Category: Africa

Cape Verde History Timeline

Cape Verde History Timeline

According to ethnicityology, Cape Verde is an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, located approx. 570 km off the west coast of Africa (near Dakar, Senegal) and is an independent republic. The name means “The Green Forbjerg”.

The Cape Verde archipelago consists of 10 main islands and 8 smaller islands, which are divided into two archipelagos: Barlaventos (northern archipelago) and Sotaventos (southern archipelago). All the islands are volcanic, and an active volcano is found on one island, Fogo (“Pico de Fogo”). The most recent eruption was in 1995. The other Cape Verde islands are São Vicente, São Nicolau, Santo Antão, Maio and Little Brava.

The then uninhabited islands were discovered by the Portuguese during the great voyages of discovery in the middle of the 15th century and were later used as a hub for the Portuguese slave trade. Cape Verde became independent in 1975 after the Carnation Revolution in Portugal on April 25, 1974. Cape Verde’s largest city is the capital Praia, located on the island of São Tiago, which is also Cape Verde’s most populous island.

Due to its location off the west coast of Africa, which was strategic in relation to the trade route between Africa, Europe and the New World, Cape Verde became an important port and hub for the slave trade.

Cape Verde’s culture reflects the country’s Portuguese and African roots.

In recent years, a lot of tourism has arisen on the island of Sal, where the international airport is also located. The island is flat and barren, but has long sandy beaches along the south coast. The trade winds and the very steep volcanic islands make the place ideal for surfing and windsurfing, which is also an essential part of the core of tourism on Sal. The local population on Sal is very limited. In the other islands, tourism is very limited. Here, the language can constitute a barrier, as only a few speak English.

Google Maps TIMELINE:

1456 – The explorer Alvise Cadamosto is sent out by Henry the Navigator to explore the Atlantic coast. He discovered several of Cape Verde’s islands. When Cadamosto and his men arrived in Cape Verde, the islands were uninhabited, and on behalf of the Portuguese Crown, he claimed the archipelago. In the following decade, captains Diogo Dias and António Noli explored the rest of the archipelago on behalf of Henrik Søfareren.

1582/1585 – Sir Francis Drake of England plunders Riberia Grande (now Cidade Velha ) during the growing economic growth of the slave trade.

1747 – The islands are hit by the first of many droughts, which have since hit the islands about five years apart. Conditions worsened due to deforestation and overgrazing. Three major periods of drought in the 18th and 19th centuries led to more than 100,000 people starving to death. The Portuguese colonial masters sent very little help to the islanders during the droughts.

1770 – Praia becomes the capital.

1832 – The islands are visited by Charles Darwin ‘s expedition.

1910-25 – During this period, Portugal had 40 different governments as well as 18 revolutions and coup attempts, and in 1926 the last of a long series of military coups took place in Portugal. The country became a right-wing dictatorship, which regarded the colonies as a means of increasing the country’s prosperity, and that these had to be developed in the interests of Portugal and the Portuguese. Several cases of famine, high unemployment and poverty as well as the inability of the Portuguese colonial masters to solve the problems led to increased resistance to the colonial power of the population.

1956 – The African Party of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde Independence (Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde – PAIGC) is founded by Amílcar Cabral.

1959 – April 3. After three years of preparation, it was ready with its first action, which marked the start of a fifteen-year war of liberation for Cape Verde and Portuguese Guinea. It happened in connection with the strike in the port of Pijuguiti in Porto de Bissau in Portuguese Guinea. The Colony Police (PIDE) cracked down on the strike and opened fire on the striking dock workers, killing 50 people. In addition to local forces, 10,000 Soviet and 35,000 Portuguese soldiers also took part in the ensuing War of Independence, which was to prove to be the longest-running of the African Liberation Wars.

1974 – April 25. The fascist regime Portugal was deposed in a military coup called the Carnation Revolution. The following year, the Republic of Cape Verde gained full independence with Aristides Pereia of PAICV as President. He promised to lead a democratic and socialist nation when he was elected president, but he instead worsened the country’s economic situation and persecuted dissidents by the regime. Cape Verde now became a one-party state, and the country entered into alliances with countries such as the People’s Republic of China and Libya. The one-party rule lasted until 1990.

Cape Verde History Timeline

Gorée Island (World Heritage)

Gorée Island (World Heritage)

The former anchorage of Portuguese explorers such as Vasco da Gama on the small island of Gorée across from Dakar gained notoriety as a base for the slave trade in West Africa. Today Gorée is a museum island and a memorial to slavery. See history of Senegal on behealthybytomorrow.

