Author: itypemba

Best Travel Time and Climate for the Maldives

Best Travel Time and Climate for the Maldives

The Maldives is a palm-fringed atoll in the Indian Ocean. You can decide whether you prefer to relax in an underwater spa in the Maldives or go on snorkeling tours and diving on the house reef. In any case, you should pay attention to the best time to travel to the Maldives.

Take a dive, spot manta rays and even whale sharks, and swim in beautiful lagoons. Take a boat trip in the evening to see dolphins or enjoy an hour-long picnic on your own thila (sandbar).

Best travel time

According to politicsezine, the Maldives are hot and sunny all year round with average temperatures of 23–31 ° C. The best weather – and therefore the best time to travel to the Maldives – is between November and April . The main season is between December and March. The monsoons last from May to October and peak in June. The northern atolls have the highest rainfall from May to November; the southern atolls from November to March. It’s worth paying the higher prices for travel in the dry season as there isn’t much to do in the Maldives on rainy days other than drink, exercise, or dive.

For divers, both the dry and the wet season have their charm: In the dry season, the underwater visibility is excellent due to the current, which increases in November from the northeast. In February these currents weaken. During the rainy season, water temperatures are a few degrees lower, but this causes larger numbers of hammerhead and reef sharks to congregate in shallower waters. On the one hand, this is very attractive, but the other side of the coin is poor visibility due to the decreasing current.

Optimal travel time after months

January

With lots of sun and warmth, January is a great time for a beach vacation. There is also good visibility for diving and snorkeling. This is a very popular time to travel and it is recommended that you book in advance.

February March

These are the two driest months with warm temperatures, low humidity and excellent visibility for diving and snorkeling. As these months are also very popular, you should book your vacation in good time.

April

Another good month to travel with lots of sunshine and good visibility in the water. However, there is a slightly increased risk of rain, especially towards the end of the month.

May – September

These months are still warm and there is a lot of sun, but the chance of rain increases and there is a risk of storms. In addition, the plankton increases, so that the visibility is somewhat clouded when diving. However, lower prices and great deals make it a good time to travel. August in particular is still a popular month to travel.

October November

As in the previous months, warm temperatures and lots of sunshine are balanced with the increasing probability of rain and storm. In October and November, you can see whale sharks and manta rays feeding on plankton in the Maldives. There are many great offers to take advantage of this time of year.

December

December is warm with many hours of sunshine, but the likelihood of rain and storms increases. Until just before Christmas, many hotels usually have great deals, so earlier in the month is a good time to travel.

Climate in Malé

The Maldives has a tropical climate that is hot all year round and is influenced by the monsoons. The southwest monsoons, from late April to September, are stronger in the northern islands and are accompanied by winds that can make the sea rough and make activities such as diving difficult. In addition, the humidity is higher and more often cloudy. The northeastern monsoons from October to December are quieter and only bring brief showers and thunderstorms in the afternoon or evening, especially in the southern atolls. The driest time outside of the monsoons is from January to April and is more noticeable on the northern atolls.

The temperatures are stable all year round: The maximum values ​​are around 30 ° C and usually only drop to 25 ° C. Throughout the year the humidity is very high and is around 80%. Rainfalls usually occur in the form of short and heavy showers or thunderstorms. They are a little more common in the southern atolls, but less so in the north. Sunshine is constant in the Maldives, an average of about 7 hours a day. The sunniest months are February and March. The sea is warm all year round, with a water temperature between 28 ° C and 30 ° C.

Food and drink

In the resorts around the Maldives you will find a large selection of international cuisine with excellent fish dishes and seafood. Most resorts also offer a selection of Asian and European dishes as a buffet or à la carte. All drinks are imported and alcoholic drink prices can be high.

Social conventions

With all the luxury the resorts offer, it’s easy to forget that the Maldives is an Islamic country. While bikinis and alcohol are allowed in the resorts, the inhabited islands, including Malé, insist on more decency. It is recommended that women wear closed clothing and not show too much skin.

Language

The Maldivian language is Divehi, a dialect of Sinhala (spoken by the majority in Sri Lanka). Recently, the Arabic language is becoming more and more important. Most of the officials speak English, which is also spoken in almost all holiday resorts.

Tip

Some resorts automatically increase the cost of additional services by 10%. A tip of 10% is expected where not included.

Best Travel Time and Climate for the Maldives

Cape Verde History Timeline

Cape Verde History Timeline

According to ethnicityology, Cape Verde is an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, located approx. 570 km off the west coast of Africa (near Dakar, Senegal) and is an independent republic. The name means “The Green Forbjerg”.

The Cape Verde archipelago consists of 10 main islands and 8 smaller islands, which are divided into two archipelagos: Barlaventos (northern archipelago) and Sotaventos (southern archipelago). All the islands are volcanic, and an active volcano is found on one island, Fogo (“Pico de Fogo”). The most recent eruption was in 1995. The other Cape Verde islands are São Vicente, São Nicolau, Santo Antão, Maio and Little Brava.

The then uninhabited islands were discovered by the Portuguese during the great voyages of discovery in the middle of the 15th century and were later used as a hub for the Portuguese slave trade. Cape Verde became independent in 1975 after the Carnation Revolution in Portugal on April 25, 1974. Cape Verde’s largest city is the capital Praia, located on the island of São Tiago, which is also Cape Verde’s most populous island.

Due to its location off the west coast of Africa, which was strategic in relation to the trade route between Africa, Europe and the New World, Cape Verde became an important port and hub for the slave trade.

Cape Verde’s culture reflects the country’s Portuguese and African roots.

In recent years, a lot of tourism has arisen on the island of Sal, where the international airport is also located. The island is flat and barren, but has long sandy beaches along the south coast. The trade winds and the very steep volcanic islands make the place ideal for surfing and windsurfing, which is also an essential part of the core of tourism on Sal. The local population on Sal is very limited. In the other islands, tourism is very limited. Here, the language can constitute a barrier, as only a few speak English.

Google Maps TIMELINE:

1456 – The explorer Alvise Cadamosto is sent out by Henry the Navigator to explore the Atlantic coast. He discovered several of Cape Verde’s islands. When Cadamosto and his men arrived in Cape Verde, the islands were uninhabited, and on behalf of the Portuguese Crown, he claimed the archipelago. In the following decade, captains Diogo Dias and António Noli explored the rest of the archipelago on behalf of Henrik Søfareren.

1582/1585 – Sir Francis Drake of England plunders Riberia Grande (now Cidade Velha ) during the growing economic growth of the slave trade.

1747 – The islands are hit by the first of many droughts, which have since hit the islands about five years apart. Conditions worsened due to deforestation and overgrazing. Three major periods of drought in the 18th and 19th centuries led to more than 100,000 people starving to death. The Portuguese colonial masters sent very little help to the islanders during the droughts.

1770 – Praia becomes the capital.

1832 – The islands are visited by Charles Darwin ‘s expedition.

1910-25 – During this period, Portugal had 40 different governments as well as 18 revolutions and coup attempts, and in 1926 the last of a long series of military coups took place in Portugal. The country became a right-wing dictatorship, which regarded the colonies as a means of increasing the country’s prosperity, and that these had to be developed in the interests of Portugal and the Portuguese. Several cases of famine, high unemployment and poverty as well as the inability of the Portuguese colonial masters to solve the problems led to increased resistance to the colonial power of the population.

1956 – The African Party of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde Independence (Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde – PAIGC) is founded by Amílcar Cabral.

1959 – April 3. After three years of preparation, it was ready with its first action, which marked the start of a fifteen-year war of liberation for Cape Verde and Portuguese Guinea. It happened in connection with the strike in the port of Pijuguiti in Porto de Bissau in Portuguese Guinea. The Colony Police (PIDE) cracked down on the strike and opened fire on the striking dock workers, killing 50 people. In addition to local forces, 10,000 Soviet and 35,000 Portuguese soldiers also took part in the ensuing War of Independence, which was to prove to be the longest-running of the African Liberation Wars.

1974 – April 25. The fascist regime Portugal was deposed in a military coup called the Carnation Revolution. The following year, the Republic of Cape Verde gained full independence with Aristides Pereia of PAICV as President. He promised to lead a democratic and socialist nation when he was elected president, but he instead worsened the country’s economic situation and persecuted dissidents by the regime. Cape Verde now became a one-party state, and the country entered into alliances with countries such as the People’s Republic of China and Libya. The one-party rule lasted until 1990.

Cape Verde History Timeline

Best Travel Time and Climate for Jamaica and Suriname

Best Travel Time and Climate for Jamaica and Suriname

According to militarynous, Jamaica is located in the Caribbean and is part of the Commonwealth of Nations. The island state is the third largest island in the Greater Antilles and it is located below Cuba.

The northeast trade wind shapes Jamaica’s tropical climate. In May and June and from September to November there are two distinct rainy seasons . During this time, severe storms and hurricanes can occur.

Jamaica is geologically very interesting. The mountain range in the middle of the island is 2,000 meters high and has deep valleys and caves with underground rivers. There are places where the mountains drop steeply almost 500 meters. Many animal and plant species can only be found in Jamaica. There are a multitude of tropical birds and, due to the many caves, numerous different bat species. The Jamaican giant swallowtail can be found in the rainforest. The knight butterfly is considered to be one of the largest butterflies in the world.

Best travel time for Jamaica

The best time to travel to Jamaica is from October to mid-December . After the end of the Caribbean hurricane season, temperatures rise significantly. Then there is nice weather on the island (all year round 23-28 ° C) and it is easiest to find hotel and flight offers. The prices are also cheap in summer, but then the risk of ending up in the hurricane season increases. The main travel season is between January and March, when room prices in some hotels can rise sharply. If you’re looking to save money and avoid the crowds, this is the time of year that you shouldn’t plan for.

From April to June the average temperatures are 23-27 ° C, but the weather can be a bit rainy. Golf courses and beaches are relatively quiet, and some hotels have fantastic offers in spring. Jamaica should be avoided from July to September, as many hotels and attractions close due to the rainfall.

Best travel time for Suriname

Suriname is the smallest South American country and, in addition to 11 different languages, has a tropical climate with two dry seasons from August to November and February to mid-April and two rainy seasons from mid-April to mid-August and November to mid-February.

However, this information can vary, although Suriname has relatively clearly defined seasons. So it can rain during the dry season and sometimes there is no rain during the rainy season. The climate is humid all year round, so a high-quality, lightweight rain jacket and light clothing when packing for the trip are a must.

In principle, Suriname can be visited all year round, but you should definitely consider the seasons. The best time to travel to Suriname is the dry season ( August to November and February to mid-April ), it is the most pleasant time of the year.

A visit to the popular Brownsberg Nature Reserve above the Brokopondo Reservoir and Central Suriname Nature Reserve are mandatory for all Suriname visitors. The nature reserves are best visited in the dry season, when there is no rain to spoil the joy.

Lying above the equator, Suriname has warm and humid weather with an average temperature of 27 ° C. The climate is strongly influenced by precipitation and humidity. All year round, visitors can expect sunshine in abundance and the temperature practically never exceeds 32 ° C. As already mentioned above, the year is divided into wet and dry seasons, the former being between the months of April to August and November to mid-February and sometimes resulting in considerable rainfall. The dry season is the optimal time to visit the country.

The maximum temperature in Suriname is 33 ° C in October. In January, February and March the thermometer rises to a maximum of 29 ° C. The summer (June to September) with average 31 ° C hot . In the winter months it is around 30 ° C very warm . During the day, the annual mean temperature in Suriname is a hot 30.6 ° C.

At night it gets coldest at 22 ° C. While the nights in summer are averages of pleasantly warm 23 ° C, the thermometer drops to a pleasantly warm 22 ° C between November and March. The temperature at night averages a pleasant 22.7 ° C throughout the year.

With 23 rainy days, May and June are the rainiest months of the year. The September and October are with 9 days of rain, the driest months of the year . From June to September Suriname is humid with an average of around 17 rainy days each, the winter (November to March) is relatively humid with 15 rainy days. An annual average of 15.8 days of rain falls per month.

Best travel time for Suriname

Saint Kitts and Nevis History Timeline

Saint Kitts and Nevis History Timeline

According to commit4fitness, Saint Kitts and Nevis is a country in the eastern Caribbean on the border of the Atlantic Ocean. It is part of the beautiful Leeward archipelago in the Lesser Antilles.

The largest city on Saint Kitts is Basseterre, which is also the capital of the country. The rest are: Charlestown, Sadlers, Cayon, Sandy Point Town, Mansion, Monkey Hill, Dieppe Bay Town, Boyd’s and Gingerland.

As some of the first islands in the region, Saint Kitts and Nevis were colonized by Britain in 1623 and 1628, respectively, and in the following centuries, the indigenous population of Arawak and Caribbean Indians was undermined by imported African slaves.

Sugar production was very lucrative on the islands, as in all British colonies in the Eastern Caribbean, African slavery and civil rights were a hot topic on Nevis and St. Louis. Kitts.

Both islands are known for their subdued, relaxed atmosphere, and for their welcoming hospitality.

TIMELINE:

1493 – Christopher Columbus lands on the islands. He named St. Kitts after the patron saint Christopher.

1623 – Britain establishes first colony on St. Kitts.

1626 – British massacre of 2,000 native Caribbean nationals.

1628 – The British establish a colony on Nevis.

1755 – Alexander Hamilton, often considered one of the founders of the United States, was born on Nevis. He moved to the United States in his teens, quickly entering politics and being elected Secretary of the Treasury by President George Washington on the advice of the merchant Robert Morris, and held the post from 1789 to January 1795 – and from there the rest is history. Hamilton died on July 12, 1804 in New York, USA.

1783 – The claim to St. Kitts is abandoned by France under the Treaty of Versailles.

1871 – St. Kitts, Nevis and Anguilla united as British dependence.

1876-1956 – The islands were part of the Leeward Islands Federation.

1958-1962 – The islands were part of the West Indies Federation.

1971 – Anguilla placed under direct British rule; Followed by a revolt against the dominance of St. Kitts.

1980 – Anguilla constitution; union with St. Kitts and Nevis formally recalled.

1993 – Anti-government demonstrations take place after the election.

1994 – Anti-government riots started by Labor Party supporters cause a state of emergency.

1998 – St. Kitts and Nevis carried out in August the first execution in 17 years, despite international protests.

Hurricane Georges ravaged St. Kitts and Nevis. The hurricane cost 5 lives and resulted in damage of 458 million. $ at St. Kitts and 39 million. $ on Nevis.

2003 – Largest hotel complex in the Eastern Caribbean opens at Frigate Bay, St. Kitts.

2008 – Charles Elroy Laplace hanged for murder on December 19. The government hoped it would act as a deterrent to high levels of violent crime. It was the first execution since the year 2000. The execution was also controversial as it took place before he could appeal his case to the Council of State’s Judiciary Committee in London, which is the Supreme Court of the islands.

Saint Kitts and Nevis History

Nepal in Asia

Nepal in Asia

According to a2zgov, Nepal is among the poorest countries in the world. A crucial step towards progress is a showdown with discriminatory societal structures that restrict women, ethnic groups and people from lower castes.

FACTS ABOUT NEPAL

Population: 29,717,587 million inhabitants (2018)

Proportion of population below national poverty line: 25 percent

Can read and write: Men: 76.4 percent Women: 53.1 (2015)

Life expectancy: Men: 70.6 Women: 72 (2018)

Location measured by prosperity and development: 149 out of 189 countries (Human Development Index 2018)

GDP per capita (2016): $ 2.5 (number 199 out of 230)

On an elongated strip of land between India and China, 29 million people live in the mountainous nation of Nepal . The country is among the poorest in the world.

Discrimination, stereotypical gender roles and a hierarchical structure of society are crucial obstacles in the pursuit of prosperity and prosperity. In many places in Nepal, the caste system is rigidly maintained, making some people from birth considered less valuable than others. There are also a large number of ethnic minorities in the country, some of whom rank high in the social order, while others are hardly considered full citizens of the state of Nepal . For example, they end up at the back of the queue at the health clinics and have to fight to ensure a proper schooling for their children.

As in many other developing countries, many people seek out the big city to try to improve their living situation. This has led to large slums in the capital Kathmandu, where residents are struggling to be evicted from their humble homes, but also fighting discrimination and the stigma associated with living in a slum.

Inter-People’s Cooperation collaborates with local Nepalese organizations. We bring together poor people in village groups who work to gain access to public pools for local development and to hold government officials accountable for providing proper schooling and health services to all Nepalese citizens. The village groups not least give women the opportunity to step out of the men’s all-dominating shadow.

Inter-People’s Cooperation in Nepal also helps to give a voice to young people in Nepal who are passionate about creating a more just society. This is done through Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke’s international youth network Activista.

DEMOCRATIC EFFORTS

Nepal is taking small steps towards a more democratic society. In 2008, a historic election put an end to a 10-year civil war started by Maoist rebels, and the new parliament definitively abolished the kingdom of Nepal. Thus also began a process of writing a new constitution to provide better conditions for Dalits (people from the lower castes), ethnic minorities and women.

In 2017, elections have been held in the country’s provinces for the first time since 1997. And although the elections have been surrounded by some chaos, they show that the democratic process in Nepal is, after all, back on track.

SHOCKING SETBACK

In April 2015, the already fragile mountain nation was shaken by a violent earthquake . About 9,000 people lost their lives, 602,257 homes were destroyed and a further 285,099 homes and buildings, as well as much of the country’s infrastructure, were damaged.

Reconstruction is still slow and there is still a risk of buildings collapsing. The reconstruction has been pulled out, i.a. because the government has hesitated to pay the promised subsidies to the people who lost their homes.

Inter-People’s Cooperation was present with emergency relief after the earthquake . The effort has helped more than 133,000 people with i.a. temporary housing, temporary training centers, hygiene kits and grain silos.

The youth network Activista helped mobilize young Nepalese who helped in the chaotic weeks and months after the earthquake.

Today, we continue to work on a reconstruction program that puts local communities at the forefront of comprehensive efforts. The program runs until 2018, and will hopefully help to get the country back on its feet.

