Category: Africa

For the complete list of nations in Africa, please visit

Rwanda Society

Rwanda Society

Rwanda is a small, landlocked country located in Central Africa. It is one of the most densely populated countries in Africa, with around 12 million inhabitants living within its borders. Rwanda is a multi-ethnic and multi-cultural society, with three main ethnic groups: Hutu, Tutsi, and Twa. The majority of the population are Hutu (84%), followed by Tutsi (15%) and Twa (1%).

Despite its small size and population density, Rwanda has achieved remarkable economic growth over the past two decades. It has one of the highest economic growth rates in Africa and was ranked as the third-fastest growing economy in the world between 2005 and 2010. This economic success has been largely attributed to reforms implemented by the government which have improved access to education, healthcare, and other essential services for its citizens.

Rwanda has also made significant progress towards gender equality over recent years. Women now make up 50% of parliamentarians and are well represented at all levels of government. In addition to this, a range of initiatives have been implemented to promote gender equality such as providing free primary education for girls and encouraging more women to enter traditionally male-dominated fields such as engineering or technology.

In terms of social issues, Rwanda faces a number of challenges such as poverty, corruption, lack of access to basic services such as water or sanitation facilities, HIV/AIDS infection rates among adults aged 15–49 years old standing at 3%, low literacy rates among adults aged 15–24 years old standing at only 33%, inadequate access to healthcare services due to limited resources or lack of expertise among medical professionals., malnutrition among children under 5 years old standing at 19%, high unemployment rate standing at 14%.

Despite these challenges however, Rwanda has made great strides towards improving the lives of its citizens over recent years through economic development initiatives which have helped reduce poverty levels significantly since 2006 when it stood at 46%. In addition to this, there have also been improvements in health outcomes with maternal mortality falling from 850 deaths per 100 000 live births in 2000 to 454 deaths per 100 000 live births in 2016.

Rwanda Society

Demographics of Rwanda

According to, Rwanda is a small, landlocked country located in Central Africa with an estimated population of 12 million people. It is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with a population density of 461 people per square kilometer. The majority of the population are Hutu (84%), followed by Tutsi (15%) and Twa (1%).

Rwanda has made great strides towards improving the lives of its citizens over recent years through economic development initiatives which have helped reduce poverty levels significantly since 2006 when it stood at 46%. In addition to this, there have also been improvements in health outcomes with maternal mortality falling from 850 deaths per 100 000 live births in 2000 to 454 deaths per 100 000 live births in 2016.

Although Rwanda is still considered a low-income country, it has achieved remarkable economic growth over the past two decades and was ranked as the third-fastest growing economy in the world between 2005 and 2010. This economic success has been largely attributed to reforms implemented by the government which have improved access to education, healthcare, and other essential services for its citizens.

In terms of social issues, Rwanda faces a number of challenges such as poverty, corruption, lack of access to basic services such as water or sanitation facilities, HIV/AIDS infection rates among adults aged 15–49 years old standing at 3%, low literacy rates among adults aged 15–24 years old standing at only 33%, inadequate access to healthcare services due to limited resources or lack of expertise among medical professionals., malnutrition among children under 5 years old standing at 19%, high unemployment rate standing at 14%.

Rwanda has also made significant progress towards gender equality over recent years. Women now make up 50% of parliamentarians and are well represented at all levels of government. In addition to this, a range of initiatives have been implemented to promote gender equality such as providing free primary education for girls and encouraging more women to enter traditionally male-dominated fields such as engineering or technology.

Overall, Rwanda has made great progress over recent years but there is still much work that needs to be done in order for it to reach its full potential. With continued commitment from both government officials and citizens alike, Rwanda can continue on its path towards becoming an economically prosperous nation that provides equal opportunities for all its citizens regardless of gender or ethnicity.

Poverty in Rwanda

Poverty in Rwanda is an alarming issue that affects a large proportion of the population. According to a report by the World Bank, over half of Rwandans live below the poverty line with income levels less than US$1.90 per day. This level of poverty is shocking given that the country has made significant economic and social advances in recent years, especially post-genocide.

The primary causes of poverty in Rwanda are economic inequality and low wages. The country’s economy is largely based on subsistence farming, meaning that most people rely on small-scale agriculture for their livelihoods. With limited access to capital or resources, it can be difficult for farmers to make enough money to support themselves and their families. In addition, many Rwandans work in jobs that don’t pay well such as domestic work or manual labor which makes it hard for them to escape poverty.

The lack of access to education is also a major factor contributing to poverty in Rwanda as it limits people’s ability to find better paying jobs or develop skills that can help them earn more money. Additionally, there are still widespread gender inequalities in the country which prevent women from accessing certain job opportunities or receiving equal wages compared to men doing the same job.

The government has implemented several initiatives aimed at reducing poverty such as providing free primary education for all children and introducing microfinance schemes which offer small loans and financial advice to those living in rural areas who need it most. Furthermore, there have been improvements in healthcare outcomes with maternal mortality falling from 850 deaths per 100 000 live births in 2000 to 454 deaths per 100 000 live births in 2016 due largely thanks due increased access to healthcare services for pregnant women living in rural areas.

Overall, while Rwanda has made considerable progress towards tackling poverty since the genocide ended in 1994, there is still much work that needs to be done if it wants to reach its full potential and provide equal opportunities for all its citizens regardless of gender or ethnicity. With continued commitment from both government officials and citizens alike, Rwanda can continue on its path towards becoming an economically prosperous nation where everyone can thrive regardless of their background or circumstances.

Labor Market in Rwanda

According to Countryvv, the labor market in Rwanda is characterized by low wages, high levels of inequality and limited access to capital or resources. Most Rwandans are employed in subsistence farming, meaning that they rely on small-scale agriculture for their livelihoods. This lack of access to capital or resources makes it difficult for farmers to make enough money to support themselves and their families. In addition, many Rwandans work in jobs that pay poorly such as domestic work or manual labor which further restricts their ability to escape poverty.

The lack of access to education is a major contributor to the high levels of poverty in Rwanda. Education can provide people with the skills they need to find better paying jobs, but many people in Rwanda cannot afford the cost of attending school or do not have access to educational institutions due to geographical barriers. This limits their opportunities for upward mobility and perpetuates the cycle of poverty and low wages.

Gender inequalities are still widespread in Rwanda, which prevent women from accessing certain job opportunities or receiving equal wages compared to men doing the same job. This has a direct impact on poverty levels as women often form a large part of the population living below the poverty line due to their inability to find well-paying employment.

In order to address these issues, the government has implemented several initiatives aimed at reducing poverty such as providing free primary education for all children and introducing microfinance schemes which offer small loans and financial advice to those living in rural areas who need it most. Furthermore, there have been improvements in healthcare outcomes with maternal mortality falling from 850 deaths per 100 000 live births in 2000 to 454 deaths per 100 000 live births in 2016 due largely thanks due increased access to healthcare services for pregnant women living in rural areas.

Overall, while there are still many challenges that need addressing before Rwandan citizens can enjoy true economic prosperity, there have been some positive developments over recent years which suggest that progress is being made towards creating an equitable labor market where everyone has a chance at success regardless of gender or ethnicity. With continued commitment from both government officials and citizens alike, Rwanda could become an economically prosperous nation where everyone can thrive regardless of their background or circumstances.

Mauritius Society

Mauritius Society

Mauritius is a small island nation located in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar. It is known for its beautiful beaches, lush forests, and tropical climate. The population of Mauritius is estimated to be around 1.3 million people. The majority of the population are Indo-Mauritians, who are descendants of Indian and African slaves brought to the island by Dutch and French colonialists in the 19th century. The other ethnic groups present include Creoles (descendants of French settlers), Chinese, and Europeans.

The official language of Mauritius is English, although French is also widely spoken due to its colonial past. Other languages spoken include Creole, Hindi, Urdu, Tamil and Bhojpuri. The country has a multi-party parliamentary democracy with universal suffrage for citizens over 18 years old. It has an independent judiciary system with a Supreme Court at its apex and a High Court as well as lower courts at the district level.

The economy of Mauritius relies heavily on tourism and financial services such as banking and insurance companies which account for almost 60% of GDP (Gross Domestic Product). Other sectors which contribute significantly to GDP include sugar production, fishing, textiles and clothing manufacturing as well as IT services such as software development.

Mauritius’s education system consists of both public and private schools offering primary through tertiary levels of education in English or French languages depending on the school type chosen by parents or guardians. Primary schools generally offer free tuition while secondary schools are either subsidized or privately funded depending on their type/location/curriculum etc.. Additionally, there are universities offering degree programs in fields such as engineering, business administration or law among others.

In terms of healthcare infrastructure Mauritius has both public hospitals operated by government institutions where citizens have free access to basic medical care while private hospitals provide more specialized treatments that require payment from patients or their health insurance providers if they have one. Additionally, there are community clinics located across the country providing primary care services free-of-charge for those living below poverty line.

Overall, Mauritius is a relatively prosperous country with high standards in terms of education, healthcare infrastructure and economic development despite its small size compared to other nations in the region making it an attractive destination for tourists from all parts of world looking for a unique experience amidst stunning natural beauty combined with modern amenities that make it an attractive destination to visit or even live permanently if desired.

Mauritius Society

Demographics of Mauritius

According to, Mauritius is an island nation located in the Indian Ocean off the eastern coast of Africa and is home to a population of 1.3 million people. The country is multi-ethnic and multicultural with no single ethnic group comprising a majority of the population. The largest ethnic groups are Indo-Mauritians (68.3%), Sino-Mauritians (27.9%) and Creole Mauritians (3%). In addition, there are small communities of Europeans, Africans, Chinese, Arabs and other minorities.

The official language of Mauritius is English but French is also widely spoken by most people due to its historical ties with France and its former colonial power. Additionally, Creole is spoken by many people as well as Bhojpuri which is mainly spoken by Indo-Mauritian people from India who make up the majority of the population in Mauritius.

The literacy rate in Mauritius stands at 93%, one of the highest in Africa, which makes it one of the most educated countries in the region with a highly skilled labor force that contributes significantly to its economic growth. Furthermore, education levels have also been rising steadily over time due to improved access to educational resources and increased investment from both public and private sectors into education infrastructure across all levels from primary schools through tertiary institutions such as universities or professional colleges offering degree programs in various fields ranging from engineering to business administration or even law among others.

In terms of religion Christianity is predominant with nearly 60% of population belonging to either Catholic or Protestant denominations while Hinduism accounts for 28% followed by Islam at 7%. Other religions such as Buddhism or Judaism are practiced by smaller minorities but still have significant presence in the country’s religious landscape.

Regarding gender equality Mauritius has made significant progress over recent years although there still exists some disparity between men and women particularly when it comes to economic opportunities available for women due to traditional gender roles that persist within society despite efforts being made to promote gender equality both socially and economically through various initiatives aimed at providing more equitable access for women into various sectors such as education or business ownership etc.

Poverty in Mauritius

Poverty is a major issue in Mauritius, with an estimated 10.2% of the population living below the poverty line. The country has seen a slight decrease in poverty levels since the mid-2000s, but it remains a significant problem, especially in rural areas. The main factors contributing to poverty include low wages, lack of job opportunities and skills, and rising costs of food and other basic necessities.

The government has made some efforts to reduce poverty, including providing social grants for vulnerable households and increasing access to education and health services. However, these measures have not been able to adequately address the underlying structural issues that are causing poverty rates to remain high in some areas.

Low wages are a major contributor to poverty in Mauritius as most people are employed in low-skilled jobs that pay very little or offer no benefits at all. This is particularly true for those working in agriculture or construction sectors which account for a large share of employment opportunities but provide very low wages compared to other sectors such as finance or IT services. In addition, there is also a lack of job security as most jobs are temporary or seasonal which makes it difficult for people to sustain themselves over long periods of time without having any guarantees of employment or income stability.

Another issue that contributes significantly to poverty is the rising cost of basic necessities such as food and utilities which have outpaced wage growth over recent years making it difficult for households to make ends meet on limited incomes. This has been exacerbated by high levels of inequality which means that those at the lower end of the income spectrum struggle even more due to their limited access to resources and opportunities compared with those at the top end who can easily afford most basic needs without any issues whatsoever.

Finally, there is also an education gap as many people living in rural areas do not have access to quality educational institutions or resources which limits their ability to develop skills that could help them get better paying jobs outside their current occupations or start businesses that could generate higher incomes over time. This lack of access combined with low wages makes it very difficult for households living on limited incomes to escape poverty without outside assistance such as grants from international organizations or government programs aimed at reducing inequality and providing better economic opportunities for all citizens regardless of their socio-economic background.

Labor Market in Mauritius

According to Countryvv, the labor market in Mauritius is characterized by a high degree of flexibility and dynamism, with a large informal sector accounting for the majority of employment. The formal sector consists mainly of the manufacturing and services industries, with the main employers being textiles, tourism, and banking/finance. The informal sector is composed of agriculture, construction, small-scale trade, and other activities such as street vending. Employment opportunities are generally concentrated in urban areas, particularly in the capital city of Port Louis.

In terms of wages and salaries, there is a wide disparity between different sectors. Those working in manufacturing tend to earn higher wages than those employed in services or agriculture; however, even within these sectors there are significant disparities between different occupations. Additionally, wage levels have remained relatively stagnant over recent years despite rising costs of living due to inflation. This has contributed to a widening gap between those at the top and bottom end of the income spectrum which has resulted in increased poverty levels among certain sections of society.

The labor market also suffers from structural issues such as limited job security due to short-term contracts or seasonal work; low levels of unionization; gender inequality; occupational segregation; and lack of access to training opportunities for certain sections of society such as low-skilled workers or those living in rural areas. Moreover, there is also a shortage of skilled workers for certain occupations due to an insufficient supply from educational institutions or lack of incentives for people to pursue high-skilled jobs such as engineering or finance due to low wages compared with other sectors like IT services or banking/finance.

Overall, while Mauritius does have an open labor market characterized by flexibility and dynamism which has enabled it to become one of the most prosperous countries in Africa over recent decades; there are still some structural issues which need to be addressed if it is going to sustain economic growth while ensuring that all citizens benefit regardless their socio-economic background. This could be achieved through policies aimed at increasing job security; providing better access to training opportunities; improving wage levels across all sectors; reducing gender inequality;and tackling long-standing issues such as occupational segregation and regional disparities when it comes to access to employment opportunities.

Togo Agriculture, Fishing and Forestry

Togo Agriculture, Fishing and Forestry

According to, Togo is a small West African country located in the Gulf of Guinea. It is bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east, and Burkina Faso to the north. The country covers an area of approximately 57,000 square kilometers and has a population of 8 million people. The official language of Togo is French and the currency is the CFA Franc.

Togo’s economy relies heavily on agriculture, which accounts for about 40 percent of its GDP. The main export crops are coffee, cocoa beans and cotton, while other agricultural products include cassava, yams and corn. The country also has mineral resources such as phosphates and limestone that are mined for export. Other important industries in Togo include manufacturing, tourism and services.

The government of Togo is a semi-presidential republic with an executive branch headed by a President who serves as both head of state and head of government. Legislative power lies with both the government and parliament which is composed of 91 members elected by popular vote every five years.

Togo is home to several ethnic groups including Kabye, Ewe, Mina-Dagomba and Gurma which make up around 30 percent of the population. Christianity is the dominant religion in Togo while Islam makes up around 20 percent of its religious composition. There are also significant numbers of people who practice traditional African religions or follow no religion at all.

Togo has an education system that consists mainly of primary school followed by secondary school which leads into higher education at universities or technical schools throughout the country. Healthcare in Togo is provided mainly through public facilities although there are some private hospitals available as well as health centers located in rural areas outside major cities.

In terms of culture, music plays an important role in many aspects of life in Togo such as festivals or celebrations where traditional instruments like drums are used to create unique rhythms that reflect local customs or beliefs. Traditional dance styles also exist within different ethnic groups such as Ewe or Kabye dances which involve intricate footwork accompanied by singing or chanting along with drumming rhythms from hand-held drums known as “tam-tam” drums.

Overall, Togo offers visitors a diverse cultural experience full of vibrant music and dance styles combined with interesting historical sites that reflect its rich history dating back centuries ago when it was part of several powerful empires like Ghana or Mali before becoming an independent nation after World War II in 1960. With beautiful beaches along its coastline, breathtaking landscapes, friendly people, delicious cuisine, vibrant culture, interesting history, diverse wildlife and much more – there’s something for everyone to explore during their visit to this wonderful country !

Agriculture in Togo

Togo Agriculture

Togo is a small country in West Africa, with an area of just over 56,000 km². Agriculture is one of the main sources of income for the people of Togo and it contributes significantly to the country’s economy. The main crops grown in Togo are cassava, maize, sorghum, millet, yams and groundnuts. Livestock production is also important with cattle being the primary species reared. In addition to these traditional crops and livestock, farmers are increasingly growing cash crops such as cocoa and coffee. These are mainly exported to other countries in Africa or abroad.

Agricultural practices vary from region to region due to differences in climate and soil conditions, but most farmers rely on manual labor for farming activities such as planting and harvesting. Fertilizers are used extensively in some parts of the country, especially for cash crops like cocoa and coffee which require higher yields than traditional crops. In addition, many farmers have adopted agroforestry practices which involve combining trees with crop production as a way to improve soil fertility and provide additional income from timber sales or non-timber forest products such as nuts or fruits. This type of agriculture is becoming increasingly popular among Togolese farmers who recognize its potential benefits for the environment as well as their own livelihoods.

Fishing in Togo

The fishing industry in Togo is an important source of livelihood for many of its citizens. The country has a long coastline that stretches for over 125 km and provides access to the Atlantic Ocean and numerous lagoons, making it an ideal place for fishing. The most commonly fished species include sardines, tuna, mackerels, prawns and shrimps. Small-scale fisheries are mostly done by hand using traditional fishing techniques such as beach seine nets and gillnets. Larger-scale fisheries are often done using trawlers or purse seine nets.

Togo’s coastal lagoons are particularly productive due to their high biodiversity, providing fish with a wide range of habitats and food sources. This makes them ideal areas for both commercial and recreational fishing activities. The majority of commercial fisheries are based in the central part of the coast near Lomé, although there is also some activity further north near Kara. Fishing cooperatives have been established in some areas to help manage resources and ensure sustainable practices are maintained by local fishermen.

In addition to traditional methods of fishing, aquaculture is becoming increasingly popular in Togo as an alternative way to produce seafood products such as tilapia, catfish and oysters. Aquaculture farms can be found along the coast near Lomé as well as further inland on Lake Togo where they provide employment opportunities for local communities who may not have access to other forms of income generation.

Overall, the fishing industry in Togo plays a vital role in providing food security for its citizens as well as generating much needed foreign exchange through exports. It is therefore essential that any efforts to sustainably manage this important resource are put into place so that it can continue to provide benefits for generations to come.

Forestry in Togo

Forests cover around 25% of Togo’s land area, and are an important economic, environmental, and social resource for the country. They provide a wide range of benefits including timber, fuel wood, non-timber forest products such as honey and medicinal plants, and biodiversity conservation. In addition to this, forests are also a major source of employment for rural communities in Togo.

Togo has a variety of forest types ranging from semi-arid savanna in the north to humid rainforest in the south. The country’s forests are managed by the National Forestry Office (NFO) which is responsible for ensuring that sustainable forestry management practices are followed. This includes protecting areas from illegal logging and hunting as well as promoting reforestation efforts.