Gorée Island: facts

Official title: Gorée Island
Cultural monument: former anchorage of Portuguese explorers such as Vasco da Gama and the most important base for the slave trade in West Africa
Continent: Africa
Country: Senegal
Location: Island in front of the capital Dakar
Appointment: 1978
Meaning: a lasting reminder of the history of slavery

Gorée Island: history

1444 Occupation of the “Palm Island” by Portuguese troops
1492 Stopover by Columbus on the crossing to America
1588 after the defeat of the Portuguese-Spanish Armada, transition to the Netherlands
1663 Captured by English troops, lost to the Netherlands a year later
1677 after the conquest by French associations the most important port for the shipping of slaves
1678-1815 multiple changes between English and French rule
1776-78 Construction of the slave house
until 1848 Shipping of an estimated 10 million slaves; thereafter prohibition of slavery

Slave trade at the “Goede Roads”

Pounding through the waves, the ferry approaches the landing stage and anchors like the first Dutch merchant ships in the “Goede Roads”, the anchorage of the former slave island. A lively, fun-loving atmosphere welcomes newcomers. Children jump from the balustrade and swim towards the beach to screams of joy and laughter. A touch of grilled fish and beignets, donuts baked in peanut oil, pushes towards the newcomers. The first glance falls on the right at the former fort, then at the mighty fort, whose cannons have long since ceased to be aimed at the Atlantic. Decades have passed since the Vichy government used such military force to prevent General de Gaulle from landing in Dakar. A second glance discovers the silhouette of the Provencal-looking colonial houses. Even with little imagination, one can imagine the bustle of activity on the landing stage a hundred years ago, when boxes and barrels were constantly being carried ashore, proud “Signares” strolled on the beach and representatives of the trading houses gesticulating to negotiate lucrative deals.

For five centuries, Gorée was an important European trading center for ivory, leather and, last but not least, slaves. Sailing over from the Cape Verde Islands, the Portuguese landed first, followed by countless desperados and adventurers from all over the world. At the beginning of the 16th century the “Goede Roadstead” was sold to the Dutch, only to finally pass into French hands in the 19th century after decades of armed conflict between the French and the English. Because of its mild climate, the respective colonial officials valued the island as a resort, and it is still a popular destination for residents of Dakar and holidaymakers from overseas. There is little time to lose yourself in thoughts of past centuries. Thanks to the exuberant atmosphere on the slowly emptying ferry, you are quickly brought back to the present. Everyone is pushing off the ship. Baskets and bags of the islanders, filled with purchases from Dakar, go from hand to hand. You greet and hug as if you had just finished a long sea voyage. The latest gossip from the mainland is told, laughing and gesticulating. The siren of the returning ferry dominates the moment before the crowd disperses and the visitor only hears the crunch of the sand under his feet. The latest gossip from the mainland is told, laughing and gesticulating. The siren of the returning ferry dominates the moment before the crowd disperses and the visitor only hears the crunch of the sand under his feet. The latest gossip from the mainland is told, laughing and gesticulating. The siren of the returning ferry dominates the moment before the crowd disperses and the visitor only hears the crunch of the sand under his feet.

Behind the landing stage, narrow, cobbled streets lead across the island. Overhanging, red-violet bougainvilleas gently bob in the wind. Through ajar gates you can see green inner courtyards full of life. It is believed that here and there proud “Signares” with their elegant headscarves and brightly colored dresses come across. They belonged to the wealthy, influential islanders who were married to wealthy European merchants according to the »mode du pays«.

From the outside, the “slave house” seems to have no particular charm. However, if you step through the dark gate into the sun-drenched inner courtyard, you are taken by the atmosphere of the place. A staircase curved in the shape of a horseshoe on both sides leads to the upper floor. There they dined like a prince, laughed and bargained for exquisite slaves. The floorboards were roughly timbered, so that the prisoners living in the basement in their dark, narrow dungeons involuntarily had to take part in the goings-on of the slave traders. How many millions of slaves left Gorée through the “door of no return”? If you are here and understand that people have been abducted, the polemical “numbers game” becomes irrelevant. The island breathes history everywhere. Also in the former prison, today’s Musée d’Histoire du Sénégal, illuminates this dark past. But the island also sees itself as “Gorée la Joyeuse”, as “Gorée die Fröhliche”, a warm-hearted “Goede Roadstead” that is beyond time.

Gorée Island (World Heritage)

Equatorial Guinea Geography

Equatorial Guinea Geography

Equatorial Guinea, officially Spanish República de Guinea Ecuatorial [- gi ne ː a -], German Republic of Equatorial Guinea, the state in West Africa, the Gulf of Guinea (2019) 1.4 million residents; The capital is Malabo.