And hopefully more than that.

Nepal in Asia

Travel to Formentera, Spain

Travel to Formentera, Spain

Formentera (Balearic Islands)

With the boat it takes about half an hour to reach the island of Formentera from Ibiza. Formentera is a Balearic island with a feel-good character and high relaxation value. Calm, enchanting landscape and nature together with crystalline water contribute to this attribute.

Formentera is the fourth largest of the Balearic Islands, the size of thesmallIsland is just 82 square kilometers. Except for two plateaus, it is extremely flat. The two elevations are in the south. These are light chalk hills with the 107 meters high Puig Guillem and the massif of La Mola (192 meters high). Both are located on Cabo de Berbería and are connected by a flat, narrow headland.

The history of Formentera is not as well documented. However, this Balearic island has a multitude of relics from prehistory.

The climate in Formentera is said to be the healthiest in Spain. The air is relatively clean and the climate is temperate. All of the places on the island are no further than 10 km from the sea, so you can feel the well-known balancing effect of the water on the entire island.

The summers are dry and warm, but not too hot, the winters are usually very humid. The time from late spring to early autumn is excellent for a trip to Formentera. Rainfalls can be expected from mid-October to the end of February. When choosing clothing, you should think of sturdy shoes for hiking and in the evening you often need a jacket on the islands, and you shouldn’t forget to wear rain gear. Formentera has only one country road. You can get around the island by rental car, bus, taxi or rent a scooter. If you want to be active, take a bike tour, certainly a nice alternative to enjoy the beauty of the island. The port of La Sabina in Formentera can be reached regularly by ship from Eivissa in Ibiza. In addition, you can translate with a motorboat.

The capital of the island is Sant Francesc Xavier, better known by his Castilian name “San Francisco”. The town hall is here, as well as the main post office and the Formentera police station.

La Savina, a small port settlement on the island, is intended more as a transit station for most visitors to the island. The first impression is modern and a little impersonal. There is also a huge marina in La Savina, which in summer hosts yachts from all over the world. A visit to one of the harbor cafés lets you watch the hustle and bustle when the boats arrive or depart.

A popular anchorage for small boats can be found in the Estany des Peix salt lake which is southwest of La Savina. It is an important resting area for water birds and is also part of a nature reserve under special protection. Bathing is not very tempting here.

The Estany Pudent located east of La Savina. He is also called the “smelly fairy”. This is a brackish lake that develops a disgusting smell on very hot days and also attracts a large number of mosquitoes. To the north of the lake are the Salines Marroig, known as the largest salt pans on the Balearic island of Formentera. The salt pans on the island have been out of service for years, but they are of great importance for the ecosystem and therefore enjoy the status of “Reserva Natural de ses Salines” special protection.

The island has a tourist mecca: “Es Pujols”. Mostly package travelers spend their vacation here, but compared to Ibiza or Mallorca, for example, it has a rather village-like character.

Other attractions include: the Església Sant Francesc Xavier, built in 1726, a small chapel, Sa Tanca Vella, from the 14th century and the Folklore Museum Museu Etnològic with a collection of old costumes, tools and photos. Visit vaultedwatches.com for Spain travel destinations.

Many different habitats on Formentera allow diverse plant species to spread. Especially in spring, the blaze of color is huge and even on “poor” soils, there are real seas of flowers. Numerous herbs and wild flowers grow here, as well as capers, gorse, oleander, dwarf palms and lemons.

The wildlife in Formentera has not much to offer. There is a wide variety of reptiles, birds, and insects. Many butterflies, flamingos, lizards and the osprey are among the residents of the island.

Formentera geography

Formentera belongs to the archipelago of the Balearic Islands and is located in the western Mediterranean in the Gulf of Valencia. It is the fourth largest and at the same time the southernmost island of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands. At the same time, Formentera belongs to the independent archipelago of the Pityuses, which consists of the neighboring island of Ibiza and many small rocky islets.

Formentera is about 100 kilometers from mainland Spain and about 250 kilometers from the African continent. The distance to Ibiza is about twelve kilometers. The total area of ​​Formentera is 83 square kilometers. The island is around 14 kilometers long and can have a maximum width of 15 kilometers. Of the The main town of the island is Sant Francesc de Formentera.

Formentera is only separated from its neighboring island of Ibiza by a narrow arm of water. Although the island is not large, it can boast an almost spectacular variety of landscapes. Sandy beaches alternate with steep cliffs, and the interior of the island is characterized by pine forests, barren heather and fertile fields and orchards.

The otherwise rather flat Formentera consists of the two plateaus Cap de Barbària in the southwest and La Mola in the east. A narrow, flat isthmus connects the two small high plateaus. Sa Talaiassa is located on La Mola and, at only 192 meters, is the highest point on Formentera. Overall, the elevation profile is much lower than on Ibiza. The island’s 69-kilometer coastline is characterized by extremely long sandy beaches and very rocky cliffs.

As in Ibiza, Formentera has the salt pan so characteristic of the Pityusen archipelago. This typical landscape for the island emerged about six million years ago, when Formentera, which at that time still consisted of a mountain range, protruded from a desert of salt deposits and salty swamps.

Travel to Formentera, Spain

Bahrain Economy

Bahrain Economy

Compared to the countries of the Persian Gulf, these islands have always enjoyed a certain prosperity: the presence of numerous freshwater springs allows for flourishing agriculture (dates, tomatoes, citrus fruits and other fruits, rice, vegetables); this, which was once associated with a decent breeding, has however suffered, as well as the competition from other sectors, the growing salinity of the soil; the shoals of pearl oysters are among the richest in the Persian Gulf (the relative fishing is however clearly in decline today); finally, the strategic position favors maritime trade, already relevant since ancient times. The discovery, which took place in 1932 in Awali, on the island of Bahrain, and the exploitation of oil have radically transformed the country’s economy; however, this sector has given cause for concern, partly linked to the fall in prices on the international market but above all derived from the prospect of an imminent depletion of the fields, which we tried to remedy, on the one hand, also by resorting to policies of conservation and containment of production, as well as the use of other resources; on the other hand, by relaunching the search for submarine fields N and W of the archipelago. More than oil production is actually the large Awali refinery, one of the largest in the Middle East, which processes mostly crude oil from Saudi Arabia. In addition to the sectors related to the extraction and processing of oil, the secondary sector is also active above all in the chemical, petrochemical and metallurgical fields, with an aluminum foundry that has reached a level of world rank.

According to allcountrylist, the industrialization process of Bahrain is part of the economic and social development of the country, which in addition to its numerous food complexes (including one for fish processing), cement factories and modern manufacturing industries, has invested in the sector of telecommunications (to guarantee the country its role as an important financial center) and the construction of a seawater desalination plant in Hidd, powered by a new power plant. Further sources of wealth derive from the exploitation of natural gas (also used in the production of electricity), and above all financial activities, stimulated in 1975 by the decision to allow it to be carried out under the offshore: since then Bahrain has been one of the channels for the investment of Arab petrodollars in the world market. Based on this role, the establishment of a scholarship to serve the wider surrounding region was approved (a common university was also built for the same purpose). In 2000, following the censorship by the OECD which has marked Bahrain as one of the “tax havens”, the country has taken steps to enact anti-money laundering regulations. Foreign trade takes place mainly with Saudi Arabia, the United States, Japan and, in the European Union, Great Britain and Germany. The main imported goods are manufactured goods, electrical machinery and for the oil industry, textiles; among those exported, in addition of course to oil and aluminum, there is a high percentage of re-exported goods. Over the past decades, the country’s trade relations and communications to the outside have also drawn considerable impetus from the construction of the highway linking Saudi Arabia to Bahrain (1986), which has thus ceased to be properly a ‘ Island. Free of railways, the country has an efficient system of infrastructures linked to road transport, in addition to the commercial port of Mina Sulman, the oil terminal of Sitra and the airport of Al Muharraq. The breakdown of the active population (overall equal to more than half of the total) indicates the good degree of development achieved by the country: only a small part of the residents of Bahrain are employed in traditional activities, agriculture and fishing, more than half work in industry (oil, construction, manufacturing, etc.) and the remainder is used in the tertiary sector. The GDP recorded in 2018 was 38,291 ml US $, settling around a variation of about 1.8%. Wealth too settling around a variation of approximately 1.8%. Wealth too settling around a variation of approximately 1.8%. Wealth too per capita of the residents has undergone a marked increase reaching 25851 in 2018.

Bahrain Economy

Gorée Island (World Heritage)

Gorée Island (World Heritage)

The former anchorage of Portuguese explorers such as Vasco da Gama on the small island of Gorée across from Dakar gained notoriety as a base for the slave trade in West Africa. Today Gorée is a museum island and a memorial to slavery. See history of Senegal on behealthybytomorrow.

Gorée Island: facts

Official title: Gorée Island
Cultural monument: former anchorage of Portuguese explorers such as Vasco da Gama and the most important base for the slave trade in West Africa
Continent: Africa
Country: Senegal
Location: Island in front of the capital Dakar
Appointment: 1978
Meaning: a lasting reminder of the history of slavery

Gorée Island: history

1444 Occupation of the “Palm Island” by Portuguese troops
1492 Stopover by Columbus on the crossing to America
1588 after the defeat of the Portuguese-Spanish Armada, transition to the Netherlands
1663 Captured by English troops, lost to the Netherlands a year later
1677 after the conquest by French associations the most important port for the shipping of slaves
1678-1815 multiple changes between English and French rule
1776-78 Construction of the slave house
until 1848 Shipping of an estimated 10 million slaves; thereafter prohibition of slavery

Slave trade at the “Goede Roads”

Pounding through the waves, the ferry approaches the landing stage and anchors like the first Dutch merchant ships in the “Goede Roads”, the anchorage of the former slave island. A lively, fun-loving atmosphere welcomes newcomers. Children jump from the balustrade and swim towards the beach to screams of joy and laughter. A touch of grilled fish and beignets, donuts baked in peanut oil, pushes towards the newcomers. The first glance falls on the right at the former fort, then at the mighty fort, whose cannons have long since ceased to be aimed at the Atlantic. Decades have passed since the Vichy government used such military force to prevent General de Gaulle from landing in Dakar. A second glance discovers the silhouette of the Provencal-looking colonial houses. Even with little imagination, one can imagine the bustle of activity on the landing stage a hundred years ago, when boxes and barrels were constantly being carried ashore, proud “Signares” strolled on the beach and representatives of the trading houses gesticulating to negotiate lucrative deals.

For five centuries, Gorée was an important European trading center for ivory, leather and, last but not least, slaves. Sailing over from the Cape Verde Islands, the Portuguese landed first, followed by countless desperados and adventurers from all over the world. At the beginning of the 16th century the “Goede Roadstead” was sold to the Dutch, only to finally pass into French hands in the 19th century after decades of armed conflict between the French and the English. Because of its mild climate, the respective colonial officials valued the island as a resort, and it is still a popular destination for residents of Dakar and holidaymakers from overseas. There is little time to lose yourself in thoughts of past centuries. Thanks to the exuberant atmosphere on the slowly emptying ferry, you are quickly brought back to the present. Everyone is pushing off the ship. Baskets and bags of the islanders, filled with purchases from Dakar, go from hand to hand. You greet and hug as if you had just finished a long sea voyage. The latest gossip from the mainland is told, laughing and gesticulating. The siren of the returning ferry dominates the moment before the crowd disperses and the visitor only hears the crunch of the sand under his feet. The latest gossip from the mainland is told, laughing and gesticulating. The siren of the returning ferry dominates the moment before the crowd disperses and the visitor only hears the crunch of the sand under his feet. The latest gossip from the mainland is told, laughing and gesticulating. The siren of the returning ferry dominates the moment before the crowd disperses and the visitor only hears the crunch of the sand under his feet.

Behind the landing stage, narrow, cobbled streets lead across the island. Overhanging, red-violet bougainvilleas gently bob in the wind. Through ajar gates you can see green inner courtyards full of life. It is believed that here and there proud “Signares” with their elegant headscarves and brightly colored dresses come across. They belonged to the wealthy, influential islanders who were married to wealthy European merchants according to the »mode du pays«.

From the outside, the “slave house” seems to have no particular charm. However, if you step through the dark gate into the sun-drenched inner courtyard, you are taken by the atmosphere of the place. A staircase curved in the shape of a horseshoe on both sides leads to the upper floor. There they dined like a prince, laughed and bargained for exquisite slaves. The floorboards were roughly timbered, so that the prisoners living in the basement in their dark, narrow dungeons involuntarily had to take part in the goings-on of the slave traders. How many millions of slaves left Gorée through the “door of no return”? If you are here and understand that people have been abducted, the polemical “numbers game” becomes irrelevant. The island breathes history everywhere. Also in the former prison, today’s Musée d’Histoire du Sénégal, illuminates this dark past. But the island also sees itself as “Gorée la Joyeuse”, as “Gorée die Fröhliche”, a warm-hearted “Goede Roadstead” that is beyond time.

Gorée Island (World Heritage)

Study Abroad in University of California, Riverside

Study Abroad in University of California, Riverside

After I had already spent a student exchange in Minnesota, it was clear to me that I would like to spend another longer time in the USA during my studies and decided to do a semester abroad at UC Riverside (UCR).

It was very important to me that my achievements from abroad would also be recognized at my home university, which is why the UCR seemed particularly suitable to me, as its business school is accredited by the AACSB. In September, two weeks before the start of the semester, my fellow student from Munich and I made our way to Riverside.

If you book a flight early, look around to see if you can arrive directly at “Ontario” airport, which is even closer to Riverside than LAX. Back then, I booked a rental car online through Hertz early on and did not use the UCR pick-up option. You don’t need a navigation device under any circumstances, with a little sense of direction and a free map from Hertz you can easily find your way from LAX or Ontario Airport to Riverside.
For the first few days on site, I booked a hotel nearby and kept the rental car for a week so that I could take a look at a few apartments and check out car dealers for a used car.

As I said, I wanted to find my own apartment and not use the UCR dormitory. Dormitory is probably the wrong word here, the whole apartment complex is very chic and modern and is right next to the UCR, but the rooms are VERY expensive. For the same money you can easily get your own apartment near the university.

Invest a day and just drive down the streets near the university, there are tons of apartments. Back then, my fellow student and I opted for the “Boulder Creek Apartments” on Iowa Avenue. The price was perfectly okay, for a 1-room apartment that could easily be inhabited by two, we paid about $ 1000 per month and shared it. I can only recommend the residential complex – the most beautiful pool area of ​​all apartments in Riverside, seriously!

If you decide to have your own apartment, it is essential to have an internet connection. Some apartments offer free WiFi, ours unfortunately not. We decided on the Anbierter “Charter”. With this one can conclude a “contract” for Internet and television without a social security number and also borrow equipment such as WLAN routers and receivers; there is also no minimum contract period. As soon as you leave Riverside, you bring the borrowed equipment back and the “contract” is over. We bought a used television on ebay for $ 20 – it did its job without worries.

Many of the apartments are furnished, but unfortunately not ours, so we bought a piece of furniture from Ikea, which can be found about half an hour from Riverside in Covina.
My biggest tip I can give you: craigslist.com. There you can find everything from wardrobes to skateboards mostly very cheap.
In addition, we decided to buy a car. I really wanted to buy from a used car dealer in order to have a guarantee if something happened to the car.
I would NOT do the same thing again. You’d rather spend a few dollars more and rent a car over time. After a long negotiation I got a guarantee for the car, which then cost us $ 6000, but it was sorely needed. I stood at the dealer in the yard 12 (!) Times to have the car repaired, thank goodness everything was covered by the guarantee. Shortly before the return flight I wanted to sell the car back to the dealer, but they made me a lousy offer and so I had to sell the car to Carmax for $ 2000 (I had expected $ 4000) for better or worse.
But a car is an absolute must if you don’t always want to ask someone to drive you to go shopping. The California distances are definitely not to be underestimated.

Daily Life:

There are numerous supermarkets in Riverside, my tip: Food 4 Less, more of a kind of wholesale market and much cheaper than other supermarkets. There are also enough banks. To get cash free of charge, you either do one of the following: With cards from Deutsche Bank, you can get cash free of charge at Bank of America; alternatively open an account on site, it costs nothing and you get a soccer ball for free ;-); get a credit card. You definitely need it, because firstly in America you can easily pay for any chewing gum with a credit card, but it is also often irreplaceable for paying bills (internet, garbage,…) over the internet. With many free credit cards that are offered in Germany, you can withdraw cash from ATMs internationally free of charge.
Get a cell phone! Tip: Kmart, $ 30 including cell phone and free minutes. Don’t be surprised: even if someone calls you, you pay with American prepaid cards.

Traveling:

The great thing about Riverside is the location! It is an hour to downtown LA, 1.5 hours to the beaches and 1.5 hours to San Diego. San Diego is my all time favorite here! Pack a few people in the car on the weekend, rent a cheap hotel and go to a few clubs in the Gaslamp Quarter – great! Downtown LA is definitely a must-see, but the whole thing seemed rather dingy to me during the day and rather dangerous in the evening. Since having to party with San Diego much better. An absolute must, especially New Year’s Eve, but only if you are over 21: Vegas! As I said, it’s really only worth it if you are over 21, the bouncers understand their job, believe me.
Travel around, discover California (insider tip: Santa Barbara and the district “Isla Vista”: you haven’t seen anything like this before, what’s going on there on a Saturday evening!). Whatever you do: DO NOT go to Tijuana! It used to be a party hotspot for San Diego students, now it’s just dangerous and what’s there to see is not worth it.

Uni life:

You read again and again how difficult it must have been for some students from abroad to get their desired course at the UCR. There is a simple rule here: keep calm and speak genuinely and kindly to the right people. If you kindly explain that it is very important for you to come to this course, because you need it for your university at home, even the fullest course can be done at once with a little bit of negotiation skills. You hardly need to send emails, unfortunately they are rarely answered, go straight to the consultation hour.
After you have completed your course selection, studying at the UCR is a lot of fun. I had three courses – a business course and two economics courses. The schedule was put together just right. You will notice a difference to your German university: More homework and unannounced smaller tests, but slightly easier tests in the middle and at the end of the semester. My tip: If you have the chance and the interest: choose a course from Dr. Sean D. Jasso – the best professor I have ever seen!
Use the Recreation Center: The whole thing costs about $ 75 for a quarter, but you have a gym, tennis and squash courts, you can borrow equipment for free and, and, and… it’s worth it!

