which, precisely for this effort, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in October 2015. In October 2014, the first democratic parliamentary elections in republican history saw the victory of the secular formation Nidaa Tounes, led by the former minister (from the first years of the Bourguiba presidency) and head of the government (in the second transitional government after the fall by Ben Ali), Béji Caïd Essebsi. The latter, in December 2014, was then elected president of the republic. Following this election result, the two major parties, Ennahda and Nidaa Tounes, gave birth in 2015 to a coalition government led by Prime Minister Habib Essid, which also includes the Free Patriotic Union and Afek Tounes.

Tunisia Geopolitics

Algeria History – Ancient Libyan

Algeria History – Ancient Libyan

The primitive ethnic background of the regions corresponding to present-day Algeria was made up of Berbers; and to this stock belonged the populations that, through classical sources, appear to be residing there, i.e. Numidians, Mauri and Getuli and who then, as the geographical knowledge spreads, are better known in their subdivisions: Massyli or Massylii, Masaesyli or Masaesylii, Nacmusii, Machurebi, Baniuri, Nabathrae, Misulani, etc. Elements of knowledge of these populations in historical times are essentially epigraphic documents, rock drawings, various types of construction, information from classical writers on social status, religion, etc. The ancient Berbers had their own writing, of unknown origin, widespread throughout North Africa, perpetuated to this day, tif ī nagh (v.) of the Tuāreg. This writing does not appear to have been used for works or long compositions, but only for epigraphs which are mostly funerary, short and rough in shape, and in part, like those found at Dugga in Tunisia, with a monumental character and of a certain length. Their interpretation has so far little progressed. A large number of tomb-type epigraphs have been found in Algeria, and mainly in the department of Constantine. They mostly contain the name of the deceased followed by a W. meaning “son”, and therefore from the name of the father; in several follow other words that probably indicate the place or tribe of origin and perhaps the profession. Some of these proper names are found in the current usage of the Berbers or are explained with Berber root; someone compares with the names of Libyan characters cited by classical writers, such as eg. those of “Mskrd ‘son of Dbr” of inscription 107 of J. Halévy’s edition, which correspond to the names cited by Sallust “Dabar, Massugradae filius, ex gente Masinissae” (De bello Iug., CVIII), correspondence that could not only of onomastics, but also of people, in the sense that it is, in Sallust,(even among today’s Berbers there is the custom of resurrecting, as they say, the names of deceased relatives).

There is no doubt that the ancient Libyan inscriptions that go back, at least as far as can be drawn from those certainly datable to the Roman period, are written in Berber; and in today’s Berber languages ​​we must look for the elements for their interpretation, which once completed will provide information not only on North African onomastics and toponymy, but also on historical characters and indigenous civilization. For Algeria 2011, please check internetsailors.com.

In terms of constructions, it is not always possible to distinguish what is properly Berber from works possibly belonging to other lineages, or due to the influence of other civilizations; thus it is not always possible to distinguish what belongs to historical epochs from prehistoric epochs. It is worth mentioning the megalithic monuments of the dolmen type, which served as tombs and which in various locations in Algeria (Dielfa, Guyotville, Sigus, etc.) are gathered together in large numbers, so as to form real necropolises. They are attributed in part to a historical epoch and close to the Christian era or even after it. Monuments of the cromlech type are also frequent in Algeria, formed of a circular enclosure of dense stones, or of two or three concentric enclosures, and which probably served as tombs. The menhirs are found in large numbers in the Medjana plain. Of the other type of funerary monument called tumulus, which presents a variety of shapes, there are also examples in the surroundings of Mascara, Frenda, etc. In Aurès and Ḥoḍna the sh ū shah (tuft) is common, a construction in the shape of a cylindrical tower, just over 2 m high. and with about 5 m. in diameter; and the enclosures of concentric or ellipsoidal stones rising with steps, called baz ī na. Alongside these primitive-style monuments, there are two other monuments that have an artistic character, perhaps due to influences from other civilizations, although the elements are not clearly seen; that is the Madgh ā sen (Medracen) between Batna and Constantina, a large mausoleum made up of a cylindrical base, decorated on the outside with columns and surmounted by a conical stepped construction (fig. p. 452), probably the tomb of some king or family royal indigenous. Another similar monument, called the tomb of the Christian, is located between Castiglione and Tipaza, and is remembered by Pomponio Mela as the tomb of a royal family; its construction has been attributed by someone to King Juba II. As for the “tuft” mausoleums, these are probably indigenous forms of tombs to which the civilizations which arrived in North Africa gave an artistic character.

Two series of rock graffiti, found in various places in Algeria, can be distinguished, one prehistoric, as also appears from the representations of animals which later disappeared from those regions; and another, which is attributed to the Libyan-Berber period, among which the camel is frequent. Often there appear characters tif ī nagh. Such designs are found in great abundance in the South Oranese and in the Sahara. – From classical sources we get information on the social status of the Libyan populations. The family was patriarchal, with residues of matriarchy, of which some have been perpetuated until recent times and even up to the present day. The Libîs were, like their current descendants, partly sedentary, partly nomadic. From the union of various tribes, monarchical states were also formed in ancient times, such as those of Numidia and Mauretania. The religion of these peoples was essentially animistic: mountains, caves, trees, rivers, ponds, etc. they were objects of worship; likewise some celestial bodies. Indications of zoolatry are found in various places. Magical practices were widespread (see also the entries B erberi, Nhumid).

Algeria History - Ancient Libyan

Morocco Geopolitics

Morocco Geopolitics

The Kingdom of Morocco, independent from France and Spain since 1956, has always played a strategic role in commercial traffic to and from the Strait of Gibraltar. In this sense, it is significant that Morocco has entered into important commercial partnerships over the years and signed over 50 bilateral free trade agreements, both with the countries of the northern shore of the Mediterranean (primarily with the European Union), as well as with the USA, Turkey, Tunisia, Egypt and Jordan and, more recently, with China, India, Japan and several other Latin American, African and Eastern European economies.

Traditionally open to cooperation with Western powers, on the regional side, from a political point of view, Morocco experiences the most controversial relations with some of its neighbors, especially Algeria.

The two countries are divided by a historical rivalry, which over the decades has maintained the state of bilateral relations constantly in tension. The Algerian support for the Polisario Front, the independence group that opposes Rabat in the dispute over the sovereignty of Western Sahara, weigh heavily on these., as well as the disputes related to the territorial definition of the common border (closed since 1994) and the management of illegal immigration flows. On the other hand, relations with two other important regional players such as Tunisia and Libya are better, even if fluctuating, while the economic and political ties with the states of the Arabian Peninsula are particularly intense, which they have proposed to Morocco, together with Jordan, to join the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), although the negotiations are still suspended.

Problems of disputed sovereignty over some territories along the Mediterranean coast of Morocco (the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla) also exist with Spain. However, relations with Madrid have improved significantly in recent years. The volume of trade is progressively increasing, cooperation in the action to combat the illicit trafficking of people and goods, especially drugs, is growing and both countries show that they want to regulate the flows of Moroccan labor, attracted by the labor market. Spanish.

Intense economic and commercial relations also exist with the US. The Washington-Rabat axis has also strengthened around a close partnership and military policy, consolidated after 2001, thanks to the strong partnership that the Moroccan Kingdom has guaranteed to U know in the fight against Islamist terrorism, it has been sealed by the transfer to Morocco of the status of ‘Non- Born Major Us Ally’. Another important Moroccan partner is the European Union, with which the country signed an association agreement which came into force in March 2000. Since 2004, Rabat has also agreed to strengthen the partnership with Brussels by setting up a cooperation table in which to discuss the fight against terrorism, the fight against drug trafficking, control of illegal immigration flows, economic and social development plans. Morocco has joined the European Union’s Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA) program, which should establish an even closer relationship with Brussels, already Rabat’s first trading partner today. Furthermore, Morocco is the largest recipient of European assistance programs under the European Neighborhood Policy in the Mediterranean.

