Author: itypemba

Sortavala, Russia

Sortavala, Russia

Of the architectural sights of the southern part, the buildings of the former seminary (1880), the Hospital (1898) and the former hospital of the society of sisters of mercy (1907) stand out. The Regional Museum and Tourist Center of the Northern Ladoga Region is also located here. The center is located in the house of doctor Winter, built in 1900 in the style of national romanticism, which is now an architectural monument. The museum was founded in 1992 and became the first museum in the Northern Ladoga region. His collections began to form on the basis of items from the funds of the Valaam Museum-Reserve. Nowadays, ethnographic, artistic and historical collections are presented here. Museum objects date from the 13th century to the present day. Be sure to head to Vakkosalmi City Park, where one of the best singing fields is located.

3 km from Sortavala in Taruniemi is Dr. Winter’s dacha, which today houses an elite hotel.

To the south of Sortavala, on the island of Riekkalansari, the wooden church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker has been preserved. It was built between the 18th and 19th centuries and was the only Orthodox church in the vicinity of the city.

To the north of Sortavala, just a few kilometers from the city, near the village of Helyulya, one of the most interesting archaeological sites of the Northern Ladoga region is located – the Karelian fortified settlement of Paaso. Paaso Fortress was built in the 12th century on the 83 m high Paasonvuori mountain to protect against attacks by the Swedes. In the 13th century, for unknown reasons, the settlement was wiped off the face of the Earth. On the site of the settlement, archaeologists have found objects of agriculture, pottery and jewelry crafts that are about a thousand years old.

According to THEINTERNETFAQS.COM, 17 km north of Sortavala on the river Tokhmajoki are picturesque Ruskeala waterfalls. They are small rapids with a height difference of about 2 m. The highest waterfall is the Ryumäkoski waterfall, 7 m high. In the vicinity of the waterfalls, there is a small lake and many boulders brought by the glacier. The Tohmajoki River together with the Janisjoki River are one of the main tourist attractions of the Sortavala region. They originate in Finland and flow into Ladoga. There are many rapids and low waterfalls on these rivers, which attract rafting enthusiasts here. Ruskeala village is located not far from Ruskeala waterfalls. It is first mentioned in Swedish documents under 1500. The village has long been known for its marble deposits. Even the Swedes in the 17th century were mining it here. Ruskeala marble was used in the decoration of the Kazan and St. Isaac’s Cathedrals in St. Petersburg. Currently, along the left bank of the Tokhmajoki River, three open pit mines have been formed in place of old workings. The quarries are cut by a system of mines, galleries and drifts and are partially flooded with water. In 2005, “Ruskeala Mountain Park” was founded on this site.. The central place in the park is occupied by the Marble Canyon, surrounded by sheer marble cliffs. Along its perimeter there is a hiking trail with viewing platforms from where you can admire the emerald water of the canyon. In addition, boats are offered here in order to swim around the quarry. Marble Canyon will be interesting for diving enthusiasts. Underwater visibility here is about 10 m, the depth of immersion ranges from 5 to 15 m. At the bottom of the quarry, you can see blocks of marble, trucks and wheels and explore numerous adits. On the territory of the park there are several monuments of industrial architecture – this is an old office building made of marble in the style of classicism, and lime kilns. There is an active quarry in the park, where you can get acquainted with the process of marble extraction.

If you go even further north to the Russian-Finnish border, then you will get to the international checkpoint “Vyartsilya”. Through it passes the road to the Scandinavian countries, which is called the “Blue Road”.

20 km east of Sortavala in the direction of Petrozavodsk, the village of Kiryavalahti is interesting, which is located on the shores of the bay of the same name on Lake Ladoga. Here is an architectural monument – the dacha of the pharmacist Jaskeläinen. It was built in 1935 by a Finnish architect at the foot of a cliff. From the rear, the cottage is surrounded by dense coniferous forests, and its facade overlooks the bay. The interior of the house is very beautiful. The walls here are made of black logs, the ceiling is decorated with matt beams, there is an old fireplace, and a monumental staircase leads to the second floor. Today, Jaskeläinen’s dacha is used as a hotel. Behind it, a little to the north, on the shore of Lake Haukkajärvi, Mount Petsivaara rises . This is the highest point of the Northern Ladoga region (187 m). Hiking trails are laid on the mountain, and a beautiful view opens from its top.

Sortavala region is known for its unique nature. This is the land of small bays, islands, cliffs, waterfalls, lakes and forests. The rocky islands of the region, one of which are the islands of the Valaam archipelago, are called Ladoga skerries. This is a unique natural area formed by the action of a glacier. Now projects are being developed to create a national park “Ladoga Skerries”. Many species of fish live in the waters of Lake Ladoga, the most valuable of which are salmon – salmon, trout, grayling, pike perch and whitefish, which attracts fishing enthusiasts.

To the south of the Sortavala region is the Lakhdenpokh region which is also famous for nature. However, local skerries and coastal cliffs are better known among lovers of wild and extreme tourism, official tourist routes do not pass through the area.

Sortavala, Russia

Catania, Island of Sicily (Italy)

Catania, Island of Sicily (Italy)

Picturesque and noisy Catania is a city of a volcano. Dark, closed Etna, like a recalcitrant deity, looks at the revival that reigns in the city streets and serves as an eloquent symbol of the inherent quality of the inhabitants of Catania: their hard work. It was this quality that allowed the people to be repeatedly reborn from the ashes, like a newly appeared phoenix bird, without caring about earthquakes or wars. Therefore, the symbol of their city is so suitable for the inhabitants of Catania – an elephant, a strong and kind animal, and their patron saint – Agatha, a virgin and martyr, who was able to stop even the fury of Etna with the supernatural power of her veil.

According to ESHAOXING.INFO, Catania is a dark city built of black volcanic stone, and at the same time unusually sunny and bright, because the sun shines here 2528 hours a year: more than anywhere else in Italy. This is an ancient city that arose in the pre-Greek era, which, however, is sometimes almost indifferent to its history. So, the Greek theater looks almost forgotten at the end of a small street.

The city of Catania was founded in 729 BC. e.. Its name meant “hill”, and indeed, an acropolis was built on the hill where today the large Benedicite monastery is located. Over the years, temples, a hippodrome, a gymnasium, a mint and an odeon arose around the latter.

The history of the city was also determined by the whims of Etna, which brings life, but at the same time – death and destruction. So, in 1169, as a result of a strong earthquake, 15,000 people died, in 1669 lava reached the port and rushed into the sea, leaving behind only despair, in 1693 the entire city was swept off the face of the earth by an earthquake. Under the rubble, 16,000 people died. However, this last event had not only tragic consequences. The end of the 17th century was marked by the ardor of rapid restoration, the wonderful fruits of which still today are the pride of the city.


The Fountain of the Elephant, located in the center of the Piazza Duomo, is the work of Giovan Battista Vaccarini. It consists of a figure of an elephant made of volcanic stone from the ancient Roman era and an Egyptian granite stele with hieroglyphic inscriptions relating to the cult of the goddess Isis.

The cathedral, built at the turn of the 17th century, is the main architectural monument. Its Gothic façade, dating back to the early 20th century, was designed by Giovan Battista Basile. The interior of the cathedral consists of three naves and is decorated with frescoes by Giuseppe Schuti and Pietro Paolo Vasta.

The Cathedral of St. Agatha, built in 1078-1093 on the site of the Achilles Baths, retained three apses and a high transept from the era of construction.

In the castle of Ursino, built in 1239-1250. at the behest of Frederick II of Sweve, it currently houses the City Museum. This castle, once surrounded by the sea, was the residence of the Aragonese kings in the 16th century. In the 16th century, it was rebuilt in the Renaissance style, and at the time of the volcanic eruption in 1669, it was surrounded by lava, and therefore today it is on land.

The Roman theater had a diameter of about 87 m and could accommodate more than 7,000 spectators. It was built on the hillside where the Greek acropolis was located, and it is possible that it was originally built by the Greeks. The orchestra with a diameter of 29 meters with a floor is flooded by the waters of the Amenano River. Under today’s amphitheater there are traces of other spectator seats, but they all belong to the period of the Roman Empire.