Conclusion:

If you feel like studying a quarter at the UCR – do it! You will have incomparable experiences and have the fun of your life.
To recap: Craigslist.com should be your best friend, rent a car, meet as many people as possible and just have fun, but that’s almost guaranteed!

Many thanks to Aline Meyer for her always friendly and helpful support!

University of California, Riverside 1

Study Abroad in San Jose State University

Study Abroad in San Jose State University

Preparation for the stay abroad:

The application process via MicroEDU went like clockwork – if you can put it that way. The team is available to answer any questions at any time, and these tend to pile up at the beginning when putting together the application documents. CoCo also checks all documents and details again before the application is sent to the SDSU. With the help of the checklists provided, you always have an overview of the application process and which steps still need to be taken. Obtaining the F1 student visa , which I processed at the embassy in Frankfurt, is particularly important and also a bit time-consuming.

Arrival and accommodation:

I only flew to San Diego shortly before the beginning of the semester and therefore didn’t have the opportunity to get to know the whole city or to travel. In my opinion, that didn’t mean I had any disadvantage at all. Since I had already organized accommodation from Germany, I didn’t have to move into the hostel like many other students and look for an apartment on site.

Unlike most students, I live with a fellow student in a private house near the campus. We got the contact from a friend who previously lived there during her own semester abroad at SDSU. I was super satisfied with the accommodation. We both had our own, sufficiently large room and the rest of the house was well furnished. The landlord lived in the house himself, but only shared the kitchen with us. He has a separate bedroom with bathroom in a small annex in the garden. The location of the house was also ideal. The university was within walking distance and the “Boulevard63” dormitory, where most of the (international) students lived, was just seven minutes away on foot. There were also numerous supermarkets and restaurants nearby.

The typical question that everyone has to answer for themselves is. “Would I prefer to live close to the university or close to the beach?” Since the SDSU is inland, you have to weigh your preferences. Both choices definitely have their advantages. I decided to be close to the campus and I was really very satisfied with it. My fellow student and I rented a car from Dirt Cheap and so we were well equipped for trips to the beach after university. In addition, the majority of the international students lived in the student residences close to the campus, so that it was easiest to meet again on campus or at home for group work.

University:

The San Diego State has a wonderful campus to offer, which invites you to linger and study in the park areas thanks to the almost consistently good weather. Every Thursday there is also a food market and a wide range of fast food / restaurant chains and small student supermarkets.

The courses:

BA350 – Multinational Business & Organizational Behavior:

Very interesting content, very good lecturer (Prof. Blue), interactive lectures.
There was a group project in which a country of our choice was to be presented in terms of culture, politics and economy. However, this presentation had to be embedded in a creative concept and be interactive. That took time to prepare accordingly. The exams each consisted of 50 multiple-choice questions. For the exams, 6-7 chapters of the course book had to be read or memorized. The reading and learning effort was accordingly high, but the content was very interesting and mostly very easy to understand. I would recommend this course to others.

MGT352 – Human Resource Management:

Very interesting in terms of content, you learn a lot about the rights of employees and the application and selection process of companies. The lecturer (Pro f. Del Castillo) is very competent and brings a lot of knowledge from his job as an HR expert. However, in my opinion, he lacks the skills to really prepare his course for the exams and exams. The three exams each consisted of 40 multiple choice questions and four short answer questions, whereby the expected answer length is by no means “short”. Some of the questions were asked very comprehensively, so that at least three quarters to a full page had to be answered, which in view of the time was sometimes quite tight. In addition, there were 5 unannounced inclass activities over the course of the semester, each of which brought 20 points and could not be made up in the absence (also excused). Overall, a very interesting course in terms of content, but which quickly caused frustration due to the lecturer and his expectations. Recommended only for people who actually see their future in human resources.

MGT357 – Multinational Business & Comparative Management:

A very interesting course format that I have never experienced before. In this special session the course founded its own company (a consulting company)and associated social media channels. Everyone from the course was assigned to a department depending on the focus of study and interests, so that at the end there was the departments Finance, HR, Marketing, IT and Operations, as well as a CEO and Vice President. In our course there was a girl who made bracelets from pearls as a hobby. We as a consulting company then helped her with the creation of the bracelets and the marketing. So this course was about practical work and a project that was supervised by everyone. The final exam consisted of a DIN-A4 page about what one had learned during the semester in this course. Attendance and the preparation of current news, which were presented and discussed at the beginning of each event, also flowed into the grade.I would recommend the course because of its uniqueness.

BA370 – Marketing:

A very good course with a great lecturer (Prof Haddock). Also very high reading effort for the exams, but easy to manage with only 50 multiple choice questions each. I would choose this course again.

Leisure:

San Diego and the university itself have a lot to offer for recreational activities. In addition to the numerous offers of the SDSU to student groups in the fields of sport, music, etc., the university offers its students a free membership in the campus fitness studio, as well as access to the Aztecs swimming complex, the Gaslamp Quarter in downtown, Point Loma, the Sunset Cliffs or even Coronado Island. The zoo, the USS Midway Museum, Seaport Village and Old Town are also highly recommended.

In addition, San Diego has three beaches to offer: Pacific Beach, also known as Party Beach, has numerous restaurants and bars. In any case, you have to have taken part in the “Duck Dive” on Taco Tuesday, where the internationals meet every Tuesday to eat taco and then party, when a DJ plays from 9 a.m. and the happy hour begins. This is located on Mission Beach Belmont Park, a small old amusement park, which can convince with its location on the beach and the view from the wooden roller coaster. Ocean Beach also has restaurants and beach stalls, but takes it easy. Particularly recommended for all dog lovers, because there is a whole stretch of beach here only for four-legged friends and their masters.

For day trips, Mexico, Los Angeles , the cities along the coast to LA or the beautiful little town of Julien, which is located in the mountains inland, are ideal.

If you have a few more days off, you should of course not forget San Francisco, Las Vegas, the Grand Canyon and other national parks.

Please make sure to use the free tickets to the games of the SDSU teams ! Don’t miss the tailgate before a football game.

Tips and conclusion:

I definitely recommend leaving plenty of space in your suitcase on arrival. In the first few days you may have a little less clothing to choose from than usual, but you can find such good bargains and prices in the outlets and shopping malls in the USA that you would look in vain in Germany.

However, it is best to take enough cosmetic products etc. with you. Contrary to my expectations, products such as deodorant, shampoo and so on were disproportionate and unexpectedly expensive (8 € for deodorant), so it is best to buy enough stock here at DM.

I had an amazing time in San Diego that I will remember fondly for a long time. I’ve met an incredible number of people and seen places that have all shaped me. The SDSU, as a highly regarded university, and the location of San Diego, located by the sea with many sunny days and a lot to experience, offer a great combination for a stay abroad. My English has also improved again through the stay and I am much more self-confident and become more independent.

I take a lot with me from my time in San Diego and can only recommend the semester abroad in California to every sun lover. It’s not for nothing that San Diego is also known as the “Americas finest City” !!

San Jose State University

Costa Rica Human Geography

Costa Rica Human Geography

Costa Rica is a country in Central America with (2018) 5 million residents; The capital is San José.

HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

Costa Rica is not excessively populated (86 residents / km²); however, it recorded a very strong increase in the twentieth century, passing from 300,000 residents from 1900 to ca. 4 million in 2000; this is the result of a constant lowering of the death rate, while the birth rate remains at very high values. In the early 21st century, however, there was a decline in the annual growth rate, from 3.1% in the 1980s to 1.5% in the 2000-2005 period. According to itypetravel, the residents are almost entirely of European origin; it was in fact the Spaniards who actually populated the country, in which the Indian element was and remains extremely scarce: it is estimated that the Amerindians represent 2% of the population, while the Creoles are 77%, the mestizos 17% and the mulattos 3%. The mulatto minority is the fruit of immigration of the Jamaican workforce who came to Costa Rica to work in the banana plantations of US companies. Even today the number of illegal immigrants is still relevant, especially Nicaraguans, who have penetrated Costa Rica first to escape the precarious political conditions of their country and, secondly, attracted by the demand for low-cost labor, causing, however, tensions between Costa Rica and Nicaragua.

There are also very numerous Salvadoran, Cuban and Peruvian immigrants, while since 2001 there has been a considerable increase in Colombian refugees and asylum seekers. The coastal strips, due to their unfavorable environmental conditions, they have always been the least populated areas: over 70% of the residents is concentrated in the small area of ​​Meseta Central, where the province of San José exceeds 300 residents / km². The population is for approx. 40% considered rural; the capital is indeed the only real city in the country (352,366 residents in 2008), an important commercial and industrial center, thanks to its position on the transistmic railway and on the Pan-American highway. Its urban agglomeration, which has expanded towards the E and towards the West because the mountain ranges have hindered its expansion towards the south, has over 1 million residents. No other city reaches 70,000 residents; the two major centers of the Meseta are Cartago, very flourishing in colonial times but gradually decayed due to the succession of disastrous earthquakes, and Alajuela, farmer’s market and cozy garden city. Important coastal centers are Puntarenas and Limón (or Puerto Limón), on the opposite ends of the transistmic railway, on the Sea of ​​the Antilles, the second largest city in terms of population (70,166 in 2008).

TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS

Despite a prudent government policy and cuts in public spending, the trade balance remains in constant and growing deficit (in 2006 exports covered less than three quarters of imports). The main commercial partners are, for imports (oil, machinery and manufactured goods), the United States, Mexico, Venezuela, China and Japan; for exports (electronic components, products related to agriculture – coffee, bananas, cocoa, sugar – and the pharmaceutical and chemical industry), again the United States, followed by the Netherlands, Hong Kong, China and the countries of the area Central American. § As regards the infrastructures, the communication routes are on the whole in good condition; the road arteries include the Costa Rican stretch of the Pan-American motorway (carretera), which connects the country with Nicaragua and Panama, and a road system of 36,131 km, but only partially passable during the rainy season (since only 9,416 km are asphalted). Half of the railway network, 650 km, is owned by United Brands; however, the most important line, which crosses Costa Rica passing through the capital and brings together the port centers of Limón, the largest maritime outlet in the country, equipped for the export of bananas and other agricultural products to the United States, and Puntarenas (other active ports on the Pacific are Golfito and Quepos, all mainly used for the export of bananas). The major cities are also connected by overhead lines; the capital is served by the Juan Santamaría international airport, located in the province of Alajuela.

Heredia

Heredia [e reðja], capital of the province in Costa Rica, 1 200 meters above sea level, as an agglomeration (2020) 367 900 residents.

University (founded 1973); Center of coffee cultivation and trade.

Cartago (Costa Rica)

Cartago, provincial capital in Costa Rica, 1 450 m above sea level, on the Meseta Central, at the foot of the Irazú volcano (3 432 m above sea level), as a metropolitan area (2020) 232 300 residents.

Cartago, founded in 1563, was until 1823 the capital of the governorate of Costa Rica, which was part of the General Capitol of Guatemala; destroyed several times by earthquakes.

Alajuela

Alajuela [ala x  ela], capital of the province of Alajuela, Costa Rica, as an agglomeration (2020) 196 900 residents.

Bishopric; Trade center and industrial location (food, shoe and textile industries).

Puntarenas

Puntarenas, port city and provincial capital in Costa Rica, on the Gulf of Nicoya, (2020) 87 500 residents.

Food industry (including fishery products). The port was replaced as the most important Pacific port in Costa Rica by the caldera around 15 km away.

Costa Rica Human Geography

United Arab Emirates Human Geography

United Arab Emirates Human Geography

GENERALITY

State of Asia, located in the Arabian Peninsula at the mouth of the Persian Gulf, overlooking what was once called, with clear reference to the activity carried out by the coastal populations, the Pirate Coast.The seven Emirates of Abu Dhabi arepart of the State , Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm al Qaiwain, Ras al Khaimah and Fujayrah, also known in the past as the Truce States, in memory of the peace concluded in 1853 between Great Britain and the pirates of the area. Dedicated for centuries to sea raids, pearl fishing and nomadism, ruled by the Persians, Portuguese and English before the rise of the two tribal confederations Bani Yas and Qawassim (respectively ancestors of the rulers of four of the current domains), the United Arab Emirates United remained until the discovery of oil a fundamentally depressed region divided by conflicts between the various sheikhdoms. Within a few decades, the collapse of the pearl market (1930) and the beginning of the exploitation of black gold reserves (starting from the 1960s) changed the configuration of the country and its perspective, transforming it into one of the richest states in the world. Modernization and widespread well-being in the area are eloquently exemplified by the urban and architectural development of the city of Dubai, a candidate to quickly become the true nerve center of the Middle East for foreign investments, services and trade and whose urban symbols (from the tallest skyscrapers of the world, to artificial beaches to futuristic projects of cities under the sea) are now intrinsically connected with the imaginary of the entire country. However, economic growth and transformations have not found an equal response in the political and social sphere: the process of democratic reform has in fact only been started in recent times and the oligarchic power expressed by the emirs still informs most of the institutions, as well as the tradition still invests many of the costumes.

HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

Over the last few decades, the population of the Emirates has undergone a particular evolution: the country’s growth rate in the period 2002-2007 was 4.5%; according to localtimezone, the residents of the country amounted to over 4 million people, a surprising figure, if compared with that of less than twenty years earlier (179,000 residents in 1968). Between 2005 and 2017, the population increased from just over four million to almost 9.5 million. Between 2015 and 2020, the growth rate stood at 1.4%. This demographic increase is largely due to massive immigration from the Asian countries of the Middle East, attracted by the demand for manpower linked to mining activities and by the wave of well-being following the discovery and exploitation of oil fields in Abu Dhabi and Dubai: it is estimated that about 70% of the workforce is of foreign origin. This massive presence regulated during the nineties of the twentieth century also by legislative measures aimed at containing the phenomenon of illegal immigration, is also the cause of the disproportion between the sexes within the population: with two thirds of the residents of male gender, the UAE is the country in the world with the largest number of men. The ethnic composition of the United Arab Emirates is made up of This massive presence regulated during the nineties of the twentieth century also by legislative measures aimed at containing the phenomenon of illegal immigration, is also the cause of the disproportion between the sexes within the population: with two thirds of the residents of male gender, the UAE is the country in the world with the largest number of men. The ethnic composition of the United Arab Emirates is made up of This massive presence regulated during the nineties of the twentieth century also by legislative measures aimed at containing the phenomenon of illegal immigration, is also the cause of the disproportion between the sexes within the population: with two thirds of the residents of male gender, the UAE is the country in the world with the largest number of men. The ethnic composition of the United Arab Emirates is made up of Arabs for 15% and Asians for 75%. If the former are concentrated above all in the oases and are dedicated to agricultural activities, the latter populate urban centers and deal with commercial activities. The population density of the country 111.5 residents / km² has also increased by almost one and a half times compared to the latest surveys; urbanization is quite widespread and two thirds of the population is concentrated in cities. The rest of the population lives along the coasts, dedicated to activities related to fishing, while about 10% of the residents are nomads. The largest and most populous of the Emirates is that of Abu Dhabi, which extends from the border with Qatar to Oman and Dubai; it includes some villages of the fertile and well-populated oasis of Buraimi, however, claimed by Oman and Saudi Arabia. The demographic size of Dubai is also relevant, extending between the Pirate Coast and the Gulf of Oman, whose center is one of the most lively and populous in the country. The residents of the other emirates, who are more scarce in resources, instead seek accommodation in the coastal centers economically enlivened by oil and related traffic.

United Arab Emirates Human Geography

Bosnia and Herzegovina Human Geography

Bosnia and Herzegovina Human Geography

In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the process of recomposing the ethnic-social identity of the state developed over the course of almost five years of war, which ended with the Dayton agreements (November 21, 1995). The new administrative aggregation has its basis in the ethnic cleansing operations implemented during the conflict, which have determined a clearer territorial division between those ethnic groups that previously lived integrated, even if, obviously, in some areas the presence of the ‘one or the other. The Muslim residents of Bosnia and Herzegovina were the majority to the South of Sarajevo, in the strip of territory between Mostar and the Lim river, and also in the area of ​​Tuzla and to the West of Banja Luka; to the W of Sarajevo they lived together with the Serbs, while they shared with the Croats the area that stretched to the East of this city, become a multi-religious island. In total, Muslims of the entire population were almost half. The Croats, on the other hand, were predominant among the residents of the western part of the country (Dinaric Alps), of the lower valley of the Neretva, as well as in the north in Posavina near the border with the Croatia.

According to iamhigher, Serbs predominated in the remaining parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, ie over half of the territory. On the occasion of the 1991 census, 5.5% of the residents not wanting to recognize himself in any of the three constitutive nations, he declared himself a Yugoslav; the remaining population was made up mostly of Roma, Jews (especially in Sarajevo), and then Hungarians and Romanians, concentrated in the border areas with Vojvodina and, finally, Ruthenians. The data relating to the population concerning the period after the war, the result of estimates only, since a general census has not been carried out since then, may be conditioned by the uncertainty on the number of refugee returns to their pre-war residences, but they are nevertheless useful for provide an overview. A 2000 estimate estimated the population to be approx. 3,972,000 residents and therefore considerably lower than that recorded by the 1991 census (4,377,033 residents). This decrease is attributable to the upheavals brought about by the civil war: it is estimated that, between 1992 and 1995, in addition to more or less 260,000 deaths from war causes, approx. 2,100,000 people were forced to leave their residences and take refuge in Croatia, Yugoslavia and many foreign countries. Since 1998, these refugees have begun to return home, although many have preferred to reside permanently abroad. In 1999, following the bombing of the NATO against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, there was a substantial influx of refugees (80,000 people): Albanians from Kosovo, Muslims towards the Federation, Serbs towards the Serbian Republic. The refugee problem represents one of the most serious social problems in Bosnia and Herzegovina, with very substantial economic and legal implications. The country is characterized by a low population density (75 residents km²), a fertility rate (1.2 in 2008) in line with the values ​​of economically advanced Europe, as well as by a strong housing dispersion, with an urban population of 48 % (2008), one of the lowest percentages in Europe.