The majority of timber production in Togo comes from industrial plantations which account for around 75% of total production. These plantations produce species such as mahogany and teak which can be used for furniture making or construction purposes. Natural forests are also harvested but at much lower levels due to their limited availability and slow growth rates. However, they still provide important sources of fuel wood for local communities who depend on them for their daily needs.

In recent years there has been an increased focus on conservation efforts in order to protect Togo’s valuable ecosystems from degradation due to deforestation or unsustainable harvesting practices. This includes activities such as establishing protected areas or implementing certification schemes for timber produced within the country’s forests.

Overall, forestry plays an important role in providing economic opportunities and environmental benefits to Togo’s citizens while also helping to ensure long term sustainability of its natural resources. The government is taking steps to ensure that these resources are managed responsibly so that they can continue providing benefits into the future.

Libya Agriculture, Fishing and Forestry

Libya Agriculture, Fishing and Forestry

According to aristmarketing, Libya is a North African country located on the Mediterranean Sea. It borders Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west. Libya has an area of about 1.8 million square kilometers making it the 17th largest country in Africa by land area. The population of Libya is estimated at 6.4 million people as of 2020, with a population density of about 12 people per square kilometer.

Libya’s capital city is Tripoli located in the northwest corner of the country on the Mediterranean Sea coast. The official language is Arabic but Italian and English are also spoken by many people in Libya. The majority religion is Islam with 97% of Libyans belonging to Sunni Islam while 2% are Sufi Muslims and 1% are Christians or other religious minorities.

Libya has a predominantly desert climate with hot summers and mild winters. Rainfall is scarce but some areas receive more rainfall than others due to their proximity to mountains or bodies of water such as lakes or rivers.

The economy of Libya relies heavily on oil production which makes up around 95% of total exports and 75% of GDP. Other industries include agriculture, manufacturing, services, tourism, and construction services which account for a significant share of GDP as well as providing employment opportunities for many people in Libya.

The government system in Libya is based on a form of constitutional monarchy under which power is shared between the executive branch (headed by Prime Minister Fayez al-Sarraj) and legislative branch (the House of Representatives). The judicial branch consists mainly of religious courts which handle civil matters such as marriage contracts, inheritance laws, etc., while criminal cases are handled by secular courts with appeal cases being decided by higher courts in each region or province.

Since 2011 Libya has been facing ongoing political turmoil with rival militias vying for control over parts of the country leading to instability and violence throughout much of its territory. In addition to this security situation there have been severe economic problems due to a drop in oil prices combined with limited access to foreign currency reserves leading to shortages in basic goods such as food items, fuel, medicines etc., resulting in increased poverty levels throughout much of Libya’s population.

Agriculture in Libya

Libya Agriculture

Agriculture is an important sector of the Libyan economy, providing employment to a large part of the population and contributing substantially to the country’s GDP. The main agricultural products are cereals (wheat and barley), vegetables (potatoes, onions, tomatoes, eggplants) and fruits (dates, olives, oranges). Livestock production is also important in Libya with sheep and goats being the most commonly raised animals.

Libya has a long history of agricultural production dating back to pre-Roman times when wheat was the main crop grown in the country. Since then there has been significant progress in terms of modernizing agricultural practices as well as improving yields through better irrigation systems.

The majority of farms in Libya are small family-run operations with only around 5% being larger commercial farms with mechanized equipment and modern technology. Most farmers rely on traditional methods such as using oxen for ploughing or hand tools for harvesting. This has resulted in relatively low yields compared to other countries in the region.

Despite this, there have been some efforts to improve agricultural productivity by introducing new technologies such as drip irrigation systems, improved seed varieties and fertilizers. These efforts have been successful in some areas but Overall, productivity remains low due to lack of access to modern inputs and limited investment from the government.

In recent years there has been an increase in organic farming practices which is mostly due to consumer demand for healthier food options as well as environmental concerns over chemical fertilizers and pesticides used by conventional farming methods. These organic methods are slowly gaining popularity among Libyan farmers who are starting to recognize their potential benefits such as higher yields with fewer inputs and no risk of soil contamination from chemical residues.

Overall, agriculture remains an important sector of Libya’s economy providing employment opportunities for many people while contributing significantly to GDP growth despite its low productivity levels compared to other countries in the region. With increased investment into research and development along with improved access to modern technologies it is expected that this sector will continue to grow at a steady rate into the future.

Fishing in Libya

Fishing is an important industry in Libya, providing a significant source of employment and income for many coastal communities. The country’s extensive coastline, which stretches for almost 1,800 kilometers along the Mediterranean Sea, offers an abundance of fish species and other marine life. As a result, fishing has been a traditional livelihood for Libyans for centuries and continues to be a vital part of the local economy today.

The bulk of Libya’s commercial fishing activity takes place in the Gulf of Sirte where large numbers of tuna, sardines and other species are generally found in abundance. The country’s fisheries are also home to several endangered species such as the Mediterranean monk seal, green turtle and hawksbill turtle which are protected under Libyan law. In addition to commercial fishing operations there is also a thriving recreational fishing industry with many anglers visiting Libya each year to experience its unique underwater environment.

The main challenge facing the Libyan fishing industry is overfishing which has caused some fish stocks to be significantly depleted over recent years. To combat this problem the government has implemented several measures including setting quotas on certain species as well as enforcing tighter regulations on boats operating within Libyan waters. In addition, efforts have been made to promote sustainable practices such as using more selective methods for catching fish or releasing smaller specimens back into the wild after being caught.

Despite these efforts there is still much work to be done in order to ensure that Libya’s marine resources remain healthy in the long term. This includes improving enforcement capabilities so that illegal activities can be more easily identified and prosecuted as well as increasing public awareness about responsible fishing practices so that all stakeholders can take part in preserving this important sector of Libya’s economy. With concerted effort from both government and citizens alike it is hoped that Libya’s fisheries can continue to provide sustenance for generations to come.

Forestry in Libya

Libya is home to a range of diverse ecosystems, including forests and woodlands. Located in North Africa, the country spans an area of 1,759,540 square kilometers and is predominantly desert with some small oases and coastal plains. Forests are mainly found in the northern region of the country, where mountain ranges are located close to the Mediterranean Sea. The forests of Libya vary in size and composition depending on their location and elevation, but consist mostly of evergreen broadleaf species such as olive trees, cork oaks, cypresses and junipers.

The majority of Libya’s forests are found in its mountainous regions which are located primarily in the northwest corner of the country near Tunisia. These areas have a temperate climate with an average annual temperature between 15-20°C. The forests here provide habitat for a variety of wildlife including wolves, foxes, wild boar and jackals as well as numerous bird species such as hoopoes, bee-eaters and larks.

In addition to its mountain forests Libya also has some dry woodlands which are mostly concentrated in the southern part of the country near Algeria. These woodlands usually consist of low shrubs such as acacias or tamarisks which can tolerate long periods without rainfall or water availability. Despite their arid conditions these woodlands still provide important habitat for wildlife species such as gazelles and hyenas that have adapted to living in this environment.

Unfortunately due to deforestation much of Libya’s forest cover has been reduced over recent decades with only an estimated 3% remaining today. In addition to this there has also been a decrease in biodiversity due to overgrazing by livestock, illegal logging for firewood or construction purposes as well as wildfires caused by human activity or natural causes like lightning strikes.

In order to protect its remaining forests Libya has implemented several measures including the establishment of protected areas such as national parks where logging is prohibited and sustainable forestry practices are encouraged. In addition there has been an increase in public awareness campaigns advocating for reforestation projects throughout the country so that more trees can be planted to replace those that have been lost due to deforestation activities.

Overall, it is clear that Libyan forests play an important role both ecologically and economically within the country’s borders by providing habitats for wildlife species while also being a source of timber products used for construction purposes or firewood used by local communities for cooking or heating purposes. With continued efforts from both government agencies and citizens alike it is hoped that these precious resources can be preserved for future generations so that they too can benefit from all that these unique ecosystems offer.

Ethiopia Presidents and Prime Ministers

Ethiopia Presidents and Prime Ministers

National Flag of Ethiopia

According to aceinland, the national flag of Ethiopia consists of three equal horizontal stripes of green, yellow and red. The colors are often said to represent peace, hope and love. In the center of the yellow stripe is a blue pentagram radiating five rays of light representing knowledge, unity and diversity. The pentagram is surrounded by a green wreath symbolizing prosperity and growth.

The flag has a long history stretching back to the 19th century when it was first used by the Ethiopian Empire. The original design was created in 1855 by Prince Ras Makonnen who was a leader in the struggle for Ethiopian independence from Italy at the time. It was adopted as Ethiopia’s national flag in 1896 after Emperor Menelik II declared independence from Italy.

Today, the flag is an important symbol for Ethiopians and is proudly flown on national holidays such as Flag Day which takes place every year on May 28th to celebrate Ethiopia’s independence from Italy in 1896. It can also be seen flying on government buildings, public squares, schools and other places throughout Ethiopia as well as being used in sports teams’ uniforms and other official symbols of Ethiopia such as coins and stamps.

The current design of the Ethiopian flag has remained unchanged since its adoption in 1896 but its meaning has evolved over time to represent many different aspects of Ethiopian culture such as unity, peace, justice and progress among others. The combination of green, yellow and red along with its central blue pentagram are powerful symbols that inspire pride amongst Ethiopians all over the world while also serving to remind them of their rich history and culture that they can take pride in today.

National Flag of Ethiopia

Presidents of Ethiopia

The President of Ethiopia is the Head of State and Commander-in-Chief of the Ethiopian National Defense Forces, as well as the head of government. The current president is Sahle-Work Zewde, who was elected in October 2018.

The first president of Ethiopia was Negasso Gidada, who served from 1995 to 2001. During his tenure he focused on improving education, healthcare and infrastructure while also advocating for economic reforms that would help to develop the newly independent nation.

The second president was Girma Wolde-Giorgis who served from 2001 to 2013. He continued Negasso Gidada’s policies and also worked to improve Ethiopia’s international relations by engaging in peacekeeping operations with other African countries.

The third president was Mulatu Teshome who served from 2013 to 2018. During his tenure he focused on strengthening democracy and encouraging economic growth through foreign investment opportunities. He also worked to improve Ethiopia’s international standing by participating in various peacekeeping missions and diplomatic engagements with other African countries.

The fourth and current president is Sahle-Work Zewde who has been in office since October 2018. She is an advocate for gender equality and has worked tirelessly to promote women’s rights throughout her tenure as president. She has also focused on strengthening democratic values in Ethiopia while continuing Mulatu Teshome’s efforts to promote economic growth through foreign investment opportunities within the country.

Prime Ministers of Ethiopia

The Prime Minister of Ethiopia is the head of government and is appointed by the President. The current Prime Minister is Abiy Ahmed, who was appointed in April 2018.

The first Prime Minister of Ethiopia was Meles Zenawi, who served from 1995 to 2012. During his tenure he focused on reforming the economy and improving infrastructure while also promoting foreign investment opportunities. He also worked to improve Ethiopia’s international standing by engaging in peacekeeping operations with other African countries.

The second Prime Minister was Hailemariam Desalegn who served from 2012 to 2018. He continued Meles Zenawi’s policies and also worked to improve Ethiopia’s diplomatic relations with other African countries by participating in various peacekeeping missions and diplomatic engagements.

The third and current Prime Minister is Abiy Ahmed who has been in office since April 2018. He has focused on improving democratic values within Ethiopia while continuing Hailemariam Desalegn’s efforts to improve economic growth through foreign investment opportunities within the country. He has also sought to strengthen ties with neighboring countries while at the same time working to improve human rights throughout Ethiopia.

Benin Presidents and Prime Ministers

Benin Presidents and Prime Ministers

National Flag of Benin

According to aceinland, the national flag of Benin is a tricolor with horizontal stripes in yellow, red, and green. The yellow stripe is the widest and is situated at the top, followed by a red stripe that is slightly narrower than the yellow one. The green stripe is the narrowest and occupies the bottommost part of the flag. At the center of the flag is an emblem which consists of a shield that has a palm tree on its left side and a lion on its right side. Behind these two images are two crossed swords, with a star above them.

The colors used in this flag have significant meanings in Benin’s history. The yellow symbolizes wealth and prosperity; red stands for courage, determination and strength; and green represents hope for renewal and fertility. The emblem at the center of the flag depicts two crossed swords which symbolize justice, as well as strength through unity. The lion symbolizes power while the palm tree stands for peace and hospitality. Finally, the star represents hope for a brighter future for Benin’s people.

The national flag of Benin was adopted on November 16th 1960 after gaining independence from France earlier that year. It was designed by Michel Hazanavicius who was inspired by similar flags used by other African countries such as Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Senegal, Togo and Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso). Since then it has been flown proudly all over Benin during important national holidays such as Independence Day (August 1st) or National Unity Day (November 30th).

National Flag of Benin

Presidents of Benin

The President of Benin is the head of state and head of government in the West African nation. As of 2021, the current president is Patrice Talon, who took office in 2016. He is the second president to be elected through a democratic process since Benin gained independence from France in 1960.

Prior to Talon, Benin had five presidents since its independence. The first president was Hubert Maga, who was elected in 1960 and served as head of state until 1964. Maga was succeeded by Émile Derlin Zinsou in 1964, who served until 1967. Zinsou was followed by Mathieu Kérékou who held office from 1972 to 1991 and again from 1996 to 2006. During his tenure, Kérékou transformed Benin into a Marxist-Leninist state and declared it a one-party state before transitioning it back to a multi-party democracy in 1990. His successor was Boni Yayi who served as president from 2006 to 2016 and focused on economic development and improving healthcare services for citizens throughout his tenure.

Talon has continued Yayi’s efforts by focusing on infrastructure development such as roads, bridges, ports, airports and power plants; promoting job creation programs for young people; increasing access to healthcare services for all citizens; strengthening diplomatic relations with other countries around the world; and promoting international tourism in order to boost Benin’s economy.

Prime Ministers of Benin

The Prime Minister of Benin is the head of government and is appointed by the President. The Prime Minister is responsible for leading the executive branch of government and ensuring that the policies and laws passed by the legislature are implemented. Since Benin gained independence from France in 1960, there have been eight Prime Ministers appointed.

The first Prime Minister was Justin Ahomadegbe who was appointed in 1960 and served until 1963. He was followed by Sourou-Migan Apithy who served from 1963 to 1965, Émile Derlin Zinsou from 1965 to 1967, Paul-Emile de Souza from 1967 to 1968, Justin Ahomadegbe from 1968 to 1969, Sourou-Migan Apithy from 1969 to 1972, Mathieu Kérékou from 1972 to 1991, and Nicéphore Soglo who held office from 1991 to 1996.

Since 1996 there have been six Prime Ministers appointed: Adrien Houngbédji (1996–1998), Yayi Boni (1998–2003), Bruno Amoussou (2003–2006), Lionel Zinsou (2006–2008), Thomas Boni Yayi (2008–2011), Pascal Koupaki (2011–2015) and Lionel Zinsou (2015–2016). The current Prime Minister is Aurélie Adam Soulé Zoumarou who was appointed in 2016.

During their tenures, each of these Prime Ministers has worked to improve the economic development of Benin through various initiatives such as job creation programs for youth; increasing access to healthcare services for all citizens; strengthening diplomatic relations with other countries around the world; promoting international tourism; and improving infrastructure such as roads, bridges, ports, airports and power plants.

Tunisia Mountains, Rivers and Lakes

Tunisia Mountains, Rivers and Lakes

According to, Tunisia is a small country located in North Africa. It is bordered by Algeria to the west, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. The total area of Tunisia is approximately 163,610 square kilometers (63,170 square miles). The terrain of Tunisia is mostly semi-arid with mountains in the north and a central plateau that slopes gently down to a narrow coastal plain in the east. The highest peak in Tunisia is Jebel ech Chambi, which stands at 1544 meters (5069 feet) above sea level.

The climate of Tunisia is Mediterranean with hot dry summers and mild winters along the coast. Inland areas experience more extreme temperatures with hotter summers and colder winters. Rainfall varies from region to region with some areas receiving very little rain while other parts of the country can experience heavy rains during winter months. In general, rainfall averages around 400 mm (16 inches) annually throughout most of Tunisia.

Tunisia has two major rivers: The Medjerda River flows from Algeria into northern Tunisia before emptying into the Gulf of Tunis; while the Miliane River flows through central Tunisia before emptying into Lake Ichkeul near Bizerte. There are also numerous smaller rivers and streams throughout the country that provide water for irrigation and other uses.

Tunisia has an abundance of natural resources including oil reserves, phosphates, iron ore deposits, lead and zinc ore deposits as well as several limestone quarries. Forests cover about 10% of Tunisian land area but are primarily concentrated in mountainous regions where cork oaks are common trees found growing wild among other types of flora such as olive trees and cactus plants.

Overall Tunisia’s geography offers varied terrain ranging from lush green forests in mountainous regions to sandy beaches along its Mediterranean coastline providing a diverse landscape for tourists visiting this beautiful North African country.


Tunisia is a small country located in the northern part of Africa. It is bordered by Algeria on the west and Libya on the south. Its terrain is mostly composed of desert plains, with some mountains along its northern and eastern coasts. The highest mountain in Tunisia is Jebel ech Chambi, located near Kasserine in the northwest corner of the country. It stands at 1,544 meters above sea level, making it the tallest peak in all of North Africa. Other notable mountains include Jebel Zaghouan (1,135m), Jebel Kelbia (1,265m), and Jebel Tebaga (1,004m). These mountains are located within Tunisia’s central uplands region and provide spectacular views of its surrounding landscape.

The mountain range known as the Dorsale Tunisienne stretches along Tunisia’s Mediterranean coast from Bizerte to Gabes and includes several peaks over 1,000 meters high. This range provides a natural barrier between Tunisia’s coastal plains and its interior desert regions. In addition to providing stunning views of both its coastal and interior regions, this range also provides a home for many species of wildlife that are unique to this region. The most notable wildlife found here includes Barbary macaques, Barbary leopards, Barbary sheep, wild boar, red foxes, wildcats, hyenas and jackals.


The Medjerda River is Tunisia’s longest and most important river. It begins in Algeria, flows south through Tunisia, and empties into the Gulf of Tunis. The Medjerda is a crucial water source for the country’s agricultural industry, providing irrigation for thousands of acres of farmland. The soil along its banks is very fertile and supports a variety of crops, including cereals, vegetables, olives, dates, and citrus fruits. Its waters are also used to generate hydroelectric power.

The Miliane River is another important river in Tunisia that originates in the Kroumirie Mountains and flows westward towards the city of Béja before joining the Medjerda River near Tunis. This river has been an important source of water for centuries due to its location at the heart of Tunisia’s agricultural region. It has been used to irrigate fields for many years and provides drinking water for many towns along its course.

The Oued Zouara River begins near Kasserine in western Tunisia before flowing eastward towards Gabes on the Mediterranean Sea. This river is known as a major tourist destination due to its beautiful scenery along its banks which includes palm trees and lush vegetation. The Oued Zouara also serves as an important source of irrigation water for local farmers who rely on it to grow their crops. In addition, it provides drinking water for many communities throughout Tunisia due to its high quality.

Finally, there’s the Oued Souf which starts near Sfax before joining with the Oued Zouara near Gabes where it empties into the Mediterranean Sea. This river has historically served as an important trade route between Sfax and Gabes as well as providing drinking water for communities in both cities. It also serves as a vital source of irrigation water for local farmers who rely on it to grow their crops along its banks throughout the year.