The Odeon, recently opened to the public, was intended for choir rehearsals and competitions, and could accommodate 1,300 spectators. The space between the spectator seats and the outer wall was divided into 17 rooms, of which 16 have survived today. up to the modern Penninello street. The amphitheater could accommodate 16,000 spectators and had a height of 31 m.

The Bellini Theater, built by architects A. Skala and C. Sada in the classical style in the 2nd half of the 19th century, is dedicated to the great composer born in Catania. The interior of the theater is striking in its magnificence.

Catania, Island of Sicily (Italy)

Coral Castle, Miami

Coral Castle, Miami

Coral Castle (Miami, USA) – history, excursions, expositions. Exact address, telephone, cost of entrance tickets. Local legends and ghosts.

Coral Castle (sometimes called Rock Gate) was the embodiment of an eccentric idea of ​​an American of Latvian origin, Edward Leedskalnin. This complex is not so much a castle as a cluster of numerous megaliths, each of which weighs several tons. The castle is now privately owned and serves as a vibrant and quirky tourist attraction in Miami-Dade County.

The history of Coral Castle is directly related to the history of love, and the “castle” is surrounded by numerous legends. Few of the tourists are not touched by the reasons why Leedskalnin manually and single-handedly dragged here and hewn all these giant stones. And, most importantly, no one can understand how he did it. Until now, the version is in progress that the matter could not have done without the use of reverse magnetism and / or supernatural abilities.

In 1984, Coral Castle was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. See topschoolsoflaw for brief history of Kentucky.

The total weight of stone walls, furniture, decorative elements and the tower reaches 1000 tons. The stones are bonded without the use of mortar and are held together only by their own weight.

Legend has it that Lidskalnin’s 16-year-old fiancee left him in Latvia on the eve of the wedding. The rejected groom left for America, being almost in the terminal stage of tuberculosis. Here he suddenly recovered and later claimed that magnets had such an effect on him.

For more than 28 years, Edward has been building his Coral Castle, forbidding anyone to look at how he works. In his own words, the only tool he used was a “perpetual motion holder”. The castle, called “Rock Gate Park” by Leedskalnin, was completed in 1923 in Florida City (these places were completely wild at that time). In 1936, Leedskalnin decided to move to a new location and take the castle with him. It took another three years: it was necessary to drag all the stones over a distance of 16 km, to where they can be seen now.

The name “Coral Castle” is due to the fact that all the megaliths on the territory of the complex are processed blocks of limestone. And limestone is formed from coral.

After the move, Leedskalnin continued to work on the castle until his death in 1951. For viewing his creation, he charged visitors a fee of 10 cents and, when the visitors rang the bell twice, descended from the living quarters on the second floor of the castle tower and gave a tour. True, he never told a single living soul how he managed to build all this. The only explanation that could be heard from Leedskalnin during the tour: “It’s not difficult if you know how.” Periodically, he also hinted that he was well versed in working with weight and leverage and generally comprehended the secrets of the pyramids.

Today, on the territory of the castle, you can see stone walls, furniture, decorative elements and a tower, the total weight of which reaches 1000 tons. The stones are bonded without the use of mortar and are held together only by their own weight. The work is so precious that not a single gap can be found at the joints. Even after decades and after Hurricane Andrew (category five, by the way), the boulders have not moved an inch.

Among all the buildings on the territory of the castle, a two-story tower, in which the creator lived, stands out. Its walls are made of pieces of stone 2.5 m high. Also noteworthy are an accurate sundial, an obelisk, a barbecue place, a well, a fountain and numerous chairs, tables, a bed and even a throne. With a few exceptions, all these objects are made of monolithic blocks weighing an average of 14 tons each.

Edward said that he created the castle, inspired by his “cute sixteen”. This, in turn, inspired Billy Idol to write the hit song Sweet Sixteen.

Of particular surprise was the main gate of the castle weighing more than eight tons and 2.4 m high. They are carved so carefully that there is no gap of even 0.5 cm between the doors and the wall. In addition, the gate is so well balanced that even a child can open it by pressing a finger. The secret of the gate was preserved until 1986, when they stopped rotating. It took six people and a crane to remove the gate from its hinges. Only after this was done, the secret of the gate was revealed: Leedskalnin somehow drilled a through hole in them, into which he inserted a metal pin with a bearing.

Practical Information

Адрес: FL 33033, South Dixie Highway Miami, 28655.

The castle is located at the intersection of the South Dixie Highway (US 1) and 157th South West Avenue, north of Homestead.

Opening hours: Sunday to Thursday from 8:00 to 18:00. Friday and Saturday until 20:00.

Admission: 18 USD for adults, 8 USD for children aged 7-12.

Coral Castle, Miami

Upper East Side, New York

Upper East Side, New York

The Upper East Side is a block in Manhattan, between Central Park and the East River, bounded by Fifty-ninth and Ninety-sixth streets. The Upper East Site is considered one of the most prestigious and expensive residential areas in New York, it is especially popular with people who value a healthy environment and convenience. It is famous for its good infrastructure for families with children, thanks to its proximity to Central Park, Riverside Park, first-class schools and many activities for children.

Between Third Avenue and the East River, the upper-middle-class liberal intelligentsia mostly reside. Elite cafes and cultural centers are located in this area. See itypetravel for geostatistics of Maine.

In addition, the Upper East Side is known as the developed intellectual center of Manhattan: there are such famous museums as the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Guggenheim Museum, the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Museum of Natural History, and the Children’s Museum. The area is popular with families with children.

At the end of the 19th century, wealthy aristocrats, including the famous families of Astor and Tiffany, built up the Upper East Side with magnificent marble cottages. It has since earned the nickname “Silk Stocking District”. Today, one of the most elite neighborhoods on the Upper East Side is Carnegie Hill, bounded by 86th and 98th streets, Fifth and Lexington Avenues, shaped like an irregular triangle.

Yorkville once also belonged to the Upper East Side, and then received the status of an independent area. It is bounded by 72nd and 96th Streets, Central Park and the East River, bordered by Carnegie Hill to the north and Lenox Hill to the south. At the beginning of the 19th century the countryside and mansions of wealthy New York families were located here, but with the construction of a railway station in the 1830s, the situation changed dramatically. By the beginning of the 20th century, Yorkville had become a very multi-ethnic area: Irish, Italians, Germans, Austrians, Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks and Jews lived here. In the central part of the quarter there were many German shops, restaurants and bakeries.

The dismantling of the railway in 1955 led to the demolition of many mansions. At the same time, Yorkville’s ethnic diversity began to fade. Today, one of the area’s notable landmarks is the park, named after Interior Minister Carl Schurz, where the residence of the Mayor of New York is located. Kips Bay also once belonged to the Upper East Side. In fact, this was the East River Bay, part of it was drained, and a whole block was laid out on this territory, which got its name from the Dutch farmer Jacobus Hendrikson Kip, whose house was built first in this territory. Today it is one of the most densely populated and wealthy neighborhoods in Manhattan with a population density of about 35,900 people per square meter. km, which is almost 3.5 times the average population density of New York. The average income of its inhabitants is almost 1,

The Upper East Side is known as the intellectual center of Manhattan: there are such famous museums as the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Guggenheim Museum, the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Museum of Natural History, and the Children’s Museum.

Murray Hill

Murray Hill is located between 34th and 40th streets, Madison Avenue and the East River, north of the Kips Bay area. Murray Hill was named after the Irish merchant Robert Murray, in the middle of the 18th century. who smashed the farm and the Inclenberg mansion on what was then the outskirts of New York. His house was built on a hill at the intersection of the current Park Avenue and 36th Street, and the literal translation of the name sounds exactly like “Murray Hill”.

Since the late 1990s, the quarter has been actively populated by yuppies; the offices of large corporations are also located here. Due to its proximity to the UN Headquarters, Murray Hill is home to many consulates and embassies.

Turtle Bay

Turtle Bay is bounded by 43rd and 53rd streets, Lexington Avenue and the East River. Its name (“turtle bay”) came either from the turtles that once lived in the bay, or from the Dutch word deutal, a curved blade – the bay served as a reliable shelter from bad weather.