The existing tensions between Morocco and Algeria have been one of the major obstacles to the full development of cooperation in the North African region. This happened for example with the Arab Maghreb Union, the regional common market launched in 1989 to create a free market area between Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia. The tensions between the two states have so far also jeopardized the coordination of anti-terrorist activity, which would be particularly necessary in view of the cross-border nature of the terrorist organizations active along the border between Morocco and Algeria. Al-Qaeda operations in the Islamic Maghreb (Aqim). Finally, another peculiarity of Morocco’s foreign policy is linked to the question of Western Sahara: that of being the only African state that is not part of the African Union (Au). Rabat retired by the Organization of African Unity (the predecessor of the A u) in 1984, when it recognized the independence of the Sahrawi Democratic Arab Republic, disavowing the Moroccan claims on the region.

Morocco is governed by a constitutional monarchy, with a parliament elected according to democratic rules. Since July 1999 the king is Mohammed VI, successor of Hassan II, in turn preceded by Mohammed V, the father of Moroccan independence.

The constitutional reform of 1996, subsequently amended in March 2011 following the protests in the context of the Arab Spring, entrusted legislative power to a bicameral Parliament, composed of the House of Representatives and that of Councilors. The first is made up of 395 seats, of which 60 are reserved for women, assigned by universal suffrage every five years, while the second is made up of 120 members indirectly elected, for a term of six years, by local assemblies, professional organizations and trade unions.

The first truly democratic elections, protected from electoral fraud, were those of 1997, which saw the Moroccan left, long marginalized despite the strong consensus in the country, form a government coalition led by the historic leader of the Union Socialiste des Forces Populaires , Abderrahmane Youssoufi. The arrival in the government of a center-left majority marked the start of a new phase of Moroccan politics, characterized by alternation. From the end of the nineties, therefore – coinciding with the end of the almost forty-year reign of Hassan II, marked by serious limitations to civil and political liberties – a process of democratization began which led to a multi-party system,

The electoral and democratic competition is still today limited by the three so-called ‘sacred limits’: the king, Islam and the question of Western Sahara. Furthermore, the internal political landscape is characterized by a great fragmentation in the party offer, which forces governments to form broad coalitions. For Morocco government and politics, please check a2zgov.com.

In 2007, 33 parties and over 13 groups of independent candidates stood before the voters. In that electoral round, the Independence Party (Parti de l’Istiqlal, Pi), close to the monarchy and traditional point of reference for both conservatives and nationalists, returned to win. The P ihowever, he failed to retain power in the early elections of November 2011, following the protests of the Arab Spring and the constitutional changes desired by the king to stem the growing popular discontent. The relative majority was won for the first time by the moderate Islamist Justice and Development party (Parti de la justice et du développement), which leads the executive formed by a coalition of parties of which Istiqlal is also a part.

The victory of the PJD took place in the wake of protests which, in some countries, brought Islamist party formations to power. Contrary to other realities, however, the Moroccan Islamists have shown no interest in putting an end to the monarchical regime, although their relations with the king in the years preceding the electoral victory were at times stormy. Furthermore, it is interesting to underline that the PJD is the only Islamic party, together with the Tunisian Ennahda, which ruled between 2011 and 2014 in coalition with other political forces and not exclusively, as happened in the short interlude of the Muslim Brotherhood. in power in Egypt between 2012 and 2013.

The worsening of the economic crisis and the failure to implement reforms led Istiqlal to leave the ruling coalition on 10 July 2013. This officially opened a crisis which returned – after a few months of negotiations – on 10 October with the formation of a new center-right executive, composed of the Islamists of Justice and Development, the conservatives of the Mouvement populaire (MP), the Rassemblement National des Indépendents (Rni) and the Parti du Progrès et du Socialisme. Despite a good result in the local elections of September 2015, the Pjdhe lost the majority in the upper house following the electoral round of the following October. The result compromised the effectiveness of government action and above all questioned the Islamic party’s ability to obtain a sufficient majority in the upcoming 2016 elections.

Morocco government

South Africa Geography and Prehistory

South Africa Geography and Prehistory

South Africa is a Republic State of southern Africa, which occupies the extreme southern part of the continent, confining to NO with Namibia, N with Botswana and Zimbabwe, NE with Mozambique and Swaziland, and incorporating, in the east of its territory, Lesotho.

Physical characteristics

The territory is largely made up of a plateau furrowed by numerous fractures and bordered towards the coast by high escarpments, which in the past made access to the interior difficult. The altitude varies from 600 to 2000 m asl, with the highest parts towards the S and SE; to the North and NW the other lands slowly descend towards the Kalahari Basin. The plateau, in the southern section, was raised by the tectonic movements of the Tertiary, which formed the mountainous alignments (maximum altitude 3842 m) stretched from the Cape to Mozambique, clearly separating the narrow strip of hills and coastal plains from the highlands of the indoor. The alignment of the reliefs that form the great escarpment, stretched for 2000 km by the valley of the Limpopo Riverup to the Cape region, it is formed by a continuous series of mountain groups (Dragons Mountains, Winterberge, Swartberge), which loom over the Indian Ocean coast. The region outside the great escarpment includes the Lower Veld of the Transvaal to the N, a region consisting of a series of undulating planes, with a variable height between 150 and 600 m asl, separated from the Mozambican coast by the Lebombo Mountains. Further south, the coastal region shrinks considerably; only in the North of Natal, between Swaziland and Mozambique, does a short flat stretch open up. In the Cape region, the coastal strip is plagued by a series of very ancient fold systems that form a system of relatively high hills (Montagna della Tavola, which dominates Cape Town: 1088 m), looming over the narrow coastal selvedge: these folded reliefs enclose raised floors that widen at the Little Karoo and, further inland, the Great Karoo. The Atlantic coastal region is characterized by gentle hill systems and some floodplains.

The territory, located for the most part south of the Tropic of Capricorn and with large internal basins little influenced by ocean air masses, due to the heights that form the great escarpment, is characterized by a series of climates which, free from excesses frequent in the African continent, they do not present, except in the arid north-western areas, conditions such as to pose problems to human activities. Apart from the northern section of the Transvaal, the whole territory has subtropical climates. The southernmost section of the Cape region enjoys a Mediterranean-type climate, with more abundant rains during the austral winter, dry summer and average temperatures ranging within moderate values ​​(20.5 ° C in January and 12 ° C in July in Cape Town, with 520 mm of rain per year). The east coast, bathed by the warm Mozambique Current, it has a subtropical climate, with more abundant rains during the summer season, when the monsoon winds bring the masses of humid air coming from the Indian Ocean to the slopes of the coastal reliefs. The inland plateaus are much more arid, with annual averages of rainfall generally less than 600 mm, minimum in correspondence with the Kalahari desert, and with temperatures rather close to those of Cape Town, as the increase in altitude is compensated from the proximity of the equator. The average temperatures drop significantly only along the arid western coastal stretch, due to the influence of the cold Benguela Current.

The inconstancy and scarcity of rainfall in the internal basins affects the entire hydrography of the country, which is poor and has only two important watercourses: the Orange, which, with its tributary Vaal, drains the entire central region of the highlands and flows into the Atlantic Ocean, marking the border with Namibia, and the Limpopo, which forms the border with Botswana and Zimbabwe, before entering Mozambique and throwing itself into the Indian Ocean. The tributaries of these two rivers and the smaller courses do not always have water throughout the year, and in periods of aridity they are lost in the internal basins. For South Africa geography, please check franciscogardening.com.