Tunisia is home to a number of major lakes, each of which offers a unique experience. The largest lake in Tunisia is Lake Triton, located in the northeast corner of the country. It is an artificial lake created by the damming of the Medjerda River and has a surface area of over 400 square kilometers. This lake is known for its rich variety of bird and fish species, as well as its stunning views of the surrounding mountains. Another major lake in Tunisia is Lake Ichkeul, located near Bizerte in the north of the country. This shallow lake is part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site and has been identified as an important resting and breeding ground for thousands of migrating birds from Europe and Africa. The lake supports many species including flamingos, pelicans, ducks, geese, and egrets. Further south is Lake Bizerte which was formed by an earthquake in 1856. The lake covers an area of about 40 square kilometers and supports many species including catfish, carp, eels, pike-perch, mullet and sea bass. With its crystal clear waters surrounded by lush orchards it makes for a great spot for swimming or boating activities. Finally there’s Lake Chott el Djerid which lies to the south-west near Tozeur. This large saltwater lake covers an area larger than 10 000 square kilometers making it one of North Africa’s largest lakes. It supports several species such as tilapia fish as well as flamingos that thrive in its saline environment.

Tunisia Mountains

Business Schools in Africa

Business Schools in Africa

There are a total of 98 business schools in the continent of Africa. See below for name of business school and the country located. To see more countries in Africa, please see

# School Country
1 Accra Business School Ghana
2 Africa Nazarene University Kenya
3 African Business School (ABS), Abuja Nigeria
4 African Graduate School of Management and Leadership, Kanda, Accra Ghana
5 Avicenne Private Business School, Tunis Tunisia
6 Beeches Graduate School of Business, Lagos Nigeria
7 Bowell Business School, Lagos & Akure Nigeria
8 Business School Netherlands, Lagos Nigeria Nigeria
9 Business School of Africa Tanzania
10 Catholic University Institute of Buea Cameroon
11 Central University College, Accra Ghana
12 Chuka University Kenya
13 College of Business Education Tanzania
14 Dangote Business School, Bayero University, Kano Nigeria
15 Daystar University Kenya
16 Dedan Kimathi University of Technology Kenya
17 East & Southern African Management Institute Tanzania
18 Egerton University Kenya
19 ESUTH Business School, Lagos Nigeria
20 Fate Foundation, Lagos Nigeria
21 Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration (GIMPA), Accra Ghana
22 GPE Business School, Enugu Nigeria
23 Great Lakes University of Kisumu Kenya
24 Harold Pupkewitz Graduate School of Business, Windhoek Namibia
25 Higher Institute of Professional Studies (HIPS) – Buea Cameroon
26 Institut des Hautes Etudes Commerciales, Carthage Tunisia
27 Institut des Hautes Etudes Commerciales, Sousse Tunisia
28 Integrated Business School (IBS), Kaduna Nigeria
29 Iringa University Tanzania
30 ISCEE Cape Verde Business School (ISCEE), Praia/Mindelo Cape Verde
31 Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology Kenya
32 Kabarak University Kenya
33 Kaduna Business School, Kaduna Nigeria
34 Karatina University Kenya
35 KCA University Kenya
36 Kenya Methodist University Kenya
37 Kenyatta University Kenya
38 Kenyatta University – Machakos University College Kenya
39 Kibabii University Kenya
40 Kigali Institute of Science and Technology Rwanda
41 Kisii University Kenya
42 KNUST School of Business, Kumasi Ghana
43 Laikipia University Kenya
44 Maasai Mara University Kenya
45 Management Institute of Algiers (IMAA) Algeria
46 Maseno University Kenya
47 Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology Kenya
48 Mediterranean School of Business, Tunis Tunisia
49 Meru University of Science and Technology Kenya
50 Moi University Kenya
51 Moi University – Rongo University College Kenya
52 Mount Kenya University Kenya
53 MSME Business School, Abuja & Owerri Nigeria
54 Mwenge Catholic University Tanzania
55 Mzumbe University Tanzania
56 Namibia Business School, at the University of Namibia, Windhoek Namibia
57 Nobel International Business School, Accra Ghana
58 Obafemi Awolowo University Business School, Ife Nigeria
59 Pan-African University, Lagos – Lagos Business School (LBS), Lagos Nigeria
60 Poma International Business Academy (PIBA), Lagos Nigeria
61 Presbyterian University of East Africa Kenya
62 Pwani University Kenya
63 Scott Theological College Kenya
64 South Eastern Kenya University Kenya
65 St Paul’s University Kenya
66 Strathmore University Kenya
67 Sunyani Polytechnic School of Management, Sunyani Ghana
68 Tanzania Business School (TBS), Morogoro Tanzania
69 The Catholic University of Eastern Africa Kenya
70 The Delta Business School, Warri Nigeria
71 The Pan Africa Christian University Kenya
72 The Technical University of Kenya Kenya
73 Tunis Business School, El Mourouj, Ben Arous Governorate Tunisia
74 UDSM Business School, Dar es Salaam Tanzania
75 Unicaribbean Business School Nigeria Nigeria
76 United States International University Kenya
77 Université Tunis Carthage , Soukra Tunisia
78 University of Bamenda Cameroon
79 University of Buea (public) Cameroon
80 University of Cape Coast School of Business, Cape Coast Ghana
81 University of Dodoma Tanzania
82 University of Doula (public) Cameroon
83 University of Dschang Cameroon
84 University of Eastern Africa, Baraton Kenya
85 University of Eldoret Kenya
86 University of Ghana Business School, Accra Ghana
87 University of Ilorin Business School, Ilorin Nigeria
88 University of Kabianga Kenya
89 University of Lagos Business School, Lagos Nigeria
90 University of Nairobi Kenya
91 University of Nairobi – Embu University College Kenya
92 University of Professional Studies, Accra – U.P.S.A, Legon Ghana
93 Unizik Business School, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka Nigeria
94 Valley View University, Oyibi, Accra Ghana
95 Warri Business School (WBS), Warri Nigeria
96 West Africa Business School (WABS) Lagos; Accra, Ghana Nigeria
97 Yaounde Business School, Yaounde Cameroon
98 Zenith University College, School of Business, Labadi, Trade Fair-Accra Ghana

Africa Overview

Do you know the countries of Africa ? The African continent is one of the most numerous in terms of the number of nations. And it doesn’t stop there, together the countries of Africa make this continent the second most populous in the world, with more than 1 billion inhabitants. The peoples that inhabit the territory of these countries, an area of ​​more than 30 million square kilometers, have an enormous cultural, ethnic and religious variety.

Diversity is not only social. Politically and economically, African countries go from one extreme to the other. There are countries with great wealth, with a growing economy, while others have, in addition to economic problems, low levels of human development. In the ranking of the World Human Development Index (socioeconomic indicator), in the last positions are many African countries.

How many countries are in Africa?

Altogether there are 54 African countries that are distributed in five regions, which divide the African continent according to similar characteristics, whether these are geographic, political, economic or social. In addition, there are some unrecognized territories.

As is the case with Somaliland, which became independent from the United Kingdom in 1960, later merging with Italian Somaliland and forming Somalia. In 1991, this territory declared independence from Somalia and currently demands recognition.

Island countries are independent territories that do not have land borders and are therefore formed by one or more islands. On the African continent, there are six island countries. They are: Cape Verde Islands, Comoros Island, Madagascar Islands, Republic of Mauritius, São Tomé and Príncipe Islands and Seychelles Islands.

List of countries in Africa

  1. South Africa

Capital: Cape Town

Gross Domestic Product : US $ 370.8 billion

HDI: 0.699

  1. Angola

Capital: Luanda

GDP: $ 131.4 billion

HDI: 0.581

  1. Algeria

Capital: Algiers

GDP: US $ 227.8 billion

HDI: 0.754

  1. Benin

Capital: Porto-Novo

GDP: $ 27.546 billion

HDI: 0.515

  1. Botswana

Capital: Gaborone

GDP: $ 15.564 billion

HDI: 0.717

  1. Burkina Faso

Capital: Ouagadougou

GDP: US $ 16.561 billion

HDI: 0.423

  1. Burundi

Capital: Gitega

GDP: $ 7.985 billion

HDI: 0.417

  1. Cameroon

Capital: Yaoundé

GDP: $ 40.010 billion

HDI: 0.556

  1. Chad

Capital: Jamena

GDP: $ 15.950 billion

HDI: 0.404

  1. Costa do Marfim

Capital: Yamoussoukro

GDP: $ 33.963 billion

HDI: 0.492

  1. Djibouti

Capital: Djibouti

GDP: US $ 1.878 billion

HDI: 0.476

  1. Egypt

Capital: Cairo

GDP: $ 284.860 billion

HDI: 0.696

  1. Eritrea

Capital: Asmara

GDP: US $ 3.743 billion

HDI: 0.440

  1. Ethiopia

Capital: Addis Ababa

GDP: $ 90.968 billion

HDI: 0.463

  1. Gabon

Capital: Libreville

GDP: $ 20.178 billion

HDI: 0.702

  1. Gambia

Capital: Banjul

GDP: US $ 3.582 billion

HDI: 0.460

  1. Ghana

Capital: Accra

GDP: $ 83.740 billion

HDI: 0.592

  1. Guinea

Capital: Conakry

GDP: $ 9.741 billion

HDI: 0.459

  1. Guinea Bissau

Capital: Bissau

GDP: US $ 1.040 billion

HDI: 0.455

  1. Equatorial Guinea

Capital: Malabo

GDP: $ 15.537 billion

HDI: 0.591

  1. Madagascar Islands

Capital: Antananarivo

GDP: $ 11.188 billion

HDI: 0.519

  1. Cape Verde Islands

Capital: Praia

GDP: US $ 2.071 billion

HDI: 0.654

  1. Comoros Islands

Capital: Moroni

GDP: US $ 1.262 billion

HDI: 0.503

  1. Sao Tome and Principe Islands

Capital: Sao Tome

GDP: US $ 362 million

HDI: 0.589

  1. Seychelles Islands

Capital: Victoria

GDP: $ 1.486 billion

HDI: 0.797

  1. Lesotho

Capital: Maseru

GDP: $ 5.106 billion

HDI: 0.520

  1. Liberia

Capital: Monrovia

GDP: US $ 2.9 billion

HDI: 0.435

  1. Libya

Capital: Tripoli

GDP: $ 49.341 billion

HDI: 0.706

  1. Malawi

Capital: Lilongwe

GDP: $ 22.658 billion

HDI: 0.476

  1. Mali

Capital: Bamako

GDP: US $ 14.180 billion

HDI: 0.427

  1. Morocco

Capital: Rabat

GDP: $ 103.824 billion

HDI: 0.667

  1. Mauritania

Capital: Nuaquexote

GDP: US $ 5.025 billion

HDI: 0.520

  1. Mozambique

Capital: Maputo

GDP: $ 16.681 billion

HDI: 0.437

  1. Namibia

Capital: Windhoek

GDP: $ 13.703 billion

HDI: 0.647

  1. Niger

Capital: Niamei

GDP: $ 8.290 billion

HDI: 0.354

  1. Nigeria

Capital: Abuja

GDP: $ 447.013 billion

HDI: 0.532

  1. Kenya

Capital: Nairobi

GDP: $ 62.72 billion

HDI: 0.590

  1. Central African Republic

Capital: Bangui

GDP: US $ 1.949 billion

HDI: 0.367

  1. Democratic Republic of Congo

Capital: Kinshasa

GDP: $ 29.896 billion

HDI: 0.457

  1. Congo Republic

Capital: Brazavile

GDP: US $ 34.054 billion

HDI: 0.606

  1. Mauritius

Capital: Port Louis

GDP: $ 16 billion

HDI: 0.790

  1. Rwanda

Capital: Kigali

GDP: $ 24.717 billion

HDI: 0.524

  1. Senegal

Capital: Dakar

GDP: $ 20.610 billion

HDI: 0.505

  1. Sierra Leone

Capital: Freetown

GDP: US $ 4.882 billion

HDI: 0.419

  1. Somalia

Capital: Mogadishu

GDP: $ 7.599 billion

HDI: 0.364

  1. Essuatini

Capital: Mbabane

GDP: US $ 5.626 billion

HDI: 0.588

  1. Sudan

Capital: Khartoum

GDP: $ 152.264 billion

HDI: 0.538

  1. Southern Sudan

Capital: Juba

GDP: $ 11.893 billion

HDI: 0.388

  1. Tanzania

Capital: Dodoma

GDP: $ 176.465 billion

HDI: 0.538

  1. Togo

Capital: Lomé

GDP: $ 14.919 billion

HDI: 0.503

  1. Tunisia

Capital: Tunis

GDP: $ 115.373 billion

HDI: 0.735

  1. Uganda

Capital: Kampala

GDP: $ 66.650 billion

HDI: 0.516

  1. Zambia

Capital: Lusaka

GDP: $ 13.025 billion

HDI: 0.588

  1. Zimbabwe

Capital: Harare

GDP: $ 17.85 billion

HDI: 0.535

Regions of Africa

Africa is a continent of great territorial extensions, a total of 30,221,532 square kilometers. In order to facilitate the study of areas as well as their similarities and differences, both territorial, economic, political and social, the continent was divided, in one of its best known classifications, into five major regions:

Northern Africa Located north of the continent and close to the Mediterranean Sea, it is also known as North Africa. It groups country territories, such as: Algeria, Sudan, Morocco, Egypt, Libya and Tunisia.
Southern Africa Located in the south of the continent, between the Indian oceans, to the east, and the Atlantic oceans, to the west, it is also known as Southern Africa. It groups the countries’ territories: South Africa, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Central Africa Located in the center of the continent, it groups territories from several countries, such as: Chad, Gabon, Republic of Congo, Angola, Cameroon and Democratic Republic of Congo.
East Africa Located in the eastern part of the continent, between the Indian Ocean and the Congo River Basin, it groups together territories of countries, such as Somalia, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Mozambique, Eritrea and others.
Western Africa Located in the western part of the continent, between the Gulf of Guinea and the Sahara desert. It groups together territories of countries, such as Mauritania, Ghana, Niger, Senegal, Cape Verde Island, Guinea, Sierra Leone, among others.
Entertainment and Attractions in Seychelles

Entertainment and Attractions in Seychelles

The historical “excursion” in the Seychelles is present in minimal quantities – and, by and large, it is not needed. All the main attractions here are exclusively natural: snow-white (and in some places even pale pink!) beaches, clear water, unique tropical nature, multi-colored marble stones and a stunning underwater world. Service in hotels, bungalows and lodges is always on the level. Aborigines are nice and friendly. Sunsets are fantastic, waves (where there are no strong currents) are invariably gentle. And also a fantastic (and this is not an artistic exaggeration) underwater world. For Seychelles climate and geography, please check TopPharmacySchools.


Cousin Island, a nature reserve since 1968, is located 2 km from Praslin Island. It is home to several endangered animal species and a nesting site for seabirds and turtles. Two of whom, old George and Georgina, live here and often follow tourists in the hope of scratching their necks.

Bird Island can be reached in half an hour by plane from Mahe Island. The island is known as home to approximately 1.5 million black terns that live here from May to September. The giant tortoise Esmeralda also lives here (they say that she is already over 150 years old). Curieuse Island, named after the ship that discovered it in 1768, is famous for its large colony of giant tortoises and dense thickets of tropical plants. There is also a national marine park here.

Arid Island is located just 15 km from Praslin. In 1973, it was bought for the Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature by Christopher Cadbury, an English “chocolate” tycoon. The island serves as a major gathering place for seabirds throughout the region and is home to the world’s largest colonies of pink terns, lesser fulmars and red-tailed tropicbirds.

This is the only place on the planet where the lemon tree grows, the flowers of which exude a wonderful aroma.

St. Anna Marine National Park consists of 6 small islands. A tour of them begins with a trip on a glass-bottomed boat, which allows you to observe the colorful life of coral reefs. Then the path goes to Moyen Island, which is privately owned by a certain Mr. Grimshaw, who has been living here for a long time and is still trying to find pirate treasures. You can explore the island, see pirate graves and historical ruins (and try to score Mr. Grimshaw’s bucks by finding the infamous treasure).

  • What excursions can be visited in the Seychelles

10 things to do in the Seychelles

  1. Do nothing, do nothing and do nothing again on the secluded white sand beaches of the Seychelles
  2. Dive into the captivating underwater world off the coast of the Seychelles.
  3. Evaluate the delights of Creole cuisine – and not necessarily bat stew, for example, fish and rice – it’s a miracle how good!
  4. Try to find pirate treasure on Moyen Island.
  5. Walk around the capital of the island of Victoria and look at one of the two traffic lights in the whole country.
  6. Fly in a helicopter over the turquoise expanse of the Indian Ocean.
  7. Fish for tuna, secretly hoping to catch blue marlin.
  8. Take a risk and be legally married to the approving whisper of the ocean.
  9. Join the proud fraternity of the “dosochnikov” on the beach of Grand Anse.
  10. Take a “coco de mer” walnut with you to your homeland so that there is something to remember in the long Russian winter.

Night life

Fans of vibrant nightlife may be disappointed: all local entertainment is represented by a couple of discos and casinos. There are only three casinos on the island of Mahe: at the Plantation Club Hotel, Berjaya Beau Vallon and a recently opened, but already the best casino in Victoria. Clubs are the same problem. They are far from numerous and often uninteresting. Pleasant exceptions: the Lovant Club in the center of Victoria, the Katiolo disco, which looks like Uncle Tom’s hut and the country disco of the 80s and 90s, the very small 369 Club and the Barrel (or simply the Barrel)) is a cheap and fun place, mostly with a local audience. Praslin Island has a casino at the Lemuria Resort.

But on the islands, many festivals and sporting events take place throughout the year, the most famous among them are the Great Regatta and the Festival of Creole Culture.

Holidays and events in Seychelles

The main public holidays in the Seychelles fall on the first month of summer. June 5 – Liberation Day in honor of the coming to power of the socialists, 29 – Independence Day: in 1976, the islands got out of British control and officially became a republic. The brightest in the summer series is National Reconciliation Day on June 18 in honor of the adoption of the Constitution with magnificent parades in the capital, music shows and flower exhibitions.

At the Praslin Culinary Festival in September, among other treats, you can taste coco de mer cocktails, ostrich stew and other exotics.

The New Year is celebrated with a tropical flavor: palm trees are decorated instead of Christmas trees, flowers are hung instead of electric garlands, but dances, fireworks and feasts are international traditions. They also love festivals in the Seychelles: in the spring they hold the March Carnival, which attracts thousands of tourists, and the French Week with concerts, exhibitions and craft fairs. In May, a sailing regatta takes place, in June – Mind Body Spirit, which promotes a healthy lifestyle. The festival of Creole culture is a chance to get acquainted with the ancient customs of the islanders, the fishing festival on La Digue is an occasion to compete with the locals in the art of fishing.

Attractions in Seychelles

Entertainment and Attractions of Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt

Entertainment and Attractions of Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt

The main attractions of Sharm el-Sheikh are an incredibly beautiful underwater world, gorgeous beaches, plus a small number of remakes: pseudo-palaces from the Thousand and One Nights, dry and water amusement parks, shopping and entertainment centers.