With the adoption of the master plan for Manhattan, the area changed beyond recognition, which at that time was subjected to harsh criticism: one of the fierce opponents of the development of the area was the writer Edgar Allan Poe. However, by the first half of the 20th century, only a small rock remained from the bay at the end of 45th Street, and today it is gone.

In the last third of the 19th century commercial activity flourished in Turtle Bay, with slaughterhouses and breweries, gas works and quarries. Elevated railroad lines were laid along 2nd and 3rd Avenues, which negatively affected the attractiveness of the area for living. Only in the 20s. In the 10th century, the beautification of the quarter began. After that, many celebrities lived in Turtle Bay at different times, and in 1997, in honor of Katharine Hepburn, who lived here for more than 60 years, a local park was named.

Over time, the railway was demolished, high-rise buildings appeared in the area. On the territory of the former slaughterhouses in 1948, the UN Headquarters was built. Due to its proximity to it, diplomatic missions of many countries are located in the quarter.

Irving Place is the center of the area and is full of bars and restaurants. It is here that one of the oldest drinking establishments in the city is located, Pete’s Tavern, where O. Henry wrote the novel “Gifts of the Magi” in 1905.

Upper East Side, New York

Tanzania Economy

Tanzania Economy

According to topschoolsintheusa, Tanzania is a Federal state of East Africa, consisting of a continental section, Tanganyika, and an island section, Zanzibar, which also administratively includes the other island of Pemba. It borders to the North with Uganda and Kenya, to the South with Mozambique, to the SW with Zambia and Malawi, to the West with Congo, to the NW with Rwanda and Burundi ; includes large parts of Lakes Victoria, Tanganyika and Malawi; it overlooks the Indian Ocean to the East, where Pemba (to the N) and Zanzibar are located, and further to the South, the island of Mafia, with other smaller ones. The continental section has absolute prevalence (99.7% of the surface and 97% of the state population).

Economic conditions

Already subject to the typical colonial economy, after independence Tanzania assumed a peculiar direction, known as African socialism which, rejecting Marxism, rather sought to unify the population of the country, made up of about 120 different ethnic groups, into a single system national. From the economic point of view, the new model sought to eliminate all forms of capitalism, preventing the concentration of wealth with the spread of cooperation at all levels and taking as a basis the forms of production and solidarity that were typical of pre-colonial African society. However, the socialist-collectivist economic model did not give good results, also because the financial difficulties did not allow to equip the ujamaa(productive nuclei constituted through the aggregation of the population in agricultural communities) of the necessary infrastructures. The world recession in the late 1970s and the effects of a disastrous drought marked the end of the experience and the gradual restoration of a market economy. An improvement in the economic situation took place in the last decade of the 20th century, after the launch (1995) of a macroeconomic stabilization program which helped to encourage the resumption of foreign investment in the rapidly expanding mining sector. In 2009, the growth rate of gross domestic product was 4.5% (7.1% in 2008 and 2007). But the state budget continues to depend to a large extent from international aid and the social situation is particularly critical: the aggregate index of human development calculated by the United Nations in 2005 (life expectancy at birth: 51 years; illiteracy: 31%; per capita income: 744 dollars) Tanzania ranks 157th in the world rankings of 177 countries. ● Agriculture employs about 80% of the active population and contributes 26.6% (2009) to the formation of the gross domestic product. Only 6% of the land area is arable; the best soils are destined for export crops: coffee (52,000 t in 2007), cotton (fiber 109,000 t, seeds 210,000 t) and sisal (27,800 t). Subsistence agriculture produces corn, cassava, rice, sorghum, millet and is exposed to the risk of recurrent drought, with consequent local famines. Breeding (18 million cattle and about the same number of goats and sheep) is practiced largely by nomadic shepherds or within the family production system: large and modernly equipped farms are still few. ● Mineral resources include the extraction of gold (second largest producer in Africa after South Africa and twelfth world producer), diamonds and other precious stones, coal. The industrial activities, almost all concentrated in the Dar es Salaam area, concern basic necessities or transform local raw materials: sugar refineries, textile and tobacco processing plants, breweries, cement factories, fruit canning plants and for the distillation of clove oil. A hydrocarbon refinery is located at the starting point of the oil pipeline connecting Dar es Salaam with Zambia. ● Land communications include approximately 78,000 km of roads (2008) and 4,000 km of railways (2006), of which nearly 1,000 form the new section of the penetration line from Tanzania in Zambia, opened in 1975 to allow access to the sea this country. Dar es Salaam is the main port and has an international airport. Foreign trade is chronically passive: the main partners of Tanzania are the states of the European Union, especially the United Kingdom; on the other hand, trade with other African countries is very scarce. Tourism (692,000 entries in 2007) is constantly expanding, attracted by the national parks and beaches of Zanzibar.

Tanzania Economy

Budapest Travel Guide

Budapest Travel Guide

Independent travel in Europe is especially interesting in the circle of a friendly company, because you can always get an unusual idea where to go next, and what is worth seeing along the way. And, if you feel at home during cozy gatherings in the noisy Hungarian capital, it is worth exploring new places and cities: see the wonderful architectural forms of the Gödelle Palace, immerse yourself in the atmosphere of the Middle Ages during an hour-long sightseeing cruise or unravel the ancient secrets of Eger Castle.

To Budapest by plane, train or bus?

According to, tourists adore Budapest not only because of its special culture and rich historical sights, but also because of its prime location. The real, lively and colorful capital of Hungary has an advantageous location, and thanks to well-established transport connections, an abundance of options are available where you can go from Budapest by train, private car or bus “for exploration” to neighboring cities.

Is every minute of vacation precious? – Then you can fly to Budapest by plane: flights are frequent, and prices are affordable. Hungary has a favorable schedule and local bus connections, so it is easy to find a new direction where to go from Budapest for 1-2 days.

Having a car (personal or rented) will increase the range of areas where you can go from Budapest on your own by several times, planning your travel schedule individually.

Where to stay in Budapest?

We suggest staying in the Pest area, because all popular hiking trails are intertwined here – the Parliament, Heroes’ Square and Vajdahunyad Castle are within walking distance.

Settling in the Hungarian capital is also beneficial in the area of ​​Batthyani Square. After walking enough at the foot of the hill, after visiting the outstanding “girls with umbrellas” from Budapest for one day, you can go to Aquincum or Szentendre. Nearby there is a train station, from which you can conveniently get to any desired point in the country.

If you want to relax in Budapest before your upcoming sightseeing tour, we recommend stopping by the Gellert Mountain area and Margaret Island. Comfortable spa hotels with thermal waters and healing procedures are spread throughout the territory.

Where to go and what to see in Budapest

In Budapest, where it is pleasant to relax, strolling slowly through the old streets and cruising from one attraction to another, there are amazing places that are not always included in the excursion list, but you can see on your own. Let’s open the curtain of this mystery:

  1. the philosophical garden on Mount Gellert (notable for its steel statues representing religions);
  2. ParaPark (quest entertainment for adventure lovers);
  3. Sugar (sweet shop, where you will be offered unique sugar figurines);
  4. Secret club Keret (spend a cozy evening visiting locals).

Cafes and restaurants in Budapest

Budapest is a calm and homely warm place where to go to Europe for the New Year. Indeed, in establishments and restaurants it is just as comfortable and tasty, and the variety of mouth-watering offers is not inferior to colorful French or Belgian cuisine.

We recommend visiting a cafe with cats where you can have a tasty snack and recharge with positive emotions, try 40 types of chocolate in the Gourmet Samosh house. But you can dine “on a grand scale” in a restaurant with a Michelin star (focus on 20-40 € for a main course). There are establishments with national cuisine, focused on budget tourists.

Where to go from Budapest for 1 day

For travelers who decide to explore the surroundings of Budapest on their own, we offer a small checklist that will help you organize your trips properly. In addition to energetic Budapest, you can go to Hungary to more secluded places – to the legendary island, to the homeland of the king or to colorful villages. It is important to choose the right destinations where to go from Budapest in order to have time to see all the beauties of the country – from the grandeur of St. Martin’s Cathedral to the natural magic of Lake Balaton.