Equatorial Guinea comprises the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Póo) off the coast of Cameroon and Pagalu (Annobón) 400 km off the coast of Gabon as well as the mainland Mbini (Río Muni) between Cameroon and Gabon with the Elobey Islands and the island of Corisco.


The mainland area Mbini rises from the mangrove coast to the highlands towered over by island mountains (up to 1,200 m above sea level) in the interior. The islands in the Gulf of Guinea belong to the volcanic chain of the Cameroon Line, which reaches 3,008 m above sea level in Pico Basile (highest point in the country) on the island of Bioko. The estuary Río Muni, formed by several rivers, is the south-western border of the country.


Equatorial Guinea has an equatorial climate with high relative humidity (95% in the morning) and high temperatures. Precipitation falls on the mainland (Bata: 2 210 mm annually) mainly in October and November and from March to May, on Bioko (1,890 mm) mainly from May to October.


Most of the country (mainland as well as islands) is covered with tropical rainforest, which has an enormous biodiversity. 10% of Equatorial Guinea are protected areas (e.g. the Monte Alen National Park).


In Equatorial Guinea there are mainly population groups with Bantu languages, e. B. Catch on the mainland and Bubi on Bioko. Other languages ​​are Pidginenglisch in Bioko and in Pagalu a Creole Portuguese. According to threergroup, almost three quarters of the population live on the mainland, around 40% (2017) in the cities. Larger cities are in addition to the capital Malabo, Bata and Ebebiyin.

Social: The standard of living of the population is very low and the food supply is inadequate. The poor health system is reflected in the low life expectancy of 64.2 years (63.1 men; 65.4 women). About 5% of the population are infected with HIV (AIDS).


The constitution guarantees freedom of religion. According to the latest available estimates, around 93% of the population are Christians, the vast majority of them Catholics (around 88%). The proportion of Protestants is estimated at 5%. The largest Protestant church is the »Iglesia Evangélica en la Guinea Ecuatorial«, created as a union of Reformed and Methodists. The remaining part of the population is attributed to the Muslims (2%), traditional African religions and the Baha’i (together approx. 5%).

Under the dictator F. Macías Nguema, a baptized Catholic, there was severe persecution of Christians; In 1978 the practice of the Christian religion was banned and Equatorial Guinea was declared an “atheist state”. After the overthrow of the president (1979), the constitutional rights of the churches were restored, church life reorganized and in 1982 the Archdiocese of Malabo (suffragan dioceses: Bata, Ebebiyin) was created as a separate Catholic church province.


There is general compulsory schooling from 6 to 14 years of age. The school system is divided into a six-year primary and a seven-year secondary level. About 60% of the school bodies are church missions. The school enrollment rate for the primary level is around 91% for boys and 86% for girls, and for the secondary level a total of around 45%. Equatorial Guinea has a national university in Malabo.


The media in Equatorial Guinea are being bullied by the state. Fundamental criticism of the government, the president and the security forces is not permitted.

Press: The only daily newspaper is »El Ébano« (state). In addition, private weekly and monthly newspapers appear irregularly.

Radio: The state-run “Radio-TV de Guinea Ecuatorial” (RTVGE) broadcasts radio and television programs (“Radio Nacional de Guinea Ecuatorial”, “Televisión de Guinea Ecuatorial”) in Spanish, French and other national languages. The only private broadcasters, »Radio Asonga« (FM) and »Televisión Asonga«, are in the hands of the president’s son.

Equatorial Guinea Country and People

Niger History

Niger History

Thus redesigned the map of power, among the most urgent issues that presented themselves to the new institutions was that of the Tuaregh rebellionagainst which the head of the executive alternated appeals for pacification and rapid military offensives, without however reaching a real solution to the problem. On the other hand, the process of political democratization seemed to be less insecure, with the approval by referendum of a Constitution (December 1992) which allowed the first free presidential and legislative elections. The consultation for the formation of the Parliament (February 1993) was the prerogative of the opposition parties which, grouped in the Alliance of the Forces of Change (AFC), managed to win 50 of the 83 seats available, relegating the old single party to the opposition.