You can get your dose of historical sightseeing by heading to the Coptic Church, the Papyrus Museum, the Al-Mustafa Mosque, and the Tutankhamun Museum. The church is located in the Ennur region, remote from the coast, and consists of two churches – the lower, older, in the basement, and the upper, in the best traditions of the cathedrals of some France. It is worth seeing wonderful mosaics and magnificent interior painting in an unexpectedly modern spirit, admiring the fine workmanship of the Patriarch’s chair and admiring the lion statues in the courtyard, as well as marveling at the unusual Coptic Bible written in Arabic. Check liuxers for customs and traditions of Egypt.

The Papyrus Museum is a smaller copy of the museum of the same name in Cairo, where you can not only admire the ancient Egyptian specimens, but also learn more about the technologies for making papyrus and its types, as well as purchase a painting or an inscription on this unusual material.

The Al-Mustafa Mosque can only be viewed from the outside: two 26-meter minarets, the splendor of architectural decorations and the overall elegance of the design, referring to the classical mosques of Iran and Uzbekistan, are impressive in its appearance. And the Tutankhamun Museum presents copies of items found in the tomb of the pharaoh: from a chariot to caskets and a funeral mask. The exposition is accompanied by signs in Russian.

National parks

Within Sharm el-Sheikh, the world-famous Ras Mohammed National Park is located, formed by the confluence of this territory with the Nabq National Park. At the same time, you can come to both national parks separately. In the Nabq National Park (it is located in the Sharma district of the same name), most tourists get on a boat from the sea, from the road you can drive there only by an all-wheel drive car. Here they examine not only underwater landscapes (snorkeling or diving), but also land – its famous mangroves.

Ras Mohammed (25 km from Sharm El Sheikh) occupies the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula. Here, in addition to fantastic marine life (barracudas, sea turtles and sea snakes), you can also meet rare terrestrial inhabitants: fennec foxes, herons, birds of prey. Until 14:00-15:00 the park is full of excursion groups. Inspection of the territory usually begins with the main beach, then – a salt lake, mangroves, an observation deck and a beach next to it.

Entertainment and clubs

Popular discos: Le Pacha (ex. Bus Stop), Hard Rock Cafe (the most interesting here starts after one in the morning), disco bar Smash and Black House (at the Tropicana Rosetta hotel). Fun Town children’s amusement park, Thousand and One Nights amusement park, dolphinarium. You can also play tennis, go-kart or play golf here.

Soho Square entertainment complex has opened not far from the Savoy Hotel, where you will find many shops, restaurants, discos, an ice rink and an ice bar.

Sharm El Sheikh for children

Children’s entertainment in Sharm el-Sheikh is mainly concentrated on the territory of hotels – the main thing is to choose the right hotel for a holiday with the smallest tourists. Pay attention to the presence in the hotel of animation in Russian (this is not uncommon), a mini-club, food suitable for children and, of course, a convenient beach. Some hotels have children’s bars and snack bars, where during the day your child can enjoy ice cream, cotton candy and popcorn. High-level “fives” provide children’s bathrobes and slippers.

The entertainment program for children outside the hotels is represented by a dolphinarium and a water park, the Fun Town amusement park and the Thousand and One Nights amusement park. Dolphina Park Dolphinarium is located in the Nabq area. Here you can not only watch shows with dolphins, but also take pictures and swim with them. The Aqua Blue Water Park is located in the bay of Ras Umm el Sid and offers adults and children a variety of moderately extreme and very simple slides, a “lazy” river, a pool with artificial waves and fun animation. Fun Town is a small amusement park with trains, carousels and horse and camel rides. The Thousand and One Nights Amusement Park and Shopping Complex is located in the Hadaba area. Until 16:00 you can visit it for free – look at the interior in the spirit of oriental tales, go shopping and relax in cafes and hookahs. In the evening, a light and musical performance about the history and folklore of Egypt begins with oriental dances, a show with snakes and fire, a horse show and performances by magicians. In Soho Square, you and your child will enjoy the evening performance of musical fountains (every day, duration – 45 minutes). You can also take your child on an evening excursion to the Bedouins, during which folk dances will be performed in front of you, traditional dishes will be fed and they will be offered to admire myriads of mysteriously twinkling southern stars through a telescope.

Weather in Sharm El Sheikh

Despite the fact that the tourist season in Sharm el-Sheikh lasts all year round, it is customary to separate two seasons, each with its own charms: mild winter, suitable for those who do not tolerate high air temperatures, and hot summer – the most beach-tanning with perceptibly by the baking sun. Rain in Sharm el-Sheikh is extremely rare, the air is dry and warm at any time of the year.

In summer, the thermometer sometimes reaches +40 ° C. However, low air humidity and constantly blowing winds make it easy to endure the heat.

In winter, at night, the temperature can drop to +15 ° C, so be sure to bring a sweater or windbreaker with you. However, the water temperature never drops below +20 °C even in winter.

Nabq is the windiest area of ​​Sharm El Sheikh. In summer, it will be comfortable for those who do not like intense heat (at the same time, you need to be careful when sunbathing in the sun: there is a danger of “overlapping”, being deceived by the imaginary coolness). But the winter winds in Nabq penetrate to the bone, and the sea is almost always stormy, with strong currents. For winter holidays, it is better to choose bays closed from the winds: Sharm el Maya, Sharks Bay, Ras Umm el Sid or Naama Bay.

Attractions of Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt

How to Get to Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt

How to Get to Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt

Charters from many cities of Russia fly to Sharm el-Sheikh Ras Nazran International Airport, the flight duration from Moscow is about 4 hours and 30 minutes. There are no regular flights from Russia, but if a tourist does not want to buy a tour, but fly on his own, you can also book a regular flight to Cairo or Alexandria (Egypt Air, Aeroflot), and from there get on your own.

Domestic flights around the country from Sharm are quite popular: the airport receives about 10 flights a day from Cairo, Hurghada or Luxor, there are also international flights from Egypt Air and other airlines to Aqaba. Check maternityetchic for customs regulations and visa requirements of Egypt.

How to get from the airport to the city center

Tourists arriving on package tours (and most of them) at the airport of Sharm el-Sheikh are met by an organized transfer from the tour operator. If you are relaxing on your own, you can order a transfer from the hotel. Some “five” offer it for free, most other hotels – for a fee. The airport also has its own transfer service “Limo”, the prices for a trip to a particular area are indicated on the information board.

In addition, you can get from the airport to the desired hotel by taxi. Cars are waiting for passengers near the exits of both terminals. There are no meters in the taxi, the cost of the trip must be negotiated with the driver in advance, before boarding. Usually it is calculated on the principle of 1 EGP per 1 km, taking into account the round trip of the driver. Thus, a taxi ride to the center of Sharm el-Sheikh will cost about 50 EGP, and to the hotel – in the amount of 45 to 65 EGP. Luggage transportation is included in the price. It is recommended that you pay in local currency (you can exchange dollars or euros upon arrival at the airport building) only after arriving at your destination. The prices on the page are for October 2021.

By bus

The country has a well-developed intercity bus service. Buses to Cairo (up to 7 flights a day, about 7 hours on the way), to St. Catherine’s Monastery (one morning flight, 3 hours on the way), as well as to Dahab, Nuweiba, Suez, Taba and Ismailia regularly depart from the Sharma bus station.

On a ferryboat

Ferries to Hurghada also run regularly from Sharm el-Sheikh, travel time is 1.5-3 hours, depending on weather conditions. The ferry departs from the port at 18:00 on Mondays, Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. The return trip from Hurghada departs at 5:00 on Mondays and at 9:00 on other days.

  • Where is the bus station in Sharm El Sheikh
  • What are the excursions from Sharm el-Sheikh


In the role of urban transport in Sharm are fixed-route taxis that run without a schedule at intervals, usually 3-5 minutes. The fare is 1-3 EGP, but it is better to agree on payment in advance before boarding. Buses run from some hotels on schedule, the fare on which costs 5-15 EGP. In addition, you can ask the reception to order a taxi. The fare is 15-50 EGP depending on the distance.

It is also possible to rent a car or scooter (and even a yacht) at the resort and this would be a great idea. Inexpensive gasoline, good quality roads, as well as the relative proximity of interesting places and attractions will pleasantly diversify the rest of tourists. The traffic police are generally very loyal to foreigners. From Sharm el-Sheikh you can get to Dahab in about 1.5 hours (100 km), in 2 hours to the monastery of St. Catherine or Nuweiba, in 3 hours to the Colored Canyon or Taba.

Rent a Car

Renting a car in Sharm el-Sheikh is easy: all you need is a driver’s license and a copy of your passport. The resort has large international rental agencies (Hertz, Avis, Europcar, Budget, etc.), whose services will cost more, but the terms of the contract are European, not Arabic, as well as a great many local offices, often with a specific flavor of doing business. In the first place, international rights will be required for registration of the lease, and in the second, Russian ones are also welcome. The age of the driver is at least 25 years, driving experience is at least one year.

The rental price starts from 50-60 USD per day for an economy class car. When renting for more than 5 days, the rate may be reduced to 35 USD per day. Daily mileage is usually limited to 150-180 km, its excess is paid separately at the rate of approximately 1 USD for every 4-5 “extra” km. As a rule, you will have to return the car to the same city where you took it, and always with a full tank (however, you must also provide a car for rent fully fueled).

Pay special attention to ensure that the car is insured. The contract should definitely note the existing scratches, dents and other minor damage – this will avoid discussions about repairs at your expense at the end of the lease (insurance, as a rule, includes an unconditional deductible ranging from 300 to 700 USD, which the greedy owner will be happy to recover for damage you claim).

Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt

Senegal Market Opportunities

Senegal Market Opportunities

The coronavirus crisis has significantly changed the economic situation in the country. GDP growth has slowed down after several years: from an average of 6.4% between 2015-2019, it fell to -0.4% in 2020. The restrictive measures resulting from the declaration of a state of emergency affected the drivers of the Senegalese economy: services (tourism and transport) and export.

The informal sector and the inflow of remittances were also severely affected. In 2020, the inflation rate, public debt and current account balance increased.

The main challenge for Senegal’s development will be to mitigate the socio-economic impacts of the current pandemic while promoting sustainable and inclusive long-term growth.

In April 2020, the government approved the Economic and Social Resilience Program in the fight against covid-19, financed from an international fund with EUR billion (approx. 7% of Senegal’s GDP). The plan was created mainly for the benefit of small and medium-sized enterprises (the backbone of the private sector employing 89% of the working population), with the aim of supporting spending in the health sector, the most vulnerable part of the population, suppliers of services and goods to the state, transport, hotel and agriculture sectors.

Modified post-pandemic priority action plan (PAP 2A) projects for XOF 12,125 billion (CZK 479 billion) from October 2020 are aimed at stimulating national and international investments and endogenous development, driven by the drive for dynamism and self-sufficiency of the food, health and pharmaceutical industries sector.

Due to the negative impact of the pandemic measures on young people, their applicability on the labor market is an acute challenge for the government, and a five-year LPSD plan with a provisional budget of XOF 112 billion (CZK billion) is being prepared in this direction.

Post-covid-19 opportunities for foreign exporters

The priorities of the 2nd stage of the Government Development Plan for 2019-2023 (PSE) include, among others, the development of the transport network, healthcare, modernization of agriculture, digitization, electrification, construction of 100,000 apartments, waste treatment and development of services. In the revised PAP 2A plan, development focuses on three strategic poles: 1) structural transformation of the economy and growth, 2) human capital, social protection and sustainable development, and 3) good governance, institutions and security.

The development of industry is identified in the government’s development plan as an important prerequisite for sustainable economic growth, job creation and provision of the basic needs of the population. Czech products, technologies and solutions have a very good reputation in Senegal, and mutual cooperation is developing not only in the field of infrastructure.

Transport industry and infrastructure

Between 2019-2023, the Senegalese government needs to ensure the financing and construction of many infrastructure projects and transport services that are necessary for the overall development of the territory.

These include, among other things, the reconstruction and construction of 1,520 km of new railway lines (the reconstruction of the Dakar–Tambacounda–Bamako line and the construction of other regional lines), the construction and reconstruction of roads and highways (Mbour–Fatick–Kaolack and Dakar–Thiès–Lompoul–Saint- Louis) and building bridges.

The renewal of the fleet of buses and minibuses for city and intercity transport (approx. 3 thousand units) is also expected in these five years. In the new PAP 2A program, the amount of investments in transport and infrastructure is estimated at XOF 1,068 billion (CZK 42 billion).

Energy industry

In the development strategy of the Senegalese government, the improvement of the energy situation is identified as one of the prerequisites for the development of the country and includes two major projects: an integrated plan for the recovery of energy and a plan for national coverage of energy until 2025.

According to allcountrylist, their goal is to strengthen production capacities, connect to the electricity grid, restore and expand transmission and distribution networks and rural electrification (300 villages). The amended PAP 2A envisages future financing in the energy sector in the amount of XOF 1,699 billion (CZK 67 billion).

At the beginning of 2021, the foundation stone of the future largest gas power plant with a capacity of 300 MW was laid. In Senegal, there is interest in projects strengthening production capacities and expanding transmission and distribution networks. The challenge is to increase the share of renewable resources (today approx. 20% of the total capacity).

Healthcare and pharmaceutical industry

The Senegalese government has formulated a National Program to improve the technical equipment of hospitals and other medical facilities. New hospitals and clinics are planned to be built, including teaching hospitals in Saint-Louis and Diamniadio.

The most significant is the “Dakar Medical City” project, which aims to build a high-quality medical center for the entire West African region, including the modernization of the Dakar Main Hospital to a world standard (400 beds) and the construction of laboratories for the production of yellow fever vaccines.

The PAP 2A plan envisages investments in the amount of XOF 1,023 billion (CZK 40 billion) and emphasis is also placed on maternal care and neonatology. In addition to medical equipment and devices, there is also interest in medicines and medical supplies in Senegal. The government has recently declared its interest in producing basic medicines and test kits in Senegal (also in cooperation with the Institut Pasteur in Dakar).

Agricultural and food industry

The Senegalese government supports the development of larger farms and family farming in order to achieve self-sufficiency in basic foodstuffs. There is also emphasis on peanut production and processing, rice cultivation, horticulture, dairying and aquaculture.

The volume of investments in agriculture based on the post-covid PAP 2A is estimated at XOF 1,195 billion (CZK 47 billion). In addition to the production of cereals, fruits and vegetables, it is equally important to ensure their processing. The challenge is to build a cold chain.



  • Contacts to Czech embassies in the territory
  • Practical telephone numbers (emergency services, police, firefighters, information lines, etc.)
  • Important Internet links and contacts

Contacts at the embassies of the Czech Republic in the territory

Embassy of the Czech Republic in Senegal / Ambassade de la République tchèque au Sénégal

37, rue Jacques Bugnicourt
BP 6474 Dakar – Plateau

Tel.: +221 338 214 576
Fax: +221 338 214 578
E-mail: [email protected]

Working hours: Mon-Fri 9am-5pm

Note: The Embassy shares premises with the Embassy of the Netherlands

PaulTrade, CzechInvest, CzechTourism and Czech Centers are currently not represented in Senegal.

Practical telephone numbers (emergency services, police, firemen, information lines, etc.)

Emergency services (operating only in larger cities):
· Police: 17
· Firefighters: 18
· Police in Dakar: + 221 33 823 71 49 / 33 823 25 29
· Gendarmerie: +221 33 800 20 20
· Information in Dakar: 12 / 16

Medical emergency:
· SAMU: 1515 (extraordinary surgical and obstetric events)
· SOS Médecins: +221 33 889 15 15

Important web links and contacts

Important information sources:
· (National Office of Statistics and Demography)
· (Official website of the Government of Senegal)
· (Official website of the Office of the President)
· www.finances.gouv. sn/ (Ministry of Finance)
· (Chamber of Commerce)
· (Department of Planning and Economic Analysis of the Ministry of Economy and Finance, offers regular monthly reports on the economic situation in the country)
· – sites for investing in Senegal (APIX agency)
· (a selection of francophone press)
· (Central Bank of West African States)
· (a practical guide for doing business in Senegal, necessary free registration)
· (public procurement)
· (Press agency)

Further information on EU public procurement for Senegal can be obtained on the pages of development projects supported by the EU and announced by the European Commission or directly on the page of the European Commission dedicated to cooperation with Senegal.

Senegal Market Opportunities

Tanzania Economy

Tanzania Economy

According to topschoolsintheusa, Tanzania is a Federal state of East Africa, consisting of a continental section, Tanganyika, and an island section, Zanzibar, which also administratively includes the other island of Pemba. It borders to the North with Uganda and Kenya, to the South with Mozambique, to the SW with Zambia and Malawi, to the West with Congo, to the NW with Rwanda and Burundi ; includes large parts of Lakes Victoria, Tanganyika and Malawi; it overlooks the Indian Ocean to the East, where Pemba (to the N) and Zanzibar are located, and further to the South, the island of Mafia, with other smaller ones. The continental section has absolute prevalence (99.7% of the surface and 97% of the state population).

Economic conditions

Already subject to the typical colonial economy, after independence Tanzania assumed a peculiar direction, known as African socialism which, rejecting Marxism, rather sought to unify the population of the country, made up of about 120 different ethnic groups, into a single system national. From the economic point of view, the new model sought to eliminate all forms of capitalism, preventing the concentration of wealth with the spread of cooperation at all levels and taking as a basis the forms of production and solidarity that were typical of pre-colonial African society. However, the socialist-collectivist economic model did not give good results, also because the financial difficulties did not allow to equip the ujamaa(productive nuclei constituted through the aggregation of the population in agricultural communities) of the necessary infrastructures. The world recession in the late 1970s and the effects of a disastrous drought marked the end of the experience and the gradual restoration of a market economy. An improvement in the economic situation took place in the last decade of the 20th century, after the launch (1995) of a macroeconomic stabilization program which helped to encourage the resumption of foreign investment in the rapidly expanding mining sector. In 2009, the growth rate of gross domestic product was 4.5% (7.1% in 2008 and 2007). But the state budget continues to depend to a large extent from international aid and the social situation is particularly critical: the aggregate index of human development calculated by the United Nations in 2005 (life expectancy at birth: 51 years; illiteracy: 31%; per capita income: 744 dollars) Tanzania ranks 157th in the world rankings of 177 countries. ● Agriculture employs about 80% of the active population and contributes 26.6% (2009) to the formation of the gross domestic product. Only 6% of the land area is arable; the best soils are destined for export crops: coffee (52,000 t in 2007), cotton (fiber 109,000 t, seeds 210,000 t) and sisal (27,800 t). Subsistence agriculture produces corn, cassava, rice, sorghum, millet and is exposed to the risk of recurrent drought, with consequent local famines. Breeding (18 million cattle and about the same number of goats and sheep) is practiced largely by nomadic shepherds or within the family production system: large and modernly equipped farms are still few. ● Mineral resources include the extraction of gold (second largest producer in Africa after South Africa and twelfth world producer), diamonds and other precious stones, coal. The industrial activities, almost all concentrated in the Dar es Salaam area, concern basic necessities or transform local raw materials: sugar refineries, textile and tobacco processing plants, breweries, cement factories, fruit canning plants and for the distillation of clove oil. A hydrocarbon refinery is located at the starting point of the oil pipeline connecting Dar es Salaam with Zambia. ● Land communications include approximately 78,000 km of roads (2008) and 4,000 km of railways (2006), of which nearly 1,000 form the new section of the penetration line from Tanzania in Zambia, opened in 1975 to allow access to the sea this country. Dar es Salaam is the main port and has an international airport. Foreign trade is chronically passive: the main partners of Tanzania are the states of the European Union, especially the United Kingdom; on the other hand, trade with other African countries is very scarce. Tourism (692,000 entries in 2007) is constantly expanding, attracted by the national parks and beaches of Zanzibar.