In 1991 there were 38 cities with over 10,000 residents, while later the settlement structure changed radically. Many cities (including Sarajevo itself and Tuzla) that served as regional hubs have lost their hinterland traditional, assigned to the other constitutive entity of the state. In fact, after 1995 it was cut by internal borders on the basis of the military situation existing at the time of the signing of the agreements, and not on functional requirements. Capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as of the Federation, as well as of the Croatian-Muslim ethnic group, is the city of Sarajevo, whose population, at the 1991 census, amounted to over 400,000 residents, while subsequently it dropped to 304,065 (2007 estimate). The city, during the conflict of 1992-95, suffered very serious damage both at a structural level and due to the loss of fundamental evidence of its historical memory: an example is the destruction of the National Library. However after the war, benefiting from much more international assistance than other locations in the state, it has largely been rebuilt and renovated. Second city in the country is Banja Luka, capital of the Serbian Republic, followed by other urban centers, all smaller than 100,000 residents, among which the most important are Zenica, Tuzla and Mostar, also known for its ancient bridge bombed in the 1992-95 war and then rebuilt in 2004 thanks to international funding.

Bosnia and Herzegovina Country and People

Travel to Norway

Travel to Norway

Area: 385,207 sq km
Population: 5,328,212 (1 January 2019)
Population density: 14 E / km²
Government: hereditary monarchy
system of government: constitutional monarchy
Neighboring countries: Sweden, Finland, Russia
state capital: Oslo
Language: Norwegian
Regional official languages: Sami, Finnish
Religions:
82 % Lutheran State Church,
3.7% other Protestants,
1.6% Muslims,
1.1% Catholics,
0.2% Jehovah’s Witnesses,
0.2% Buddhists
Currency: Norwegian krone (NOK)
1 NOK = 100 Øre
Exchange rates:
1 EUR = 10.32 NOK
1 NOK = 0.097 EUR
1 CHF = 9.50 NOK
1 NOK = 0.105 CHF
(rate from 13.07.2021)
Telephone area code: +47
Time zone: UTC + 1 CET
UTC + 2 CEST (March to Oct)

In 2020, 923 Germans officially emigrated to Norway and 694 came back to their homeland. Within the 10 years from 2010 to 2019, 12,464 Germans officially emigrated to Norway and 8,383 moved back to Germany. This Scandinavian country landed on the 7th place on the satisfaction list of all emigration destinations.

Around 700,000 immigrants currently live in Norway and are very welcome here. Many of the 25,287 (in 2020) Germans live especially in the larger cities (Oslo, Bergen, Trondheim, Stavanger) and the metropolitan areas (in and around Fredrikstad and Sarpsborg as well as in and around Drammen and Øvre Eiker). The most densely populated (about 80 percent of the only 5.3 million residents) is the south of the country, as it offers more connections to other countries on the European continent and a milder climate than the rest of the country.

The Scandinavian Mountains, which run parallel to the Atlantic coast from southwest to northeast, divide Norway into two climate zones. The 2,650 km long coastal region has a maritime climate with a lot of precipitation and relatively mild temperatures. The sea is largely ice-free even in winter, as the passing North Atlantic current is quite warm. On the east side of the mountains, the continental climate results in less precipitation, colder winters and warmer summers.

The many narrow and deep bays (fjords) result in an approximately 25,000 km long coastline. In addition, around 150,000 islands surround the country. Large parts of the coast are rocky. There is only a little sandy beach in sheltered places. The landscape of Norway is characterized by the Scandinavian mountains with mountain ranges and barren plateaus. The highest point is Galdhøpiggen at 2,469 meters.

Over 40,000 lakes and far more moors and wetlands in extensive forest areas as well as a lot of untouched nature offer many animals and plants enough living space. Over 1,300 species of seed plants and ferns, 12,000 species of lichen, over 800 species of moss and around 10,000 species of mushrooms live here. Moose, musk ox, arctic fox, reindeer and wolverine are just as indigenous as many bird species.

What makes Norway so popular

According to allcitycodes, Norway is known as a rough country, but for many it is a natural paradise between the fjords, the Arctic Circle and the North Sea. It attracts with very well-paid jobs and a very high standard of living, where you can even put up with the higher prices. A first-class level of education, good social services and excellent medical care ensure stability with the good economy. And besides work, there is still enough serenity, being together with the family and free time in nature.

Family is very important in Norway. There are hardly any couples without children. Several children are also not uncommon. Family-friendly working hours and understanding employers make such a life possible. The school system is also very good, so that the little ones don’t lack anything.

School attendance is compulsory up to the age of 16. Many children then go on to school and attend the preparatory school branch, the upper level of the gymnasium. Alternatively, there is the preparatory school branch, comparable to an apprenticeship and vocational school. You learn in Norwegian. The country offers free language lessons for immigrant children. Each municipality must also provide enough places for foreign children. Most of the studies are in English. Norwegian students are entitled to a student loan for a living. There are also many options for adult education.

There are no big metropolises. Even the largest cities do not have many residents, but they spread a special charm with their branched alleys and small huts or stately wooden houses as well as with their tranquil shops and cafés. The residents spend a lot of time outdoors, hiking or on the terraces. Every sunlight is used. If you drive into the country, you can hike for hours in many places without seeing a person.

As a north Germanic people, the Norwegians are closely related to the Germans. 40% of the words in Norwegian, including many of the most common words, are of Low German origin. This makes it easy to learn Norwegian as a German speaker. German is also taught as a foreign language in schools in many places. Another important foreign language here is English.

Popular cities

You can feel the international flair most clearly in the Oslo conurbation (capital) with its almost 1 million residents. Around 30% of all residents are foreigners. There is the largest range of jobs and leisure opportunities here. Due to the largest university in Norway, many students and young people also live here.

Also Bergen has a university. Almost 300,000 people live in this second largest city in Norway. Bergen is particularly known for its port, from which many cruise ships leave for the Hurtigruten. The small, colorful houses with many shops and souvenir shops running along the quay are unmistakable. The houses have been a World Heritage Site since 1979.

Stavanger, with around 130,000 residents, is often the starting point for one of the many ski areas. Another attraction for tourists is the Pulpit Rock, a large overhanging rock from which you can dangle your legs hundreds of meters deep in the air. Stavanger is also known for its cathedral, the country’s longest sandy beach and the annual jazz festival. As the former European Capital of Culture, Stavanger has a lot to offer culturally.

Trondheim is a city with a good 190,000 residents on the Trondheimer Fjord in central Norway. Many of the approximately 30,000 students are enrolled at the NTNU Technical University. Trondheim is the center for retail in the northern region and an important transport hub where the Hurtigruten ships also dock. The rich cultural offer includes the symphony orchestra, theaters and museums as well as jazz.

General travel regulations (up to the corona pandemic)

EU residents do not need a residence permit or work permit for Norway. You can take up a job or study. For a longer stay, it is advisable to enter the country with a passport, as the identity card is not recognized by many Norwegian authorities.

Travel to Norway

Places to Visit in Riga

Places to Visit in Riga

Latvia – the country in the center of the Baltic States! Because the country is largely forested moraine hill country, it offers many opportunities for hikers. Latvia also has access to the Baltic Sea, where numerous bathing and health resorts await. Do not miss the old Hanseatic city of Riga. During a walk through the capital of Latvia you will discover the Petri Church, the House of the Blackheads, the Baroque Rundale Palace near Bauska and in the New Town you can admire the numerous Art Nouveau houses such as the TV tower, the Palace of Culture and Science or the Central Market. Do not forget the cities of Dünaburg, Libau or Mitau. You will be amazed by a tour of Latvia! Visit thedressexplorer for Top 10 Sights in Latvia.

Riga Cathedral

Cathedral Church of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Latvia

Riga Cathedral is a church in Latvia’s capital, Riga. As the cathedral of the Evangelical or Lutheran Church of Latvia, it is the largest church in the Baltic States. The Riga Cathedral was built on the orders of the first Riga Bishop Albert von Buxthoeven. In 1226 it was finished to the point that a synod with William of Modena as the Pope’s legacy could take place in it. For 300 years, the Riga Cathedral was the cathedral of the Riga diocese. The date of consecration of the church could not yet be determined because it has not been recorded.

History and Development

In 1563, with the collapse of Old Livonia in the Livonian War, Riga was also the first Catholic archbishopric to perish. From then on, the Riga Cathedral served the German-speaking, Evangelical-Lutheran population. From 1959 to 1962 the cathedral served as a concert hall. The church and monastery originally stood on a hill outside the city walls. Today it is below the level of the streets because they were piled up several times to reduce the risk of flooding by the river Daugava. The original structure of the cathedral is hardly recognizable today due to multiple, not to be underestimated conversions.

Style and design

The oldest components of the Riga Cathedral are the choir and transept. The nave impresses with its pointed arches, the pillars of which are adorned by pillars with capitals. The cloister in the southern part of the cathedral also dates from Bishop Albert’s time. The north portal, on the other hand, is of Gothic origin. The tower with its height of 90 meters impresses with its design in the baroque style. In 1524, the original design of the church fell victim to the Reformation attackers. In 1547 the fire in the cathedral did the rest. Today the interior of the Riga Cathedral is baroque to mannerist. The baroque carvings on the wooden pulpit, the memorial stone of the small guilds from the 19th century and the grave of Meinhard, the first Livonian bishop, are particularly worth seeing. Another special feature of the Riga Cathedral is its bell made of dawn,

Art Nouveau district in Riga

Art Nouveau architecture is omnipresent in the Latvian capital Riga. Some buildings are witnesses of this art-historical epoch, which was built around the turn of the century (19th to 20th century). The wonderfully decorated facades are magnificent and attract the eyes of the visitors. The historic center of Riga has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

Sights in Riga’s Art Nouveau district

Riga is one of the few cities in Europe in which numerous buildings, design objects and art nouveau art have been preserved. Around 800 buildings have been built here in Art Nouveau style. These are especially located in the center of the city, mostly on Albert Straße (Alberta iela). Other beautiful buildings in Art Nouveau style are, for example, on Elisabeth Strasse (Elizabetes iela).

There is also a museum on Albertstrasse that is entirely dedicated to Art Nouveau. The Art Nouveau Museum is in an apartment where Konstantīns Pēkšēns lived until 1907. The well-known architect designed some buildings in Riga – also in the Art Nouveau style. This also includes the building in which he himself lived. In the museum, visitors can see objects from that period. Here you will find, among other things, a fireplace room, a dining room and a bedroom. In addition, the guests of the museum have the opportunity to try on women’s and men’s hats from the Art Nouveau period and to take photos.

Travel to the Art Nouveau district in Riga

Study trips to Riga in Latvia are not only fascinating for those interested in art, but also for everyone who would like to get an impression of the splendid era of Art Nouveau and see the imposing capital of Latvia by the sea.

Places to Visit in Riga

Denmark History

Denmark History

Unification of the empire and the Kalmar Union

After bloody civil wars (from 1131) and turmoil of the throne (from 1146) Waldemar I restored peace and unity to the country in 1157. He and his sons Canute VI. as well as Waldemar II. subjugated the pagan turns of the Mecklenburg-Pomerania Baltic coast, in 1201 the German Holstein and in 1219 Estonia; the Wendish-German conquests were lost again by the defeat against the north German princes at Bornhöved (1227). After the death of Waldemar II (1241) there was again a period of civil wars up to the election of Waldemar IV. Atterdag (1340), who succeeded in regaining the lost territories. In 1346 he sold the Duchy of Estonia to the Teutonic Order, conquered Scania back from Sweden in 1360 and occupied Gotland in 1361 (taking Visby). There were repeated conflicts with the German Hanseatic League, which ended in the Peace of Stralsund in 1370 with the Danish recognition of the dominance of the Hanseatic League in the Baltic Sea. Visit weddinginfashion for Prehistory of Northern Europe.

His underage grandson and successor Olaf was under the tutelage of his mother Margarete, who became regent in Denmark and Norway in 1387. After they had also acquired Sweden in 1389, they brought about the Kalmar Union of the Three Kingdoms in 1397, which existed with interruptions until 1521/23. After the queen’s death (1412), her nephew, Erich VII of Pomerania, succeeded her rule in the three countries. He had to wage war against the Holstein counts, who were later supported by the Hanseatic cities. Between 1439 and 1442 King was Erich dropped in all three countries. Eric’s nephew and successor Christoph III. (from Bavaria) could still maintain the union, but after his death (1448) the Swedes elected Charles VIII Knutsson, the Danes Christian I as king.

World War II and post-war period

In 1939 Denmark signed a non-aggression pact with the German Reich; nevertheless it was occupied by German troops on April 9, 1940. The Stauning government protested, but remained in office. In 1941 Denmark joined the Anti-Comintern Pact under German pressure. The policy of negotiation and cooperation with the occupying power were increasingly rejected by the Danish population; In October 1943, in an unprecedented action, the Jews (around 7,000) who were threatened with deportation to extermination camps in their country helped them to flee to Sweden. The Danish Freedom Council, founded in 1943, increasingly coordinated the resistance. A state of emergency was declared on August 29, 1943. The government resigned, King Christian X. was imprisoned at Amalienborg Palace, the army disarmed. The Danish fleet sank itself. At the end of the war, Denmark was recognized as an ally of the victorious powers. In 1944 Iceland dissolved the union with Denmark.

In 1945, Vilhelm Buhl (* 1881, † 1954) formed a government from among the parties and the resistance, which annulled all laws passed under German pressure and took measures against collaborators. In 1945 Denmark was a co-founder of the UN and participated in the occupation of Germany. Under the government of the liberal Knud Kristensen (* 1895, † 1962; 1945-47) efforts to annex parts of Schleswig failed due to the resistance of the Folketing. In 1947 Friedrich IX ascended the throne.

Orientation towards the West and Euroscepticism

1947–50, 1953–55 was headed the government by the social democrat Hans Hedtoft (* 1903, † 1955), 1950–53 by the liberal Erik Eriksen (* 1902, † 1972). During this time the Faroe Islands received self-government (1948), Greenland became part of Denmark (1953) and received self-government in 1979. In 1953 a new constitution came into force (unicameral system, female succession). In 1955, Denmark and the Federal Republic of Germany signed the Bonn-Copenhagen Declaration on the national minorities of both sides. In 1949 Denmark joined the Council of Europe and joined the North Atlantic Pact. In 1960 it became a member of EFTA, but at the same time applied for admission to the European Economic Community.

From 1955–68 the Social Democrats H. C. Hansen (1955–60), Viggo Kampmann (* 1910, † 1976; 1960–62) and J. O. Krag (1962–68) led the government. Contrary to Denmark’s official position to be a nuclear weapon-free territory, the then Prime Minister Hansen had in 1957In a secret letter from the US (only made public in 1995), it allowed the storage of nuclear weapons at its Greenland military base in Thule and the flight over the area with nuclear-armed aircraft. When an American military aircraft of the type B-52 with four hydrogen bombs on board crashed near the base in 1968, the area around the accident site was severely radioactive and hundreds of workers involved in the rescue and clean-up operations were exposed to dangerous radiation (only 1995 decision, to pay severance payments to the 300–400 survivors).

1968–71 Hilmar Baunsgaard (* 1920, † 1989) was Prime Minister (Radical Venstre, Conservative; defense and administrative reform). 1971–72 again led Krag, 1972–73 his social democratic party friend A. Jørgensen, the government 1972 Margaret II ascended the throne. In 1973 Denmark joined the European Communities (at the same time membership of the EFTA expired). After the parliamentary elections of 1973, in which the traditional parties suffered heavy losses in favor of the Progress Party founded in protest against tax legislation, the liberal Poul Hartling (* 1914, † 2000) 1973-75 was Prime Minister of a minority government; he followed 1975-82 Jørgensen as head of government in minority cabinets. In September 1982 Poul Schlüter (* 1920; Conservative Party) replaced him as Prime Minister (resignation in January 1993). Contrary to the positive vote of the Folketing (13.5.1992) on the Maastricht Treaty, the population rejected these contracts by 50.7% in a referendum on June 2, 1992. Only after a summit conference of the EC member states had granted Denmark special conditions in December 1992 (e.g. on questions of the planned monetary union and defense cooperation) did the Danes agree to the Maastricht Treaty with 56.8% in a second referendum on May 18, 1993.

Denmark History

Equatorial Guinea Geography

Equatorial Guinea Geography

Equatorial Guinea, officially Spanish República de Guinea Ecuatorial [- gi ne ː a -], German Republic of Equatorial Guinea, the state in West Africa, the Gulf of Guinea (2019) 1.4 million residents; The capital is Malabo.

Equatorial Guinea comprises the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Póo) off the coast of Cameroon and Pagalu (Annobón) 400 km off the coast of Gabon as well as the mainland Mbini (Río Muni) between Cameroon and Gabon with the Elobey Islands and the island of Corisco.

Location

The mainland area Mbini rises from the mangrove coast to the highlands towered over by island mountains (up to 1,200 m above sea level) in the interior. The islands in the Gulf of Guinea belong to the volcanic chain of the Cameroon Line, which reaches 3,008 m above sea level in Pico Basile (highest point in the country) on the island of Bioko. The estuary Río Muni, formed by several rivers, is the south-western border of the country.

Climate

Equatorial Guinea has an equatorial climate with high relative humidity (95% in the morning) and high temperatures. Precipitation falls on the mainland (Bata: 2 210 mm annually) mainly in October and November and from March to May, on Bioko (1,890 mm) mainly from May to October.

Vegetation

Most of the country (mainland as well as islands) is covered with tropical rainforest, which has an enormous biodiversity. 10% of Equatorial Guinea are protected areas (e.g. the Monte Alen National Park).