The result of the presidential elections held the following month was similar with Mahamane Ousmane’s victory over the MNSD candidate. The concretization of the democratic process also seemed to favor an easing of the pressure of the Tuaregh with whom a new agreement was established (March 1993). But, retracing the stages of a history unfortunately common to many countries set out on the path of democracy after years of authoritarianism, Niger was also a victim of the inability of the new ruling class to consolidate the representative institutions that were exchanged as an instrument of power and personal affirmation.. After the electoral phase, in fact, the various forces that had composed the alliance resumed their freedom of maneuver, causing an incurable disagreement between Prime Minister Mahamadou Issoufou, leader of the Nigerian Party for Democracy and Socialism (PNDS) and President Ousmane, head of the Democratic and Social Convention (CDS). When the former resigned in September 1994, the president appointed Souley Abdoulaye of the CDS in his place and, faced with the mistrust of Parliament, dissolved him by calling new elections. The result of the poll (January 1995), in which all forces coalesced against President Ousmane’s party, saw him defeated and he was forced to appoint MNSD leader Hama Amadou as prime minister. Amadou initially seemed to be able to reach a definitive agreement with the Tuaregh rebels (1995), but after a few months the guerrillas resumed with greater force as the disagreements between the president and the prime minister intensified. The instability of the political framework in a situation of generalized resumption of the Northern rebellion led sectors of the army to a bloody coup that ended with the establishment of a national salvation committee (January 1996) headed by Colonel Ibrahim Barré Mainassara. Having cleared the previous institutions, the committee drafted a new presidential constitution which was approved in a referendum (May 1996).

According to remzfamily, the direct elections of the president, which took place shortly after (August), were won by the coup colonel, as well as the legislative ones, celebrated with various postponements in November of the same year, ensured his party, the Union of Independents for Democratic Renewal, a overwhelming majority. On both consultations, however, in confirmation of the involutionary picture imprinted by the military on the political life of Niger, there were suspicions of heavy manipulation. In April 1999, a few months after the outbreak of the protests of the opposition to the decision of the Supreme Court to cancel the results of the administrative elections, Mainassara was assassinated by his escort and the military carried out a coup: France and the United States suspended aid to the country, tying them to the restoration of democratic elections. These took place in November 1999 and led to the presidency M. Tandja of the MNSD. In August 2002, an attempted coup d’état carried out by some military units in the Diffa region was thwarted. In March 2004 the army had to intervene in the northern regions, where the guerrilla of the Tuaregh continues. In the presidential elections of December 2004, Tandja was reconfirmed as president. In March 2007, after the Parliament declared the executive no confidence, President Tandja, instead of calling early elections, appointed new prime minister Seyni Oumarou. In June 2009 the president dissolved the parliament and the constitutional court; the two institutions had opposed the modification of the constitution wanted by Tandja himself to obtain a third term. The new constitution that extends the presidential term by three years and strengthens the powers of Tandja himself was enacted two months later. In October, legislative elections were held in which only the pro-government parties linked to President Tandja participated. In February 2010, a coup d’etat put an end to the Tandja regime: the president was dismissed and arrested by a military junta led by Salou Djibo, who became president ad interim, it promised a return to democracy and new political elections. In the same year, Niger, Mauritania, Mali and Algeria set up a coordination structure to combat organized crime and terrorism. In March 2011 Mahamadou Issoufou won the presidential elections, defeating former premier Seyni Oumarou, close to former president Tandja.

Niger History

Benin Economy

Benin Economy

Benin, officially French République du Bénin [repy Republic dy be nε ] until 1975 Dahomey [da ɔ mε] German Republic of Benin country in West Africa, on the Guinea coast, with (2019) 11.8 million residents; The capital is Porto Novo.


Benin is one of the least developed countries in the world and, with a gross national income (GNI) of US $ 800 per resident (2017), one of the poorest countries in Africa. The economy is mainly dependent on agriculture and trade with neighboring countries. Unfavorable political framework conditions (widespread corruption, nepotism and bureaucratic inefficiency), the resulting reluctance of domestic and foreign entrepreneurs to invest and the limited domestic market are the greatest obstacles to economic development. The foreign debt amounts to USD 2.7 billion despite debt relief (2017). The state budget is structurally deficient to a high degree and is dependent on official development aid. Visit shoe-wiki for Western Africa Economy.

Foreign trade: The foreign trade balance is chronically in deficit (import value 2016: 2.6 billion US $, export value: 0.4 billion US $). Since a large part of the imported goods are partly illegally re-exported to Nigeria and Niger in particular, an accurate accounting of foreign trade is difficult. The most important export goods are cotton (over 20% of the export value), crude oil and oil palm products. The main imports are foodstuffs, petroleum products, machines and equipment. The most important trading partners are China, India, Malaysia, France and Thailand.