Tanzania Economy

State Structure and Political System of Tunisia

State Structure and Political System of Tunisia

According to microedu, Tunisia is a republic, the Constitution of 1959 (with subsequent amendments) is in force. The head of state is the president, who is both the head of the executive branch and also the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The President must be no younger than 40 and no older than 70 years old, elected by universal direct and secret ballot for a term of 5 years and can be re-elected for another 2 terms. The president can accept the resignation of the government on the proposal of the prime minister, if it is approved by 2/3 of the votes of the members of parliament, and also dissolve the parliament, after which new parliamentary elections are held.

In the event of the President’s inability, the President of the Chamber of Deputies (now Fuad Mbazaa) acts as Acting Head of State for a period of 45 to 60 days, after which a new presidential election must be held. The speaker of parliament cannot run for president.

Executive power is exercised by the President and the government (now Prime Minister Mohammed Ghannouchi).

The judicial and legal system is based on the French system of law and Islamic law (Sharia). It includes the Court of Cassation in Tunisia, which consists of three civil and one criminal divisions. Tunisia, Sousse and Sfax have courts of appeal. There are 13 courts of first instance in the country. There are cantonal courts in 51 districts. The legal capacity of citizens comes when they reach the age of 20.

Administratively, the country is divided into 23 provinces (vilayets): Ariana, Beja, Ben-Arus, Bizerte, El-Kef, Gabes, Gafsa, Jendouba, Za-guan, Kairouan, Kasserine, Kebili, Mahdia, Medenine, Monastir, Nabeul, Sfax, Sidi Bou Zid, Siliana, Sousse, Tataouine, Touzar, Tunisia. The provinces are divided into delegations. The provinces are governed by governors appointed by the president on the proposal of the minister of the interior; in delegations, muatamads (delegates) are appointed by the minister of interior; in sheikhats, sheikhs (headmen). The governors have advisory bodies – councils consisting of 10-30 members. In communes with a municipal structure, there are municipal councils elected for 5 years.

The party composition of the parliament: Democratic Constitutional Association (DKO) – 148, Movement of Democrats-Socialists (DDS) – 13, Democratic Unionist Union (DYuS) – 7, Popular Unity Party (PNU) – 7, Renewal Movement – 5, Social Liberal Party (SLP) – 2. Total – 182 deputies.

The armed forces of Tunisia consist of the army, navy, air force, paramilitaries and the National Guard. Conscription into the Armed Forces is carried out from the age of 20 years, the term of service is 12 months. Military spending – $356 million (1.5% of GDP) (1999).

Regular armed forces number 35 thousand people, incl. Land 27 thousand, Navy 4.5 thousand, Air Force 3.5 thousand; National Guard 12 thousand; gendarmerie – 2 thousand people. (1999).

Tunisia has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR on July 11, 1956).

Economy of Tunisia

The economy of Tunisia includes the agricultural sector, mining, energy, tourism, manufacturing, transport, communications and services. GDP $64.5 billion ($600 per capita) (2001 est.). The share of sectors of the economy in the production of GDP: agriculture – 13%, industry – 33%, services – 54% (2000, estimate).

The economically active population is 2.69 million people. (2002, estimate).

In 1995-99 the average annual economic growth was 5-6%, in 2000-02 it was 5.4%. Inflation 2.7% (2001).

At the same time, the country maintains a high level of unemployment (according to official data, 15.6% of the economically active population), 6% of the population live below the poverty line.

State budget (2001, billion dollars): revenues – 5.7, expenditures – 6.3, including 1.5 capital expenditures.

Agricultural land in Tunisia is approx. 2/3 of the area of the country. The main crops are wheat, barley, corn, oats and sorghum. Fruits, grapes, olives, oranges and dates are grown in large quantities, which are also exported.

Fishing employs 60 thousand people. Its main center is Sfax, where the state has made major investments in the industry in recent years, including funds for the modernization of the fishing fleet, the renewal of approx. 30 fishing ports and research.

Tunisia has the most developed mining, manufacturing and energy industries. In 1998, the industry gave approx. 25% of GDP, it employed approx. 1/4 of the population.

For a long time, oil was the main source of Tunisia’s export earnings (in 1999, about 250 thousand tons of crude oil was produced in the country). From con. 1980s this role has shifted to textiles and food.

Tunisia ranks fourth in the world in terms of phosphate production (8 million tons were mined in 1999). Electricity production in 2000 was 10.3 billion kWh. The Miskar field provides more than 90% of all gas production (335 million m3 in 1999).

The textile and leather industries play a major role in production and export. In 1998, proceeds from the export of textile products amounted to 2950 million dinars, i.e. 45% of all export earnings.

The next most important industries are the production of steel, building materials, mechanical and electromechanical equipment, chemicals, paper and wood. Since the 1980s car assembly production is developing with the participation of European and American companies. Since 1992, plans have been implemented to create and develop a special high-tech offshore zone in Tunisia.

Particular attention is paid to the chemical industry. The main direction is the processing of phosphate rock into phosphate fertilizers and phosphoric acid. Paints, glue, detergents are also produced.

The length of roads is 23.1 thousand km (1997); 18.226 thousand km of roads are covered with asphalt or concrete. The total length of railways is 2170 km. There are 30 airports in the country, incl. 7 international. Tunisia has 7 main seaports. In total, Tunisia owns 16 sea transport vessels with a displacement of St. 1000 tons, and the entire merchant fleet (according to registration at the end of 1998) is 78 ships with a displacement of 193.5 thousand tons. In Tunisia, 797 km of pipelines for crude oil, 86 km for petroleum products and 742 km of gas pipelines were put into operation.

In order to bring the number of telephones in the country to 1 million, large investments were planned in the development of telephone communications. In 1998, the first global standard system for mobile phones was launched. In con. In 1998, the country’s telephone system had 734,000 subscribers.

Foreign trade (2001, billion US dollars): export – 6.6; import – 8.9. The main export commodities are textiles, manufactured goods, phosphates and chemicals, foodstuffs; imports – machinery, hydrocarbons, chemicals, foodstuffs.

Main export partners: France (28%), Italy (21%), Germany (14%), Belgium (6%), Libya (4%); imports: France (30%), Italy (21%), Germany (11%), Spain (4%) (2000).

Tourism income – 1950 million dinars (1999). The number of foreign tourists visiting Tunisia increased from 3.3 million in 1989 to 4.72 million in 1998. Approx. 2/3 of the tourists came from Europe, the rest – from the Maghreb countries.

Tunisia has 29 radio stations, 2.6 million radios (1998); 26 television stations (76 repeaters); 920 thousand TV sets (1997); 4 daily newspapers are published in Arabic and French with a total circulation of approx. 200 thousand copies, 16 periodicals. The Tunis Afrique Press news agency operates. 14 publishing houses are engaged in the release of various kinds of printed products.

Tunisia Politics

About Comoros

About Comoros

According to extrareference, the Comoros are located at the northern entrance to the strait near Mozambique (Africa). This place is strategically important – the islands have always been in the center of attention of the peoples who inhabited this region. Even at the time of the birth of mankind, it is believed that the first people appeared on the islands. The family ties of the ancient island population with representatives of the Polynesian modern cultures are confirmed by numerous archaeological finds. This emphasizes the strong trade ties and the skill of the ancient sailors that were established between the inhabitants of Comoros and the ancient civilizations of Asia. The islands are known throughout the world for their unique and vibrant nature. The natural appearance and uniqueness of these islands are contained in numerous lava fields and chaos of rocks, which are framed by thickets of vegetation of relict forms. The flora and fauna are very rich here with their beauty and many species of plants and animals. The islands are home to 60 plant species and 37 animal species that are not found anywhere else on the planet. But in the waters of the ocean in the coastal zone of Comoros, some of the most ancient forms of life on Earth became known. Comoros is still one of the most exotic areas of the planet. And the preservation of the natural beauty of the islands is facilitated by the fact that they are little visited and underdeveloped in terms of tourism from all the islands that are part of this region. Comoros is still one of the most exotic areas on the planet. And the preservation of the natural beauty of the islands is facilitated by the fact that they are little visited and underdeveloped in terms of tourism from all the islands that are part of this region. Comoros is still one of the most exotic areas on the planet. And the preservation of the natural beauty of the islands is facilitated by the fact that they are little visited and underdeveloped in terms of tourism from all the islands that are part of this region.

Geography of Comoros

On the archipelago of 4 large and a number of small islands, there is a state called the Union of the Comoros (Komoros). The islands are located in the west of the Indian Ocean at the entrance from the north to the Mozambique Channel between the coast of Mozambique (a country on the African mainland) and the island of Madagascar. If you look at the coordinates of the location, then this is approximately 10-12 degrees. south of the equator and less than two hundred miles from the African coast in the East.




The total area of all 4 islands is 2,034 sq. km.


Comoros is home to 700,000 people.


The Comorian franc is the main currency of the country (KMF).


Arabic and French are the official and main languages in Comoros.


To travel to the Comoros, all citizens of Russia require a visa.

Weather in Comoros

In the Comoros, the climate is humid and hot. On average, the temperatures of the warmest and coldest months range from +24 to +27 °C. The average annual precipitation depends on the position of the slopes (leeward or windward) and varies from 1100 to 3000 mm. The best time to travel is from May to October.

Currency exchange

The currency is exchanged at the rate of 100 KMF = $0.184. Exchange transactions can be made at exchange offices or banks.


Electrical network with a frequency of 50 Hz and a voltage of 220 V.

Religion in Comoros

The state religion is Islam, which has 98% of Muslims, and a minority of Catholics, their 2%.


Comoros has no mutual agreements on health protection with the countries of Europe. For the most part, medical facilities on the islands are private. Payment for their services is made on the spot in cash. Even emergency medical services will have to be paid on the spot. Strong recommendation: to be the owner of international health insurance, which has coverage in case of need for evacuation by air from the territory of the islands.

About Comoros

Visa to Morocco

Visa to Morocco

For the quarantine period, entry to Morocco for citizens of Ukraine is closed until August 30, 2021 . At the moment, only family visas are accepted by the Moroccan consulate, other types of visas are on request.

According to A2zgov, to visit the country, citizens of Ukraine need to apply for a visa to Morocco. Obtaining an entry permit is a complex procedure that requires qualified training, work experience and knowledge of the nuances when submitting documents to the Consulate.

Attention! From 03/20/2019, obtaining passports with a visa at the consulate of Morocco is possible only with the personal presence of the applicant!


Visa support in Morocco
Type of visa and validity period Visa type Consideration period Cost
Promotion! Discount
for two passports!
Morocco single entry visa
Length of stay up to 30 days
When booking a tour
Tourism 10 – 14 working days 60 USD
Morocco single entry visa
Length of stay up to 30 days
10 – 14 working days 100 USD
Morocco single entry visa
Length of stay up to 90 days
Morocco visa validity corridor – 180 days
10 – 14 working days 100 USD
Multivisa Morocco
Length of stay up to 90 days each entryMorocco visa validity corridor – 180 days
10 – 14 working days 120 USD

Submission of documents for obtaining a visa at the Embassy of Morocco: Monday and Wednesday by appointment.

The cost of obtaining a visa to Morocco includes:

  • Visa advice
  • Preparation of a complete package of documents.
  • Filling in the visa form.
  • Registration at the Consulate for submission of documents.
  • Submission of documents to the Embassy of Morocco in Kyiv or escort for submission (if necessary, personal submission).

Preparation of documents in 1 day, additionally paid in the amount of 20 USD

List of documents required for a visa to Morocco:

  • Moroccan visa application form signed by the tourist;
  • 2 photos on a white background, size 3 x 4; 80% of the face; limitation period not more than 6 months;
  • Foreign passport in the original – valid for at least 90 days from the date of return from the planned trip. Copies of all visa pages. If you have a second valid passport, you must also provide the original and copies of all pages with stamps and visas;
  • Copies of the Ukrainian passport of all pages with marks;
  • Copy of identification code.
  • Certificate of employment on company letterhead with the seal and signature of the director and chief accountant, indicating the position, salary for the last 6 months, date of employment, confirming the preservation of the workplace and salary for the duration of the trip;
  • Bank statement on the state of the card account;
  • Original certificate of non-conviction ;
  • Confirmation of accommodation at the hotel for the entire period of stay or an invitation from the host in the original with an APOSTILLE;
  • A purchased or booked round-trip ticket;
  • Insurance policy.
  • For children: birth certificate, if the child is traveling with one of the parents or accompanied by a trustee – Notarized permission to export the child.


A visa to Morocco for Ukrainians is opened only if there is a clean spread of the pages of the passport.

The consular section of the Embassy of Morocco may delay visa documents without notice, as well as require any additional documents to be submitted, at their discretion.

Embassy of the Kingdom of Morocco in Ukraine in Kiev
st. Ivan Fedorov, 12, Kyiv 03150

Working hours: Monday – Friday from 09:00 to 16:00

Submission of documents: Monday, Wednesday from 11:00 to 11:30

Visa to Morocco

Egypt Between 1950s and 1970’s

Egypt Between 1950s and 1970’s

The 1950s had seen the affirmation of the figure, work and myth of ‛Aled en-Nāṣer, champion of an Egyptian-led pan-Arabism. The victory in the Suez crisis of 1956, due to Soviet and American support, the union with Syria in 1958 and that (which remained nominal) with Yemen, seemed to spur the steps towards the formation of the United Arab States under the leadership of the prestigious leader Egyptian. But the following decade must have reserved for him and his country painful developments. Already in 1961 the United Arab Republic ceased to exist, except in a meticulous survival of nomenclature, due to Syrian secession. Neither the active further intervention of Egypt in the internal affairs of Syria and ‛Irāq, still relying on the Nasserian myth, he managed to bring together the many times longed for unity. Even more negative was the Egyptian armed intervention in Yemen (starting from 1962), in support of the republican revolution of as-Sallāl, which had risen against the Zaydite imamate: the long, exhausting Followitan guerrillas, saw the monarchist faction still resist long, and eventually yielding the field to the Republicans, without this entailing any significant gain, of direct influence and prestige, for Egypt,

But the major card of Nasserian politics continued to be played against Israel throughout the decade, stirring up the religious and national sentiment of the whole Arab world towards the enemy intruder.

The crisis of the spring of 1967 (six-day war, June 5-10), perhaps not entirely wanted and orchestrated by the Egyptian dictator, nevertheless had a disastrous outcome for Egypt and for the prestige of its leader, who with the closure of the Gulf of ‘Aqaba and the forced withdrawal of the United Nations forces from the Gaza Strip had given Israel the justification for the lightning-fast pre-emptive attack. For Egypt 1996, please check

Faced with the disaster of the loss of Sinai and the near-annihilation of the Egyptian armed forces, Nāṣer first resigned, but then agreed to remain in the direction of the state, concentrating in his hands the office of President of the Republic, President of the Council and Secretary General of the ‘Arab Socialist Union (the single Egyptian party). Upon his sudden death (September 1970), Egypt he was under the material and moral weight of a military defeat, economically exhausted despite Soviet aid, and subjected to a harsh police regime. The convulsive and impulsive work of ‘Aled en-Nāṣer, although animated by an idealistic selflessness, had failed.

The successor of the late dictator, Anwar as-Sādāt, immediately showed, even in formal homage and in the alleged continuity with the aims of war and peace of his predecessor, a much greater flexibility and political prudence. Internally, cautious liberalization gave the country some respite. In foreign policy, the political and technical support of the Soviet Union was resolutely balanced by the jealous reaffirmation of Egyptian sovereignty, arriving (1971) at the request for a recall of all Russian military and technical advisers. At the same time, the claim to leadership diminished Egypt on the rest of the Arab world, and proposals for further unions and mergers were thwarted, such as that of the dynamic Gaddafī for a union between Libya and Egypt. But the Palestinian problem weighed heavily on the internal life of Egypt as on the other neighboring Arab states. And in the autumn of 1973, in agreement with Syria, the solution of arms was once again attempted.

The “Kippūr War”, with the double surprise attack of the two Arab countries against Israel, finally gave Egypt, rearmed by the Soviets but also prepared spiritually for the test, the possibility of erasing the painful memories of 1967, and of achieving some successes in a partial recovery of the Sinai, of considerable importance, rather than strategic, political and moral. Although the Israeli counter-offensive had brought the enemy to real Egyptian soil on this side of the Canal, breaking the myth of Israel’s invincibility had a strengthening effect on the country, and allowed Sādāt to subsequently welcome, under pressure and the United Nations, the armistice and then the disengagement on the Sinai, a prelude to peace negotiations. The just convened Geneva conference stopped in the bud, but the truce of arms on the Canal and on the Sinai stabilized allowing the development of tenacious diplomatic action. The repeated trips of the American Secretary of State Kissinger to the Near East established and sealed a climate of personal trust and friendship between him and Sādāt, which culminated in the re-establishment of formal diplomatic relations between the two countries. From the absolute intransigence of Nāṣer, Egypt thus passed, on the Palestinian problem, to a possibility no less than that previously contested against Jordan, and which favorable circumstances could further advance. In 1975, in fact, Sādāt reopened the Suez Canal; at the end of 1976, in close collaboration with Syria, he confirmed solidarity with Syria’s action in the Lebanese crisis, and the readiness for a global negotiated solution to the Palestinian problem. While the tension with Libya worsened, the coincidence of views with the USA was reiterated through a visit by Foreign Minister I. Fahmi to Washington (September 1977). A month later, economic policy and international relations considerations suggested a government reshuffle: after the resignation of the Ministers of Planning and Industry, an agreement was signed with Ford and confirmed the refusal to repay credits to the USSR. Finally, direct relations were established with Israel: Sādāt’s sensational visit to Tel Aviv (November 1977), harshly criticized by other Arab states, expressed the remarkable openness of current Egyptian politics.

Egypt Between 1950s and 1970's

Ethiopia Politics and Military

Ethiopia Politics and Military

Political order. – The new constitution was issued on November 4, 1955; in its drafting, developed by experts before Europeans then Americans, had begun to put its hands since 1948. It has been called “amended constitution” (Engl. revised c., Amharic Yata š Å lä h E GGA ??? Mang E st), at the suggestion of the experts themselves, so that it does not seem that the new constitutional act abrogates the rather rudimentary constitution of 1931, with respect to which, in reality, little or nothing it innovates in substance, while it is clear the intention to reiterate the power of supreme regulator of the state recognized to the sovereign. For the first time, the Ethiopian Church is institutionally framed in the structure of the state, entrusting itself to the sovereign with its temporal order and the appointment of its bishops. The parliament is composed of the Chamber of deputies (YaH and g mämriy  m and k and r b í and t “Council to initiate legislation”), elective, and the Senate (yah E g mawåssañ  m E k E r b ï ê t “Council for the decision of the laws”), imperial nomination. In accordance with the time limits set by the new constitution, from 11 September to 10 October (period corresponding to the month of maskarram with which the Ethiopian year begins) 1957 were held, for the first time, the political elections for the appointment of the members of the Chamber of Deputies, in number of 210 (of which 14 Eritreans). Political parties not being admitted, the candidates were independent; with the voluntary registration of the voters, the lack of a registry status was made up for; women were also allowed to vote, direct and secret. In relation to the number of elected deputies, the Senate was made up of 105 members (of which 9 Eritreans). For Ethiopia political system, please check

On the way to the establishment of the juridical instruments regulating the life of the modernized Ethiopian society, provision is also being made for the emanation of organic norms codes for the various branches of law. In 1957 the new penal code was promulgated (which entered into force in 1958), drawn up by a Swiss jurist, who was part of a committee that included other French jurists, charged with preparing the civil, commercial and maritime codes, promulgated in 1960.