The natural vegetation, today profoundly altered for production needs, in the Cape region is similar to the Mediterranean scrub, with a prevalence of evergreen shrubs, while the evergreen temperate forest is present only in a small part of the eastern coast of the southern region. The evergreen subtropical forest still covers some stretches of the coastal and submontane region of the northeastern section of the Cape and Natal region. Inside, the vegetation is affected by the decrease in rainfall and is progressively reduced to vast prairies or pre-desert steppes, leaving room for a few species particularly suitable for enduring long periods of drought. The park-like bush of the savannah type is present only in some internal basins richer in humidity, along the main rivers and in the tropical Transvaal region. The typical fauna of the African steppes and savannahs, once very rich, is now preserved in some nature reserves, carefully protected, and which have in the Kruger National Park (over 20,000 km2), on the border with Mozambique, one of the best examples of all Africa, visited by over 1 million tourists every year.

PREHISTORY

The oldest prehistoric evidence is the fossil remains of australopithecines and the sliver and pebble artifacts found at sites in the Transvaal (Sterkfontein, Makapansgat, Swartkrans and Kroomdrai) and in Bophuthatswana (Taung). Sterkfontein and Makapansgat date to 3.2-2.4 million years ago, the others at 1-2 million. The Acheulean, locally called Stellenbosch due to its oldest phases, is documented by the Montagu Cave, east of Cape Town, and the Focolare Cave, in the Transvaal. Later there are lithic artifacts connected to cultural traditions marked by various names, depending on the eponymous deposits (Pietersburg, Mazelspoort, Alexandersfontein, Stillbay, Mossel Bay, Magosi, Howieson’s Poort). These cultures, characterized by the method of working the stone called Levalloisian, correspond chronologically to part of the Middle and Upper Paleolithic of Europe. Microlithic industries (Smithfield and Wilton cultures) later developed), with artifacts that go hand in hand with ceramics from the beginning of our era. The people who manufactured the microlithic artifacts are believed to be the authors of the rock engravings and paintings, depicting animals and scenes with human beings, present in much of the country. Groups of farming farmers who knew pottery and iron working, probable ancestors of the current Bantu, spread from the 5th century on. AD, from north to south, transmitting metallurgical techniques. The Iron Age is represented by the sites of Bambandyanalo and Mapungubwe: the first founded around 1000 BC, the second a few centuries later.

South Africa PREHISTORY

Algeria State Overview

Algeria State Overview

Algeria. Whose official name is the People’s Democratic Algerian Republic is a country in North Africa that borders the Mediterranean to the north, Mali and Niger to the south, Tunisia and Libya to the east, Morocco and the Saharawi Republic to the west, and to the southwest with Mauritania and Mali. It has four regions: the coastal mountain range, called Atlas del Tell, the region of high plateaus before the Sahara, the Saharan Atlas mountain range and the Sahara desert.

Algeria is one of the most important countries in the Arab world. He served as a mediator in the negotiations between Iran and Iraq during the war that these countries held between 1979 and 1988 ; He was one of the fundamental architects in the creation of the Union of the Arab Maghreb, a regional grouping with Tunisia, Morocco, Libya and Mauritania to promote political and economic cooperation. It is also one of the founding African countries of the Non-Aligned Movement.

The climate is Mediterranean, in the mountainous region of the coast, dry in the region of high plateaus and semi-desert and desert in the rest. Temperatures range from -15ºC in the high mountains to 58ºC in the desert.

The country achieved independence from France in 1962. Then the FLN (National Liberation Front), chaired by Ahmed Ben Bella, came to power. Following the deposition of Ben Bella by his defense minister, Houari Boumedienne, he assumed the leadership of the government, a position he would hold until his death in 1978. Since then, Abdelaziz Bouteflika has presided over the country.

History

The current borders of Algeria, as well as those of Tunisia and Libya, were established when the region was still part of the Ottoman Empire, creating then, with each of these three countries an administrative subdivision. The arrival of the Ottoman Empire supposed the withdrawal of the Spanish from the coastal strip that until then they had retained. In 1830, the French managed to establish a firm position in North Africa, from where they began to expand and colonize a large part of the region.

After a bloody war of liberation against French colonialism, the independence of Algeria arrived in 1962 and the FLN (National Liberation Front) assumed power, chaired by Ahmed Ben Bella. Following the deposition of Ben Bella by his defense minister, Houari Boumedienne, he assumed the leadership of the government, a position he would hold until his death in 1978.

Presidents of the People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria

  • Ahmed Ben Bella (1962-1965)
  • Houari Boumedienne (1965-1978)
  • Chadli Bendjedid (1978-1992)
  • Ali Kafi (1992-1994)
  • Liamine Zéroual (1994-1999)
  • Abdelaziz Buteflika (1999 – present) in his fourth consecutive term.

According to localcollegeexplorer, Algeria is one of the most important countries in the Arab world. He served as a mediator in the negotiations between Iran and Iraq during the war that these countries held between 1979 and 1988 ; He was one of the fundamental architects in the creation of the Union of the Arab Maghreb, a regional grouping with Tunisia, Morocco, Libya and Mauritania to promote political and economic cooperation. It is also one of the founding African countries of the Non-Aligned Movement.

Economy

Algeria is one of the richest nations in Africa. Agriculture plays a declining but prominent role in the Algerian economy, while mineral production accounts for the largest item of gross domestic product.

Since the late 1990s the government has initiated large industrialization programs. Annual GDP for 2006 was $ 114,727 million (World Bank figures), which is equivalent to $ 3,440 per capita. Average inflation is 2.50% above the consumer price index (CPI).

The greatest natural wealth resides in its large mineral deposits, mainly oil, natural gas, phosphates and iron ore. Other important minerals are coal, lead, and zinc. The cultivated land area comprises only 3.4% of the total area and is located mainly in the valleys and plains of the coastal region.

Education

Primary education is free and compulsory for ages 6 to 15; more than 95% of school-age children receive this basic education. The Algerian educational system, with a French tradition, has given way to a program of Arabization that began shortly after independence.

The government introduced new teaching methods, began training Algerian teachers and bringing in Arabic language teachers from abroad. In 1976 all private schools were closed and a compulsory nine-year educational period was introduced. In 1996, some 4.72 million students attended the 15,426 primary schools in the country and some 2.99 million were enrolled in secondary education.

The government also maintains vocational and teacher training schools. Algeria has eight scientific and technological universities; the total number of students enrolled in higher education institutions is 682,775. The University of Algiers (1879) has faculties of Law, Medicine, Science and Humanities. Seven of the universities and most of the 20 specialized university colleges have been founded after independence.

Culture

French tradition previously dominated Algerian cultural life. Already before independence, however, a growing movement developed among rebirth artists and intellectuals of national interest in Arab-Berber origins, a movement that, since 1962, gained official support.

In Algeria there are the Museum of Prehistory and Ethnography, the National Archaeological Museum and the National Museum of Fine Arts that are located in the capital. The Cirta Museum in Constantine houses collections of art and archeology.

Algeria State Overview

The Earliest History of Ethiopia

The Earliest History of Ethiopia

Ethiopia’s history goes back several thousand years. The country was once one of the first areas inhabited by humans, as a number of important finds by ancient people have proved. In 1974, the skeleton of an ancient man about three million years old was found in the Awash Valley in central Ethiopia. The skeleton turned out to be descended from a woman of the species Australopithecus afarensis, and later became known as “Lucy”. Since then, even older remains of the earth’s first humans have been found, even older than Lucy. The findings of the ancient people, Ethiopia’s very early transition to Christianity, and the fact that the country has almost completely escaped European colonial masters, make Ethiopia’s history completely unique compared to the rest of the continent. Except for a short period during the Italian siege, Ethiopia escaped colonization at a time when Europeans were fighting to turn most of the dark continent’s countries into European colonies. On the other hand, Ethiopians have been in close contact with other cultures for several millennia. Egypt, for example, has been a loyal trading partner since 1,000 BC, and the Roma, Greeks and Arabs have also been in active trade with Ethiopia. Something that has left a clear mark on the country’s culture. Visit smartercomputing for Eastern Africa Trade Unions.