Agriculture employs around 40% of the workforce; it generates 25.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and the majority of exports. Small farms are predominant. Some still operate hacking hacking with slash and burn. Maize and cassava are grown in the south, millet, yams, maize and cotton in the drier north. Cotton has been the most important export good for years. Other agricultural export products are palm kernels, palm oil and peanuts. Extensive transhumant livestock husbandry (cattle, sheep, goats) is mainly carried out in the northern areas.

Forestry: Around 40% of the country’s area is covered by forest. In order to preserve the forest and counteract soil erosion, nature reserves were created in the north and inland as early as the colonial times. However, these are de facto hardly protected from agricultural use. Commercial forestry is of little importance. Around 93% of the logging (2014: 6.9 million m 3) is accounted for by firewood.

Fishing: Fishing is concentrated in the inland waters and the lagoons on the coast, it is mostly practiced with traditional fishing methods.

Natural resources

Benin is poor in natural resources. Between 1983 and 1990, the Sémé oil field off the coast of Benin was exploited with Norwegian help. There are smaller gold reserves in the north-west of the country, as well as small reserves of iron ore, rutile, silicon sand, phosphate, marble, limestone and clay.

Energy industry

Even after the construction of the Nangbeto hydropower plant (62 MW), which was built in cooperation with Togo on the Mono river, most of the energy required has to be imported. To improve its energy base, Benin is participating in a gas pipeline from Nigeria to Ghana. A gas-fired power station (80 MW) not far from Cotonou has considerably increased the country’s power generation capacity.


The manufacturing industry, including the construction industry (2016), achieved 23.4% of GDP. The main industries are cement manufacturing, oil mills and cotton ginning plants. The manufacture of simple consumer goods or the textile industry play a subordinate role. The main industrial locations are Cotonou and Porto Novo.


The tourist potential of Benin is limited and limited to the historic cities of Porto Novo, Ouidah and Abomey in the south (museums and districts characterized by colonial architecture), the village of Ganvié built on stilts into the water in the Cotonou lagoon (Lac Nokoué), the Beaches between Cotonou and the Togolese border as well as the nature parks in the northwest (“W” National Park, Pendjari National Park).


As a transit country for other West African countries, Benin has a relatively good transport infrastructure. The main line of the railway network is the 438 km long north-south connection from Parakou to the port city of Cotonou. An extension of this route to Niamey (Niger) is planned. Of the approximately 16,000 km of roads, only 10% are paved. Inland navigation is used on the Niger. The port of Cotonou also serves as a transit port mainly for Niger and Nigeria. The country’s international airport is located near Cotonou.


Parakou [para ku], largest city in the north central Benin, (2013) 255 500 residents.

Administrative seat of the Borgou department; catholic archbishop’s seat; Trade center in a cotton-growing area (ginning plant, textile factory); as the end point of the railway line (438 km) from Cotonou, an important freight transshipment point (to and from Niger); Airport.


Cotonou [- nu], Kutonu, largest city, main port and economic center of the Republic of Benin, (2013) 679 000 residents.

Seat of government authorities, the Supreme Court and diplomatic missions as well as a Catholic archbishop; University (founded in 1970); Brewery, textile and cement factory, automobile assembly plant. The deep-water port is a transit port (with a free zone) for inland Niger; Railway lines connect Cotonou with Parakou and Porto Novo; international Airport. The Dantopka market, one of the largest in West Africa, is located on the Cotonou lagoon (Lac Nokoué).

Benin Economy

Morocco Literature

Morocco Literature

According to thefreegeography, the Arabic-language literature of Morocco, which escaped from Ottoman domination and therefore remained on the fringes of the ideological and literary currents of the Arab world, is of very recent origin. In the past centuries, in fact, literary production was initially expressed in the Arabic-Hispanic dialect and in the Melkhūn language., based on the vernacular Moroccan, influenced by the Bedouin speech. In the field of poetry already in the century. XIX the Moroccan poets tried to get rid of traditional schemes with little success. At the beginning of the century. XX Egyptian poetry exerted a great influence on the generation of Moroccan poets, whose verses were characterized by an exasperated nationalism. Among the most important authors, the self-taught figure Muṣṭafā al-Miʽdāwī (1937-1961) stands out, in whose poetry there is a resentful tone of recovery, having participated in the Moroccan resistance (1954-55). Other significant contemporary poets are Muḥammad as-Sabbāg, author of many works translated into Spanish, and Muḥammad ʽAzīz Laḥbābī, in whose poetry the attempt to replace traditional canons with new metric and stylistic solutions emerges. Even in the evolution of prose and fiction the century. XX is marked by a nationalistic spirit that reflects the historical events of Morocco. Among the most politically committed writers are ʽAllal al-Fāsī, politician and theorist of Moroccan nationalism, whose historical originality he postulates from Carthage onwards; Muḥammad al Ḥasan al-Wazzānī, ʽAbd al-Hāliq at-Ṭurrīs, al-Makkī an-Nāṣirī and ʽAbd al-Karīm Gallāb (b.1919).