Hungary warmly welcomes guests, and is always ready to offer good places where to go “from modern times to the Middle Ages.”

Szentendre is an incredible museum city, because wherever you turn you can find out a lot of interesting facts about the Hungarians. Take a look at the marzipan museum, and then ceramics, spend a couple of hours at the wine museum and be sure to buy beautiful works of local artists as a keepsake.

Aggtelek National Park

Near Budapest, where we advise you to go, it is spread over 200 sq. km. National park, which is included in the UNESCO heritage list. Slowly strolling through the park, you can see the unique flora and fauna, and a trip to the Baradla cave will be an exciting adventure.


Just 30 km from Budapest, we suggest going on an excursion to the Gödelle Palace, the residence of the Austrian monarchs. You can get here by bus or by car from Budapest in just 20-30 minutes. The beautiful building is wrapped in graceful gardens and parks, so it will be interesting to spend a day here, slowly peering into every detail of the building.


We recommend that you go not far from Budapest to a resort with the purest thermal waters. It is noteworthy that the water temperature here is always equal to 24-25°C. Swimming in the mineral waters of Lake Heviz and mud baths will be a pleasant bonus of traveling around Hungary.


Szekesfehervar is the first capital of Hungary, the site of dozens of coronations, and today a suburb of Budapest, where it is better to go for the weekend. Each building, temple or cathedral here is reminiscent of the state significance of the city – the “power” on Voroshkhaz Square, Bori Castle and the Cathedral of St. Istvan.


The island in the middle of Lake Balaton attracts romantics and nature lovers.

On a small area (12 km), the Tihany Abbey rises majestically, where the kings of Hungary are buried. Excursions here are paid, the cheapest way is to visit the island with a group for 60 €. And if you want an individual romantic walk around the abbey, prepare 275 €.


It is worth taking the bus to Pécs, the cultural capital of Europe. The most notable place here is the squares: Széchenyi, where you can see the column of the Holy Trinity, Belvaros Church, Kossuth, where you can climb the Town Hall or see the Synagogue, Domskaya with the main decoration – the Cathedral of St. Peter and Paul.

Pannonhalma Abbey

From Budapest you can go on an excursion to the oldest European abbey, which is the second largest in the world. It includes an ancient monastery and a basilica. Not only the square is surprising here, but also the combination of different styles of architecture that reminds of past centuries, the presence of a rich library.


It is worth going for 2 days from Budapest to the capital of neighboring Slovakia. In such a short time, you can explore the main square, spend time in a cozy cafe on Franciscan Square, and then look into the Slovak Folk Theater. Be sure to take a walk to the castle over the Danube and go back to the 14th century through the Michal Gate.


The good transport connection of Budapest with other capitals beckons to leave for a day in Vienna. Even for a weekend spent in the homeland of Mozart, it is doomed to bring real pleasure from walking along the old streets.

Take a bike and set off towards the beautiful temples, amazing sculptures and memorable parks of the Austrian capital.

Budapest Travel Guide

Vietnam in November

Vietnam in November

Travel destinations and travel itineraries expand their boundaries every year, offering amazing places. Vietnam is one of the few Asian countries that can offer tours for every taste in the last month of autumn. Therefore, in order to choose where it is better to go to Vietnam in November, it is important to understand what you expect from the trip.

We have studied the reviews about this incredible country and offer an overview of popular cities in Vietnam, where it is better to relax on the beach in November, and where hiking in the mountains will become a vivid memory of a lifetime.

Is it worth going in November?

A trip to Vietnam in late autumn will be a great cultural discovery even for those who have been here before. An extensive recreation program will help you plan a route where to go to Vietnam in November. You can:

  1. touch the wild and see real life in a typical fishing village;
  2. go on excursions to temples and ancient sights;
  3. see ancient outlandish buildings and castles;
  4. attend holidays and festivals.

To appreciate the natural scenery, framed by the majestic snowy peaks, it is worth noting the mountainous regions. On the eve of winter, people come here to improve their health at the thermal springs. The southern coast, where it is better to relax in Vietnam in November at sea, will delight you with sunbathing on comfortable sandy beaches.

Weather: air and sea water temperature

The weather in Vietnam in November defines the boundaries of individual zones of the coast of the South China Sea, where it is comfortable to relax, and where it is better to postpone travel. The level of precipitation and high air temperature here do not depend on the time of year.

The beginning of November in the south of Vietnam is a paradise for beach lovers. The air temperature reaches 35ºС. The tourist season is just beginning here, but the sea is already quite well warmed up. From mid-October to early November, a cyclone of rains and typhoons passes in the central part.

Resorts: where to go?

The resorts of Vietnam offer tourists a pleasant vacation by the sea, original research routes, colorful holidays and unusual cuisine, exotic seasonal fruits and hundreds of unforgettable experiences. Local architecture and cultural customs involve a real adventure, and walks along the ancient streets and bazaars will slightly open the curtain of ancient mysteries and secrets.


Unusual exotic nature in Dalat is closely intertwined with local customs and culture. It will be interesting here not only for those who are used to mountain hikes to waterfalls, but also for lovers of beautiful parks and unique landscapes.

We recommend visiting the famous Hang Nga Museum Hotel, made in an outlandish form, the summer palace of the last emperor Bao Dai. Surrounded by lush colors of flowers and plants, a huge statue of the Golden Buddha rises on the mountain.


Da Nang in November is a place for brave tourists, real adventurers. At this time, a calm beach holiday is replaced by numerous rains, the sea is restless, muddy with large waves. Despite the special weather conditions, Da Nang attracts tourists with excellent service and comfortable hotels. The cost of rest is high, but justified.

Nha Trang

Nyachag is perfect for families with children. The local amusement park Winpearl is the largest in all of Asia. The variety and quality of attractions is not inferior to Disneyland in August in Paris. For adults, the resort also has many interesting offers: you can go surfing, ride an elephant, visit monkey island or Neptune’s palace.

Phan Thiet

Phan Thiet can offer you to swim in the warm sea, take a break from the bustle of the city. The cost of tours to this small resort town is low, there are relatively few tourists. This is a great place for those who are looking for “recharging” for the body – sunbathing, soft sand and calm nature with a light rustle of waves will help you relax.

Phu Quoc

The tropical island of Phu Quoc in November is famous for the best beaches. Rest here will be many times cheaper than on the coast of the Gulf of Thailand in November, when it is better to relax in Thailand. This area is well suited for exploring the real, untouched culture of the Vietnamese. We recommend heading to the floating village of Rush Vem to feel the color and taste the local cuisine made from fresh seafood.

Things to do in Vietnam

In November, where you can go not only for a carefree beach holiday, but also amazing excursions and tours, feel free to go with the whole family. In attractive tropical surroundings, you can visit ancient temples, parks and natural mineral springs, go surfing or spend an unforgettable weekend in the largest amusement park in Asia.

Beach holiday

For a quiet and carefree beach holiday, we recommend the islands in the south of Vietnam, where you can go to the sea in late October or early November inexpensively. Rush Vem Beach is one of the most popular destinations and will be remembered for its azure waters, white sand and of course beautiful red starfish. Beaches in Halong Bay, Long Beach and Bai Sao are also comfortably equipped.

Entertainment and excursions

Vietnam offers unusual excursions and tours for guests of the country:

  1. to a snake or crocodile farm;
  2. kayaking in the caves of Halong Bay;
  3. to a pearl farm;
  4. to ancient temples and museums of history.

You will be able to see the wild tropical nature, feel the cheerful energy of the locals in small fishing villages. Large cities, in turn, will surprise you with a developed tourist infrastructure and high service in hotels.

Holidays and festivals

According to topschoolsintheusa, there are few holidays in November in Vietnam. We invite you to visit Ok Om Bok festival. Here you will be able to see the grandiose action when the fishermen ask the gods of the sea to increase their catch. In such an environment, it is easy to feel the culture and traditions of the locals.