Aksumriket

Immigrant Arabs co-founded the Aksum dynasty, which ruled over a vast area of ​​land from 100 BC. to 700 AD The kingdom’s first ruler was the legendary Menelik I., which according to history was the result of a romantic encounter between King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. This would mean that he is the ancestor of all subsequent Ethiopian emperors. It is partly due to this high culture that Ethiopia became one of the world’s first Christian countries, when King Ezana 300 AD. made Christianity the official religion of Aksum. The ancient Coptic Church, also known as the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, is still the country’s official religion. Since 1974, it has been associated with Islam. For centuries, Muslim missionaries have been trying to convert Ethiopians, who have refused for almost as long. Neighboring countries quickly converted to Islam. As a result, Ethiopian Christianity has been quite isolated from Christianity in other parts of the world. The most obvious characteristic of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church is that Jesus is considered exclusively divine, and not a mixture of god and man, as in our own version of Christianity. In addition, Ethiopians boast that the very Ark of the Covenant (the casket containing the tablets of Moses) is found in the land. Menelik I. took the ark from King Solomon in Jerusalem, and placed it in a small chapel in Aksum. Although it is not possible to enter the chapel, there are no Christian Ethiopians who doubt that the casket is actually there yet. After a few centuries of a high culture that was fully comparable to the contemporary Roman Empire and the Persian Empire, the Aksum Empire split. The center of power was moved south, to the Zagwe dynasty with its capital in Lalibela. In the Zagwe culture, which flourished between 1150 and 1270, people believed that they descended directly from Moses, and Coptic Christianity continued to be the main religion. A large number of churches were built, in the form of monoliths, directly carved into the rocks.

Ethiopia’s modern history

When Europeans began to explore Africa, a group of Portuguese came past Ethiopia in the 16th century. The guests were initially welcomed as an aid in the fight against Islam, but the Portuguese missionaries eventually became too much for Emperor Fasilides, who expelled them in 1633. A couple of centuries later, the Italians became interested in the East African country, and were the first European the country that succeeded in turning Ethiopia into a colony in 1936. This meant that the emperor, Haile Selassie, eventually had to leave the country. In 1941, Allied forces expelled the Italians, and the emperor returned from exile in England. He resumed the modernizations he had begun during his first imperial period. Selassie’s last imperial year was marked by a violent famine that affected large parts of Africa, killing 200,000 people. The famine was followed by major political and social unrest. In 1974, the emperor was deposed, the monarchy was abolished and an attempt was made to establish a communist state. But the political chaos continued, and so did recurring periods of drought and famine, until the establishment of the Ethiopian Republic with uproar in 1995.

The Earliest History of Ethiopia

Cape Verde History Timeline

Cape Verde History Timeline

According to ethnicityology, Cape Verde is an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, located approx. 570 km off the west coast of Africa (near Dakar, Senegal) and is an independent republic. The name means “The Green Forbjerg”.

The Cape Verde archipelago consists of 10 main islands and 8 smaller islands, which are divided into two archipelagos: Barlaventos (northern archipelago) and Sotaventos (southern archipelago). All the islands are volcanic, and an active volcano is found on one island, Fogo (“Pico de Fogo”). The most recent eruption was in 1995. The other Cape Verde islands are São Vicente, São Nicolau, Santo Antão, Maio and Little Brava.

The then uninhabited islands were discovered by the Portuguese during the great voyages of discovery in the middle of the 15th century and were later used as a hub for the Portuguese slave trade. Cape Verde became independent in 1975 after the Carnation Revolution in Portugal on April 25, 1974. Cape Verde’s largest city is the capital Praia, located on the island of São Tiago, which is also Cape Verde’s most populous island.

Due to its location off the west coast of Africa, which was strategic in relation to the trade route between Africa, Europe and the New World, Cape Verde became an important port and hub for the slave trade.

Cape Verde’s culture reflects the country’s Portuguese and African roots.

In recent years, a lot of tourism has arisen on the island of Sal, where the international airport is also located. The island is flat and barren, but has long sandy beaches along the south coast. The trade winds and the very steep volcanic islands make the place ideal for surfing and windsurfing, which is also an essential part of the core of tourism on Sal. The local population on Sal is very limited. In the other islands, tourism is very limited. Here, the language can constitute a barrier, as only a few speak English.

Google Maps TIMELINE:

1456 – The explorer Alvise Cadamosto is sent out by Henry the Navigator to explore the Atlantic coast. He discovered several of Cape Verde’s islands. When Cadamosto and his men arrived in Cape Verde, the islands were uninhabited, and on behalf of the Portuguese Crown, he claimed the archipelago. In the following decade, captains Diogo Dias and António Noli explored the rest of the archipelago on behalf of Henrik Søfareren.

1582/1585 – Sir Francis Drake of England plunders Riberia Grande (now Cidade Velha ) during the growing economic growth of the slave trade.

1747 – The islands are hit by the first of many droughts, which have since hit the islands about five years apart. Conditions worsened due to deforestation and overgrazing. Three major periods of drought in the 18th and 19th centuries led to more than 100,000 people starving to death. The Portuguese colonial masters sent very little help to the islanders during the droughts.

1770 – Praia becomes the capital.

1832 – The islands are visited by Charles Darwin ‘s expedition.

1910-25 – During this period, Portugal had 40 different governments as well as 18 revolutions and coup attempts, and in 1926 the last of a long series of military coups took place in Portugal. The country became a right-wing dictatorship, which regarded the colonies as a means of increasing the country’s prosperity, and that these had to be developed in the interests of Portugal and the Portuguese. Several cases of famine, high unemployment and poverty as well as the inability of the Portuguese colonial masters to solve the problems led to increased resistance to the colonial power of the population.

1956 – The African Party of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde Independence (Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde – PAIGC) is founded by Amílcar Cabral.

1959 – April 3. After three years of preparation, it was ready with its first action, which marked the start of a fifteen-year war of liberation for Cape Verde and Portuguese Guinea. It happened in connection with the strike in the port of Pijuguiti in Porto de Bissau in Portuguese Guinea. The Colony Police (PIDE) cracked down on the strike and opened fire on the striking dock workers, killing 50 people. In addition to local forces, 10,000 Soviet and 35,000 Portuguese soldiers also took part in the ensuing War of Independence, which was to prove to be the longest-running of the African Liberation Wars.

1974 – April 25. The fascist regime Portugal was deposed in a military coup called the Carnation Revolution. The following year, the Republic of Cape Verde gained full independence with Aristides Pereia of PAICV as President. He promised to lead a democratic and socialist nation when he was elected president, but he instead worsened the country’s economic situation and persecuted dissidents by the regime. Cape Verde now became a one-party state, and the country entered into alliances with countries such as the People’s Republic of China and Libya. The one-party rule lasted until 1990.

Cape Verde History Timeline

Gorée Island (World Heritage)

Gorée Island (World Heritage)

The former anchorage of Portuguese explorers such as Vasco da Gama on the small island of Gorée across from Dakar gained notoriety as a base for the slave trade in West Africa. Today Gorée is a museum island and a memorial to slavery. See history of Senegal on behealthybytomorrow.