Alongside the production in Arabic, it is worth mentioning the existence of works written in the Berber language (with a prevalently popular and folkloric content) and above all of a remarkable literature in French. Protestant writers belong to the latter area, striving to conquer an “authenticity” poised between the revolt against colonial and bourgeois models, disenchantment with atavistic traditions and faith in the next regeneration. The founder of the courageous magazine deserves a special place Souffles (1966-75), the poet ʽAbdellatif Laâbi (b.1942), long imprisoned for his political ideas. Notable writers are Driss Chraibi (1928-2007) (Naissance à l’aube) and Mohammed Khaīr-Eddine (1941-1995) (Agadir), all authors who speak in French. Muḥammad Shukrī (Choukri) (1935-2003), whose autobiographical novel al-Khubz al-ḥāfī (The naked bread) has been translated into many languages. Despite the initial difficulty of “accepting” the choice of using French in literature after the independence achieved in 1956, we can speak of a true literary flowering in this language, in a style that expresses the identity of the Maghrebi people. The need to theorize the language has the strongest exponent in Abdelkebir Khatibi (La mémoire tatouée) who would like to overcome the antagonism between Arabic and French in a dimension that offers the possibility of exchange between the two cultures. After the fundamental experience gained with the Souffles magazinewe are witnessing two fundamental trends. An attempt to dismantle the literary traditions, national and French, judged incapable of expressing the writer’s imagination and, at the same time, the effort to invent a writing that translates the bicultural thought of the author. The traditional layout of the narrative is abandoned due to a fragmentation of the discourse that approaches philosophical and ideological tones, and in which even the temporal development is dissolved and mixed with elements of dreams, remembrance and reflection.

From the point of view of content, the authors of the Eighties draw from the national heritage stories, legends and epics to then immerse themselves in everyday reality and criticism of society. Rarer, but still practiced, is the use of meditation and intimism. Immobile Parcours, 1980; Aïlen ou la nuit du récit, 1983; Mille ans un jour, 1986; Le retour d’Abel El Haki, 1991) are dominated by the theme of the disappearance of the Moroccan Jewish community, whose conscience the writer interprets. All interwoven with a strong political commitment, his books are a reflection on the destiny of man. The novels by Abdelhak Serhane (b. 1950), Messauda (1983), Les enfants des rues étroites (1986), Le soleil des obscurs (1992) or his short stories Les Prolétaires de la haine are also dedicated to a “submissive” community. (1995) who speak of the fate of women and children in a community where men exercise tyrannical patriarchal power. The novels by Mahi Binebine (b.1959), Le sommeil de l’esclave (1992) and Les Funérailles du lait (1994) are noteworthy. Moroccan poetry is conceived, in the wake of Souffles’ teaching, as an act of denunciation of a wounded people, in balance between moralizing denunciation and ideology. Writing therefore often becomes a cry of anger, incitement to revolt and a struggle to achieve freedom. Mossafa Nissaboury (b.1943) in La mille et deuxième nuit turns against the city of the hopeless, Mohammed Loakira in L’horizon est d’argiledenounces the horrors of the African peoples. But if literature has left the field of specialists and has risen to the highest levels in the world, this is mainly due to Tahar Ben Jelloun, who was awarded the prestigious Goncourt prize in 1987 for La nuit sacrée. His other novels, translated into many languages, include Moha le fou, Moha le sage (1978), L’enfant de sable (1985) and Le racisme expliqué à ma fille (1998). Among the most interesting and best-known voices it remains to mention Fatima Mernissi (1940-2015), writer and scholar of the Islamic and female world in particular, who in her novels and essays (for example L’Amour dans les pays musulman, 2007) carries on the thesis according to which female freedom can be compatible with the indications dictated by the Koran.

Morocco Literature

Children Education in Sierra Leone

Children Education in Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone is located in West Africa and is one of the world’s poorest and least equal countries. There are great natural resources, but a long civil war and an outbreak of Ebola have damaged the economy and had serious consequences for the children in the country. Girls are extra vulnerable and do not have access to their rights.