Vietnam in November

France Attractions

France Attractions

Lascaux cave paintings

The Lascaux cave paintings were accidentally discovered by teenagers in 1940. They are among the best and oldest evidence of prehistoric art. The 15,000-year-old depictions of bulls, horses and reindeer led visitor Pablo Picasso to state: “We have learned nothing new”. In Montignac you can admire a scale reproduction of the unique Lascaux cave paintings. The caves themselves had to be closed to visitors because the humidity was too high and the added stress of tens of thousands of visitors threatened to destroy the masterpieces.

  • Guides to study in France, including geography, climate, economy, and tourism of the country.


Marseille was founded by the Greeks (they called it Massilia) and from here they colonized the Rhone Valley. Marseille was the European Capital of Culture in 2013. Today Marseille is France’s most important port city. The city on the Mediterranean has a character that is shaped by Provence and North Africa. The old port with a daily fish market, the Notre-Dame-de-la-Garde church built on a hill, many good restaurants (seafood dominate the menu), several museums such as the Musée des Beaux-Arts and the Hospice de la Vieille Charité, which houses the Musée d’Archéologie Méditerranéenne and of course the Château d’If, one of France’s most notorious island fortresses, are interesting sights. The Musée Regards de Provence is new.

Biarritz and Bayonne

Biarritz and Bayonne are resort towns on the Aquitaine-Basque coast near the Spanish border. The city has been known as a cosmopolitan spa resort since the 19th century, when Biarritz was in vogue with the European aristocracy. There are some sheltered beaches, the Musée de la Mer and two large casinos. Further inland, a few kilometers from Biarritz, is Bayonne, a typically Basque town. A 13th-century cathedral and two museums – one dedicated to Basque culture – make up the main attractions.

World of wines

In France, wine lovers have countless opportunities to tailor their culinary journey to the enjoyment of wine. A good start into the world of French wines is, for example, via the picturesque and famous Alsatian wine route. The wine villages near Mâcon in southern Burgundy are also recommended. The wines of Roussillon, Provence and Corsica taste sun-kissed. The “good life” attracts many tourists to the wine-growing regions of Aquitaine and Bergerac. You should also have taken part in a wine tasting in the Loire Valley. The Marne Valley between Ferté-sous-Jouarre and Epernay is one of the prettiest valleys in France. Vineyards and orchards cover the slopes and fields of corn and sunflowers sway in the valleys.


Chamonix is ​​a magnet for winter sports fans, in summer also for hikers and mountaineers. Chamonix is ​​one of the most outstanding ski areas in France. Active vacationers get their money’s worth here. But even those who like to sit back, relax and enjoy the view will have all their expectations met with the backdrop of Mont Blanc.

Skiing in the Alps

The French Alps are home to some of Europe’s most famous ski resorts such as Courchevel, Val-d’Isère, Méribel and L’Alpe d’Huez. The entire region is vast, offering plenty of choice for skiers of all skill levels.

Watch a game of boules

Boule is as much a French tradition as French cuisine. The boule game, also called pétanque, is usually played by old men in concentrated silence in public places. They try to throw their metal balls as close as possible to a target ball.


Fishing is a popular sport in France. Whether deep sea fishing, digging for mussels and other wildlife on the mud flats, or bathing a lure in a lake, fishing is in the French blood. For fishing in inland waters, however, you do not need a fishing license for sea fishing in France. There are plenty of lakes, rivers and streams, and the natural fishing areas in the Auvergne and Pyrenees are particularly popular.


This sun-drenched region of the south-west, with its fresh Atlantic sea air, includes the departments of Dordogne, Gironde, Landes, Lot-et-Garonne and Pyrénées-Atlantiques. On the coast, a total of 270 km of beaches invite you to swim. The approximately 30 km long coastline between Hossegor and Hendaye in the French Basque country is one of the best areas in Europe for surfers. In the Dordogne (as in the neighboring Lot), Cro-Magnon man, who lived in prehistoric times, has left its mark. Not only the cave paintings of Lascaux bear witness to this, but also other prehistoric sites in the Vézère valley. The medieval castles and villages in the Dordogne are also absolutely worth seeing.

France Attractions

British Columbia, Canada

British Columbia, Canada


According to topschoolsintheusa, the westernmost province of Canada, British Columbia is vast and of incredible natural beauty and diversity. Outdoor enthusiasts will absolutely love the endless opportunities for hiking, tubing, sailing and skiing, to name just a few activities. Everywhere in British Columbia, breathtaking mountains soar against vast blue skies, and long stretches of rocky coastline are part of the landscape, along with sandy beaches, wineries, orchards, forests and snow-fed lakes. In the southern Okanagan region is even Canada’s only desert, Osoyoos, home to rattlesnakes, scorpions and prickly pear cactus. If you are looking for untouched nature, British Columbia is the right place for you. It has seven national parks and numerous provincial parks. The cities of British Columbia also have a lot to offer, especially Vancouver with its countless galleries, museums and bars. But even in this big city, you’re never too far from nature, as the enormous Stanley Park, Canada’s largest urban park, feels more like a wooded area than a North American metropolis.

Getting there

Arriving by plane

Lufthansa (LH) flies non-stop from Frankfurt and Munich, Edelweiss Air (WK) flies directly from Zurich to Vancouver. Air Canada (AC) flies from Zurich to Vancouver in summer. A variety of major and minor airlines operate within the province of British Columbia; These include Air Canada (AC), American Airlines (AA) and Central Mountain Air (9M).

Departure fee

An Airport Improvement Fee (AIF) is payable at most Canadian airports. For British Columbia, this is C$5. For more information see Getting to Canada.

Arrival by car

The Trans-Canada Highway comes from Calgary, Alberta and runs through the south of the province to Vancouver. The other major highways are Highways 3, 5, 6, 16, 95, and 97. With the exception of Highway 97, which leads north into the Yukon Territory, most of the roads are in the south of the province. There are good road connections to Seattle/USA. Long-distance bus: The route network of Greyhound USA, a subsidiary of Flixbus, includes services from Vancouver to Seattle (USA). There are also a number of regional bus companies such as Translink, BC Transit and Gray Line. Toll: There are no toll roads. However, for the Portman Bridge and the Golden Ears Bridge, both crossing the Fraser River in the greater Vancouver area, to pay tolls. The toll is automatically recorded via the license plate; the registered keeper pays the fee online. Documents: The German national driving license is valid for 6 months in Canada. However, it is recommended that you carry your international driver’s license with you. All other nationalities require the International Driving Permit. The German national driving license is valid for 6 months in Canada. However, it is recommended that you carry your international driver’s license with you. All other nationalities require the International Driving Permit. The German national driving license is valid for 6 months in Canada. However, it is recommended that you carry your international driver’s license with you. All other nationalities require the International Driving Permit.

Arrival by train

Amtrak Cascades trains operate the Vancouver, BC – Seattle (WA) – Tacoma (WA) – Portland (OR) – Salem (OR) – Eugene (OR) international route. Journey time: 10 hr 25 min VIA Rail Canada serves the following routes into and within British Columbia: Edmonton – Prince Rupert via Jasper, Alberta; Edmonton – Vancouver via Jasper (Alberta); Toronto – Vancouver (several times weekly, The Canadian) via Winnipeg, Saskatoon and Edmonton. The Rocky Mountaineer connects Vancouver to Jasper, Banff and Calgary in the province of Alberta. The Jasper-Prince Rupert train takes you from Jasper via Prince George to Prince Rupert on the Pacific Coast. For more information, contact VIA Rail.

rail passes

The Canrailpass and Canrailpass – Corridor are also valid in British Columbia. For more information on Rail Passes, contact Via Rail Canada or CRD, or see Canada – Local Mobility.

Arrival by ship

Vancouver is an international passenger port with regular service to ports on the North Shore of the United States and the Far East.

Ferry provider

The largest shipping company is Washington State Ferries, which connects Victoria with Seattle (USA), Port Townsend (USA) and Port Angeles (USA), among others. Southern Gulf Islands, Northern Gulf Islands, and the Alaska Marine Highway System operate ferries between British Columbia’s coastal cities and on the inland waterways. British Columbia Ferries offer car and passenger service from Tsawwassen (outside Vancouver) to Swartz Bay (Victoria); also the route from Port Hardy (on the northern tip of Vancouver Island) to Prince Rupert from June to September. Clipper Vacations operate a passenger ferry service from Victoria to Seattle (USA) several times a day with their Victoria Clipper, a high-speed catamaran (journey time: 2 hrs 45 mins). For more information, contact BC Ferries at 1-888-223-3779 or The Ferry Traveler at 1-800-686-0446 (within North America), 1-604-733-9113 (outside North America). The luxury ferry V2V Vacations connects Vancouver with Victoria.