Gorée Island: facts

Official title: Gorée Island
Cultural monument: former anchorage of Portuguese explorers such as Vasco da Gama and the most important base for the slave trade in West Africa
Continent: Africa
Country: Senegal
Location: Island in front of the capital Dakar
Appointment: 1978
Meaning: a lasting reminder of the history of slavery

Gorée Island: history

1444 Occupation of the “Palm Island” by Portuguese troops
1492 Stopover by Columbus on the crossing to America
1588 after the defeat of the Portuguese-Spanish Armada, transition to the Netherlands
1663 Captured by English troops, lost to the Netherlands a year later
1677 after the conquest by French associations the most important port for the shipping of slaves
1678-1815 multiple changes between English and French rule
1776-78 Construction of the slave house
until 1848 Shipping of an estimated 10 million slaves; thereafter prohibition of slavery

Slave trade at the “Goede Roads”

Pounding through the waves, the ferry approaches the landing stage and anchors like the first Dutch merchant ships in the “Goede Roads”, the anchorage of the former slave island. A lively, fun-loving atmosphere welcomes newcomers. Children jump from the balustrade and swim towards the beach to screams of joy and laughter. A touch of grilled fish and beignets, donuts baked in peanut oil, pushes towards the newcomers. The first glance falls on the right at the former fort, then at the mighty fort, whose cannons have long since ceased to be aimed at the Atlantic. Decades have passed since the Vichy government used such military force to prevent General de Gaulle from landing in Dakar. A second glance discovers the silhouette of the Provencal-looking colonial houses. Even with little imagination, one can imagine the bustle of activity on the landing stage a hundred years ago, when boxes and barrels were constantly being carried ashore, proud “Signares” strolled on the beach and representatives of the trading houses gesticulating to negotiate lucrative deals.

For five centuries, Gorée was an important European trading center for ivory, leather and, last but not least, slaves. Sailing over from the Cape Verde Islands, the Portuguese landed first, followed by countless desperados and adventurers from all over the world. At the beginning of the 16th century the “Goede Roadstead” was sold to the Dutch, only to finally pass into French hands in the 19th century after decades of armed conflict between the French and the English. Because of its mild climate, the respective colonial officials valued the island as a resort, and it is still a popular destination for residents of Dakar and holidaymakers from overseas. There is little time to lose yourself in thoughts of past centuries. Thanks to the exuberant atmosphere on the slowly emptying ferry, you are quickly brought back to the present. Everyone is pushing off the ship. Baskets and bags of the islanders, filled with purchases from Dakar, go from hand to hand. You greet and hug as if you had just finished a long sea voyage. The latest gossip from the mainland is told, laughing and gesticulating. The siren of the returning ferry dominates the moment before the crowd disperses and the visitor only hears the crunch of the sand under his feet. The latest gossip from the mainland is told, laughing and gesticulating. The siren of the returning ferry dominates the moment before the crowd disperses and the visitor only hears the crunch of the sand under his feet. The latest gossip from the mainland is told, laughing and gesticulating. The siren of the returning ferry dominates the moment before the crowd disperses and the visitor only hears the crunch of the sand under his feet.

Behind the landing stage, narrow, cobbled streets lead across the island. Overhanging, red-violet bougainvilleas gently bob in the wind. Through ajar gates you can see green inner courtyards full of life. It is believed that here and there proud “Signares” with their elegant headscarves and brightly colored dresses come across. They belonged to the wealthy, influential islanders who were married to wealthy European merchants according to the »mode du pays«.

From the outside, the “slave house” seems to have no particular charm. However, if you step through the dark gate into the sun-drenched inner courtyard, you are taken by the atmosphere of the place. A staircase curved in the shape of a horseshoe on both sides leads to the upper floor. There they dined like a prince, laughed and bargained for exquisite slaves. The floorboards were roughly timbered, so that the prisoners living in the basement in their dark, narrow dungeons involuntarily had to take part in the goings-on of the slave traders. How many millions of slaves left Gorée through the “door of no return”? If you are here and understand that people have been abducted, the polemical “numbers game” becomes irrelevant. The island breathes history everywhere. Also in the former prison, today’s Musée d’Histoire du Sénégal, illuminates this dark past. But the island also sees itself as “Gorée la Joyeuse”, as “Gorée die Fröhliche”, a warm-hearted “Goede Roadstead” that is beyond time.

Gorée Island (World Heritage)

Equatorial Guinea Geography

Equatorial Guinea Geography

Equatorial Guinea, officially Spanish República de Guinea Ecuatorial [- gi ne ː a -], German Republic of Equatorial Guinea, the state in West Africa, the Gulf of Guinea (2019) 1.4 million residents; The capital is Malabo.

Equatorial Guinea comprises the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Póo) off the coast of Cameroon and Pagalu (Annobón) 400 km off the coast of Gabon as well as the mainland Mbini (Río Muni) between Cameroon and Gabon with the Elobey Islands and the island of Corisco.

Location

The mainland area Mbini rises from the mangrove coast to the highlands towered over by island mountains (up to 1,200 m above sea level) in the interior. The islands in the Gulf of Guinea belong to the volcanic chain of the Cameroon Line, which reaches 3,008 m above sea level in Pico Basile (highest point in the country) on the island of Bioko. The estuary Río Muni, formed by several rivers, is the south-western border of the country.

Climate

Equatorial Guinea has an equatorial climate with high relative humidity (95% in the morning) and high temperatures. Precipitation falls on the mainland (Bata: 2 210 mm annually) mainly in October and November and from March to May, on Bioko (1,890 mm) mainly from May to October.

Vegetation

Most of the country (mainland as well as islands) is covered with tropical rainforest, which has an enormous biodiversity. 10% of Equatorial Guinea are protected areas (e.g. the Monte Alen National Park).

Population

In Equatorial Guinea there are mainly population groups with Bantu languages, e. B. Catch on the mainland and Bubi on Bioko. Other languages ​​are Pidginenglisch in Bioko and in Pagalu a Creole Portuguese. According to threergroup, almost three quarters of the population live on the mainland, around 40% (2017) in the cities. Larger cities are in addition to the capital Malabo, Bata and Ebebiyin.

Social: The standard of living of the population is very low and the food supply is inadequate. The poor health system is reflected in the low life expectancy of 64.2 years (63.1 men; 65.4 women). About 5% of the population are infected with HIV (AIDS).

Religion

The constitution guarantees freedom of religion. According to the latest available estimates, around 93% of the population are Christians, the vast majority of them Catholics (around 88%). The proportion of Protestants is estimated at 5%. The largest Protestant church is the »Iglesia Evangélica en la Guinea Ecuatorial«, created as a union of Reformed and Methodists. The remaining part of the population is attributed to the Muslims (2%), traditional African religions and the Baha’i (together approx. 5%).

Under the dictator F. Macías Nguema, a baptized Catholic, there was severe persecution of Christians; In 1978 the practice of the Christian religion was banned and Equatorial Guinea was declared an “atheist state”. After the overthrow of the president (1979), the constitutional rights of the churches were restored, church life reorganized and in 1982 the Archdiocese of Malabo (suffragan dioceses: Bata, Ebebiyin) was created as a separate Catholic church province.

Education

There is general compulsory schooling from 6 to 14 years of age. The school system is divided into a six-year primary and a seven-year secondary level. About 60% of the school bodies are church missions. The school enrollment rate for the primary level is around 91% for boys and 86% for girls, and for the secondary level a total of around 45%. Equatorial Guinea has a national university in Malabo.

Media

The media in Equatorial Guinea are being bullied by the state. Fundamental criticism of the government, the president and the security forces is not permitted.

Press: The only daily newspaper is »El Ébano« (state). In addition, private weekly and monthly newspapers appear irregularly.

Radio: The state-run “Radio-TV de Guinea Ecuatorial” (RTVGE) broadcasts radio and television programs (“Radio Nacional de Guinea Ecuatorial”, “Televisión de Guinea Ecuatorial”) in Spanish, French and other national languages. The only private broadcasters, »Radio Asonga« (FM) and »Televisión Asonga«, are in the hands of the president’s son.