The written rules, which the Ethiopian state is gradually giving itself to regulate the conduct of public life, made known in the Amharic and English languages ​​(the first, the official national language; the second, an official foreign language) have the form of aw ḡ ǧ (Engl. proclamation), t is ‘ and z  z (Engl. order), DANB (Engl. decree), m ā st ā wåqiy Å (Engl. notice), which, in turn, can also be T aql ā ll (Engl. general) and YaH and g (Engl. legal). The faculty to legislate is exercised, as well as by the sovereign and the parliament, by the executive power (ministers), as authorized to do so for matters on which the legislative power has already initially ruled; the executive power then issues all internal regulations (yäwus ṭ dänb). The formal structure of the provisions is that of the West, to which the experts with whose assistance they are developed belong belong. It is up to the sovereign or to several members of parliament to propose laws, but no law is actually proposed without the consent of the first.

Ministers and deputy ministers are chosen and appointed by the sovereign; the bills they propose pass to parliament after sovereign approval. The powers, functions and organization of the ministries are, formally, those of the West, from which, almost always, come the experts who are actually entrusted with the functioning of the administrative apparatus; in reality, the traditional customs of Ethiopian feudal society weigh on their functioning.

Administrative order. – The peripheral administration of the state takes place with the division of the territory into 12 provinces divided into 72 districts and these into districts and sub-districts. At the head of the provinces is a governor general of royal appointment, assisted by a director also of royal appointment, assisted by an advisory council.

The municipal order has been adopted in major city centers, whose administration presides over a mayor (käntib Å in Addis Ababa and Gondar, yäkatam  š um “end of town” elsewhere), dependent on the governor general of the province or, in Addis Abeba, by the Minister of Internal Affairs.

Armed Forces. – Public order and defense have their own military corps, whose education and organization have been entrusted to foreigners, mostly Europeans (including military aviation, with school in Debrä ??? Zäìt, formerly Bisoftu); elite troops form the body of the Sovereign’s Guard.

Judicial system. – A supreme court of the sovereign has been created, presided over by afa n ĕ gùs (traditional office inserted in the new structure) and usually also including a non-Ethiopian judge (belonging to the High Court), although many of the cases submitted to it pass to the personal decisions of the sovereign; a High Court (commissioned by the British government, with the 1942 treaty, to protect the judgment of Europeans), composed of a variable number of sections, also includes European judges, who preside over some sections, and temporary adjunct judges of imperial and has no limits to its jurisdiction (it can also act as a court of first instance), which extends to administrative justice and particular civil disputes of a public nature.There are, then, the provincial, district or regional, district and sub-district courts, where European judges do not sit and with jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters. An appeal is foreseen by the lower court than the higher one, and the judgment pronounced on the appeal is final. In 1947 the local judge was established with pre-eminent function of conciliator judge, appointed by the minister (Ministry of the Interior). The particular court is the State Security Court (established in 1947), with its related Court of Appeal; the ecclesiastical authorities, moreover, continue to exercise traditional jurisdictional rights, of limited extent. Muslims have their own courts competent in private matters.

Ethiopia Politics and Military

Tunisia Geopolitics

Tunisia Geopolitics

Tunisia is a country in the Maghreb, the coastal strip of North Africa that extends from Morocco to Libya. From a geopolitical point of view it differs from other players in the area – such as Algeria and Libya – because it is not rich in natural resources; this feature unites it to Morocco and makes the country more dependent on relations with partners on the northern shore of the Mediterranean. Its strategic geographical location, on the southern shore of the Strait of Sicily and in the middle of the Mediterranean routes, makes Tunisia an important player for all the countries of southern Europe. Relations with the European Union (Eu), with which Tunisia signed an association agreement as early as 1998, represent one of the foreign policy priorities. In particular, the country has the closest ties with France, which was a colonial power in Tunisia for decades (until independence in 1956), and with Italy, for reasons of geographical proximity and historical relations. In the Maghreb area and, more generally, in the Middle East, Tunisia maintains good relations with all its neighbors and with all the Arab countries, although there are some tensions with Algeria, due to geostrategic and political reasons. Historically a second-rate country from a political and diplomatic point of view, both due to its marginal position with respect to the heart of the Middle East and its small size. For Tunisia political system, please check

In 2011, former president Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali, in office since 1987, was forced to flee to Saudi Arabia following two weeks of popular demonstrations and protests, in which about 80 people died. Since that moment, Tunisia has started a process of political transition, which was established with the election of a constituent assembly in October 2011. This body, in addition to having the task of writing the new constitutional charter of the country, also carried out legislative functions, pending the 2014 elections. Before this date, the assembly was composed of a majority that gravitated around the Islamic party Ennahda, which ruled in coalition with Ettakatol and the Congress for the republic. Despite the political and social divisions and the climate of polarization created in the aftermath of the victory of the Islamic party, after more than two years of discussion the assembly approved the new Constitution in January 2014. This was only the first step towards a more structured democratization process, continued with the national dialogue between the parties for the establishment of a technical government in 2014 – in a tense climate due to the assassination of two politicians belonging to the opposition forces, Chokri Belaid and Mohamed Brahmi -, that would lead the country to new elections. This phase was led by the so-called ‘quartet’, i.e. by four civil society associations (the largest trade union, This was only the first step towards a more structured democratization process, continued with the national dialogue between the parties for the establishment of a technical government in 2014 – in a tense climate due to the assassination of two politicians belonging to the forces of opposition, Chokri Belaid and Mohamed Brahmi -, leading the country to new elections. This phase was led by the so-called ‘quartet’, i.e. by four civil society associations (the largest trade union, This was only the first step towards a more structured democratization process, continued with the national dialogue between the parties for the establishment of a technical government in 2014 – in a tense climate due to the assassination of two politicians belonging to the forces of opposition, Chokri Belaid and Mohamed Brahmi -, leading the country to new elections. This phase was led by the so-called ‘quartet’, i.e. by four civil society associations (the largest trade union,Uggt; the association of industrialists; that of lawyers; the Tunisian League for Human Rights) which, precisely for this effort, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in October 2015. In October 2014, the first democratic parliamentary elections in republican history saw the victory of the secular formation Nidaa Tounes, led by the former minister (from the first years of the Bourguiba presidency) and head of the government (in the second transitional government after the fall by Ben Ali), Béji Caïd Essebsi. The latter, in December 2014, was then elected president of the republic. Following this election result, the two major parties, Ennahda and Nidaa Tounes, gave birth in 2015 to a coalition government led by Prime Minister Habib Essid, which also includes the Free Patriotic Union and Afek Tounes.

Tunisia Geopolitics

Algeria History – Ancient Libyan

Algeria History – Ancient Libyan

The primitive ethnic background of the regions corresponding to present-day Algeria was made up of Berbers; and to this stock belonged the populations that, through classical sources, appear to be residing there, i.e. Numidians, Mauri and Getuli and who then, as the geographical knowledge spreads, are better known in their subdivisions: Massyli or Massylii, Masaesyli or Masaesylii, Nacmusii, Machurebi, Baniuri, Nabathrae, Misulani, etc. Elements of knowledge of these populations in historical times are essentially epigraphic documents, rock drawings, various types of construction, information from classical writers on social status, religion, etc. The ancient Berbers had their own writing, of unknown origin, widespread throughout North Africa, perpetuated to this day, tif ī nagh (v.) of the Tuāreg. This writing does not appear to have been used for works or long compositions, but only for epigraphs which are mostly funerary, short and rough in shape, and in part, like those found at Dugga in Tunisia, with a monumental character and of a certain length. Their interpretation has so far little progressed. A large number of tomb-type epigraphs have been found in Algeria, and mainly in the department of Constantine. They mostly contain the name of the deceased followed by a W. meaning “son”, and therefore from the name of the father; in several follow other words that probably indicate the place or tribe of origin and perhaps the profession. Some of these proper names are found in the current usage of the Berbers or are explained with Berber root; someone compares with the names of Libyan characters cited by classical writers, such as eg. those of “Mskrd ‘son of Dbr” of inscription 107 of J. Halévy’s edition, which correspond to the names cited by Sallust “Dabar, Massugradae filius, ex gente Masinissae” (De bello Iug., CVIII), correspondence that could not only of onomastics, but also of people, in the sense that it is, in Sallust,(even among today’s Berbers there is the custom of resurrecting, as they say, the names of deceased relatives).

There is no doubt that the ancient Libyan inscriptions that go back, at least as far as can be drawn from those certainly datable to the Roman period, are written in Berber; and in today’s Berber languages ​​we must look for the elements for their interpretation, which once completed will provide information not only on North African onomastics and toponymy, but also on historical characters and indigenous civilization. For Algeria 2011, please check

In terms of constructions, it is not always possible to distinguish what is properly Berber from works possibly belonging to other lineages, or due to the influence of other civilizations; thus it is not always possible to distinguish what belongs to historical epochs from prehistoric epochs. It is worth mentioning the megalithic monuments of the dolmen type, which served as tombs and which in various locations in Algeria (Dielfa, Guyotville, Sigus, etc.) are gathered together in large numbers, so as to form real necropolises. They are attributed in part to a historical epoch and close to the Christian era or even after it. Monuments of the cromlech type are also frequent in Algeria, formed of a circular enclosure of dense stones, or of two or three concentric enclosures, and which probably served as tombs. The menhirs are found in large numbers in the Medjana plain. Of the other type of funerary monument called tumulus, which presents a variety of shapes, there are also examples in the surroundings of Mascara, Frenda, etc. In Aurès and Ḥoḍna the sh ū shah (tuft) is common, a construction in the shape of a cylindrical tower, just over 2 m high. and with about 5 m. in diameter; and the enclosures of concentric or ellipsoidal stones rising with steps, called baz ī na. Alongside these primitive-style monuments, there are two other monuments that have an artistic character, perhaps due to influences from other civilizations, although the elements are not clearly seen; that is the Madgh ā sen (Medracen) between Batna and Constantina, a large mausoleum made up of a cylindrical base, decorated on the outside with columns and surmounted by a conical stepped construction (fig. p. 452), probably the tomb of some king or family royal indigenous. Another similar monument, called the tomb of the Christian, is located between Castiglione and Tipaza, and is remembered by Pomponio Mela as the tomb of a royal family; its construction has been attributed by someone to King Juba II. As for the “tuft” mausoleums, these are probably indigenous forms of tombs to which the civilizations which arrived in North Africa gave an artistic character.

Two series of rock graffiti, found in various places in Algeria, can be distinguished, one prehistoric, as also appears from the representations of animals which later disappeared from those regions; and another, which is attributed to the Libyan-Berber period, among which the camel is frequent. Often there appear characters tif ī nagh. Such designs are found in great abundance in the South Oranese and in the Sahara. – From classical sources we get information on the social status of the Libyan populations. The family was patriarchal, with residues of matriarchy, of which some have been perpetuated until recent times and even up to the present day. The Libîs were, like their current descendants, partly sedentary, partly nomadic. From the union of various tribes, monarchical states were also formed in ancient times, such as those of Numidia and Mauretania. The religion of these peoples was essentially animistic: mountains, caves, trees, rivers, ponds, etc. they were objects of worship; likewise some celestial bodies. Indications of zoolatry are found in various places. Magical practices were widespread (see also the entries B erberi, Nhumid).

Algeria History - Ancient Libyan

Morocco Geopolitics

Morocco Geopolitics

The Kingdom of Morocco, independent from France and Spain since 1956, has always played a strategic role in commercial traffic to and from the Strait of Gibraltar. In this sense, it is significant that Morocco has entered into important commercial partnerships over the years and signed over 50 bilateral free trade agreements, both with the countries of the northern shore of the Mediterranean (primarily with the European Union), as well as with the USA, Turkey, Tunisia, Egypt and Jordan and, more recently, with China, India, Japan and several other Latin American, African and Eastern European economies.

Traditionally open to cooperation with Western powers, on the regional side, from a political point of view, Morocco experiences the most controversial relations with some of its neighbors, especially Algeria.

The two countries are divided by a historical rivalry, which over the decades has maintained the state of bilateral relations constantly in tension. The Algerian support for the Polisario Front, the independence group that opposes Rabat in the dispute over the sovereignty of Western Sahara, weigh heavily on these., as well as the disputes related to the territorial definition of the common border (closed since 1994) and the management of illegal immigration flows. On the other hand, relations with two other important regional players such as Tunisia and Libya are better, even if fluctuating, while the economic and political ties with the states of the Arabian Peninsula are particularly intense, which they have proposed to Morocco, together with Jordan, to join the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), although the negotiations are still suspended.

Problems of disputed sovereignty over some territories along the Mediterranean coast of Morocco (the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla) also exist with Spain. However, relations with Madrid have improved significantly in recent years. The volume of trade is progressively increasing, cooperation in the action to combat the illicit trafficking of people and goods, especially drugs, is growing and both countries show that they want to regulate the flows of Moroccan labor, attracted by the labor market. Spanish.

Intense economic and commercial relations also exist with the US. The Washington-Rabat axis has also strengthened around a close partnership and military policy, consolidated after 2001, thanks to the strong partnership that the Moroccan Kingdom has guaranteed to U know in the fight against Islamist terrorism, it has been sealed by the transfer to Morocco of the status of ‘Non- Born Major Us Ally’. Another important Moroccan partner is the European Union, with which the country signed an association agreement which came into force in March 2000. Since 2004, Rabat has also agreed to strengthen the partnership with Brussels by setting up a cooperation table in which to discuss the fight against terrorism, the fight against drug trafficking, control of illegal immigration flows, economic and social development plans. Morocco has joined the European Union’s Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA) program, which should establish an even closer relationship with Brussels, already Rabat’s first trading partner today. Furthermore, Morocco is the largest recipient of European assistance programs under the European Neighborhood Policy in the Mediterranean.

The existing tensions between Morocco and Algeria have been one of the major obstacles to the full development of cooperation in the North African region. This happened for example with the Arab Maghreb Union, the regional common market launched in 1989 to create a free market area between Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia. The tensions between the two states have so far also jeopardized the coordination of anti-terrorist activity, which would be particularly necessary in view of the cross-border nature of the terrorist organizations active along the border between Morocco and Algeria. Al-Qaeda operations in the Islamic Maghreb (Aqim). Finally, another peculiarity of Morocco’s foreign policy is linked to the question of Western Sahara: that of being the only African state that is not part of the African Union (Au). Rabat retired by the Organization of African Unity (the predecessor of the A u) in 1984, when it recognized the independence of the Sahrawi Democratic Arab Republic, disavowing the Moroccan claims on the region.

Morocco is governed by a constitutional monarchy, with a parliament elected according to democratic rules. Since July 1999 the king is Mohammed VI, successor of Hassan II, in turn preceded by Mohammed V, the father of Moroccan independence.

The constitutional reform of 1996, subsequently amended in March 2011 following the protests in the context of the Arab Spring, entrusted legislative power to a bicameral Parliament, composed of the House of Representatives and that of Councilors. The first is made up of 395 seats, of which 60 are reserved for women, assigned by universal suffrage every five years, while the second is made up of 120 members indirectly elected, for a term of six years, by local assemblies, professional organizations and trade unions.

The first truly democratic elections, protected from electoral fraud, were those of 1997, which saw the Moroccan left, long marginalized despite the strong consensus in the country, form a government coalition led by the historic leader of the Union Socialiste des Forces Populaires , Abderrahmane Youssoufi. The arrival in the government of a center-left majority marked the start of a new phase of Moroccan politics, characterized by alternation. From the end of the nineties, therefore – coinciding with the end of the almost forty-year reign of Hassan II, marked by serious limitations to civil and political liberties – a process of democratization began which led to a multi-party system,

The electoral and democratic competition is still today limited by the three so-called ‘sacred limits’: the king, Islam and the question of Western Sahara. Furthermore, the internal political landscape is characterized by a great fragmentation in the party offer, which forces governments to form broad coalitions. For Morocco government and politics, please check

In 2007, 33 parties and over 13 groups of independent candidates stood before the voters. In that electoral round, the Independence Party (Parti de l’Istiqlal, Pi), close to the monarchy and traditional point of reference for both conservatives and nationalists, returned to win. The P ihowever, he failed to retain power in the early elections of November 2011, following the protests of the Arab Spring and the constitutional changes desired by the king to stem the growing popular discontent. The relative majority was won for the first time by the moderate Islamist Justice and Development party (Parti de la justice et du développement), which leads the executive formed by a coalition of parties of which Istiqlal is also a part.

The victory of the PJD took place in the wake of protests which, in some countries, brought Islamist party formations to power. Contrary to other realities, however, the Moroccan Islamists have shown no interest in putting an end to the monarchical regime, although their relations with the king in the years preceding the electoral victory were at times stormy. Furthermore, it is interesting to underline that the PJD is the only Islamic party, together with the Tunisian Ennahda, which ruled between 2011 and 2014 in coalition with other political forces and not exclusively, as happened in the short interlude of the Muslim Brotherhood. in power in Egypt between 2012 and 2013.

The worsening of the economic crisis and the failure to implement reforms led Istiqlal to leave the ruling coalition on 10 July 2013. This officially opened a crisis which returned – after a few months of negotiations – on 10 October with the formation of a new center-right executive, composed of the Islamists of Justice and Development, the conservatives of the Mouvement populaire (MP), the Rassemblement National des Indépendents (Rni) and the Parti du Progrès et du Socialisme. Despite a good result in the local elections of September 2015, the Pjdhe lost the majority in the upper house following the electoral round of the following October. The result compromised the effectiveness of government action and above all questioned the Islamic party’s ability to obtain a sufficient majority in the upcoming 2016 elections.

Morocco government

South Africa Geography and Prehistory

South Africa Geography and Prehistory

South Africa is a Republic State of southern Africa, which occupies the extreme southern part of the continent, confining to NO with Namibia, N with Botswana and Zimbabwe, NE with Mozambique and Swaziland, and incorporating, in the east of its territory, Lesotho.

Physical characteristics

The territory is largely made up of a plateau furrowed by numerous fractures and bordered towards the coast by high escarpments, which in the past made access to the interior difficult. The altitude varies from 600 to 2000 m asl, with the highest parts towards the S and SE; to the North and NW the other lands slowly descend towards the Kalahari Basin. The plateau, in the southern section, was raised by the tectonic movements of the Tertiary, which formed the mountainous alignments (maximum altitude 3842 m) stretched from the Cape to Mozambique, clearly separating the narrow strip of hills and coastal plains from the highlands of the indoor. The alignment of the reliefs that form the great escarpment, stretched for 2000 km by the valley of the Limpopo Riverup to the Cape region, it is formed by a continuous series of mountain groups (Dragons Mountains, Winterberge, Swartberge), which loom over the Indian Ocean coast. The region outside the great escarpment includes the Lower Veld of the Transvaal to the N, a region consisting of a series of undulating planes, with a variable height between 150 and 600 m asl, separated from the Mozambican coast by the Lebombo Mountains. Further south, the coastal region shrinks considerably; only in the North of Natal, between Swaziland and Mozambique, does a short flat stretch open up. In the Cape region, the coastal strip is plagued by a series of very ancient fold systems that form a system of relatively high hills (Montagna della Tavola, which dominates Cape Town: 1088 m), looming over the narrow coastal selvedge: these folded reliefs enclose raised floors that widen at the Little Karoo and, further inland, the Great Karoo. The Atlantic coastal region is characterized by gentle hill systems and some floodplains.