Population

In Equatorial Guinea there are mainly population groups with Bantu languages, e. B. Catch on the mainland and Bubi on Bioko. Other languages ​​are Pidginenglisch in Bioko and in Pagalu a Creole Portuguese. According to threergroup, almost three quarters of the population live on the mainland, around 40% (2017) in the cities. Larger cities are in addition to the capital Malabo, Bata and Ebebiyin.

Social: The standard of living of the population is very low and the food supply is inadequate. The poor health system is reflected in the low life expectancy of 64.2 years (63.1 men; 65.4 women). About 5% of the population are infected with HIV (AIDS).

Religion

The constitution guarantees freedom of religion. According to the latest available estimates, around 93% of the population are Christians, the vast majority of them Catholics (around 88%). The proportion of Protestants is estimated at 5%. The largest Protestant church is the »Iglesia Evangélica en la Guinea Ecuatorial«, created as a union of Reformed and Methodists. The remaining part of the population is attributed to the Muslims (2%), traditional African religions and the Baha’i (together approx. 5%).

Under the dictator F. Macías Nguema, a baptized Catholic, there was severe persecution of Christians; In 1978 the practice of the Christian religion was banned and Equatorial Guinea was declared an “atheist state”. After the overthrow of the president (1979), the constitutional rights of the churches were restored, church life reorganized and in 1982 the Archdiocese of Malabo (suffragan dioceses: Bata, Ebebiyin) was created as a separate Catholic church province.

Education

There is general compulsory schooling from 6 to 14 years of age. The school system is divided into a six-year primary and a seven-year secondary level. About 60% of the school bodies are church missions. The school enrollment rate for the primary level is around 91% for boys and 86% for girls, and for the secondary level a total of around 45%. Equatorial Guinea has a national university in Malabo.

Media

The media in Equatorial Guinea are being bullied by the state. Fundamental criticism of the government, the president and the security forces is not permitted.

Press: The only daily newspaper is »El Ébano« (state). In addition, private weekly and monthly newspapers appear irregularly.

Radio: The state-run “Radio-TV de Guinea Ecuatorial” (RTVGE) broadcasts radio and television programs (“Radio Nacional de Guinea Ecuatorial”, “Televisión de Guinea Ecuatorial”) in Spanish, French and other national languages. The only private broadcasters, »Radio Asonga« (FM) and »Televisión Asonga«, are in the hands of the president’s son.

Equatorial Guinea Country and People

USA People, Language and Religion

USA People, Language and Religion

People

US society can be roughly divided into 6 social classes.

According to sociologists, in 1998 there were about 1 percent prominent, wealthy citizens (upper class), about 15 percent highly qualified professionals such as doctors, professors, lawyers (upper middle class), about 32 percent well-trained professionals such as school teachers and craftsmen (lower middle class), about 32 percent Industrial workers, wage workers and simple employees (working class) and about 20 percent part-time poor or non-working who are dependent on public welfare.

Around 82 percent of the people living in the USA are white, around 13 percent black and mulatto, around 4 percent Asians and around 1 percent Indians. Visit handbagpicks for United States Tour Plan.

The United States is a popular immigration country, as can be seen in the more than 50 million immigrants who have immigrated since the beginning of the 19th century. These include Europeans, Central Americans and Asians. This ethnic diversity is still reflected today in the specific traditions that have been preserved and cultivated.

The descendants of the indigenous people are one of the socially weakest groups. More than half of them live in one of the approx. 300 reserves. In Alaska, the Indians and Eskimos make up around 16% of the population, the rest are whites.

And whites make up a third of the population in Hawaii. Otherwise, Japanese, residents of Polynesian descent and groups of Chinese, Koreans, blacks and Filipinos live there together.

Language

The most widely spoken language is American English (it is slightly different from British English). There are many Spanish-speaking residents in the state of New Mexico who only speak their native language. That is why Spanish is the second official language there.

In addition to German, French, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese and Polish are also common in the USA. Many of the over one hundred Indian languages ​​are threatened with extinction.

English language courses

Among the multitude of language courses, I recommend multimedia language courses because you learn very quickly with this method. The link below provides you with a professional language course with which you can learn English quickly and easily:

  • American English language course

Religion

The government does not keep a register of the religious status of residents. Through the history of immigration, different religions are represented in a variety of ways.

A good half of the total population is committed to one of the more than 240 Protestant churches. The proportion of Catholics is tending to increase due to ongoing immigration.

Judaism and Islam are also major religions in the country. Buddhists, Hinduists, Mormons and others are represented on a relatively large scale.

Because of their tradition of non-interference (regulated by the constitution) in religious affairs, many smaller denominations have found refuge in the states, such as the Amish, who live mainly in Pennsylvania and the neighboring states. For generations they have been practicing the simple life without any modern technology.

Culture

Sport is very important in America. In addition to American football, the national sports include baseball, basketball, ice hockey and soccer.

The numerous immigrant groups have of course brought their cultures and traditions with them. That’s why American culture is quite diverse.

Media

The film is one of the most important entertainment media in the United States. And who doesn’t know Hollywood films?

A very popular pastime for many Americans is to go to the movies. Walt Disney cartoons were also produced in the USA and are known worldwide.

The music is very important here. The music channel MTV was born in the USA.

The press plays an important role as the guardian of democracy, backed up by the first amendment to the American Constitution, which came into force in 1789. This article states that Congress cannot pass laws restricting the freedom of the press.

Training

Education varies across states. There is general compulsory schooling from 6/7. Age up to the age of 16.

Under certain conditions one can also give one’s children home schooling (homeschooling). About 1-2 percent of parents choose this option for reasons such as religious views, special needs of the children or because of problems such as bullying or drugs.

Most parents send their children to state schools for which the parents do not have to pay school fees. Only about 10% of US students attend private schools. An annual fee must be paid for this.

Over 3,000 universities and colleges are available. The most famous private universities include Princeton, Harvard and Stanford. Half of them are in private hands.

Three percent of the population over the age of 15 cannot read or write.

The grades in the United States are not numbers, but letters from A – F. A is the top grade. F usually means ‘failed’. The grades can be further differentiated with a plus or a minus.

Schools

Elementary School from Kindergarten – Grades from Kindergarten to fourth, fifth or sixth grade (depending on the school district). The class size is around 18–24 children.

Junior High School and Middle School – include grades 5–8, but mostly only grades 6–8.

The high school is a kind of unified school with a course system. It covers grades 9 to 12 and is completed with the high school diploma.

USA People, Language and Religion

Irish Literature

Irish Literature

Irish literature, Irish literature refers to literature in the Irish language. (Irish literature written in English is to be seen as part of English literature.)

Archaic (400–600) and early (600–1200) epochs

From the archaic epoch there are only a few hundred inscriptions in Ogham script. In early Ireland, despite political particularism, there was already a literary language without dialect differences. The aes dána (class of artists and scholars) occupied a privileged position in hierarchical society. The Filid (learned poets, first “seers”, partly successors of the Druids, Fili) orally preserved the tradition (Senchas) of the families and the tribes and wrote songs of praise and lamentation for their patrons and vilings against their enemies. The oldest datable works in Irish literature are Dallán Forgaill’s (* about 540, † 596) “Amra Choluimb Chille” (lament for the dead of St. Columban) and Colmán Moccu Beognaes († 611) prose work »Apgitir crábaid« (Alphabet of Piety).

The main works of early Irish literature are the sagas. Although only survived in manuscripts from the 12th and 13th centuries, they retain a language form that is centuries older and represent a pagan world that has not yet been touched by Christianity. The oldest manuscripts are “Lebor na h-uidre” (Book of the Dark Cow, around 1100) and the Book of Leinster (around 1150). The form of the heroic saga is the prose epic with insertions in bound or metric form.

While the heroic sagas in old Irish literature were organized according to themes (e.g. adventure, sieges, looting, courtship, kidnappings, banquets), today they are classified according to cycles. 1) Ulster cycle: Its main characters are the youthful hero Cú Chulainn, King Conchobor of Ulster and his hereditary enemies. The central narrative is »The Cow Robbery of Cooley« (Taín Bó Cuailnge). This cycle also includes, inter alia, the story of the tragic lover Deirdre with the Tristan and Isolde motif. The Ulster cycle shows particularly archaic elements, e.g. B. the fight with chariots, the head of the enemy as a trophy and the supernatural work of taboos (Gessa). 2) Mythological cycle: It depicts the battle of a legendary race of supernatural beings, the Tuatha Dé Danann and their king Dagdá, with a race of demons, the Fomorians. These include the stories “Tochmarc Étaíne” (The courtship for Étaín) and “Cath Maige Tuired” (The battle of Mag Tuired). 3) Royal cycle (also historical cycle): In it legends and stories are grouped around a historical or prehistoric king, e.g. B. “Cath Almain” (The Battle of All), “Buile Suibhne” (Suibhne’s madness). 4) Finn cycle (Finn): In his written fixation he belongs to the middle epoch of Irish literature; numerous versions of these myths were passed down orally up to the 19th century and form the most comprehensive folklore collection in the world.

The poetry of the early epoch has only survived in fragments. Particularly noteworthy is the mostly anonymous, sensitive nature poetry. In addition to the poems of the Filid, there were religious poems, e.g. B. “Félire” (calendar of saints, around 800) by Oengus Céile Dé, “Saltair na rann” (stanza psaltery, 10th century) and historical poems, e. B. “Fianna bátar i nEmain” (The warriors who were in Emain) by Cináed Ua Artacáin († 975). The oldest poems are written in a kind of rhythmic alliterative prose. End rhymes and syllable-counting meters appeared in the 8th century, influencing hymns written in Latin.

Furthermore, religious (especially saints’ lives and visions) and scientific prose emerged: medical and legal treatises such as “Senchas már” (Great Old Code), grammatical treatises with well-developed grammatical terminology, “Sanas Cormaic” (Cormac’s glossary), the “Dindshenchas”, a kind of national topography in which the names of well-known places are separated by one History or legend are interpreted, the “Lebor gabála” (Book of Conquests), which contains a speculative description of pre-Christian history of Ireland, as well as various genealogies and annals. Aphoristic literature was also widespread. Another genre was the “Immrama”, fantastic travel descriptions in verse and prose from the 8th or 9th century, including especially “Immram Brain maic Febail” (Seafaring Brans, son of Febal).

Middle Era (1200–1650)

The Anglo-Norman invasion (1171/72) marked the beginning of the end of Ireland’s political and cultural independence. A number of small principalities took the place of kingship.

With the kingship, the office of the filid died out. The poetry was now the responsibility of the bards originally subordinate to the filid. These were in the service of princes, on whose behalf they wrote songs of praise and songs of mockery (directed against their enemies). A special feature of Irish bard poetry is the extraordinarily complicated metric technique (Dán direach). Outstanding bards were Tadhg Dall Ó hUiginn (* 1550, † 1591) and several members of the Ó Dálaigh family, especially Muireadhach Albanach Ó Dálaigh (1st half of the 13th century). The Norman influence was immediately noticeable in the “Dánta grádha”, elegant love poems in the succession of the Provencal “amour courtois”.

Most of the prose literature of this period belongs to the Finn cycle, the fourth great Irish saga cycle. His fairytale-like fabrics interspersed with folkloric elements were passed down orally for centuries before they were written down. In addition to prose, the form of the ballad soon appeared, with verse forms that were considerably simplified compared to the bardic poetry. These ballads are seen as the beginning of popular Irish literature. The main work of the Finn cycle is the story “Acallam na senórach” (The conversation of the ancients; end of the 12th century). This cycle also includes the stories about Diarmaid and Gráinne.

Late era (1650-1850)

This section of Irish literature is marked by the suppression of the Irish language by the English. Expropriation and expulsion of the local nobility led to the extinction of the bard class. The previously standardized literary language was broken down into dialects. The English banned the printing of Irish-language books, and Irish literature only circulated in manuscripts, which prevented it from being widely circulated.

The most important lyric poet of this era was Dáibhidh Ó Bruadair (* around 1625, † 1698), who was partly still in the tradition of bard poetry. Instead of professional bard poetry, in the 17th and 18th centuries, Century, especially in the province of Munster (southern Ireland), one of farmers, artisans, teachers and others. worn folk poetry. Popular ballad verses (Amhráin) replaced the strict meters of bard poetry. The most important works of Munster poetry are the verses Aodhagán Ó Rathailles (* around 1670, † 1729), the aisling (vision poem) “Cúirt an mhéan-oíche” (Midnight Court) by Brian Merriman (* around 1749, † 1805) and “Caoineadh Airt Uí «(mortuary lament for Art O’Leary), mostly his widow Attributed to Eibhlín Dubh Ní Chonaill (* around 1743, † around 1800).

The prose works of the 17th century include historical and archeological collections of high historical value: “Annála rioghachta Éireann” (Annals of the Four Masters) by Mícheál Ó Cléirigh (* around 1575, † around 1643) and “Foras feasa ar Éirinn” (History Ireland) by Seathrún Céitinn (G. Keating).

Under pressure from the English (continued printing ban for Irish books) and the effects of the “Great Famine” (1845–49), all literary activity ceased in the course of the 19th century. On the other hand, the macaronic folk ballads, in which Irish and English were mixed up, were a makeshift and at the same time an expression of the increasing contact between the languages.

Modern era

With the establishment of the Gaelic League by D.  Hyde in 1893, a renewal of the Irish language and culture began. See politicsezine for Dublin of Ireland.

The Gaeltacht (area with Irish as a mother tongue) offered rich narrative material, but no literature in the narrower sense. Only Peter O’Leary (* 1839, † 1920; Cork-Irish), P. Pearse and Pádraic Ó Conaire (* 1882, † 1928; Connemara-Irish) combined the Gaeltacht heritage with a certain literary education.

The Irish Literary Theater, founded in 1899 by W. B. Yeats and Lady Gregory, performed the first Irish drama, Casadh an t-súgáin by Hyde, in 1901, which Lady Gregory translated into English as “The twisting of the rope”.

Although the Irish theater (with centers in Dublin and Galway as well as in the Gaeltacht of Donegal and Connemara) has produced a considerable number of authors and dramas since then, prose stands in the foreground with the short story as the dominant manifestation. Tomás Ó Criomhthain (* 1856, † 1937), Peig Sayers and Muiris O’Súileabháin (* 1904, † 1950) appeared with autobiographies, the brothers Séamus Ó Grianna (* 1889, † 1969) and Seosamh Mac Grianna (* 1901) with novels , † 1990).

A new phase began after 1939 with the work of the poet Máirtín Ó Direáin (* 1910, † 1988), who described the beauty and integrity of the native Aran Islands and at the same time criticized contemporary Irish society. and with M. Ó Cadhain, who became known through short stories and the satirical novel »Cré na cille« (1949; »Friedhofserde«). Among the poets of this time are Seán Ó Ríordáin (* 1917, † 1977), who v. a. turned to moral problems, and the poet Máire Mhac to tSaoí (* 1922)emerged, whose style denotes epigrammatic brevity and solidarity with tradition. Dónall Mac Amhlaigh (* 1926, † 1989) and Breandán Ó hEithir (* 1930, † 1990) became known as authors of satirical prose. A number of writers created works in Irish and English, including L. O’Flaherty, M. MacLiammóir, F. O’Brien, and B. Behan.

The latest poetry is characterized in form and subject by a strong opening to the outside world. Especially the group around the magazine “Innti” – including Gabriel Rosenstock (* 1949) and Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill (* 1952)  - but also Cathal Ó Searcaigh (* 1956) and the Belfast performance poet Gearóid Mac Lochlainn each deal with Asian spirituality, Feminism and folklore motifs, homosexuality or the experience of political conflicts. The newer prose authors include Alan Titley (* 1947), Liam Mac Coil (* 1948) and Micheál Ó Congghaile (* 1962).

Irish Literature

Georgia History

Georgia History

Independence proclaimed on April 9, 1991, Georgia effectively became autonomous with the definitive dissolution of the USSR (December 1991). The new state was, however, soon hit by a bloody civil war between the opposition and the supporters of President Zviad Gamsakurdia forced to flee (January 1992), while the South Ossetians proclaimed the secession to join the Russian Federation. Apparently resolved the internal crisis with the appointment of EA Ševardnadze, former foreign minister of MS Gorbačëv, as president of the State Council, Georgia obtained its first international recognition and was admitted to the CSCE. An agreement between Ševardnadze and BN Elcin (June 1992) favored a truce in South Ossetia, but the following month a new secessionist front was opened by the Abkhazians. In this way a new phase of instability was inaugurated, also characterized by the resumption of activity of the partisans of Gamsakurdia. In the impossibility of resolving the intricate situation and despite Russia having played a precise role in the secessionist events that had upset the life of Georgia, Ševardnadze, in the meantime elected president of the Parliament (October 1992), was forced to come to terms with Elcin and to sign Georgia’s membership of the CIS (October 1993). A new agreement in early 1994 sealed a sort of Russian protectorate over Georgia with the granting of military bases and border control without, however, the situation could really return to normal. In addition, a peace treaty was signed with the Abkhaz rebels. At the end of 1993 mriva Gamsakurdia and in October 1995 a new constitution came into force (approved by a large majority by the Parliament) which made Georgia a presidential republic by recognizing the head of state, elected by universal suffrage, broad powers, including the to appoint the head of government. The presidential elections of November 1995 were won by Ševardnadze, supported by the Union of Citizens party, which established himself as the first political force in the contemporary elections of the Legislative assembly.