The civil war that lasted from 1991 to 2002 led to the deaths of 50,000 people and a third of the population was forced to flee. It had a major impact on the economy and the country’s development. The country had slowly begun to recover from the war when it was hit by an outbreak of the Ebola virus in 2014. The disease had catastrophic consequences for those affected. 10,000 children lost one or both their parents, the country suffered from food shortages and unemployment and violence increased. All schools in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea closed during the summer and millions of children were left without education.

When all schools in Sierra Leone reopened the following year, not all children could return. More than half of Sierra Leone’s population lives below the poverty line and many parents could not afford to let their children go to school. Poverty also leads to many children under the age of five being malnourished. Sierra Leone is one of the countries in the world where most children under the age of five die.

Sierra Leone is now free of Ebola, but children have been greatly affected by the progression of the disease. One study shows that child labor increased because children had to help support their families. With so many deaths, even girls could be forced to take over responsibility for their younger siblings when their parents died. According to the UN, two out of five children work in Sierra Leone.

Sierra Leone

Two out of five girls in child marriage

Sierra Leone is one of the least equal countries in the world. It has a big impact on girls’ lives. The country has the highest maternal mortality rate in the world and almost two out of five girls are forced to marry before the age of 18. The level of education is low for both girls and boys, but lowest for girls who on average go to school for almost three years. Even children from low-income families or with disabilities lose the right to go to school. The lack of education is one of the reasons why so many girls are married off.

This is what Plan International does

Plan International works to strengthen children’s and young people’s right to development, protection and participation. We work to support local savings and loan groups and contribute to increased profits in agriculture to improve the livelihoods of the families affected by Ebola.

Some of our general areas of focus are support for children and young people so that they can address the causes of discrimination against girls and women, work to improve the conditions of children – in practice and politics, preparatory and urgent work to deal with crises and support for children so that they can grow up in security with access to their rights.

Now the schools get more books

In Sierra Leone there are many who cannot read and not even in school are there certain books. Plan International works to give more people the opportunity to discover the world of books.

For many children in Sierra Leone, books are a rarity. Few families have the opportunity to have books at home and for those who can afford it, there are few bookstores with a small selection. Many children also do not have access to books at school. Together with Book Aid International, Plan International distributes 10,000 books to over 100 schools around Sierra Leone. Through the project, Plan International wants to increase the proportion of literates that is now around 45 percent.

– Without books, children will not pass exams, that is the biggest problem. There is no reading culture at all, says Mariam Murrey who is an advisor for the program.

The hope is that the books will give students the desire to read and support them in their learning. Schools receive everything from academic books to fiction for children and picture books for the little ones. All books are in English, which is the official language of the country and is used in teaching.

13-year-old Mariama is one of the students who received books.

– Thank you so much for giving my school books and for giving us the opportunity to read and learn, she says.

The schools that have received books have also been encouraged to create small corners where students can practice reading. The books should be there so that the children can easily find them and settle down.


A role model for young women

Dad said it was a waste of money to educate girls, that girls should get married and move out. I refused to listen to Dad and showed that the structures of society were wrong. Now they can all see that women can also become teachers. Now I am a role model.


Plan International has made it possible for people in several communities in the Moyamba district to be able to report genital mutilation or kidnapping of children; two serious violations of children’s rights that also lead to girls being forced to drop out of school. When Plan International celebrated the UN’s anniversary last year, many children participated in the work of producing a letter to the local authorities demanding more money to protect children.

Security and protection

To survive for play and laughter

Now they look at me as a hero because I survived Ebola. In the future, I want to help people when they get sick, especially children.

Michael, 14 years

Michael’s family died of Ebola. He himself became infected but survived and moved in with his aunt. When the epidemic was over and school started again, he asked his aunt not to go there because his classmates were afraid of him and did not want to talk to him. But his aunt refused to let him stop. At the same time, Plan International worked to change students’ attitudes and reduce discrimination against Ebola survivors. Today he plays and laughs with his friends and he is happy to have them back.

Facts about Sierra Leone

Facts about Sierra Leone

Capital: Freetown
Population: 7.6 million
Life expectancy: 52 years
Infant mortality rate: 110.5 per 1000 births
Proportion of children starting school: 98.3%
Literacy: 32.4%
Proportion of women in parliament: 12%

Children Education in Central African Republic

Children Education in Central African Republic

The Central African Republic is located in the middle of Africa. The country is rich in natural resources but violence, political unrest and corruption hinder development. Armed conflicts have also forced people to leave their homes. Children, and especially girls, are hard hit by the situation.

In 1960, the Central African Republic became independent and since then the country has had several shifts of power and periods of unrest. The country has enormous natural resources, but despite this, a large part of the population lives in poverty. Instead, the assets in many cases contribute to conflicts because rebel groups exploit the lack of law and order to make money on, among other things, gold and diamonds.