The territory, located for the most part south of the Tropic of Capricorn and with large internal basins little influenced by ocean air masses, due to the heights that form the great escarpment, is characterized by a series of climates which, free from excesses frequent in the African continent, they do not present, except in the arid north-western areas, conditions such as to pose problems to human activities. Apart from the northern section of the Transvaal, the whole territory has subtropical climates. The southernmost section of the Cape region enjoys a Mediterranean-type climate, with more abundant rains during the austral winter, dry summer and average temperatures ranging within moderate values ​​(20.5 ° C in January and 12 ° C in July in Cape Town, with 520 mm of rain per year). The east coast, bathed by the warm Mozambique Current, it has a subtropical climate, with more abundant rains during the summer season, when the monsoon winds bring the masses of humid air coming from the Indian Ocean to the slopes of the coastal reliefs. The inland plateaus are much more arid, with annual averages of rainfall generally less than 600 mm, minimum in correspondence with the Kalahari desert, and with temperatures rather close to those of Cape Town, as the increase in altitude is compensated from the proximity of the equator. The average temperatures drop significantly only along the arid western coastal stretch, due to the influence of the cold Benguela Current.

The inconstancy and scarcity of rainfall in the internal basins affects the entire hydrography of the country, which is poor and has only two important watercourses: the Orange, which, with its tributary Vaal, drains the entire central region of the highlands and flows into the Atlantic Ocean, marking the border with Namibia, and the Limpopo, which forms the border with Botswana and Zimbabwe, before entering Mozambique and throwing itself into the Indian Ocean. The tributaries of these two rivers and the smaller courses do not always have water throughout the year, and in periods of aridity they are lost in the internal basins. For South Africa geography, please check

The natural vegetation, today profoundly altered for production needs, in the Cape region is similar to the Mediterranean scrub, with a prevalence of evergreen shrubs, while the evergreen temperate forest is present only in a small part of the eastern coast of the southern region. The evergreen subtropical forest still covers some stretches of the coastal and submontane region of the northeastern section of the Cape and Natal region. Inside, the vegetation is affected by the decrease in rainfall and is progressively reduced to vast prairies or pre-desert steppes, leaving room for a few species particularly suitable for enduring long periods of drought. The park-like bush of the savannah type is present only in some internal basins richer in humidity, along the main rivers and in the tropical Transvaal region. The typical fauna of the African steppes and savannahs, once very rich, is now preserved in some nature reserves, carefully protected, and which have in the Kruger National Park (over 20,000 km2), on the border with Mozambique, one of the best examples of all Africa, visited by over 1 million tourists every year.


The oldest prehistoric evidence is the fossil remains of australopithecines and the sliver and pebble artifacts found at sites in the Transvaal (Sterkfontein, Makapansgat, Swartkrans and Kroomdrai) and in Bophuthatswana (Taung). Sterkfontein and Makapansgat date to 3.2-2.4 million years ago, the others at 1-2 million. The Acheulean, locally called Stellenbosch due to its oldest phases, is documented by the Montagu Cave, east of Cape Town, and the Focolare Cave, in the Transvaal. Later there are lithic artifacts connected to cultural traditions marked by various names, depending on the eponymous deposits (Pietersburg, Mazelspoort, Alexandersfontein, Stillbay, Mossel Bay, Magosi, Howieson’s Poort). These cultures, characterized by the method of working the stone called Levalloisian, correspond chronologically to part of the Middle and Upper Paleolithic of Europe. Microlithic industries (Smithfield and Wilton cultures) later developed), with artifacts that go hand in hand with ceramics from the beginning of our era. The people who manufactured the microlithic artifacts are believed to be the authors of the rock engravings and paintings, depicting animals and scenes with human beings, present in much of the country. Groups of farming farmers who knew pottery and iron working, probable ancestors of the current Bantu, spread from the 5th century on. AD, from north to south, transmitting metallurgical techniques. The Iron Age is represented by the sites of Bambandyanalo and Mapungubwe: the first founded around 1000 BC, the second a few centuries later.


Algeria State Overview

Algeria State Overview

Algeria. Whose official name is the People’s Democratic Algerian Republic is a country in North Africa that borders the Mediterranean to the north, Mali and Niger to the south, Tunisia and Libya to the east, Morocco and the Saharawi Republic to the west, and to the southwest with Mauritania and Mali. It has four regions: the coastal mountain range, called Atlas del Tell, the region of high plateaus before the Sahara, the Saharan Atlas mountain range and the Sahara desert.

Algeria is one of the most important countries in the Arab world. He served as a mediator in the negotiations between Iran and Iraq during the war that these countries held between 1979 and 1988 ; He was one of the fundamental architects in the creation of the Union of the Arab Maghreb, a regional grouping with Tunisia, Morocco, Libya and Mauritania to promote political and economic cooperation. It is also one of the founding African countries of the Non-Aligned Movement.

The climate is Mediterranean, in the mountainous region of the coast, dry in the region of high plateaus and semi-desert and desert in the rest. Temperatures range from -15ºC in the high mountains to 58ºC in the desert.

The country achieved independence from France in 1962. Then the FLN (National Liberation Front), chaired by Ahmed Ben Bella, came to power. Following the deposition of Ben Bella by his defense minister, Houari Boumedienne, he assumed the leadership of the government, a position he would hold until his death in 1978. Since then, Abdelaziz Bouteflika has presided over the country.


The current borders of Algeria, as well as those of Tunisia and Libya, were established when the region was still part of the Ottoman Empire, creating then, with each of these three countries an administrative subdivision. The arrival of the Ottoman Empire supposed the withdrawal of the Spanish from the coastal strip that until then they had retained. In 1830, the French managed to establish a firm position in North Africa, from where they began to expand and colonize a large part of the region.

After a bloody war of liberation against French colonialism, the independence of Algeria arrived in 1962 and the FLN (National Liberation Front) assumed power, chaired by Ahmed Ben Bella. Following the deposition of Ben Bella by his defense minister, Houari Boumedienne, he assumed the leadership of the government, a position he would hold until his death in 1978.

Presidents of the People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria

  • Ahmed Ben Bella (1962-1965)
  • Houari Boumedienne (1965-1978)
  • Chadli Bendjedid (1978-1992)
  • Ali Kafi (1992-1994)
  • Liamine Zéroual (1994-1999)
  • Abdelaziz Buteflika (1999 – present) in his fourth consecutive term.

According to localcollegeexplorer, Algeria is one of the most important countries in the Arab world. He served as a mediator in the negotiations between Iran and Iraq during the war that these countries held between 1979 and 1988 ; He was one of the fundamental architects in the creation of the Union of the Arab Maghreb, a regional grouping with Tunisia, Morocco, Libya and Mauritania to promote political and economic cooperation. It is also one of the founding African countries of the Non-Aligned Movement.


Algeria is one of the richest nations in Africa. Agriculture plays a declining but prominent role in the Algerian economy, while mineral production accounts for the largest item of gross domestic product.

Since the late 1990s the government has initiated large industrialization programs. Annual GDP for 2006 was $ 114,727 million (World Bank figures), which is equivalent to $ 3,440 per capita. Average inflation is 2.50% above the consumer price index (CPI).

The greatest natural wealth resides in its large mineral deposits, mainly oil, natural gas, phosphates and iron ore. Other important minerals are coal, lead, and zinc. The cultivated land area comprises only 3.4% of the total area and is located mainly in the valleys and plains of the coastal region.


Primary education is free and compulsory for ages 6 to 15; more than 95% of school-age children receive this basic education. The Algerian educational system, with a French tradition, has given way to a program of Arabization that began shortly after independence.

The government introduced new teaching methods, began training Algerian teachers and bringing in Arabic language teachers from abroad. In 1976 all private schools were closed and a compulsory nine-year educational period was introduced. In 1996, some 4.72 million students attended the 15,426 primary schools in the country and some 2.99 million were enrolled in secondary education.

The government also maintains vocational and teacher training schools. Algeria has eight scientific and technological universities; the total number of students enrolled in higher education institutions is 682,775. The University of Algiers (1879) has faculties of Law, Medicine, Science and Humanities. Seven of the universities and most of the 20 specialized university colleges have been founded after independence.


French tradition previously dominated Algerian cultural life. Already before independence, however, a growing movement developed among rebirth artists and intellectuals of national interest in Arab-Berber origins, a movement that, since 1962, gained official support.

In Algeria there are the Museum of Prehistory and Ethnography, the National Archaeological Museum and the National Museum of Fine Arts that are located in the capital. The Cirta Museum in Constantine houses collections of art and archeology.

Algeria State Overview

The Earliest History of Ethiopia

The Earliest History of Ethiopia

Ethiopia’s history goes back several thousand years. The country was once one of the first areas inhabited by humans, as a number of important finds by ancient people have proved. In 1974, the skeleton of an ancient man about three million years old was found in the Awash Valley in central Ethiopia. The skeleton turned out to be descended from a woman of the species Australopithecus afarensis, and later became known as “Lucy”. Since then, even older remains of the earth’s first humans have been found, even older than Lucy. The findings of the ancient people, Ethiopia’s very early transition to Christianity, and the fact that the country has almost completely escaped European colonial masters, make Ethiopia’s history completely unique compared to the rest of the continent. Except for a short period during the Italian siege, Ethiopia escaped colonization at a time when Europeans were fighting to turn most of the dark continent’s countries into European colonies. On the other hand, Ethiopians have been in close contact with other cultures for several millennia. Egypt, for example, has been a loyal trading partner since 1,000 BC, and the Roma, Greeks and Arabs have also been in active trade with Ethiopia. Something that has left a clear mark on the country’s culture. Visit smartercomputing for Eastern Africa Trade Unions.


Immigrant Arabs co-founded the Aksum dynasty, which ruled over a vast area of ​​land from 100 BC. to 700 AD The kingdom’s first ruler was the legendary Menelik I., which according to history was the result of a romantic encounter between King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. This would mean that he is the ancestor of all subsequent Ethiopian emperors. It is partly due to this high culture that Ethiopia became one of the world’s first Christian countries, when King Ezana 300 AD. made Christianity the official religion of Aksum. The ancient Coptic Church, also known as the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, is still the country’s official religion. Since 1974, it has been associated with Islam. For centuries, Muslim missionaries have been trying to convert Ethiopians, who have refused for almost as long. Neighboring countries quickly converted to Islam. As a result, Ethiopian Christianity has been quite isolated from Christianity in other parts of the world. The most obvious characteristic of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church is that Jesus is considered exclusively divine, and not a mixture of god and man, as in our own version of Christianity. In addition, Ethiopians boast that the very Ark of the Covenant (the casket containing the tablets of Moses) is found in the land. Menelik I. took the ark from King Solomon in Jerusalem, and placed it in a small chapel in Aksum. Although it is not possible to enter the chapel, there are no Christian Ethiopians who doubt that the casket is actually there yet. After a few centuries of a high culture that was fully comparable to the contemporary Roman Empire and the Persian Empire, the Aksum Empire split. The center of power was moved south, to the Zagwe dynasty with its capital in Lalibela. In the Zagwe culture, which flourished between 1150 and 1270, people believed that they descended directly from Moses, and Coptic Christianity continued to be the main religion. A large number of churches were built, in the form of monoliths, directly carved into the rocks.

Ethiopia’s modern history

When Europeans began to explore Africa, a group of Portuguese came past Ethiopia in the 16th century. The guests were initially welcomed as an aid in the fight against Islam, but the Portuguese missionaries eventually became too much for Emperor Fasilides, who expelled them in 1633. A couple of centuries later, the Italians became interested in the East African country, and were the first European the country that succeeded in turning Ethiopia into a colony in 1936. This meant that the emperor, Haile Selassie, eventually had to leave the country. In 1941, Allied forces expelled the Italians, and the emperor returned from exile in England. He resumed the modernizations he had begun during his first imperial period. Selassie’s last imperial year was marked by a violent famine that affected large parts of Africa, killing 200,000 people. The famine was followed by major political and social unrest. In 1974, the emperor was deposed, the monarchy was abolished and an attempt was made to establish a communist state. But the political chaos continued, and so did recurring periods of drought and famine, until the establishment of the Ethiopian Republic with uproar in 1995.

The Earliest History of Ethiopia

Cape Verde History Timeline

Cape Verde History Timeline

According to ethnicityology, Cape Verde is an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, located approx. 570 km off the west coast of Africa (near Dakar, Senegal) and is an independent republic. The name means “The Green Forbjerg”.

The Cape Verde archipelago consists of 10 main islands and 8 smaller islands, which are divided into two archipelagos: Barlaventos (northern archipelago) and Sotaventos (southern archipelago). All the islands are volcanic, and an active volcano is found on one island, Fogo (“Pico de Fogo”). The most recent eruption was in 1995. The other Cape Verde islands are São Vicente, São Nicolau, Santo Antão, Maio and Little Brava.

The then uninhabited islands were discovered by the Portuguese during the great voyages of discovery in the middle of the 15th century and were later used as a hub for the Portuguese slave trade. Cape Verde became independent in 1975 after the Carnation Revolution in Portugal on April 25, 1974. Cape Verde’s largest city is the capital Praia, located on the island of São Tiago, which is also Cape Verde’s most populous island.

Due to its location off the west coast of Africa, which was strategic in relation to the trade route between Africa, Europe and the New World, Cape Verde became an important port and hub for the slave trade.

Cape Verde’s culture reflects the country’s Portuguese and African roots.

In recent years, a lot of tourism has arisen on the island of Sal, where the international airport is also located. The island is flat and barren, but has long sandy beaches along the south coast. The trade winds and the very steep volcanic islands make the place ideal for surfing and windsurfing, which is also an essential part of the core of tourism on Sal. The local population on Sal is very limited. In the other islands, tourism is very limited. Here, the language can constitute a barrier, as only a few speak English.

Google Maps TIMELINE:

1456 – The explorer Alvise Cadamosto is sent out by Henry the Navigator to explore the Atlantic coast. He discovered several of Cape Verde’s islands. When Cadamosto and his men arrived in Cape Verde, the islands were uninhabited, and on behalf of the Portuguese Crown, he claimed the archipelago. In the following decade, captains Diogo Dias and António Noli explored the rest of the archipelago on behalf of Henrik Søfareren.

1582/1585 – Sir Francis Drake of England plunders Riberia Grande (now Cidade Velha ) during the growing economic growth of the slave trade.

1747 – The islands are hit by the first of many droughts, which have since hit the islands about five years apart. Conditions worsened due to deforestation and overgrazing. Three major periods of drought in the 18th and 19th centuries led to more than 100,000 people starving to death. The Portuguese colonial masters sent very little help to the islanders during the droughts.

1770 – Praia becomes the capital.

1832 – The islands are visited by Charles Darwin ‘s expedition.

1910-25 – During this period, Portugal had 40 different governments as well as 18 revolutions and coup attempts, and in 1926 the last of a long series of military coups took place in Portugal. The country became a right-wing dictatorship, which regarded the colonies as a means of increasing the country’s prosperity, and that these had to be developed in the interests of Portugal and the Portuguese. Several cases of famine, high unemployment and poverty as well as the inability of the Portuguese colonial masters to solve the problems led to increased resistance to the colonial power of the population.

1956 – The African Party of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde Independence (Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde – PAIGC) is founded by Amílcar Cabral.

1959 – April 3. After three years of preparation, it was ready with its first action, which marked the start of a fifteen-year war of liberation for Cape Verde and Portuguese Guinea. It happened in connection with the strike in the port of Pijuguiti in Porto de Bissau in Portuguese Guinea. The Colony Police (PIDE) cracked down on the strike and opened fire on the striking dock workers, killing 50 people. In addition to local forces, 10,000 Soviet and 35,000 Portuguese soldiers also took part in the ensuing War of Independence, which was to prove to be the longest-running of the African Liberation Wars.

1974 – April 25. The fascist regime Portugal was deposed in a military coup called the Carnation Revolution. The following year, the Republic of Cape Verde gained full independence with Aristides Pereia of PAICV as President. He promised to lead a democratic and socialist nation when he was elected president, but he instead worsened the country’s economic situation and persecuted dissidents by the regime. Cape Verde now became a one-party state, and the country entered into alliances with countries such as the People’s Republic of China and Libya. The one-party rule lasted until 1990.

Cape Verde History Timeline

Gorée Island (World Heritage)

Gorée Island (World Heritage)

The former anchorage of Portuguese explorers such as Vasco da Gama on the small island of Gorée across from Dakar gained notoriety as a base for the slave trade in West Africa. Today Gorée is a museum island and a memorial to slavery. See history of Senegal on behealthybytomorrow.

Gorée Island: facts

Official title: Gorée Island
Cultural monument: former anchorage of Portuguese explorers such as Vasco da Gama and the most important base for the slave trade in West Africa
Continent: Africa
Country: Senegal
Location: Island in front of the capital Dakar
Appointment: 1978
Meaning: a lasting reminder of the history of slavery

Gorée Island: history

1444 Occupation of the “Palm Island” by Portuguese troops
1492 Stopover by Columbus on the crossing to America
1588 after the defeat of the Portuguese-Spanish Armada, transition to the Netherlands
1663 Captured by English troops, lost to the Netherlands a year later
1677 after the conquest by French associations the most important port for the shipping of slaves
1678-1815 multiple changes between English and French rule
1776-78 Construction of the slave house
until 1848 Shipping of an estimated 10 million slaves; thereafter prohibition of slavery

Slave trade at the “Goede Roads”

Pounding through the waves, the ferry approaches the landing stage and anchors like the first Dutch merchant ships in the “Goede Roads”, the anchorage of the former slave island. A lively, fun-loving atmosphere welcomes newcomers. Children jump from the balustrade and swim towards the beach to screams of joy and laughter. A touch of grilled fish and beignets, donuts baked in peanut oil, pushes towards the newcomers. The first glance falls on the right at the former fort, then at the mighty fort, whose cannons have long since ceased to be aimed at the Atlantic. Decades have passed since the Vichy government used such military force to prevent General de Gaulle from landing in Dakar. A second glance discovers the silhouette of the Provencal-looking colonial houses. Even with little imagination, one can imagine the bustle of activity on the landing stage a hundred years ago, when boxes and barrels were constantly being carried ashore, proud “Signares” strolled on the beach and representatives of the trading houses gesticulating to negotiate lucrative deals.