Equatorial Guinea Country and People

Niger History

Niger History

Thus redesigned the map of power, among the most urgent issues that presented themselves to the new institutions was that of the Tuaregh rebellionagainst which the head of the executive alternated appeals for pacification and rapid military offensives, without however reaching a real solution to the problem. On the other hand, the process of political democratization seemed to be less insecure, with the approval by referendum of a Constitution (December 1992) which allowed the first free presidential and legislative elections. The consultation for the formation of the Parliament (February 1993) was the prerogative of the opposition parties which, grouped in the Alliance of the Forces of Change (AFC), managed to win 50 of the 83 seats available, relegating the old single party to the opposition.

The result of the presidential elections held the following month was similar with Mahamane Ousmane’s victory over the MNSD candidate. The concretization of the democratic process also seemed to favor an easing of the pressure of the Tuaregh with whom a new agreement was established (March 1993). But, retracing the stages of a history unfortunately common to many countries set out on the path of democracy after years of authoritarianism, Niger was also a victim of the inability of the new ruling class to consolidate the representative institutions that were exchanged as an instrument of power and personal affirmation.. After the electoral phase, in fact, the various forces that had composed the alliance resumed their freedom of maneuver, causing an incurable disagreement between Prime Minister Mahamadou Issoufou, leader of the Nigerian Party for Democracy and Socialism (PNDS) and President Ousmane, head of the Democratic and Social Convention (CDS). When the former resigned in September 1994, the president appointed Souley Abdoulaye of the CDS in his place and, faced with the mistrust of Parliament, dissolved him by calling new elections. The result of the poll (January 1995), in which all forces coalesced against President Ousmane’s party, saw him defeated and he was forced to appoint MNSD leader Hama Amadou as prime minister. Amadou initially seemed to be able to reach a definitive agreement with the Tuaregh rebels (1995), but after a few months the guerrillas resumed with greater force as the disagreements between the president and the prime minister intensified. The instability of the political framework in a situation of generalized resumption of the Northern rebellion led sectors of the army to a bloody coup that ended with the establishment of a national salvation committee (January 1996) headed by Colonel Ibrahim Barré Mainassara. Having cleared the previous institutions, the committee drafted a new presidential constitution which was approved in a referendum (May 1996).

According to remzfamily, the direct elections of the president, which took place shortly after (August), were won by the coup colonel, as well as the legislative ones, celebrated with various postponements in November of the same year, ensured his party, the Union of Independents for Democratic Renewal, a overwhelming majority. On both consultations, however, in confirmation of the involutionary picture imprinted by the military on the political life of Niger, there were suspicions of heavy manipulation. In April 1999, a few months after the outbreak of the protests of the opposition to the decision of the Supreme Court to cancel the results of the administrative elections, Mainassara was assassinated by his escort and the military carried out a coup: France and the United States suspended aid to the country, tying them to the restoration of democratic elections. These took place in November 1999 and led to the presidency M. Tandja of the MNSD. In August 2002, an attempted coup d’état carried out by some military units in the Diffa region was thwarted. In March 2004 the army had to intervene in the northern regions, where the guerrilla of the Tuaregh continues. In the presidential elections of December 2004, Tandja was reconfirmed as president. In March 2007, after the Parliament declared the executive no confidence, President Tandja, instead of calling early elections, appointed new prime minister Seyni Oumarou. In June 2009 the president dissolved the parliament and the constitutional court; the two institutions had opposed the modification of the constitution wanted by Tandja himself to obtain a third term. The new constitution that extends the presidential term by three years and strengthens the powers of Tandja himself was enacted two months later. In October, legislative elections were held in which only the pro-government parties linked to President Tandja participated. In February 2010, a coup d’etat put an end to the Tandja regime: the president was dismissed and arrested by a military junta led by Salou Djibo, who became president ad interim, it promised a return to democracy and new political elections. In the same year, Niger, Mauritania, Mali and Algeria set up a coordination structure to combat organized crime and terrorism. In March 2011 Mahamadou Issoufou won the presidential elections, defeating former premier Seyni Oumarou, close to former president Tandja.

Niger History

Benin Economy

Benin Economy

Benin, officially French République du Bénin [repy Republic dy be nε ] until 1975 Dahomey [da ɔ mε] German Republic of Benin country in West Africa, on the Guinea coast, with (2019) 11.8 million residents; The capital is Porto Novo.

Business

Benin is one of the least developed countries in the world and, with a gross national income (GNI) of US $ 800 per resident (2017), one of the poorest countries in Africa. The economy is mainly dependent on agriculture and trade with neighboring countries. Unfavorable political framework conditions (widespread corruption, nepotism and bureaucratic inefficiency), the resulting reluctance of domestic and foreign entrepreneurs to invest and the limited domestic market are the greatest obstacles to economic development. The foreign debt amounts to USD 2.7 billion despite debt relief (2017). The state budget is structurally deficient to a high degree and is dependent on official development aid. Visit shoe-wiki for Western Africa Economy.

Foreign trade: The foreign trade balance is chronically in deficit (import value 2016: 2.6 billion US $, export value: 0.4 billion US $). Since a large part of the imported goods are partly illegally re-exported to Nigeria and Niger in particular, an accurate accounting of foreign trade is difficult. The most important export goods are cotton (over 20% of the export value), crude oil and oil palm products. The main imports are foodstuffs, petroleum products, machines and equipment. The most important trading partners are China, India, Malaysia, France and Thailand.

Agriculture

Agriculture employs around 40% of the workforce; it generates 25.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and the majority of exports. Small farms are predominant. Some still operate hacking hacking with slash and burn. Maize and cassava are grown in the south, millet, yams, maize and cotton in the drier north. Cotton has been the most important export good for years. Other agricultural export products are palm kernels, palm oil and peanuts. Extensive transhumant livestock husbandry (cattle, sheep, goats) is mainly carried out in the northern areas.

Forestry: Around 40% of the country’s area is covered by forest. In order to preserve the forest and counteract soil erosion, nature reserves were created in the north and inland as early as the colonial times. However, these are de facto hardly protected from agricultural use. Commercial forestry is of little importance. Around 93% of the logging (2014: 6.9 million m 3) is accounted for by firewood.

Fishing: Fishing is concentrated in the inland waters and the lagoons on the coast, it is mostly practiced with traditional fishing methods.

Natural resources

Benin is poor in natural resources. Between 1983 and 1990, the Sémé oil field off the coast of Benin was exploited with Norwegian help. There are smaller gold reserves in the north-west of the country, as well as small reserves of iron ore, rutile, silicon sand, phosphate, marble, limestone and clay.

Energy industry

Even after the construction of the Nangbeto hydropower plant (62 MW), which was built in cooperation with Togo on the Mono river, most of the energy required has to be imported. To improve its energy base, Benin is participating in a gas pipeline from Nigeria to Ghana. A gas-fired power station (80 MW) not far from Cotonou has considerably increased the country’s power generation capacity.

Industry

The manufacturing industry, including the construction industry (2016), achieved 23.4% of GDP. The main industries are cement manufacturing, oil mills and cotton ginning plants. The manufacture of simple consumer goods or the textile industry play a subordinate role. The main industrial locations are Cotonou and Porto Novo.

Tourism

The tourist potential of Benin is limited and limited to the historic cities of Porto Novo, Ouidah and Abomey in the south (museums and districts characterized by colonial architecture), the village of Ganvié built on stilts into the water in the Cotonou lagoon (Lac Nokoué), the Beaches between Cotonou and the Togolese border as well as the nature parks in the northwest (“W” National Park, Pendjari National Park).

Transportation

As a transit country for other West African countries, Benin has a relatively good transport infrastructure. The main line of the railway network is the 438 km long north-south connection from Parakou to the port city of Cotonou. An extension of this route to Niamey (Niger) is planned. Of the approximately 16,000 km of roads, only 10% are paved. Inland navigation is used on the Niger. The port of Cotonou also serves as a transit port mainly for Niger and Nigeria. The country’s international airport is located near Cotonou.

Parakou

Parakou [para ku], largest city in the north central Benin, (2013) 255 500 residents.