According  to globalsciencellc, the Abkhazians, however, did not recognize the legitimacy of the consultations, like the South Ossetians, who on November 10, 1996 elected Ljudvig Chibirovcon as their president. The stipulation of a military cooperation agreement between Georgia and Russia was worth nothing to resolve the issue of secessionisms, stemming mainly from the latter’s intention to restore its authority in the region. Likewise, the negotiations started in 1997 with the South Ossetians and the Abkhazians were resolved in a failure. Adžaristan and the Samtskhe-Djavakhei, located along the delicate Turkish and Armenian border marks. Moreover, the undeniable economic progress of the country did not contribute to solving its structural problems, linked to the shortage of electricity and massive unemployment, nor to undermining its endemic mafia corruption. Ševardnadze had to foil in 1998 an uprising of troops loyal to the late president Gamsakurdia, suffer the downsizing of his party in local elections and escape, after the one in 1995, a second attack behind which the Moscow director was suspected, interested in maintaining control of the very rich energy reserves (gas and oil) of the Caucasian region, while Georgia, supported by the United States and Europe, Caspian to the West. The serious tensions with the Kremlin worsened between the end of 1999 and 2001, on the occasion of the Russian offensive against the rebels of neighboring Chechnya, which the Moscow government believed protected by the Georgians.

To this was added the setback suffered by Western investment projects for the exploitation of Caspian energy resources, due to the high costs necessary to carry them out. This penalized Ševardnadze’s pro-Western foreign policy, which nevertheless obtained Georgia’s entry into the Council of Europe (1999) and the World Trade Organization (2000), negotiating with good prospects that of NATO.. Between 1999 and 2000, Ševardnadze saw a decline in popularity but managed to win the elections again by defeating former Communist Dzhumber Patiashvili. In 2003 there was a violent protest against the government and the president resigned in order not to drag the country into a civil war (Revolution of the Roses); in his place was designated Nino Burdzhanadze with the task of calling new elections (2004); they saw a landslide victory by Mikheil Saakašvili, leader of the opposition in Ševardnadze. In the same year, elections were held in South Ossetia not recognized by the government and followed by several armed clashes. In early 2005, Prime Minister Zurab Jvania died under unclear circumstances. In November 2007, a popular protest against the president erupted, declaring a state of emergency and resigning. Parliament spokesman Nino Burdzhanadze was recalled to take over the country until January 2008, the year in which Saakašvili was reconfirmed as president. In the next elections, in May 2008, the president’s party the United National Movement (UNM) won with over 50% of the votes. In August 2008, riots in South Ossetia provoked the advance of Georgian military forces into the region. The Russian army reacted by causing the conflict to widen, siding with the secessionists in Ossetia and in August 2008 Riots in South Ossetia provoked the advance of Georgian military forces in the region. The Russian army reacted by causing the conflict to widen, siding with the secessionists in Ossetia and in August 2008 Riots in South Ossetia provoked the advance of Georgian military forces in the region. The Russian army reacted by causing the conflict to widen, siding with the secessionists in Ossetia and in Abkhazia, formally recognized by the Moscow government. In October 2012 the political elections took place which saw the victory of the political group Sogno Georgiano, led by the magnate Bidzina Ivanishvili and the defeat of the UNM, linked to President Saakašvili; in the following days, Parliament approved the birth of a new government headed by Ivanishvili himself. Presidential elections were held in October 2013, won by Giorgi Margvelashvili.

Georgia History

Germany History: from Ludovico IL Germanico to Federico II

Germany History: from Ludovico IL Germanico to Federico II

It was during the wars fought between Charlemagne’s successors that a German state emerged for the first time, autonomous and comprising in a unitary political organism all the Germanic populations east of the Rhine: the kingdom known as the Eastern Franks (later also regnum Theutonicum, or Saxonorum), recognized by the Treaty of Verdun (843) to Louis the German, grandson of Charlemagne, the year following that Strasbourg oath which, due to its bilingual redaction (Old French and Old High German), is proof of the existence of an autonomous and distinct German nationality within the Frankish world, albeit through the internal differences of customs, habits and in part also of language that were still found among the ancient populations. The German nation confirmed and consolidated in the following centuries its achieved unity with its own civilization which made its influence felt throughout Europe; the construction of a national state proved to be much more difficult. Under the reign of the last Carolingians the compactness of the political formation that had been created was severely tested both by the contrasts (and by the subdivisions) between Ludovico’s successors, and by the recurring aspirations for a reunification of Charlemagne’s Empire. Between the end of the century. Furthermore, during the reigns of Arnolfo of Carinthia and Ludovico il Fanciullo, continuous invasions by Hungarians, Slavs and Danes followed one another.

This situation of serious weakness of central power resulted in the strengthening of those ethnic-based particularisms that were linked to the traditions of the ancient peoples subdued by the Franks and determined the formation of political units governed by leaders who took the name of dukes, the national duchies. of Saxony, Franconia, Swabia and Bavaria, which was later joined by that of Lorraine, not corresponding to an ethnic group, but to the constituent territories of ancient Lotharingia, definitively incorporated into the German kingdom starting from 925. The extinction of the Carolingians of Germany (911) made the dukes – who had previously recognized at least nominally the authority of the sovereigns and their hereditary monarchy – arbitrators of the situation: they gave life to a national monarchy, in which the elective principle was tempered by the tendency to choose the sovereign at the interior of a single lineage (dynasties of Saxony, from 919 to 1024; of Franconia, from 1024 to 1125; of the Hohenstaufen, from 1138 to 1250). With Henry the Bird, first of the house of Saxony, and above all with his son, Otto I, the German state was strengthened thanks to the creation of a rudimentary administrative structure (palatine and ministerial counts), to the support of the bishops, appointed by the king and in charge of important political functions, and to that of the minor nobility, which was favored over the great feudal lords. A policy of founding frontier marches along the Elbe (of the Billunghi, from the North, from Lusatia, from Merseburg, from Meissen; and, further south, Orientale, of Carinthia, of Carniola) which not only ensured the defense of the German territory against the invaders (the Hungarians had been beaten at Riade in 933 and on the Lech in 955; the Slavs stopped near the Recknitz in 955), but also laid the foundations for expansion towards the East (Drang nach Osten) of the German settlement and for the Christianization of the Slavs, through the creation of a new series of bishoprics: Schleswig, Oldenburg, Brandenburg, Meissen, Prague, Olmütz, etc., subjected to the metropolitan see of Magdeburg and Mainz. However, even with Otto I emerged (or re-emerged, if we think of the Carolingian matrix of the German state) those imperial and universalist aspirations which then conditioned the action of the German sovereigns for centuries.

In 962, according to globalsciencellc, Ottone encircled the imperial crown in Rome and inaugurated a policy of constant intervention in the political events of the Italian peninsula, which would have required ever new commitment and energy from his successors. The Italian policy of Otto I was made with Otto II and with Otto III also Mediterranean and Eastern, even arousing the utopian program of a renovatio imperii; the ever closer relations with the Church and with the papacy involved the Empire in the exhausting struggle of investitures, from the middle of the century. XI to 1122 (Concordat of Worms); the same political program of Frederick I, centered on the restoration of state power, was conceived within the framework of a universal empire, with Rome as its capital and Italy as its center, and forced the Hohenstaufen to clash with the Italian communes and the papacy; and when in 1194 Henry VI inherited the crown of the Kingdom of Sicily, the ancient mirage of a dominium mundi flashed once again, extended to Byzantium and the Levant. This policy required enormous financial commitments for the recruitment of armies, forced the sovereigns to continually descend into Italy, to long and frequent absences from Germany; above all it prevented them from creating strong structures of government and from opposing the development of particularistic forces: the urban centers, which always claimed new autonomy, the nobility, which by now began to found its power, feudality, on territorial bases, which, far from constituting that hierarchical system of links between the emperor and the potentos hoped for by Barbarossa, it turned out to be the most serious element of disintegration. Thus, while in the West, and above all in France and England, the national monarchies – albeit through a bitter and long struggle – promoted the construction of an increasingly centralized and unitary state organism, ordering and regulating cities and local lordships, large principalities and autonomous provinces, in that slow process that leads to the formation of the modern state, the German monarchy wore out its energies and its authority in pursuit of the dream of a universal empire.

Germany History - from Ludovico IL Germanico to Federico II

Taiwan (Republic of China)

Taiwan (Republic of China)

Created in 1949, the State of Taiwan (or the National Republic of China) is a presidential republic, as established by the Chinese Constitution of 1947, still in force and last amended in 2005. The President of the Republic, elected by direct suffrage with a four-year mandate, appoints the head of government. The power to legislate is entrusted to a Legislative Assembly, made up of 225 members elected by universal suffrage and in office for 3 years. The dissolution of the National Assembly, active until 2005 with constitutional tasks, has in fact assigned to the instrument of the popular referendum any possible modification to the Fundamental Charter. Martial law was abolished in the country in 1987; at the same time, the parliamentary opposition was legalized. On a legal level, the enactments of the International Court of Justice are accepted with reservation and the death penalty is still in force. Justice is administered through a collegial body, the Judicial yuan, whose members are appointed by the president with the consent of the Legislative Assembly. The defense system of the state is organized according to the classic tripartition: army, navy and air force, to which are added paramilitary corps.

The military service is compulsory and lasts 16 months; a reduction of the detention period is foreseen to 12 months by 2008. The system contemplates the participation of women in the aviation corps in roles that do not involve combat. Primary education is compulsory and free from 6 to 15 years. The secondary school is divided into middle school, normal school and technical institutes. According to educationvv, middle schools in turn are divided into two cycles. Primary teacher training for rural areas is equated with the first cycle of middle school, while the training of other elementary teachers is equivalent to the second cycle of middle school. The specialized technical institutes have 2 cycles, one lower and one higher. In the country there are numerous universities and several independent colleges. The percentage of illiterate people is particularly low: in 2005 it stood at 2.8%, almost halved compared to the estimate recorded ten years earlier.

ENVIRONMENT

The spontaneous vegetation has been partially destroyed, above all due to the recent thickening of the population, but it is still present in its original luxuriant form, especially on the eastern mountainous slopes; the most typical and widespread species are the lauraceae, the bamboos and the camphor tree. Over 2000 m there are conifer woods and, near the peaks, pastures and shrubs. The different types of forest, especially the less inhabited mountainous areas, are home to a great variety of fauna: mammals (Formosan brown bear, macaque, wild boar, sika, pangolin, sambar), birds (pheasant, sparrow), reptiles, amphibians (Formosa salamander, various species of frog), insects; territorial waters are rich in fish. Some protected species are subject to illegal trade. The frenetic growth of industry, starting from the 1950s, initially accompanied by a lack of ecological sensitivity, has caused extensive damage to the environment: air and water pollution and groundwater contamination due to illicit disposal. of radioactive waste, although since the 1990s the authorities have passed laws aimed at safeguarding the natural heritage and established sustainable development policies. 18.8% of the country is considered a protected area; in particular, 6 national parks have been created, several nature reserves, naturalistic shelters,

ECONOMY

The tertiary sector is the largest voice of GDP and employs more than half of the workforce. Banking, financial and insurance services are highly developed and Taiwan is one of the largest business centers in Asia. Due to the now high standard of living achieved by the country, internal trade is quite lively. Foreign trade is essential for the Taiwanese economy; the country mainly exports electrical and electronic equipment, machinery, optical and precision instruments, mining products (iron, steel, copper), plastic objects, dolls and toys, sports equipment, clothing, while it mainly imports oil, machinery and means of transport, minerals, agricultural products. The trade balance is constantly in surplus; the exchange takes place eminently with the United States, China, Japan and South Korea, followed by Saudi Arabia (for oil imports); exports are also directed towards Hong Kong, which has long been the leading market also because it acted as an intermediary in relations with China, and some countries of the European Union. The morphology of the island hinders communications, which are lacking, especially between the coasts and inland areas. The railways follow the coastal contour and cover a total of 4,600 km (of which, however, only a little more than a thousand are national railways); the most important section is the one that runs along the island on the western side, from Keelung to N to Kaohsiung to S. The situation is better with regard to the road network (approx. 37,000 km, mostly asphalted, in 2002). Maritime transport has been developed, which mainly refer to the four international ports of Kaohsiung, Chilung, Taichung and Hualien. Taiwan also strengthened its airport structure; the international airport of Taoyuan, near T’aipei, joins the international ones of Kaohsiung and Hualien as well as various national airports. Tourism is developing strongly: the island has been visited every year for approx. 2.8 million foreigners (2005). The government has launched programs to promote the country’s natural and historical wealth; the 2008 Beijing Olympics are an important step in this program. Kaohsiung and Hualien as well as various domestic airports. Tourism is developing strongly: the island has been visited every year for approx. 2.8 million foreigners (2005). The government has launched programs to promote the country’s natural and historical wealth; the 2008 Beijing Olympics are an important step in this program. Kaohsiung and Hualien as well as various domestic airports. Tourism is developing strongly: the island has been visited every year for approx. 2.8 million foreigners (2005). The government has launched programs to promote the country’s natural and historical wealth; the 2008 Beijing Olympics are an important step in this program.

Taiwan (Republic of China)

Niger History

Niger History

Thus redesigned the map of power, among the most urgent issues that presented themselves to the new institutions was that of the Tuaregh rebellionagainst which the head of the executive alternated appeals for pacification and rapid military offensives, without however reaching a real solution to the problem. On the other hand, the process of political democratization seemed to be less insecure, with the approval by referendum of a Constitution (December 1992) which allowed the first free presidential and legislative elections. The consultation for the formation of the Parliament (February 1993) was the prerogative of the opposition parties which, grouped in the Alliance of the Forces of Change (AFC), managed to win 50 of the 83 seats available, relegating the old single party to the opposition.

The result of the presidential elections held the following month was similar with Mahamane Ousmane’s victory over the MNSD candidate. The concretization of the democratic process also seemed to favor an easing of the pressure of the Tuaregh with whom a new agreement was established (March 1993). But, retracing the stages of a history unfortunately common to many countries set out on the path of democracy after years of authoritarianism, Niger was also a victim of the inability of the new ruling class to consolidate the representative institutions that were exchanged as an instrument of power and personal affirmation.. After the electoral phase, in fact, the various forces that had composed the alliance resumed their freedom of maneuver, causing an incurable disagreement between Prime Minister Mahamadou Issoufou, leader of the Nigerian Party for Democracy and Socialism (PNDS) and President Ousmane, head of the Democratic and Social Convention (CDS). When the former resigned in September 1994, the president appointed Souley Abdoulaye of the CDS in his place and, faced with the mistrust of Parliament, dissolved him by calling new elections. The result of the poll (January 1995), in which all forces coalesced against President Ousmane’s party, saw him defeated and he was forced to appoint MNSD leader Hama Amadou as prime minister. Amadou initially seemed to be able to reach a definitive agreement with the Tuaregh rebels (1995), but after a few months the guerrillas resumed with greater force as the disagreements between the president and the prime minister intensified. The instability of the political framework in a situation of generalized resumption of the Northern rebellion led sectors of the army to a bloody coup that ended with the establishment of a national salvation committee (January 1996) headed by Colonel Ibrahim Barré Mainassara. Having cleared the previous institutions, the committee drafted a new presidential constitution which was approved in a referendum (May 1996).

According to remzfamily, the direct elections of the president, which took place shortly after (August), were won by the coup colonel, as well as the legislative ones, celebrated with various postponements in November of the same year, ensured his party, the Union of Independents for Democratic Renewal, a overwhelming majority. On both consultations, however, in confirmation of the involutionary picture imprinted by the military on the political life of Niger, there were suspicions of heavy manipulation. In April 1999, a few months after the outbreak of the protests of the opposition to the decision of the Supreme Court to cancel the results of the administrative elections, Mainassara was assassinated by his escort and the military carried out a coup: France and the United States suspended aid to the country, tying them to the restoration of democratic elections. These took place in November 1999 and led to the presidency M. Tandja of the MNSD. In August 2002, an attempted coup d’état carried out by some military units in the Diffa region was thwarted. In March 2004 the army had to intervene in the northern regions, where the guerrilla of the Tuaregh continues. In the presidential elections of December 2004, Tandja was reconfirmed as president. In March 2007, after the Parliament declared the executive no confidence, President Tandja, instead of calling early elections, appointed new prime minister Seyni Oumarou. In June 2009 the president dissolved the parliament and the constitutional court; the two institutions had opposed the modification of the constitution wanted by Tandja himself to obtain a third term. The new constitution that extends the presidential term by three years and strengthens the powers of Tandja himself was enacted two months later. In October, legislative elections were held in which only the pro-government parties linked to President Tandja participated. In February 2010, a coup d’etat put an end to the Tandja regime: the president was dismissed and arrested by a military junta led by Salou Djibo, who became president ad interim, it promised a return to democracy and new political elections. In the same year, Niger, Mauritania, Mali and Algeria set up a coordination structure to combat organized crime and terrorism. In March 2011 Mahamadou Issoufou won the presidential elections, defeating former premier Seyni Oumarou, close to former president Tandja.

Niger History

Manhattan Overview

Manhattan Overview

Manhattan. Name of an island belonging to the United States located at the mouth of the Hudson River in the north of New York Harbor. It is one of the five metropolitan districts (boroughs) that make up New York City. The metropolitan district has the same boundaries as New York County and includes the island of Manhattan as well as several smaller islands (Roosevelt, Randall, among others), as well as a small portion of mainland land (Marble Hill, which is geographically in the Bronx, but politically belongs to the county of New York).

History

The name Manhattan comes from the languages ​​of the primitive residents of the area. The story presents a popular interpretation that emphasizes how this island was bought by Dutch settlers from the natives for $ 24 on May 24, 1626 and the establishment of some 30 Dutch families two years later, when they founded the city of Niew Amsterdam where now downtown is. This city became the capital of the territory of New Holland, a short-lived Dutch colony. In 1664 it happened to the English administration after a relatively weak resistance of the Dutch, partly due to the discontent of the population with the governor Peter Stuyvesant.

The English changed the name of the city to New York, named in honor of the Duke of York, who would later become the Catholic King James II of England. New York County is one of the original twelve counties of the State of New York, created in 1683. At the time of its creation, it was the same size as New York City and occupied the entire island of Manhattan, the same area that occupies today. In 1873, the western part of present-day Bronx County was transferred to New York County from Westchester County and in 1895, the remaining part of the Bronx was also transferred to the county. In 1914, those parts constituted the new county of the Bronx. See topschoolsintheusa for LSAT test centers in New York.