For five centuries, Gorée was an important European trading center for ivory, leather and, last but not least, slaves. Sailing over from the Cape Verde Islands, the Portuguese landed first, followed by countless desperados and adventurers from all over the world. At the beginning of the 16th century the “Goede Roadstead” was sold to the Dutch, only to finally pass into French hands in the 19th century after decades of armed conflict between the French and the English. Because of its mild climate, the respective colonial officials valued the island as a resort, and it is still a popular destination for residents of Dakar and holidaymakers from overseas. There is little time to lose yourself in thoughts of past centuries. Thanks to the exuberant atmosphere on the slowly emptying ferry, you are quickly brought back to the present. Everyone is pushing off the ship. Baskets and bags of the islanders, filled with purchases from Dakar, go from hand to hand. You greet and hug as if you had just finished a long sea voyage. The latest gossip from the mainland is told, laughing and gesticulating. The siren of the returning ferry dominates the moment before the crowd disperses and the visitor only hears the crunch of the sand under his feet. The latest gossip from the mainland is told, laughing and gesticulating. The siren of the returning ferry dominates the moment before the crowd disperses and the visitor only hears the crunch of the sand under his feet. The latest gossip from the mainland is told, laughing and gesticulating. The siren of the returning ferry dominates the moment before the crowd disperses and the visitor only hears the crunch of the sand under his feet.

Behind the landing stage, narrow, cobbled streets lead across the island. Overhanging, red-violet bougainvilleas gently bob in the wind. Through ajar gates you can see green inner courtyards full of life. It is believed that here and there proud “Signares” with their elegant headscarves and brightly colored dresses come across. They belonged to the wealthy, influential islanders who were married to wealthy European merchants according to the »mode du pays«.

From the outside, the “slave house” seems to have no particular charm. However, if you step through the dark gate into the sun-drenched inner courtyard, you are taken by the atmosphere of the place. A staircase curved in the shape of a horseshoe on both sides leads to the upper floor. There they dined like a prince, laughed and bargained for exquisite slaves. The floorboards were roughly timbered, so that the prisoners living in the basement in their dark, narrow dungeons involuntarily had to take part in the goings-on of the slave traders. How many millions of slaves left Gorée through the “door of no return”? If you are here and understand that people have been abducted, the polemical “numbers game” becomes irrelevant. The island breathes history everywhere. Also in the former prison, today’s Musée d’Histoire du Sénégal, illuminates this dark past. But the island also sees itself as “Gorée la Joyeuse”, as “Gorée die Fröhliche”, a warm-hearted “Goede Roadstead” that is beyond time.

Gorée Island (World Heritage)

Equatorial Guinea Geography

Equatorial Guinea Geography

Equatorial Guinea, officially Spanish República de Guinea Ecuatorial [- gi ne ː a -], German Republic of Equatorial Guinea, the state in West Africa, the Gulf of Guinea (2019) 1.4 million residents; The capital is Malabo.

Equatorial Guinea comprises the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Póo) off the coast of Cameroon and Pagalu (Annobón) 400 km off the coast of Gabon as well as the mainland Mbini (Río Muni) between Cameroon and Gabon with the Elobey Islands and the island of Corisco.


The mainland area Mbini rises from the mangrove coast to the highlands towered over by island mountains (up to 1,200 m above sea level) in the interior. The islands in the Gulf of Guinea belong to the volcanic chain of the Cameroon Line, which reaches 3,008 m above sea level in Pico Basile (highest point in the country) on the island of Bioko. The estuary Río Muni, formed by several rivers, is the south-western border of the country.


Equatorial Guinea has an equatorial climate with high relative humidity (95% in the morning) and high temperatures. Precipitation falls on the mainland (Bata: 2 210 mm annually) mainly in October and November and from March to May, on Bioko (1,890 mm) mainly from May to October.


Most of the country (mainland as well as islands) is covered with tropical rainforest, which has an enormous biodiversity. 10% of Equatorial Guinea are protected areas (e.g. the Monte Alen National Park).


In Equatorial Guinea there are mainly population groups with Bantu languages, e. B. Catch on the mainland and Bubi on Bioko. Other languages ​​are Pidginenglisch in Bioko and in Pagalu a Creole Portuguese. According to ejinhua, almost three quarters of the population live on the mainland, around 40% (2017) in the cities. Larger cities are in addition to the capital Malabo, Bata and Ebebiyin.

Social: The standard of living of the population is very low and the food supply is inadequate. The poor health system is reflected in the low life expectancy of 64.2 years (63.1 men; 65.4 women). About 5% of the population are infected with HIV (AIDS).


The constitution guarantees freedom of religion. According to the latest available estimates, around 93% of the population are Christians, the vast majority of them Catholics (around 88%). The proportion of Protestants is estimated at 5%. The largest Protestant church is the »Iglesia Evangélica en la Guinea Ecuatorial«, created as a union of Reformed and Methodists. The remaining part of the population is attributed to the Muslims (2%), traditional African religions and the Baha’i (together approx. 5%).

Under the dictator F. Macías Nguema, a baptized Catholic, there was severe persecution of Christians; In 1978 the practice of the Christian religion was banned and Equatorial Guinea was declared an “atheist state”. After the overthrow of the president (1979), the constitutional rights of the churches were restored, church life reorganized and in 1982 the Archdiocese of Malabo (suffragan dioceses: Bata, Ebebiyin) was created as a separate Catholic church province.


There is general compulsory schooling from 6 to 14 years of age. The school system is divided into a six-year primary and a seven-year secondary level. About 60% of the school bodies are church missions. The school enrollment rate for the primary level is around 91% for boys and 86% for girls, and for the secondary level a total of around 45%. Equatorial Guinea has a national university in Malabo.


The media in Equatorial Guinea are being bullied by the state. Fundamental criticism of the government, the president and the security forces is not permitted.

Press: The only daily newspaper is »El Ébano« (state). In addition, private weekly and monthly newspapers appear irregularly.

Radio: The state-run “Radio-TV de Guinea Ecuatorial” (RTVGE) broadcasts radio and television programs (“Radio Nacional de Guinea Ecuatorial”, “Televisión de Guinea Ecuatorial”) in Spanish, French and other national languages. The only private broadcasters, »Radio Asonga« (FM) and »Televisión Asonga«, are in the hands of the president’s son.

Equatorial Guinea Country and People

Niger History

Niger History

Thus redesigned the map of power, among the most urgent issues that presented themselves to the new institutions was that of the Tuaregh rebellionagainst which the head of the executive alternated appeals for pacification and rapid military offensives, without however reaching a real solution to the problem. On the other hand, the process of political democratization seemed to be less insecure, with the approval by referendum of a Constitution (December 1992) which allowed the first free presidential and legislative elections. The consultation for the formation of the Parliament (February 1993) was the prerogative of the opposition parties which, grouped in the Alliance of the Forces of Change (AFC), managed to win 50 of the 83 seats available, relegating the old single party to the opposition.

The result of the presidential elections held the following month was similar with Mahamane Ousmane’s victory over the MNSD candidate. The concretization of the democratic process also seemed to favor an easing of the pressure of the Tuaregh with whom a new agreement was established (March 1993). But, retracing the stages of a history unfortunately common to many countries set out on the path of democracy after years of authoritarianism, Niger was also a victim of the inability of the new ruling class to consolidate the representative institutions that were exchanged as an instrument of power and personal affirmation.. After the electoral phase, in fact, the various forces that had composed the alliance resumed their freedom of maneuver, causing an incurable disagreement between Prime Minister Mahamadou Issoufou, leader of the Nigerian Party for Democracy and Socialism (PNDS) and President Ousmane, head of the Democratic and Social Convention (CDS). When the former resigned in September 1994, the president appointed Souley Abdoulaye of the CDS in his place and, faced with the mistrust of Parliament, dissolved him by calling new elections. The result of the poll (January 1995), in which all forces coalesced against President Ousmane’s party, saw him defeated and he was forced to appoint MNSD leader Hama Amadou as prime minister. Amadou initially seemed to be able to reach a definitive agreement with the Tuaregh rebels (1995), but after a few months the guerrillas resumed with greater force as the disagreements between the president and the prime minister intensified. The instability of the political framework in a situation of generalized resumption of the Northern rebellion led sectors of the army to a bloody coup that ended with the establishment of a national salvation committee (January 1996) headed by Colonel Ibrahim Barré Mainassara. Having cleared the previous institutions, the committee drafted a new presidential constitution which was approved in a referendum (May 1996).

According to remzfamily, the direct elections of the president, which took place shortly after (August), were won by the coup colonel, as well as the legislative ones, celebrated with various postponements in November of the same year, ensured his party, the Union of Independents for Democratic Renewal, a overwhelming majority. On both consultations, however, in confirmation of the involutionary picture imprinted by the military on the political life of Niger, there were suspicions of heavy manipulation. In April 1999, a few months after the outbreak of the protests of the opposition to the decision of the Supreme Court to cancel the results of the administrative elections, Mainassara was assassinated by his escort and the military carried out a coup: France and the United States suspended aid to the country, tying them to the restoration of democratic elections. These took place in November 1999 and led to the presidency M. Tandja of the MNSD. In August 2002, an attempted coup d’état carried out by some military units in the Diffa region was thwarted. In March 2004 the army had to intervene in the northern regions, where the guerrilla of the Tuaregh continues. In the presidential elections of December 2004, Tandja was reconfirmed as president. In March 2007, after the Parliament declared the executive no confidence, President Tandja, instead of calling early elections, appointed new prime minister Seyni Oumarou. In June 2009 the president dissolved the parliament and the constitutional court; the two institutions had opposed the modification of the constitution wanted by Tandja himself to obtain a third term. The new constitution that extends the presidential term by three years and strengthens the powers of Tandja himself was enacted two months later. In October, legislative elections were held in which only the pro-government parties linked to President Tandja participated. In February 2010, a coup d’etat put an end to the Tandja regime: the president was dismissed and arrested by a military junta led by Salou Djibo, who became president ad interim, it promised a return to democracy and new political elections. In the same year, Niger, Mauritania, Mali and Algeria set up a coordination structure to combat organized crime and terrorism. In March 2011 Mahamadou Issoufou won the presidential elections, defeating former premier Seyni Oumarou, close to former president Tandja.

Niger History

Benin Economy

Benin Economy

Benin, officially French République du Bénin [repy Republic dy be nε ] until 1975 Dahomey [da ɔ mε] German Republic of Benin country in West Africa, on the Guinea coast, with (2019) 11.8 million residents; The capital is Porto Novo.


Benin is one of the least developed countries in the world and, with a gross national income (GNI) of US $ 800 per resident (2017), one of the poorest countries in Africa. The economy is mainly dependent on agriculture and trade with neighboring countries. Unfavorable political framework conditions (widespread corruption, nepotism and bureaucratic inefficiency), the resulting reluctance of domestic and foreign entrepreneurs to invest and the limited domestic market are the greatest obstacles to economic development. The foreign debt amounts to USD 2.7 billion despite debt relief (2017). The state budget is structurally deficient to a high degree and is dependent on official development aid. Visit shoe-wiki for Western Africa Economy.

Foreign trade: The foreign trade balance is chronically in deficit (import value 2016: 2.6 billion US $, export value: 0.4 billion US $). Since a large part of the imported goods are partly illegally re-exported to Nigeria and Niger in particular, an accurate accounting of foreign trade is difficult. The most important export goods are cotton (over 20% of the export value), crude oil and oil palm products. The main imports are foodstuffs, petroleum products, machines and equipment. The most important trading partners are China, India, Malaysia, France and Thailand.


Agriculture employs around 40% of the workforce; it generates 25.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and the majority of exports. Small farms are predominant. Some still operate hacking hacking with slash and burn. Maize and cassava are grown in the south, millet, yams, maize and cotton in the drier north. Cotton has been the most important export good for years. Other agricultural export products are palm kernels, palm oil and peanuts. Extensive transhumant livestock husbandry (cattle, sheep, goats) is mainly carried out in the northern areas.

Forestry: Around 40% of the country’s area is covered by forest. In order to preserve the forest and counteract soil erosion, nature reserves were created in the north and inland as early as the colonial times. However, these are de facto hardly protected from agricultural use. Commercial forestry is of little importance. Around 93% of the logging (2014: 6.9 million m 3) is accounted for by firewood.

Fishing: Fishing is concentrated in the inland waters and the lagoons on the coast, it is mostly practiced with traditional fishing methods.

Natural resources

Benin is poor in natural resources. Between 1983 and 1990, the Sémé oil field off the coast of Benin was exploited with Norwegian help. There are smaller gold reserves in the north-west of the country, as well as small reserves of iron ore, rutile, silicon sand, phosphate, marble, limestone and clay.

Energy industry

Even after the construction of the Nangbeto hydropower plant (62 MW), which was built in cooperation with Togo on the Mono river, most of the energy required has to be imported. To improve its energy base, Benin is participating in a gas pipeline from Nigeria to Ghana. A gas-fired power station (80 MW) not far from Cotonou has considerably increased the country’s power generation capacity.


The manufacturing industry, including the construction industry (2016), achieved 23.4% of GDP. The main industries are cement manufacturing, oil mills and cotton ginning plants. The manufacture of simple consumer goods or the textile industry play a subordinate role. The main industrial locations are Cotonou and Porto Novo.


The tourist potential of Benin is limited and limited to the historic cities of Porto Novo, Ouidah and Abomey in the south (museums and districts characterized by colonial architecture), the village of Ganvié built on stilts into the water in the Cotonou lagoon (Lac Nokoué), the Beaches between Cotonou and the Togolese border as well as the nature parks in the northwest (“W” National Park, Pendjari National Park).


As a transit country for other West African countries, Benin has a relatively good transport infrastructure. The main line of the railway network is the 438 km long north-south connection from Parakou to the port city of Cotonou. An extension of this route to Niamey (Niger) is planned. Of the approximately 16,000 km of roads, only 10% are paved. Inland navigation is used on the Niger. The port of Cotonou also serves as a transit port mainly for Niger and Nigeria. The country’s international airport is located near Cotonou.


Parakou [para ku], largest city in the north central Benin, (2013) 255 500 residents.

Administrative seat of the Borgou department; catholic archbishop’s seat; Trade center in a cotton-growing area (ginning plant, textile factory); as the end point of the railway line (438 km) from Cotonou, an important freight transshipment point (to and from Niger); Airport.


Cotonou [- nu], Kutonu, largest city, main port and economic center of the Republic of Benin, (2013) 679 000 residents.

Seat of government authorities, the Supreme Court and diplomatic missions as well as a Catholic archbishop; University (founded in 1970); Brewery, textile and cement factory, automobile assembly plant. The deep-water port is a transit port (with a free zone) for inland Niger; Railway lines connect Cotonou with Parakou and Porto Novo; international Airport. The Dantopka market, one of the largest in West Africa, is located on the Cotonou lagoon (Lac Nokoué).

Benin Economy

Morocco Literature

Morocco Literature

According to thefreegeography, the Arabic-language literature of Morocco, which escaped from Ottoman domination and therefore remained on the fringes of the ideological and literary currents of the Arab world, is of very recent origin. In the past centuries, in fact, literary production was initially expressed in the Arabic-Hispanic dialect and in the Melkhūn language., based on the vernacular Moroccan, influenced by the Bedouin speech. In the field of poetry already in the century. XIX the Moroccan poets tried to get rid of traditional schemes with little success. At the beginning of the century. XX Egyptian poetry exerted a great influence on the generation of Moroccan poets, whose verses were characterized by an exasperated nationalism. Among the most important authors, the self-taught figure Muṣṭafā al-Miʽdāwī (1937-1961) stands out, in whose poetry there is a resentful tone of recovery, having participated in the Moroccan resistance (1954-55). Other significant contemporary poets are Muḥammad as-Sabbāg, author of many works translated into Spanish, and Muḥammad ʽAzīz Laḥbābī, in whose poetry the attempt to replace traditional canons with new metric and stylistic solutions emerges. Even in the evolution of prose and fiction the century. XX is marked by a nationalistic spirit that reflects the historical events of Morocco. Among the most politically committed writers are ʽAllal al-Fāsī, politician and theorist of Moroccan nationalism, whose historical originality he postulates from Carthage onwards; Muḥammad al Ḥasan al-Wazzānī, ʽAbd al-Hāliq at-Ṭurrīs, al-Makkī an-Nāṣirī and ʽAbd al-Karīm Gallāb (b.1919).

Alongside the production in Arabic, it is worth mentioning the existence of works written in the Berber language (with a prevalently popular and folkloric content) and above all of a remarkable literature in French. Protestant writers belong to the latter area, striving to conquer an “authenticity” poised between the revolt against colonial and bourgeois models, disenchantment with atavistic traditions and faith in the next regeneration. The founder of the courageous magazine deserves a special place Souffles (1966-75), the poet ʽAbdellatif Laâbi (b.1942), long imprisoned for his political ideas. Notable writers are Driss Chraibi (1928-2007) (Naissance à l’aube) and Mohammed Khaīr-Eddine (1941-1995) (Agadir), all authors who speak in French. Muḥammad Shukrī (Choukri) (1935-2003), whose autobiographical novel al-Khubz al-ḥāfī (The naked bread) has been translated into many languages. Despite the initial difficulty of “accepting” the choice of using French in literature after the independence achieved in 1956, we can speak of a true literary flowering in this language, in a style that expresses the identity of the Maghrebi people. The need to theorize the language has the strongest exponent in Abdelkebir Khatibi (La mémoire tatouée) who would like to overcome the antagonism between Arabic and French in a dimension that offers the possibility of exchange between the two cultures. After the fundamental experience gained with the Souffles magazinewe are witnessing two fundamental trends. An attempt to dismantle the literary traditions, national and French, judged incapable of expressing the writer’s imagination and, at the same time, the effort to invent a writing that translates the bicultural thought of the author. The traditional layout of the narrative is abandoned due to a fragmentation of the discourse that approaches philosophical and ideological tones, and in which even the temporal development is dissolved and mixed with elements of dreams, remembrance and reflection.

From the point of view of content, the authors of the Eighties draw from the national heritage stories, legends and epics to then immerse themselves in everyday reality and criticism of society. Rarer, but still practiced, is the use of meditation and intimism. Immobile Parcours, 1980; Aïlen ou la nuit du récit, 1983; Mille ans un jour, 1986; Le retour d’Abel El Haki, 1991) are dominated by the theme of the disappearance of the Moroccan Jewish community, whose conscience the writer interprets. All interwoven with a strong political commitment, his books are a reflection on the destiny of man. The novels by Abdelhak Serhane (b. 1950), Messauda (1983), Les enfants des rues étroites (1986), Le soleil des obscurs (1992) or his short stories Les Prolétaires de la haine are also dedicated to a “submissive” community. (1995) who speak of the fate of women and children in a community where men exercise tyrannical patriarchal power. The novels by Mahi Binebine (b.1959), Le sommeil de l’esclave (1992) and Les Funérailles du lait (1994) are noteworthy. Moroccan poetry is conceived, in the wake of Souffles’ teaching, as an act of denunciation of a wounded people, in balance between moralizing denunciation and ideology. Writing therefore often becomes a cry of anger, incitement to revolt and a struggle to achieve freedom. Mossafa Nissaboury (b.1943) in La mille et deuxième nuit turns against the city of the hopeless, Mohammed Loakira in L’horizon est d’argiledenounces the horrors of the African peoples. But if literature has left the field of specialists and has risen to the highest levels in the world, this is mainly due to Tahar Ben Jelloun, who was awarded the prestigious Goncourt prize in 1987 for La nuit sacrée. His other novels, translated into many languages, include Moha le fou, Moha le sage (1978), L’enfant de sable (1985) and Le racisme expliqué à ma fille (1998). Among the most interesting and best-known voices it remains to mention Fatima Mernissi (1940-2015), writer and scholar of the Islamic and female world in particular, who in her novels and essays (for example L’Amour dans les pays musulman, 2007) carries on the thesis according to which female freedom can be compatible with the indications dictated by the Koran.

Morocco Literature