The recurring outbreaks of violence have affected both the school system, the judiciary, health care and the labor market negatively and it looks particularly bad outside the capital. Many people have been forced to leave their homes and four out of five Central Africans are considered poor. Children are hard hit by conflicts and disasters and in a country with a very young population – three out of five are under 25 – it has serious consequences.

Facts about the Central African Republic

Girls particularly vulnerable in conflicts

The Central African Republic is one of the countries with the highest child and maternal mortality rates in the world. One in ten children does not survive their fifth birthday and among pregnant women almost one percent die during childbirth – for reasons that could have been avoided. Another problem is the high number of teenage pregnancies. Just over a fifth of all teenage girls between the ages of 15 and 19 become pregnant and give birth to children, even though they themselves are still children .

Girls’ vulnerability is generally higher with ongoing conflicts in the country. In conflicts and disasters, the risk increases that girls will be forced into child marriage, become pregnant while they themselves are still children and be forced to leave school to take care of the household and family. The fact that girls have to drop out of school is one of the biggest obstacles for them to be able to support themselves in the future and have the opportunity.

This makes international plan in the Central African Republic

Plan International has been in place in the Central African Republic since 2014. Our programs in the country focus on children’s right to education, food, protection from violence and young people’s opportunity to participate in society. One of our more priority programs is to provide support to children and young people who have been affected in various ways by the conflicts that prevail in the country. This may, for example, be about ensuring their access to education. But also about giving young people the opportunity to earn a living, for example by offering vocational training.

We also work to prevent children from being recruited to armed groups, by actively influencing leaders of armed groups, authorities and civil society, and facilitating the children’s return to family and local community.

We support children who have lost or been separated from their parents with necessities such as food, water, soap, mattresses and blankets. Many of the children have lost their parents and come to school without clothes, shoes and other things they need in class. We hand out school packages with pencils, pads, toys and teaching materials.

“No child should have to experience the things I experienced”

When rebel groups captured the capital of Bangui in the Central African Republic, Francois’ father, relatives and neighbors were killed. Francois then joined a self-defense group where he was used as a child soldier. Today he has broken free and through Plan International has had the opportunity to create a new path in life.

Francois grew up in one of the areas in Bangui that was hardest hit when the violent conflict in the Central African Republic broke out in 2012. As a way to stop the rebels, various self-defense groups began to build up. Francois decided to join in revenge for his dead relatives and father.

– I was the youngest in the group. We were sent out into the jungle to learn how to handle weapons. We were constantly monitored by the armed group. We were forced to carry out armed attacks in several villages before we were allowed to return to the capital, says Francois.

After months of training in the jungle, the self-defense group returned to Bangui. There, Francois was reunited with his mother.

– She wanted me to come home. But my boss did not want that. So I only went to her when I was hungry.

In the end, Francois managed to escape the armed group and then got in touch with Plan International.

– Through Plan International, I trained as a carpenter. I started making furniture which I then sold. From the money I got together, I started my own small business. Right now I am selling oils and spices while I continue with the carpentry on the side to be able to help my mother financially.

He says that he wishes that no child would have to go through what he went through as a child soldier.

– No child should have to do what I did.

Plan International is actively working in the Central African Republic to provide children like Francois with vocational training to help them increase their income and improve their lives. Our program is sponsored by the EU and implemented in collaboration with a local organization.


A second chance for a bright future

I am very happy to be able to go to school again, even if it feels strange after all the time I have been at home. I enjoy learning new things, especially math. When I grow up, I want to work as a teacher and teach others about things I can

Zara, 13 years old

When the civil war raged in the Central African Republic, Zara and many other children could not go to school. But thanks to the Plan International education program, more than 480 children have now been given a second chance and a way back to school.

Security and protection

Reunited after the war

I am very happy that I was able to be reunited with my father after we have been apart for four years

Bossin, 17 years

During the civil war in the Central African Republic, many children were separated from their parents. Bossin and his sister Anastasie were sent with their mother to Kaga-Bandoro for protection. Their father stayed in the capital Bangui. Shortly after their escape, their mother died. The father believed for a long time that his children had also died. But now he has been able to be reunited with his children again thanks to Plan International’s family reunification program.

Central African Republic

Facts about the Central African Republic

Capital: Bangui
Population: 4.7 million
Life expectancy: 52 years
Infant mortality rate: 85 per 1000 births
Proportion of children starting school: 71.9%
Literacy: 36.8%
Proportion of women in parliament: 9%