In 1898, Manhattan was united with the four remaining districts forming the second largest city in the world, and from there it became the Mecca of culture, entertainment and finance for all of North America. The city benefited from the arrival of thousands of immigrants who were looking for improvements in their living conditions. This caused a cultural miscegenation that has enriched the city, transforming it into an incomparable point for the visitor. Currently 80 different languages ​​are spoken.

New York City now encompasses four separate, though not from a distinct geological view, areas, namely the City of Manhattan (Manhattan), the Borough of the Bronx, the City of Richmond (Staten Island), and the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens (Brooklyn, Jamaica, Flat Bush-and Long Island City). Of these, the District of Manhattan and the Borough of the Bronx have a common geological expression, the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens are identical in geological character, and carry their most typical boundary to the drift zone so greatly reduced in the island of Manhattan by municipal changes, while the Richmond district has an individual geological structure imply peculiar characteristics not observed in the others.

In geological affinities, if the term can be used, Manhattan and the Bronx have allied themselves in the north or primordial, even arching structures; Richmond, kings and queens of the south and the last, however, in fact, in Richmond there is a problematic core similar to those on the island of Manhattan. In view of this diversity of features, the discussion of the topographical conditions and geological nature of New York City naturally fall into three sections: first, that of Manhattan Island, with an appendix briefly covering similar construction of the borough of the Bronx, in second place, that of Brooklyn and Queens, and in third place, that of Richmond.

Geography

The borough of Manhattan and New York County have the same boundaries (they are coextensive). As part of New York City, the county has no other political subdivisions. It occupies the entire island of Manhattan, surrounded by the East River, the Harlem River, and the Hudson River. It also includes some smaller islands such as Roosevelt Island(formerly Welfare Island, and previously still “Blackwell Island”), U Thant Island (officially known as Belmont Island), and a small portion of the North American mainland (Marble Hill ) adjoining the Bronx. Marble Hill was originally part of Manhattan Island; but the Harlem River canal, excavated in the 19th century To improve navigation on the Harlem River, he separated it from Manhattan.

Manhattan Island is approximately 22 km long and 3.6 km wide at its widest point and less than 1.6 km at its narrowest point. With the exception of the large green rectangle that is Central Park, it is almost entirely covered by buildings and streets.

Manhattan is connected by bridges and tunnels to New Jersey in the west and to three New York boroughs: The Bronx in the northeast and Queens and Brooklyn on Long Island to the east and south. Its only direct connection to the city’s fifth district is the “Staten Island Ferry,” whose terminal is in Battery Park at its southern end.

Every May 28 and July 12, both at sunrise and sunset, the sun is visible on the horizon from street level as it is aligned with its path.

Demography

The most densely populated county in the United States is New York, with a total of 1,537,195 people, 738,644 heads of household, and 302,105 families residing in 2000. The population density is 25,835.21 residents / km². With a figure of 798,144 houses with a density of 13,414.18 dwellings / km². The county’s ethnic makeup is 54.36% White, 17.39% Black, 9.40% Asian, 0.07% Oceanic, 0.50% Native American, 14.14% other ethnicities, and 4.14 % mestizos. 27.18% of the total population are Hispanics, who can be of any ethnicity.

There are 738,644 heads of households, of which 17.1% have minors in their care, 25.2% are married couples who live together, 12.6% are single women, and 59.1% are not families In the county, 16.8% of the population is under 18, 10.2% is between 18 and 24, 38.3% is between 25 and 44, 22.6% is between 45 and 64, and 12.2% are over 65 years old. The average age is 36 years. For every 100 women there are 90.3 men and for every 100 underage women, there are 87.9 men.

The average annual income of a head of household is $ 47,030, and the average income per family is $ 50,229. Men have an income of around $ 51,856 compared to $ 45,712 for women. The median per capita income for the county is 42,922. 20.0% of the population and 17.6% of families are below the poverty line. Of the total number of people living in this situation, 31.8% are minors and 18.9% are over 65 years of age.

Spoken languages

In Manhattan there are registered speakers of dissimilar origin, being an approximate of 96 different languages. The majority of the population is English-speaking, this being the predominant spoken language with 59.1% of the speakers; while Spanish is the second language, with 24.9% of speakers. Chinese has 5% and the rest of the languages ​​do not reach 1% of speakers.

Government and legislation

As in other counties in New York City, there is no county government, but there are county courts and other authorities, such as the county attorney. Each metropolitan district in New York elects a President but this office does not have much power, de facto. The office of the District President (Borough President) was created with the consolidation of the five counties, to balance the balance of these, with respect to the central municipal government. Each district president had an important role, having a vote in the New York City Board of Estimate, presenting and approving municipal budgets and making proposals for spatial planning. In 1989, the United States Supreme Court declared this Board unconstitutional, because Brooklyn, the most populous county in the borough, it had no more votes than Staten Island, the county with the smallest population. This constituted a violation of the Equality Protection Clause, according to the Fourteenth Amendment (or addition) to the United States Constitution, passed in 1964 according to the rule that each person has the right to one vote.

The powers of the Board of Estimate were transferred to the Board of Councilors (City Council, with 51 members, in charge of the legislative power in the city), thus increasing the centralized power in the New York municipality. Manhattan has ten councilors on the New York City Council. Since 1990, the District President has served as an advocate for the county’s interests with the mayoral agencies, city councils, New York state government, and corporations. The President of the District of Manhattan is Scott M. Stringer. The District Attorney for the New York District (known as District Attorney or simply DA, in the original English) is Robert M. Morgenthau. It also has 12 administrative districts, each served by a local Community Board. These Boards are the representative bodies that collect citizen complaints and serve as defenders of the residents of their area, before the City Council. New York is officially designated as the county seat of New York, which is totally irrelevant for all practical purposes since there are no other cities or towns in the county.

Manhattan Overview

American History: from Jackson to Lincoln

American History: from Jackson to Lincoln

HISTORY: FROM “JACKSON’S REIGN” TO LINCOLN

The “era of good feelings” ended in 1829, when it was replaced by the “reign of Jackson”, so called by the name of A. Jackson, president from 1829 to 1837. Western man, the first typical representative of the ” American America ”to take office in the White House, Jackson definitively democratized the United States, placing the “common man” at the forefront, but under his own strong personal leadership. He had been elected as the representative of the Democrats-Republicans (or more simply Democrats, as they are still called), supporters of a liberal-progressive orientation, as opposed to the conservative address of the Republicans-nationals: an opposition that was concretely articulated around some big problems posed by the development of the United States itself. Thus for the communication routes, roads and even more channels, it was debated whether it was up to the Union or the states to equip them; as regards customs tariffs, the contrast between the North advocating protectionism and the opposite South persisted; as for the National Bank, reconstituted in 1816, J. Calhoun (vice-president with Adams and then with Jackson) in the thesis of the nullity of federal laws that invade the field of “state rights”.

According to usaers, the crisis culminated in 1832: in contrast to the “Nullity Ordinance” issued by South Carolina Jackson threatened the use of force, choosing to protect the cause of the Union rather than that of the freedom of states, he who was also a Democrat. During Jackson’s second presidency, while the question of tariffs alienated the southerners from the president, the conflict for the National Bank (whose “charter” was not renewed) pitted him against the republicans-nationals, now bearers of the interests of the industrial East and financial. These two very different groups, united only by their common aversion to Jackson, since c. 1834. they began to call themselves Whigs, analogous to the English Whigs who opposed George III’s personal rule. If in the elections of 1836 they failed to present a single candidate, so that M. Van Buren (1837-41), Jackson’s heir, was elected, in 1840 the only Whig candidate B. Harrison (who died just a month after took office; he was succeeded by Vice President Tyler, 1841-45). During the 1940s, the thrust to the west resumed vigorously, as far as the Pacific, then on territories that belonged to Mexico. Texas, where the residents of Anglo-Saxon origin were more numerous than those of Spanish origin, had already proclaimed itself independent in 1836, then annexed, in 1845, to the United States. The war between the United States and Mexico (1846-48) ensued, won by the former, who with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (February 2, 1848) obtained the cession of Texas, California and all the intermediate territory, New Mexico. Meanwhile, in 1846, a treaty with Great Britain had resolved the condominium on Oregon, giving the United States the territory up to the 49th parallel. Thus was fulfilled the Manifest Destiny, that “continental” destiny that the United States had pursued since its very foundation.

By 1850, rapidly populated for the “gold rush”, California was already admitted to the Union as a state. In the middle of the century XIX (between 1845 and 1861 James Knox Polk, Zachary Taylor, Millard Fillmore, Franklin Pierce, James Buchanan succeeded each other as president) not only territorial expansion marked the development of the United States. The population increased, which in 1850 had exceeded 23 million; economic activities flourished, favored by the construction of railways, by the introduction of steam navigation, by the application of new technical discoveries. In the same 1850 for the first time the annual value of industrial production was higher than that of agricultural production. And with industrialization, democratization progressed, even on the cultural level (popular newspapers, public and free schools, that is, non-denominational). Yet a crisis loomed over the United States, the largest in its history, aggravated by some of the same fundamental aspects of progress. L’ industrialization widened the gap and consequently the contrast between the agricultural South and the industrial North, including that part of the West, around the Lakes region, which was being industrialized. The further expansion to the west, then, acutely posed the problem of whether or not slavery was extended to the new territories and states. Set aside, rather than truly resolved, with the “Missouri compromise” of 1820, postponed with yet another compromise, of 1850, this problem broke out in all its gravity in 1854, when the “Kansas-Nebraska law” was passed, two territories located north of the line marked as the limit of slavery by the “Missouri compromise”. Once the compromise was revoked, the law established the principle of “popular sovereignty”, entrusting the decision of the residents of a territory if it, becoming a state, should he be a free-market or a slaveholder. The law provoked violent reactions from the adversaries of slavery; locally, in Kansas, there was bloody clashes. On the national level, by far the most important consequence was the founding (1854) of the Republican Party (the one that has continued to exist over the centuries), in which theanti- slavery whigs united with some democratic elements and with the followers of the Free-Soil Party. The Democrats still managed to win the presidential elections of 1852 and 1856, but in 1860 they did not agree on a single candidacy and so was elected the Republican A. Lincoln (1861-65).

American History - from Jackson to Lincoln

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Philadelphia (in English Philadelphia, also nicknamed Philly) is the largest city in the state of Pennsylvania, located in the northeast of the United States, between New York and Washington DC. It is the fifth city in the country by population, Philadelphia County has 1,450,000 residents in its commune (Philadelphia City) and 5,950,000 in its metropolitan area. It is the largest historical, cultural and artistic center in the United States, and in the same way an important industrial port on the Delaware River, which extends to the Atlantic Ocean. Founded in 1682, it was during the 18th century the most populous city of the Thirteen colonies and the third most populous city in the British Empire (after London and Dublin), before temporarily becoming the capital city of the United States. It was quickly overtaken by New York and gave its capital status to the brand new city of Washington DC Today, Philadelphia is the main metropolis of Pennsylvania, whose capital is Harrisburg, and also the seat of the government of Pennsylvania. The name of the city, chosen by William Penn, means “the city of brotherly love”, as it was desired to be a haven of religious tolerance. See topschoolsintheusa for high school codes in Pennsylvania.

Established in 1682, it is one of the oldest cities in the country, and as the original capital and largest colonial city, it enjoyed greater political and social importance than Boston, Massachusetts, or New York. In 1776, the Continental Congress of the 13 colonies met in Philadelphia and on July 4 of that year, declared independence from Great Britain. Perhaps the most famous citizen of Philadelphia was Benjamin Franklin, writer, scientist, and politician.

The American Revolution

The Carpenters’ Hall hosted the First Continental Congress in 1774

In the 1770s, Philadelphia became one of the major centers of the American Revolution. The Sons of Liberty, an organization of American patriots, were very active in the city: they resisted the fiscal measures imposed by the metropolis and incited the colonists to boycott English merchandise.

Philadelphia was chosen, because of its central position within the Thirteen Colonies, to host the First Continental Congress which met from September 5 to October 26, 1774 in Carpenters’ Hall. The Second Continental Congress lasted between 1775 and 1781, the date of the Declaration of Independence and the ratification of the Articles of Confederation. During the war of independence, this assembly organized the continental army, issued paper money, and dealt with the country’s international relations. The delegates signed the Declaration of Dependence on July 4, 1776 In this city. However, in response to the American defeat of Brandywine in 1777, Congress had to leave the city, as well as 2/3 of the population. The residents must have hidden the ” liberty bell “.

Many battles between the US forces commanded by George Washington and the Redcoats. Having conquered the city in September of 1777, the British concentrated 9,000 soldiers in the German district, Germantown. In June of 1778, the British left Philadelphia to protect New York, exposed to the French ships. In July, Congress returned to Philadelphia. A constitutional convention met in the city in 1781 to draft a constitution. This text, organizer of the institutions of the new country, was signed in Independence Hall in September of 1781. It was in Congress Hall that the Bill of Rights was produced in 1790, the first ten sections of the American constitution. The Continental Congress was installed in New York City in 1785, but, under pressure from Thomas Jefferson, it returned to Philadelphia in 1790, which was made the provisional capital of the United States, while Washington DC was being built. Philadelphia ceased to be the capital of the colonies in 1799.

Industrialization

Baldwin Locomotive Works plaque

Philadelphia’s maritime trade was disrupted by the Embargo Act of 1807, which led to the War of 1812 against England. After this event, New York surpassed the city and the port of Pennsylvania.

At the beginning of the 19th century, Philadelphia experienced significant economic growth thanks to its agricultural and mining wealth (coal) present in its territory; the construction of roads, canals and railways allowed the city to maintain its position in the Industrial Revolution. The textile industry, the clothing industry, the metallurgy, the manufacture of paper and railway material, the shipbuilding in shipyards and the agricultural industry were the main industries of the 19th century. Philadelphia was at once a major financial center. During the Civil War, the factories of the city supplied the armies of the Union. Hospitals also played an important role in accommodating many wounded as a result of the conflict.

Due to the mechanization of agriculture in the South of the United States, thousands of African Americans began to migrate north and Philadelphia became one of the privileged destinations of these tributaries. As in other American cities, the years preceding the Civil War were marked by violence against immigrants, such as the anti-Catholic riots of May and June 1884.
The riots of 1844 in Philadelphia

With the Act of Consolidation of 1854, the city of Philadelphia annexed many districts, settlements, and outlying neighborhoods. This decision made it possible to align the city limits with those of the county and improve the management of urban problems. However, the republican municipality continued its corruption and fraud and intimidation in the elections were frequent.

In 1876, Philadelphia was the site of the first universal exhibition organized on American territory (The Centennial International Exhibition for its name in English). It commemorated the first centennial of the American Declaration of Independence and was located above Fairmount Park, near the Schuylkill River. It attracted 9,789,392 visitors.. The vast majority of the exhibition buildings were preserved by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. Among the innovations that were shown to the public, we can mention the Alexander Graham Bell telephone, the Remington typewriter, the Heinz Ketchup or even the Root beer.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

South Korea Literature and Cinema

South Korea Literature and Cinema

LITERATURE

After the Second World War, two literary currents were formed. The first was formed by authors from the North, such as Im Hwa (1908-1953), who remained faithful to the motifs of the proletarian literature of the early twentieth century. The other instead tends to safeguard the traditional values ​​of Korean culture, according to a concept of “pure literature” free from political alignments. After the civil war of 1950-53, Korean poets and writers also found themselves divided between North and South, some by ideological choice, others by necessity. In South Korea it certainly presented more varied aspects. In the fifties, in full reconstruction, the national tragedy was naturally the favorite theme of poets and writers, who now returned to gather around literary circles, including that of the “Green Deer” founded by Pak Tujin (1916-1998) with Cho Chihun (1920-1968) and Pak Mogwol (1916-1978). Regarding the prose, Hüngnam ch’ŏ isu (The Retreat from Hüngnam) by Kim Tongni, is one of the most significant novels; but also writers such as Yi Pǒmsǒn (1920-1982), Sun Ch’angsŏp (b.1922), Pak Kyŏngni (b.1927) and Hwang Sunwon (1915-2000) deserve to be mentioned as among the busiest in this period. In particular, the latter achieved notoriety with the novel K’ain-ui huye (Descendants of Cain). In the 1960s, a literary genre based on psychological introspection and inner reflection emerged. Kim Suyŏng (1921-1968), Kim Ch’unsu (b.1941) and Kim Namjo were certainly among the most active poets in those years.

In the following two decades, Ko Ǔn (b.1933), Hwang Tonggyu (b.1938), Kim Chiha (b.1941), Hwang Chiu (b.1952), Ch’oe Sŭngho (b.1954). Among the novelists, Yi Mungu (b. 1941), Kim Wonil (b. 1942), Cho Sehüi (b. 1942) and Hwang Sŏgyŏng (b. 1943); new names such as the writer O Chŏn ghŭi (b.1947) and, above all, Yi Munyol, were then brought to the attention of critics (no. 1948). After decades of intense political passions and painful moments of repression, the last decade of the twentieth century saw the affirmation of greater cultural freedom and an opening towards North Korea. With the authors almost eager to allow themselves a pause for reflection aimed at a serene and critical examination of the whirling historical-political events experienced since the post-war period, South Korean literature appeared rich in retrospective works and analyzes of sociological, political and cultural events of previous years. While waiting for a decisive generational change, it was the most successful poets and writers who occupied the first places in the charts of the titles sold. Cho Chongnae and Pyon’gyong (Changes) by the aforementioned Yi Munyol. Even the fascination of the everyday found those who knew how to illustrate it admirably, and this was the case of Yi Kyunyong (1951-1996) and his Noja-wa Changja-ui nara (The Country of Laozi and Zhuangzi), while political-existential reminiscences characterized the works by other authors, such as Ch’oe Yun (b. 1953). Centered on science and Korean nationalism are the works of Bok Geo-il. A very important strand within Korean literature is fantasy, with works such as Lee Yeongdo’s Dragon Raja, Jeon Min-Hee’s The Rune Children, and Lee Woo-hyouk’s The Soul of the Guardians. As for poetry, there was a revival by no longer young authors, whose works, juxtaposed with those of the younger generation, helped to enhance that climate of reflection on the past typical of the period. Since the end of the twentieth century, according to itypeauto, Korean literature has enjoyed a certain response from the international public (there are specialized series in Korean literature from French, German and Italian publishers), on the one hand thanks to the new translations of the classics, such as Hŏ Kyun (1569-1618), and of the great writers of the post-war generation, such as the autobiographical novel Mr. Han by the aforementioned Hwang Sŏgyŏng or The Shaman of Chatsil by Kim Tong-ni, who tackles the crucial theme of the meeting of the most atavistic indigenous tradition with the new Western spirituality. On the other hand, Korean literature returned to international attention in 2005 when South Korea was the host country of the Frankfurt Book Fair; narrators such as EUN Heekyung (b.1959) and JO Kyung Ran (b.1969), and, among poets, Hwang Ji-U (b.1952), whose multifaceted interests they also turn to theater and sculpture.