Passport and visa regulations

Entry with children

Since June 27, 2012, children need their own travel document (passport / children’s passport) for trips abroad (also within the EU). Entries of children in the parental passport are no longer possible.



Mainly English.

Public Holidays


As in the rest of Canada, plus:

Contact addresses

Tourism British Columbia (Corporate Communications)

c/o Marketing Service International (MSI)

(also responsible for Austria and Switzerland)

Frankfurter Strasse 175
Neu-Isenburg, Germany
+49 (6102) 88 47 9-0 DestinationBritish Columbia

c/o MSI – Marketing Services International GmbH

(also responsible for Austria and Switzerland)

Frankfurter Strasse 175
+49 (6102) 88 47 9-0. Tourism British Columbia (brochure distribution)

c/o Marketing Services International GmbH (MSi)

(also responsible for Austria and Switzerland)

Frankfurter Strasse 175
+49 (6102) 88 47 9-0.


Business contacts

Ministry of Economic Development Office Ste 730 999 Canada Place, Vancouver, BC V6C 3E1 Tel: (604) 660 24 21 Email: [email protected] Web:



In the larger cities you will find top restaurants, nightclubs and bars. Vancouver has an excellent theater scene. Good entertainment programs are also offered in the hotels.



British Columbia’s cuisine is heavily influenced by English tradition. The Pacific offers a wide variety of seafood, including king prawns (deep sea crabs), oysters, shrimp and other shellfish, as well as cod, haddock and salmon (various types) served smoked, fried, breaded, baked or grilled and served with local vegetables. The fruits of the province are apples, peaches, pears, plums, strawberries, blackberries, Bing cherries (a type of cherry) and loganberries. The famous Victoria Creams chocolates are made from a recipe dating back to 1885 and are sold worldwide. Drinks: In the Okanagan Valley, sparkling wine is pressed, and all common alcoholic beverages are widely available in licensed restaurants, inns and bars. Taverns are open until 1am, bars and cabarets until 2am. The minimum age for purchasing alcohol is 19 years.



The offer ranges from top hotels in Victoria and Vancouver to motels on the side of the highway in the south to simple mountain cabins in the Rocky Mountains. Vacation homes and bungalows are primarily available on Vancouver Island. In the central Cariboo Chilcotin region, “ranch vacations” are very popular. Information is available from Old English B&B Registry, 1226 Silverwood Crescent, North Vancouver, British Columbia V7P 1J3. (tel: (604) 986 50 69) or the Western Canada Bed and Breakfast Innkeepers Guild, PO Box 74534, 2803 West 4th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V6K 4P4. (Web: The Tourist Office’s annual guide lists guesthouses and other accommodation options. Categories: The blue Approved Accommodations sign indicates that the hotel’s standard is verified by the Ministry of Tourism. Contact Tourism British Columbia or the Hotels Association, British Columbia & Yukon Hotels Association, 2nd Floor, 948 Howe Street, Vancouver, British Columbia V6Z 1N9 for details. (Tel: (604) 681 71 64. Web: Contact Tourism British Columbia or the Hotels Association, British Columbia & Yukon Hotels Association, 2nd Floor, 948 Howe Street, Vancouver, British Columbia V6Z 1N9 for details. (Tel: (604) 681 71 64. Web: Contact Tourism British Columbia or the Hotels Association, British Columbia & Yukon Hotels Association, 2nd Floor, 948 Howe Street, Vancouver, British Columbia V6Z 1N9 for details. (Tel: (604) 681 71 64. Web:


There are nearly 10,000 campgrounds in the state’s 150 parks, most of which have no hook-ups for trailers. Some of the parks have been designated as Nature Conservancy Areas where motorized vehicles are prohibited. The scenic diversity of the campsites ranges from sandy beaches that can be driven on by car to islands and glaciers that can only be reached by boat or plane. Max. stay per pitch is 14 days. Reservations are not accepted. Some rental car companies rent fully equipped campers. For details see accommodation in main entry Canada, or from British Columbia Lodging & Campgrounds Association, Suite 209, 3003 St. John’s Street, Port Moody, British Columbia V3H 2C4. (Phone:


Best travel time

British Columbia is one of the warmest provinces in Canada with pleasantly warm summers and mild winters. Only in the Rocky Mountains is there a lot of snowfall.

Country data

Area (sq km)




Population density (per square km)


Population statistics year


British Columbia, Canada

Italy Figures and Facts

Italy Figures and Facts

Official name: Italian Republic

State structure: republic. Head of State – President

Capital: Rome

Territory: 301.2 thousand square meters km

Geographical position: The country is located in the south of Europe. It occupies the Apennine Peninsula, the islands of Sicily and Sardinia, as well as many small islands. It borders: with France – in the west, with Austria and Switzerland – in the north, with Slovakia – in the northeast. It is washed by the waters of the Tyrrhenian Sea – in the west, the Adriatic – in the east, the Mediterranean – in the south. See Countryvv for labor market in Italy.

The main rivers are the Po and the Tiber. Italy is predominantly a mountainous country: its north is occupied by the southern slopes of the Alps, where the highest peak in Europe Mont Blanc (4807 m) is located; to the south – the Padana plain, on the peninsula – the mountains of the Apennines (the highest point of the city of Korno is 2914 m).

There are two tiny states in Italy : the Vatican and the Republic of San Marino.

Climate: There are three climatic zones in Italy. In the mountainous regions (Alps and Apennines), winters are cold and summers are not hot. In the vicinity of Milan, the climate is moderately warm. In the rest of Italy, winters are quite mild, dry and hot summers are softened by a light sea breeze (its influence is most noticeable on the coast of the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas). In the south, in the mainland and on the islands, including Sicily, the climate is subtropical.

Population: 58050 thousand people (as of 1998)

Ethnic composition of the population: Italians – 98%, Friuli – 1.9%. In addition, 300,000 Austrians, 120,000 Albanians, 100,000 Slovenes, 90,000 French, 50,000 Jews, and others live in the country. The vast majority of the population professes Catholicism.

Official language: Italian. In hotels, restaurants, tourist centers, as a rule, you can explain yourself in English and French. German is understood in ski resorts and in the resorts of the northern Adriatic. Any, even the most awkward, attempts to communicate in Italian will be met with enthusiasm.

Official holidays: January 1 – New Year, January 6 – Epiphany, April 25 – Liberation Day from fascism, May 1 – Labor Day, the first Sunday of June – Republic Proclamation Day, August 15 – Assumption, November 1 – All Saints Day, November 4 – National Unity Day, December 8 – Immaculate Conception, December 25 – Christmas, December 26 – St. Stephen’s Day. Holiday with variable date – Easter Monday.

Monetary unit: euro. Currency exchange can be done in banks, in a hotel (the exchange rate is not very favorable), at the airport. Easy to use credit cards.

Geographical position

Italy is located in southern Europe in the central Mediterranean. In the north, Italy borders on Switzerland and Austria, in the east – on Slovenia, in the northwest – on France and is washed by the waters of four seas – the Adriatic in the east, in the south – the Ionian, in the west – the Tyrrhenian and Ligurian. Italy owns the islands – Sicily, Sardinia, Elba and several small islands. The territory of the country stretches from north to south for more than 1100 km and consists of 23% of valleys (river and coastal), 35% of mountains (Alps and Apennines) and 42% of hills of various heights.

Two independent states are also located on the territory of the Apennine Peninsula: the Vatican and San Marino.

About 57.3 million people live in Italy; hence the population density of 195 people per sq. km. The most densely populated areas are Lombardy, Campania, Lazio, Sicily, Piedmont and Veneto.