Administrative seat of the Borgou department; catholic archbishop’s seat; Trade center in a cotton-growing area (ginning plant, textile factory); as the end point of the railway line (438 km) from Cotonou, an important freight transshipment point (to and from Niger); Airport.

Cotonou

Cotonou [- nu], Kutonu, largest city, main port and economic center of the Republic of Benin, (2013) 679 000 residents.

Seat of government authorities, the Supreme Court and diplomatic missions as well as a Catholic archbishop; University (founded in 1970); Brewery, textile and cement factory, automobile assembly plant. The deep-water port is a transit port (with a free zone) for inland Niger; Railway lines connect Cotonou with Parakou and Porto Novo; international Airport. The Dantopka market, one of the largest in West Africa, is located on the Cotonou lagoon (Lac Nokoué).

Benin Economy

Morocco Literature

Morocco Literature

According to thefreegeography, the Arabic-language literature of Morocco, which escaped from Ottoman domination and therefore remained on the fringes of the ideological and literary currents of the Arab world, is of very recent origin. In the past centuries, in fact, literary production was initially expressed in the Arabic-Hispanic dialect and in the Melkhūn language., based on the vernacular Moroccan, influenced by the Bedouin speech. In the field of poetry already in the century. XIX the Moroccan poets tried to get rid of traditional schemes with little success. At the beginning of the century. XX Egyptian poetry exerted a great influence on the generation of Moroccan poets, whose verses were characterized by an exasperated nationalism. Among the most important authors, the self-taught figure Muṣṭafā al-Miʽdāwī (1937-1961) stands out, in whose poetry there is a resentful tone of recovery, having participated in the Moroccan resistance (1954-55). Other significant contemporary poets are Muḥammad as-Sabbāg, author of many works translated into Spanish, and Muḥammad ʽAzīz Laḥbābī, in whose poetry the attempt to replace traditional canons with new metric and stylistic solutions emerges. Even in the evolution of prose and fiction the century. XX is marked by a nationalistic spirit that reflects the historical events of Morocco. Among the most politically committed writers are ʽAllal al-Fāsī, politician and theorist of Moroccan nationalism, whose historical originality he postulates from Carthage onwards; Muḥammad al Ḥasan al-Wazzānī, ʽAbd al-Hāliq at-Ṭurrīs, al-Makkī an-Nāṣirī and ʽAbd al-Karīm Gallāb (b.1919).

Alongside the production in Arabic, it is worth mentioning the existence of works written in the Berber language (with a prevalently popular and folkloric content) and above all of a remarkable literature in French. Protestant writers belong to the latter area, striving to conquer an “authenticity” poised between the revolt against colonial and bourgeois models, disenchantment with atavistic traditions and faith in the next regeneration. The founder of the courageous magazine deserves a special place Souffles (1966-75), the poet ʽAbdellatif Laâbi (b.1942), long imprisoned for his political ideas. Notable writers are Driss Chraibi (1928-2007) (Naissance à l’aube) and Mohammed Khaīr-Eddine (1941-1995) (Agadir), all authors who speak in French. Muḥammad Shukrī (Choukri) (1935-2003), whose autobiographical novel al-Khubz al-ḥāfī (The naked bread) has been translated into many languages. Despite the initial difficulty of “accepting” the choice of using French in literature after the independence achieved in 1956, we can speak of a true literary flowering in this language, in a style that expresses the identity of the Maghrebi people. The need to theorize the language has the strongest exponent in Abdelkebir Khatibi (La mémoire tatouée) who would like to overcome the antagonism between Arabic and French in a dimension that offers the possibility of exchange between the two cultures. After the fundamental experience gained with the Souffles magazinewe are witnessing two fundamental trends. An attempt to dismantle the literary traditions, national and French, judged incapable of expressing the writer’s imagination and, at the same time, the effort to invent a writing that translates the bicultural thought of the author. The traditional layout of the narrative is abandoned due to a fragmentation of the discourse that approaches philosophical and ideological tones, and in which even the temporal development is dissolved and mixed with elements of dreams, remembrance and reflection.

From the point of view of content, the authors of the Eighties draw from the national heritage stories, legends and epics to then immerse themselves in everyday reality and criticism of society. Rarer, but still practiced, is the use of meditation and intimism. Immobile Parcours, 1980; Aïlen ou la nuit du récit, 1983; Mille ans un jour, 1986; Le retour d’Abel El Haki, 1991) are dominated by the theme of the disappearance of the Moroccan Jewish community, whose conscience the writer interprets. All interwoven with a strong political commitment, his books are a reflection on the destiny of man. The novels by Abdelhak Serhane (b. 1950), Messauda (1983), Les enfants des rues étroites (1986), Le soleil des obscurs (1992) or his short stories Les Prolétaires de la haine are also dedicated to a “submissive” community. (1995) who speak of the fate of women and children in a community where men exercise tyrannical patriarchal power. The novels by Mahi Binebine (b.1959), Le sommeil de l’esclave (1992) and Les Funérailles du lait (1994) are noteworthy. Moroccan poetry is conceived, in the wake of Souffles’ teaching, as an act of denunciation of a wounded people, in balance between moralizing denunciation and ideology. Writing therefore often becomes a cry of anger, incitement to revolt and a struggle to achieve freedom. Mossafa Nissaboury (b.1943) in La mille et deuxième nuit turns against the city of the hopeless, Mohammed Loakira in L’horizon est d’argiledenounces the horrors of the African peoples. But if literature has left the field of specialists and has risen to the highest levels in the world, this is mainly due to Tahar Ben Jelloun, who was awarded the prestigious Goncourt prize in 1987 for La nuit sacrée. His other novels, translated into many languages, include Moha le fou, Moha le sage (1978), L’enfant de sable (1985) and Le racisme expliqué à ma fille (1998). Among the most interesting and best-known voices it remains to mention Fatima Mernissi (1940-2015), writer and scholar of the Islamic and female world in particular, who in her novels and essays (for example L’Amour dans les pays musulman, 2007) carries on the thesis according to which female freedom can be compatible with the indications dictated by the Koran.

Morocco Literature

Children Education in Sierra Leone

Children Education in Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone is located in West Africa and is one of the world’s poorest and least equal countries. There are great natural resources, but a long civil war and an outbreak of Ebola have damaged the economy and had serious consequences for the children in the country. Girls are extra vulnerable and do not have access to their rights.

The civil war that lasted from 1991 to 2002 led to the deaths of 50,000 people and a third of the population was forced to flee. It had a major impact on the economy and the country’s development. The country had slowly begun to recover from the war when it was hit by an outbreak of the Ebola virus in 2014. The disease had catastrophic consequences for those affected. 10,000 children lost one or both their parents, the country suffered from food shortages and unemployment and violence increased. All schools in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea closed during the summer and millions of children were left without education.

When all schools in Sierra Leone reopened the following year, not all children could return. More than half of Sierra Leone’s population lives below the poverty line and many parents could not afford to let their children go to school. Poverty also leads to many children under the age of five being malnourished. Sierra Leone is one of the countries in the world where most children under the age of five die.

Sierra Leone is now free of Ebola, but children have been greatly affected by the progression of the disease. One study shows that child labor increased because children had to help support their families. With so many deaths, even girls could be forced to take over responsibility for their younger siblings when their parents died. According to the UN, two out of five children work in Sierra Leone.

Sierra Leone

Two out of five girls in child marriage

Sierra Leone is one of the least equal countries in the world. It has a big impact on girls’ lives. The country has the highest maternal mortality rate in the world and almost two out of five girls are forced to marry before the age of 18. The level of education is low for both girls and boys, but lowest for girls who on average go to school for almost three years. Even children from low-income families or with disabilities lose the right to go to school. The lack of education is one of the reasons why so many girls are married off.