CINEMA

The first decades of the twentieth century saw the beginnings of Korean film art under Japanese domination, which greatly influenced productions and artists. Government conditioning was a widespread practice, which, under another sign remained, and still is present, in the art and culture of North Korea. The division of the country into two areas was consequently followed by the formation of two distinct cinemas. South Korea, which suffered strong US penetration, was experiencing a period of considerable development and expansion in the decade between the 1960s, with an annual production of over 200 films; among the names of some ambitions of the time, we remember Kim Song Min, Ri Hwa Sam, An Jong Hwa, Kim Tae Soo (Patate, 1969),, 1965). Over all, however, dominated Shin Sang Ok, the most important director of the Sixties, known as “the Korean Kurosawa” for his mastery in period films as well as in contemporary films (The guest and my mother, 1961, considered his masterpiece; The dream, 1967; Eunuch, 1968, to name just a few titles by an author who was also active in the following decades). South Korean cinema declined in the seventies and eighties, to then experience the start of a great recovery thanks above all to the work of Jang Sun Woo (The age of success, 1988; The lovers of Woomuk-Baemi, 1991; Un petalo, 1996) and Park Kwang Su, which debuted in 1988 with Chil-Su and Man-su. In the following years, directors such as Park Ki-Yong (Motel Cactus, 1997; Camel (s), 2001), Lee Chang-dong (Green Fish, 1997; Peppermint Candy, 2000; Oasis, presented at the Venice International Film Festival, established themselves in the following years. of 2002). Among the directors who emerged in the 1990s, Kim Ki-Duk (b.1960) (Birdcage Inn, 1998; Bad Guy, 2001; Samaritan Girl, 2004; Time, 2006) deserves a particular mention. dissemination and international recognition of South Korean cinema. A determining role was played by Hong Sang-soo (b. 1961), director of Turning Gate (2002), Woman Is the Future of Man (2004) and Woman on the Beach (2006), winner of international awards and formed thanks to important experiences abroad (USA). The new millennium has also seen the rebirth of an important line of independent productions, a natural counterpoint to national works that have been too seduced by Western canons. A note that testifies to the importance of the South Korean film movement is the Pusan ​​International Film Festival, which reached its twelfth edition in 2007 with 271 works and more than 198,000 spectators, which undoubtedly attest to the very first places among film festivals in Asia. In 2020 the South Korean film Parasite by director Bong Joonho, was awarded the Oscar for Best Picture. Parasite was the first non-English language film to win this award in Academy Award history. The film also won the Palme d’Or at the Cannes Film Festival in 2019, a Golden Globe (2020) for best foreign film, and four other Oscars (2020) for best international film, best director and best original screenplay.

South Korea Literature

New Mexico Overview

New Mexico Overview

According to Abbreviationfinder, New Mexico is one of the states with the most personality in the United States. Its geography, its history and the variety of its cultures and its residents give it a unique character within the set of states that make up this huge country.

It is a state in the southwestern United States of America. It limits to the north with the state of Colorado, to the northeast with the state of Oklahoma, to the east and southeast with the state of Texas, to the southwest with the states of Chihuahua and Sonora (Mexico), to the west with the state of Arizona and to the northwest with the state of Utah being one of the so-called “Four Corners States”.

Population

The total population of the state is about 2 million residents. 47.5% of the population is of Hispanic origin. Most of the Hispanic residents are descendants of the Spaniards who, coming from Mexico, arrived in the 16th and 17th centuries. There are also immigrants who arrived from Mexico more recently. It is a migratory flow that still continues.

Another 9.1% of the residents are Native Americans, descendants of the primitive settlers of these lands. This is the state with the largest indigenous population in the United States. The New Mexico Indians belong to one of the following tribes: Navajos, Pueblo Indians, spread over 21 independent towns, and Apaches. A large part of the Indians live on reservations scattered throughout the state. The Pueblo Indians are the ones who became the most Hispanized and the most mixed with the descendants of the Spaniards. Most of the rest of the state’s residents are Anglo-Americans, descendants of those who arrived after 1848, the year in which New Mexico became a territory of the United States.

According to CountryAAH.com,the most populated cities in the New Mexico are Albuquerque (450,000 residents), Las Cruces (80,000 residents) and Santa Fe (66,000 residents). These figures refer only to the urban area, not including the rest of the residents of each county. In the case of Albuquerque, the metropolitan area is 750,000 and that of Santa Fe, 150,000.

Flora

The type of flora of the state is nearctic and neotropical, in the higher areas there are species that survive snowy rains and droughts such as blue spruce, stiff cone pine and shrubs; in the Hudsonian zone of mountain ranges and gorges are the spruce, the trembling pine and the ponderosa pine. Going down in height you can find oaks, junipers, oyameles, Douglas pines, alamillos, Canadian poplars., the columbine, the pennyroyal and the horse grass, maple and wild flowers due to the humidity that descends from the snowy mountains having a great color during the fall. In much more arid areas, the following stand out: grasslands or zacatales; the stone pine; the oak; the Alamo; the olive; the cedar; the huizache; the chollas or biznagas; the nopales or prickly pears; the cardones; the magueys or agaves; and great variety of cacti.

Fauna

The American black bear is a symbol of the state of New Mexico. The fauna of the state is very diverse, here are species typical of the high mountains that predominate in Canada or animal species that predominate in subtropical regions of Mexico. Among the mammals, you can find the American black bear that is a symbol of this state; Other mammals that inhabit here are mountain lions, bighorn sheep, mountain goats, deer, marmots or smaller rodents such as the kangaroo rat and endangered species such as the Mexican wolf, the American bison and the pronghorn. . Among the birds we have the colorful wild turkey, the roadrunner, wild ducks, quail, centzontles, woodpeckers, etc. Among the reptiles, rattlesnakes and coral snakes stand out, among others.

Primary and secondary education

There are important efforts for the recovery of the Spanish language in the state of New Mexico, bilingual education is essential for the population due to its linguistic diversity. Not only Spanish is in recovery, but also the native languages ​​of the state such as Navajo, Zuñi, Comanche among others.

Spanish and bilingual education

Virtually all New Mexicans speak and communicate normally in English. Only part of the recently arrived immigrant population from Mexico or Central America, and some elderly native Hispanic New Mexicans, speak only Spanish. Some indigenous groups living in New Mexico still speak their own languages. You can also find very old people who only speak some of the Indian languages ​​of the state. According to the 2000 Census data, 28.76% of the population over 5 years old spoke Spanish at home, while 4.07% spoke Navajo.

Although the New Mexico Constitution of 1912 reflects the intention to protect the languages ​​and cultures of New Mexicans, the use of Spanish as a medium of instruction in public schools, as well as its social use, declined dramatically throughout the years. throughout most of the rest of the 20th century. There were some institutional efforts by the Senate to have the Spanish language taught in all public schools in the early 1940s. However, it was in 1968 when the first statement in support of bilingual education was produced by the “State Board of Education”. That declaration materialized with the signing of the “Bilingual Multicultural Act” in 1973.

Neo-Mexican Spanish is a unique variety within the Hispanic linguistic panorama due to the isolation of New Mexico since the early times of the colony and for this reason it has been able to preserve traits of medieval Spanish, in addition to making use of a large number of indigenisms (from Nahuatl first and of local languages ​​later) and Anglicisms (after American annexation in 1848).

Sports

The rodeo is par excellence the favorite sport of the New Mexicans, its colonial origin has made it a tradition that it shares with other neighboring states and in the same way with the Mexicans, the lot of mounts and ropes are essential elements among the participants. In the state of New Mexico you can practice snow skiing and it also has an excellent infrastructure that allows the practice of this sport almost most of the year where national tourists and Mexican tourists come due to the proximity to the alpine ski areas. Ice hockey is another of the sports that is practiced in this state, mountain biking, fishing, hiking, baseball, basketball and American football, whose state team is called Lobos de Nuevo México.

New Mexico Overview

Study in Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (11)

Study in Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (11)

Why did you even go abroad during your studies? – I hear this question a lot.

I had actually planned to spend a while abroad after graduating from high school, but at the age of 18 I just didn’t have the courage to take this step into practice. Now, a few years later, I still had great respect for living in another country for four months, as I had lived exclusively at home up until that point, but I wanted to take on this challenge.

I’m studying communication management and in the fifth semester there wasn’t much on the curriculum anyway. The timing seemed perfect! But where should the journey go? Since I made the decision to study abroad with reservations, I decided to definitely do the semester in Europe. Since I am studying communication management, it is very important to speak fluent English, but I was also very excited to learn another language.

The Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona appeared with their Pre-Established Program, which offers courses in both English and Spanish, perfect for my project. No sooner said than done: I inquired, applied through MicroEDU and received an offer for a place at university. It quickly became clear: From September 2016 I will be going to Spain for just under 4 months !

The apartment search

First of all, it should be said that looking for an apartment in Barcelona is anything but easy. A fellow student of mine had also decided to do a semester abroad at the UAB and so we looked for an apartment together. However, perplexity quickly spread, as many forums and housing agencies were either super overpriced or anything but serious. Often we were advised to fly over there one or two weeks before the start of studies and look for an apartment on site, but without any knowledge of Spanish we were rather skeptical. Ultimately, we joined all kinds of Facebook groups and, with a lot of luck, were able to temporarily rent an apartment from a German couple. Five minutes’ walk to the nearest metro station and 10 minutes to the beach – it couldn’t be more perfect!

Here we go

On 08/30/2016 the time had come. I made my way to the airport full of anticipation, but also full of concerns. We arrived in Barcelona late in the evening and drove to Placa Catalunya, where we were picked up by our landlady. The first impressions were just overwhelming. When I finally lay in bed in the evening, however, I felt a strange feeling again. I fell asleep wondering whether that was the right decision. This feeling didn’t last long, however. The city was just overwhelming and I quickly got to know new people at university. I was lucky that my courses were well laid out and so I only had to go to university on Mondays and Wednesdays. Otherwise I had a lot of free time to discover the city.

Life in Spain is very different than in Germany and it took some getting used to for me at first. At home I’ve never had a late dinner – but in Spain you start at 8 p.m. at the earliest. Well, I wanted to get to know a different culture and I couldn’t change it anyway, as most of the kitchens had closed beforehand. But you got used to it really quickly.

The time in Spain was like vacation. The weather was amazing, even in December there were days when I could still lie on the beach at 20 degrees. It was just fantastic. In general, we spent a large part of our day on the beach. When the sun was gone, we went to the Spanish streets to eat tapas and drink sangria. Read more student reviews on Act-test-centers.

I had the feeling that even the Spaniards were in a permanent holiday mood in their beautiful city. For routes that you drive by car in Germany, you simply put on your sunglasses in Barcelona and walked. Right from the start I noticed that there is so much that is so amazing to discover in this city and that the time of just under four months will never be enough. In addition, the Spaniards always have something to celebrate – it feels like a “fiesta” takes place every other day and the whole city is in a lively atmosphere.

The Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona is just impressive as it is in the old St. Pau Hospital. The lectures were great fun and I met people from all over the world. In general, you couldn’t compare the course with the German one. The way of learning was completely different. More playful and more academic, but still effective.

Life in Barcelona is comparable in price to Germany. Housing prices are the same as in major German cities and leisure activities are also comparably expensive. The metro card cost me about 100 € for the entire time, which was fine. Eating out and, above all, fresh purchases were even significantly cheaper than in Germany, but you still didn’t save because you eat out more often in Spain than in Germany.

My personal highlights definitely included the sunsets on the Bunkers del Carmel, the many small bars and cafes, where one was sweeter and more beautiful than the other, the fountains on Placa Espanya, the many weekend trips to different Spanish cities, the evenings, where I got to know the Korean culture because the Koreans cooked for us and much, much more.

Conclusion

All in all, I can say it was the best time of my life and all concerns were in vain. In the four months I got to know and love an amazing city and incredibly lovely people. I really enjoyed Spanish life and culture ! Everything is much more relaxed and it was appreciated for trying to speak Spanish. Personally, I grew a lot during this time, which simply passed far too quickly. One thing is certain: Barcelona – you will see me again!

Study in Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona 11

Nicaragua Country Information

Nicaragua Country Information

Nicaragua got its name after its indigenous people, the Nicarao Indian tribe, whom the Spaniards met when they were on their conquest.

Location

The Central American state is bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Caribbean Sea to the east. Its neighbor in the north is Honduras, in the south Costa Rica.

Time zone

The time difference between Nicaragua and Germany is -6 hours.

Geography

Nicaragua has a north-south extension of over 450 km, its width measures between 500 km in the north and 200 km in the south. The 130,700 square kilometer state is divided by five higher mountain ranges that run from west to east to northeast. The ridges reach heights of 700 – 1,800 m. In the east, the mountainous area is followed by a wide plain, which ends on the Caribbean coast in lagoons, dunes and spits. In the west, a 240 km mountain range, which consists of volcanic cones, runs parallel to the coast. In the south, a depression stretches across the country, in which the 8,400 square kilometer Lake Nicaragua is located.

History

In its early history, Nicaragua was populated by various Indian tribes, including the Nicarao, which gave it its name. In 1502 Columbus discovered the country and in 1522 the conquest by Gonzales de Avila began. Subsequently it belonged to the General Captaincy of Guatemala. In 1821 it gained independence from the Spanish crown. From 1821 to 1823 it belonged to the Mexican Empire, then to the Central American Federation until 1839. The ensuing civil wars caused the USA to occupy the country from 1909 to 1926. In 1936 the Somoza family succeeded with the help of the USAto the power that ruled the country through dictatorship. This period of exploitation of the land and the population was ended by the struggle of the national liberation front in 1979. After the fall of the Somoza family, their leader Augusto César Sandino and his supporters formed a junta that was to rule the country temporarily. In the elections of the following years, however, conservative parties won the presidency. It was not until 2006, after 16 years, that the Sandinista government came back to power. This is striving to transform Nicaragua into a socialist state.

Flora and fauna

The mountain slopes of Nicaragua are made up of pine forests, in the eastern lowlands there are even larger closed areas of rainforest, on the coasts the typical mangrove and swamp forests. Jaguars, pumas, ocelots, monkeys, various reptile species and numerous species of birds such as parrots, hummingbirds and pelicans can still be found in the more remote areas.

Business

The most important branches of the economy are agriculture and fishing, the processing of agricultural products and the textile industry. Beef, fish, seafood and coffee are exported. The tourism industry is also a growth market.

Population

Nicaragua has 6 million residents, of which about 90% live in the Pacific and in the area around the capital Managua. 70% of the population are mestizo, mixed race between Indians and whites, 18% are white, about 3% are still pure-blooded Indians. 9% are of African descent. In addition, minorities of 30,000 Arabs and 8,000 Chinese immigrants live in Nicaragua . religion

The proportion of the Roman Catholic population is 80%, that of the Protestant population 20%.

Language

The official language is Spanish, otherwise Creol and various Indian languages ​​are spoken.

Food and drink

– Gallopinto: fried rice with black beans, served with eggs (breakfast)

– Platanos: fried bananas as a side dish

– Mondongo: tripe soup

– Papas a la Crema: Potatoes in cream sauce as a side dish

– Vigorón: steamed yucca with fried pork rind and coleslaw, served on a banana leaf

– Quesillos: tortilla filled with soft cheese and onions

Turtles and their eggs as well as iguanas are often offered as delicacies on the markets.

Natural soft drinks are available in many restaurants. These are fruit juices that are served with water and ice cubes. Even the coffee and rum Nicaragua are truly delicious.

Entry

To enter Nicaragua, travelers need a passport that is valid for at least 6 months after arrival. You also need to purchase a tourist card, which currently costs 10 USD. No visa is required for a tourist stay of less than 90 days.

Medical advice

Current information on vaccinations can be obtained from your family doctor or on the website of the Center for Travel Medicine (CRM).

Security / drugs

In Nicaragua, the usual safety measures should be taken when traveling; lonely walks should be avoided, especially at night. You should also not bring large amounts of cash with you, and photos and cell phones etc. should not be carried openly. Current travel advice can also be found at https://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/

Drug possession and trafficking are punishable by severe penalties.

Addresses

Foreign Office
In Germany https://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/
In Austria https://www.bmaa.gv.at/
In Switzerland https://www.eda.admin.ch/

Frequently asked questions about Nicaragua

What are the entry requirements for Nicaragua?

For tourist trips of up to 90 days, no entry visa is required for German citizens with a passport that is valid for 6 months after entry. However, a tourist card is required upon entry. This currently costs $ 10.00 plus an entry fee of $ 2.00. Upon departure, the fee of US $ 2.00 is also required. Visit rctoysadvice for Nicaragua Travel Guide.

What vaccinations do you need to travel to Nicaragua?

No compulsory vaccinations are required for direct entry from Germany; proof of a valid yellow fever vaccination is required for entry from a yellow fever area. This applies to all travelers from the age of one. In addition, it is recommended to be vaccinated against hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and typhoid for long-term stays. We definitely recommend taking out health insurance abroad with repatriation.

Nicaragua Country Information