History of Italy

1000 BC e. – Tribes of Ligurians, Etruscans, Italics, Latins, Sabines lived on the territory of the country.

754 BC e. – Founding of the city of Rome by the Latins.

290 BC e. – Rome subjugated the territory of Central Italy.

265 BC e. – victory over the Greek commander Pyrrhus (“Pyrrhic victory”) and the conquest of southern Italy by Rome.

264-241 BC e. – I Punic War with Carthage. Rome received the islands of Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia.

216 BC e. – During the II Punic War, the Carthaginian commander Hannibal crossed the Alps and inflicted a crushing defeat on the Romans at the Battle of Cannae.

202 BC e. – Hannibal’s army was defeated by the Roman commander Scipio in the battle of Zama. Rome received the territory of Spain.

168 BC e. The Romans conquered the Balkan Peninsula.

158 BC e. – the expansion of the power of Rome to Asia Minor and Syria.

149-146 BC e. – III Punic War, which ended with the complete destruction of Carthage.

88-79 years BC e. Sulla’s dictatorship.

73-71 years BC e. – slave uprising led by Spartacus.

58-51 years BC. – Julius Caesar’s conquest of Gaul (modern France).

49-45 years BC e. – civil war and the victory of Julius Caesar. The decisive battle with Pompey was won at Pharsalae in 48 BC. e.

44 BC e. – the murder in Rome of J. Caesar.

31 BC e. – the defeat of the fleet of Antony and Cleopatra by Octavian at Cape Actions.

30 BC e – accession to Rome of Egypt. Octavian becomes Emperor Augustus and Rome becomes an empire.

Beginning of the 1st century – Roman conquest of Palestine and Judea.

43 – The Romans captured Britain.

106 – Rome subjugated the Dacians (modern Romania).

395 – division of the Roman Empire into Western and Eastern (Byzantium).

410 – for the first time, the barbarians took and sacked Rome (the Visigoths, led by King Alaric).

455 – sack of Rome by vandals, destruction of many works of art.

476 – the leader of the Germanic tribes Odoacer overthrew the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, Romulus Augustulus. Rome ceases to be the capital of the world.

488 – The Ostrogoths invaded Italy and founded their kingdom here.

554 – Byzantium established its rule in Italy.

774 – Italy is conquered by the Frankish emperor Charlemagne.

962 – campaigns in Italy of the German king Otto I. Formation of the Holy Roman Empire.

12th century – The Normans captured southern Italy and Sicily, forming the Kingdom of Sicily.

1559 – The Spaniards took possession of Sardinia and northern Italy.

1714 – the territory of northern Italy came under the rule of Austria.

1720 – formation of the Italian Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont).

1796-1814 – Napoleon’s reign over Italy.

1799 – Suvorov’s Italian campaign.

1860 – J. Garibaldi’s expedition to the south of the country and the liberation of Sicily from the Austrians.

1861 – Formation of a unified Italian kingdom under the scepter of the King of Piedmont, Victor Emmanuel II.

1866 expulsion of the Austrians from Venice.

1915 entry into World War I on the side of the Entente.

1919 – under a peace treaty, Italy received South Tyrol and Istria with the city of Trieste. The beginning of the fascist movement B. Mussolini.

1922 – “march on Rome” of the Italian fascists. Mussolini becomes prime minister (actually dictator of Italy).

1929 – Lateran agreements with the pope on the formation in the territory of Rome of the papal state of the Vatican.

1939 – “Steel Pact” about an alliance with Nazi Germany. Intervention of Italian troops in Albania.

1940 – Italy’s entry into World War II.

1943 – landing of Anglo-American troops in Sicily. Italy withdraws from the war by signing an armistice agreement. Entry into the country of German troops.

1945 – Mussolini’s execution and the end of the war in Italy.

1947 – As a result of a referendum, Italy is proclaimed a republic. Under the peace treaty, the country lost all colonies and territories in the Balkans. The city of Trieste is allocated to the free zone of the OO N.

1949 – Italy joins NATO.

1964 – reunification of the city of Trieste with the Italian Republic.

1983-1986 – active actions of the Italian government against the “Red Brigades” and the mafia.

Italy Figures and Facts

Why Vietnam?

Why Vietnam?

Or 12 reasons for your trip to Vietnam

  1. 1. Vietnam is a country with an ancient history and culture, a huge number of valuable historical monuments, a diverse landscape and 3,000 km of coastline of the rich South China Sea. The cleanest beaches with white and golden sand, with crystal clear water. The maximum level of service. For photo lovers, Vietnam is a fantasy world with its unforgettable scenery of mountainous areas, coffee plantations, beaches, Halong Bay.
  2. You can go to Vietnam all year round, the air temperature at the most popular resorts is 28 degrees all year round.
  3. The choice of hotels in Vietnam is huge. Hotels 3 * -4 * -5 * + excellent staff, kind, smiling. All ranges of entertainment from elephant riding, visits to snake restaurants, skydiving, fishing, to bowling and casinos.
  4. The cheapness of everything. The value for money for Vietnam clearly outweighs quality, including hotel service and souvenirs: items made of silk and rare wood, mother-of-pearl and silver.
  5. The cheapest diving in the world. First-class instructors and a complete diving kit cost you much less than the hyped resorts and flora, the fauna of the South China Sea with coral reefs, fabulous fish of various colors, if you’re lucky, and shells with pearls.
  6. According to our tourists, Vietnamese cuisine is the most delicious in the world. If desired, you can also taste fried frog legs and sea snails boiled with ginger, and wrap beautiful, colored shells after them in a bag, they will decorate your favorite place in your house.
  7. In Vietnam, Russians are treated differently. For the Vietnamese, the Russians are still great friends.
  8. In Vietnam, you can not only have a good rest, but also cure various diseases using the methods of oriental medicine. The famous natural springs of warm mineral water (water temperature 40 degrees) with excellent healing properties of Binchau are waiting for you all year round.
  9. Exotic Asia and Buddhism, what people are looking for in Japan, China, India, Thailand… You will find in Vietnam in abundance.
  10. On the way to Vietnam, you can stop for two days in Bangkok (Thailand) and see two countries in one trip.
  11. Vietnam is considered the safest tourist destination in Southeast Asia.
  12. You have traveled all over the world and now you want something unusual, where you could not only have a good rest, but also get a lot of new impressions. Or maybe you just love the exotic? Just love the East?

With us you will see the rocks of Ha Long, lakes and waterfalls of mountainous Vietnam, the golden beaches of Nha Trang and Phan Thiet. Taste exotic Vietnamese cuisine, discover untouched islands and the underwater world of the South China Sea.

With us you will go to the past of Royal Vietnam, visit the imperial gardens and ancient tombs, visit Buddhist temples.

All year round, hospitable world-class hotels, experienced Russian-speaking guides are waiting for you, ready to reveal to you the secrets of the magical world on the shores of the Pacific Ocean.

Every year Vietnam is visited by 2 million tourists from Japan, France, Germany, America and China.

Official name: Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Geographical position: Southeast Asia.
Area: 330.3 thousand square meters km.
Highest point: 3143 m (Mount Fansipan).
Main river: Hongha.
Population: 79.9 million people
Population density: 235.7 people per sq. km.
Official language: Vietnamese.
Main religion: Buddhism.
Capital: Hanoi (2.7 million people). Major cities: Ho Chi Minh City, Haiphong, Da Nang. Monetary unit: dong.

Capital of Vietnam

According to topschoolsintheusa, Hanoi is the capital of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. This beautiful green city is a real shrine for all Vietnamese and is the center of politics, economy, culture and trade of the whole country.
Length : 921 sq km
Population: 3,007,000
Administrative divisions :
– Districts: Hoan Kiem, Ba Dinh, Dong Da, Hai Ba Trung, Tay Ho, Thanh Xuan, Cau Giay, Long Bien, Hoang Mai
Ethnic groups : Vietnamese, Chinese.


The monetary unit of Vietnam is dong, equal to 10 hao and 100 sous.

In circulation are banknotes of the series, the release of which began in 1985, in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000, 10,000, 20,000, 50,000 and 100 000 dong. All denominations, starting from 50 dong, are issued in several modifications, all denominations, starting from 20 dong, are decorated with a portrait of Ho Chi Minh. The new banknotes have a fundamental difference from all previously issued ones: they are made on a polymer basis and have a set of anti-counterfeiting features typical for such banknotes. The largest denomination in the series will be 500,000 VND.