This is what Plan International does

Plan International works to strengthen children’s and young people’s right to development, protection and participation. We work to support local savings and loan groups and contribute to increased profits in agriculture to improve the livelihoods of the families affected by Ebola.

Some of our general areas of focus are support for children and young people so that they can address the causes of discrimination against girls and women, work to improve the conditions of children – in practice and politics, preparatory and urgent work to deal with crises and support for children so that they can grow up in security with access to their rights.

Now the schools get more books

In Sierra Leone there are many who cannot read and not even in school are there certain books. Plan International works to give more people the opportunity to discover the world of books.

For many children in Sierra Leone, books are a rarity. Few families have the opportunity to have books at home and for those who can afford it, there are few bookstores with a small selection. Many children also do not have access to books at school. Together with Book Aid International, Plan International distributes 10,000 books to over 100 schools around Sierra Leone. Through the project, Plan International wants to increase the proportion of literates that is now around 45 percent.

– Without books, children will not pass exams, that is the biggest problem. There is no reading culture at all, says Mariam Murrey who is an advisor for the program.

The hope is that the books will give students the desire to read and support them in their learning. Schools receive everything from academic books to fiction for children and picture books for the little ones. All books are in English, which is the official language of the country and is used in teaching.

13-year-old Mariama is one of the students who received books.

– Thank you so much for giving my school books and for giving us the opportunity to read and learn, she says.

The schools that have received books have also been encouraged to create small corners where students can practice reading. The books should be there so that the children can easily find them and settle down.

Equality

A role model for young women

Dad said it was a waste of money to educate girls, that girls should get married and move out. I refused to listen to Dad and showed that the structures of society were wrong. Now they can all see that women can also become teachers. Now I am a role model.

Mamie

Plan International has made it possible for people in several communities in the Moyamba district to be able to report genital mutilation or kidnapping of children; two serious violations of children’s rights that also lead to girls being forced to drop out of school. When Plan International celebrated the UN’s anniversary last year, many children participated in the work of producing a letter to the local authorities demanding more money to protect children.

Security and protection

To survive for play and laughter

Now they look at me as a hero because I survived Ebola. In the future, I want to help people when they get sick, especially children.

Michael, 14 years

Michael’s family died of Ebola. He himself became infected but survived and moved in with his aunt. When the epidemic was over and school started again, he asked his aunt not to go there because his classmates were afraid of him and did not want to talk to him. But his aunt refused to let him stop. At the same time, Plan International worked to change students’ attitudes and reduce discrimination against Ebola survivors. Today he plays and laughs with his friends and he is happy to have them back.

Facts about Sierra Leone

Facts about Sierra Leone

Capital: Freetown
Population: 7.6 million
Life expectancy: 52 years
Infant mortality rate: 110.5 per 1000 births
Proportion of children starting school: 98.3%
Literacy: 32.4%
Proportion of women in parliament: 12%

Children Education in Central African Republic

Children Education in Central African Republic

The Central African Republic is located in the middle of Africa. The country is rich in natural resources but violence, political unrest and corruption hinder development. Armed conflicts have also forced people to leave their homes. Children, and especially girls, are hard hit by the situation.

In 1960, the Central African Republic became independent and since then the country has had several shifts of power and periods of unrest. The country has enormous natural resources, but despite this, a large part of the population lives in poverty. Instead, the assets in many cases contribute to conflicts because rebel groups exploit the lack of law and order to make money on, among other things, gold and diamonds.

The recurring outbreaks of violence have affected both the school system, the judiciary, health care and the labor market negatively and it looks particularly bad outside the capital. Many people have been forced to leave their homes and four out of five Central Africans are considered poor. Children are hard hit by conflicts and disasters and in a country with a very young population – three out of five are under 25 – it has serious consequences.

Facts about the Central African Republic

Girls particularly vulnerable in conflicts

The Central African Republic is one of the countries with the highest child and maternal mortality rates in the world. One in ten children does not survive their fifth birthday and among pregnant women almost one percent die during childbirth – for reasons that could have been avoided. Another problem is the high number of teenage pregnancies. Just over a fifth of all teenage girls between the ages of 15 and 19 become pregnant and give birth to children, even though they themselves are still children .

Girls’ vulnerability is generally higher with ongoing conflicts in the country. In conflicts and disasters, the risk increases that girls will be forced into child marriage, become pregnant while they themselves are still children and be forced to leave school to take care of the household and family. The fact that girls have to drop out of school is one of the biggest obstacles for them to be able to support themselves in the future and have the opportunity.

This makes international plan in the Central African Republic

Plan International has been in place in the Central African Republic since 2014. Our programs in the country focus on children’s right to education, food, protection from violence and young people’s opportunity to participate in society. One of our more priority programs is to provide support to children and young people who have been affected in various ways by the conflicts that prevail in the country. This may, for example, be about ensuring their access to education. But also about giving young people the opportunity to earn a living, for example by offering vocational training.

We also work to prevent children from being recruited to armed groups, by actively influencing leaders of armed groups, authorities and civil society, and facilitating the children’s return to family and local community.

We support children who have lost or been separated from their parents with necessities such as food, water, soap, mattresses and blankets. Many of the children have lost their parents and come to school without clothes, shoes and other things they need in class. We hand out school packages with pencils, pads, toys and teaching materials.

“No child should have to experience the things I experienced”

When rebel groups captured the capital of Bangui in the Central African Republic, Francois’ father, relatives and neighbors were killed. Francois then joined a self-defense group where he was used as a child soldier. Today he has broken free and through Plan International has had the opportunity to create a new path in life.

Francois grew up in one of the areas in Bangui that was hardest hit when the violent conflict in the Central African Republic broke out in 2012. As a way to stop the rebels, various self-defense groups began to build up. Francois decided to join in revenge for his dead relatives and father.

– I was the youngest in the group. We were sent out into the jungle to learn how to handle weapons. We were constantly monitored by the armed group. We were forced to carry out armed attacks in several villages before we were allowed to return to the capital, says Francois.

After months of training in the jungle, the self-defense group returned to Bangui. There, Francois was reunited with his mother.

– She wanted me to come home. But my boss did not want that. So I only went to her when I was hungry.

In the end, Francois managed to escape the armed group and then got in touch with Plan International.

– Through Plan International, I trained as a carpenter. I started making furniture which I then sold. From the money I got together, I started my own small business. Right now I am selling oils and spices while I continue with the carpentry on the side to be able to help my mother financially.

He says that he wishes that no child would have to go through what he went through as a child soldier.

– No child should have to do what I did.

Plan International is actively working in the Central African Republic to provide children like Francois with vocational training to help them increase their income and improve their lives. Our program is sponsored by the EU and implemented in collaboration with a local organization.

Training

A second chance for a bright future

I am very happy to be able to go to school again, even if it feels strange after all the time I have been at home. I enjoy learning new things, especially math. When I grow up, I want to work as a teacher and teach others about things I can

Zara, 13 years old

When the civil war raged in the Central African Republic, Zara and many other children could not go to school. But thanks to the Plan International education program, more than 480 children have now been given a second chance and a way back to school.

Security and protection

Reunited after the war

I am very happy that I was able to be reunited with my father after we have been apart for four years

Bossin, 17 years

During the civil war in the Central African Republic, many children were separated from their parents. Bossin and his sister Anastasie were sent with their mother to Kaga-Bandoro for protection. Their father stayed in the capital Bangui. Shortly after their escape, their mother died. The father believed for a long time that his children had also died. But now he has been able to be reunited with his children again thanks to Plan International’s family reunification program.

Central African Republic

Facts about the Central African Republic

Capital: Bangui
Population: 4.7 million
Life expectancy: 52 years
Infant mortality rate: 85 per 1000 births
Proportion of children starting school: 71.9%
Literacy: 36.8%
Proportion of women in parliament: 9%