The portrait of Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969) is placed on the right side of the front side of the polymer banknote of 50,000 dong (2004 series), 140 x 65 mm in size, and the state emblem is on the left. The reverse side of the banknote depicts a pagoda in the park. The transparent window on the banknote has a portrait of Ho Chi Minh and the letters VN. The main colors used in the design of the banknote are lilac, red and violet.

Why Vietnam

Science and Culture of Myanmar

Science and Culture of Myanmar

According to topschoolsintheusa, the education system is financed from the state budget. Primary education (5-9 years) is free and compulsory. In 2000, 91% of children of the appropriate age attended schools. Secondary (10-13 years old) – free, optional, attended by 23% of children. Paid advanced secondary schools (14-19 years old) were attended by 5%. Vocational-technical and secondary specialized educational institutions exist throughout the country to train semi-skilled specialists for various branches of the economy, sometimes on the basis of secondary schools. The system of higher education includes universities of academic education – universities and institutes (17) and branch universities of the university level (14). In 1997, 341,000 students studied in the former, and 14,000 in the latter. Education is paid for 80% of students. The leading university is Rangoon University (14 thousand students). In the administrative and national regions, 12 colleges with a two-year education (50 thousand people) have been opened. Universities offer distance learning and postgraduate courses. Scientific research in the field of natural and technical sciences is carried out at Rangoon, Mandalay and Dagon universities, at the Research Institute of Agriculture, the Department of Medical Scientific Research. In the field of social and human sciences – at universities, the Archaeological Department, the Historical Commission of Myanmar, the Central Statistical Organization, the National Library. at the Research Institute of Agriculture, Department of Medical Research. In the field of social and human sciences – at universities, the Archaeological Department, the Historical Commission of Myanmar, the Central Statistical Organization, the National Library. at the Research Institute of Agriculture, Department of Medical Research. In the field of social and human sciences – at universities, the Archaeological Department, the Historical Commission of Myanmar, the Central Statistical Organization, the National Library.

The culture of Myanmar has developed under the influence of the two largest world civilizations – India and China and Theravada Buddhism. Buddhism is a way of life, it has influenced literature and art. The origins of traditional literature lie in the folklore and literature of the Buddhist canon. To this day, approx. 3 thousand temples and pagodas in the ancient capital of Pagan, the origin of written literature belongs to the Pagan period. Myanmar is famous for its golden and white pagodas, which are an integral part of the landscape, the most famous being the Shwedagon Pagoda in Yangon. Myanmar is one of the few countries in the world that has managed to preserve its identity and national culture.

Education of Myanmar

History and Education of Singapore

History and Education of Singapore

History of Singapore

The first reliable sources for the early history of Singapore are a Javanese epic poem from the 16th century. “Nagarakertagama” and the Malay chronicle of the 17th century. “Sejarah Melayu”. However, in the 3rd c. the mention of the island (“Pulouchun Island”) is found in the Chinese chronicle. The Chinese name “Pulouchun” is consonant with the Malay “Pulau Ujong”, which means “island at the tip of the peninsula.” The name of the island in Sanskrit – Singapore (“City of the Lion”) was widely used in con. 14th c. Then he was involved in a fierce struggle between Siam (modern Thailand) and the Javanese Majapahit empire, which controlled the Malay Peninsula, part of Sumatra and other islands of the Indonesian archipelago. The settlement on the island had a Malay name – Tumasik. In the beginning. 15th c. became part of the Malacca Sultanate, founded by the Sumatran prince Parameswara.

Starting from the 16th century. Southeast Asia becomes the object of the colonial expansion of the European powers. The Portuguese were the first to appear on the Malay Peninsula and the adjacent islands. In 1511, they captured Malacca, turning it into the main stronghold, guarding trade dominance on the sea route from India to China, to the “Spice Islands”. Singapore came under the control of the Sultanate of Johor, a new Malay state that emerged after the fall of Malacca. The rulers of Johor waged a fierce struggle with the Portuguese. However, in 1587 the Portuguese managed to capture the capital of the Sultanate, and then destroy its port on the island of Singapore. The city fell into complete desolation, and the island became a haven for sea pirates.

In the second floor. 18th century the British, expanding their possessions in India and trade with China, felt the need to create strongholds in the East Indies region in order to ensure the interests of their merchant fleet and counteract the expansion of the Netherlands in this area. To this end, they created their own trading posts in Penang (1786), in Malacca, recaptured from the Dutch in 1796, and in Singapore (1819). In the beginning. In 1819, Stamford Raffles, the governor of Bengkulen, the British possession in Sumatra, arrived on the island; he concluded an agreement with the Sultanate of Johor to establish a trading post in Singapore. During 1820–24, British possessions were formalized: first by agreement with the Netherlands (1824), then by agreement with the Johor Sultanate, which ceded the island for a large financial reward and the payment of a significant pension to the sultan. In 1826 Singapore,

The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 gave Singapore a powerful impetus to develop as one of the world’s most important commercial ports. The island has become a major processing and export center for natural rubber produced in neighboring Malaya. At the same time, there was an intensive influx of population, it increased 8 times, amounting to approx. 80 thousand people in 1913.

During World War II, Singapore was occupied by Japanese troops. The British authorities returned to the island in September 1945.

In April 1946, Singapore received the status of a crown colony and was separated from Malaya, and in 1959 it was proclaimed a self-governing state. In May of that year, general elections were held and the first fully elected Legislative Assembly was formed. The People’s Action Party (PAP) won the election. Its leader, Lee Kuan Yew, became the first prime minister.

In September 1963, Singapore joined the Federation of Malaysia along with Malaya and the British possessions in North Kalimantan. However, sharp contradictions between the Malay and Chinese political elites on the problem of the socio-ethnic construction of a new state led to the fact that in August 1965 Singapore was forced to leave the Federation. On August 9 of the same year, it was proclaimed an independent state. He was accepted as a member of the UN and the Commonwealth of Nations.

Science and culture of Singapore

According to searchforpublicschools, the system of free primary and secondary education is designed for 10 years and is aimed at mastering English and native languages, as well as basic knowledge in the exact sciences, mainly in mathematics. Graduation classes provide for specialization in the exact and humanitarian areas. Primary and secondary education is free.

Institutions of higher education are the National University of Singapore (founded in 1980 through the merger of the University of Singapore and Nanyang University); Nanyang Technological University (founded in 1991); Singapore Institute of Management (founded in 1964 as a private university); Institute of Southeast Asia, a leading center for studying the problems of regional security, socio-economic development of Southeast Asia; Singapore Polytechnic (founded in 1954 to train mid-level engineering and management personnel).

Cultural life is patronized by the National Arts Council. The Council provides funding for creative teams, plans the repertoire of theaters and organizes relevant competitions. The National Council manages four theatres: the Victoria Theatre, the Drama Centre, the Kallang Theatre, and the Singapore Convention Centre. It also leases buildings and premises to various amateur creative groups and associations. The country has a professional Singapore Symphony Orchestra.

There are the National Archives, the National Museum and the National Library.

Festivals of national arts (Chinese, Malay, Tamil) are held annually, usually timed to coincide with traditional and religious holidays.

Education of Singapore

State Structure and Political System of Tunisia

State Structure and Political System of Tunisia

According to microedu, Tunisia is a republic, the Constitution of 1959 (with subsequent amendments) is in force. The head of state is the president, who is both the head of the executive branch and also the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The President must be no younger than 40 and no older than 70 years old, elected by universal direct and secret ballot for a term of 5 years and can be re-elected for another 2 terms. The president can accept the resignation of the government on the proposal of the prime minister, if it is approved by 2/3 of the votes of the members of parliament, and also dissolve the parliament, after which new parliamentary elections are held.

In the event of the President’s inability, the President of the Chamber of Deputies (now Fuad Mbazaa) acts as Acting Head of State for a period of 45 to 60 days, after which a new presidential election must be held. The speaker of parliament cannot run for president.

Executive power is exercised by the President and the government (now Prime Minister Mohammed Ghannouchi).

The judicial and legal system is based on the French system of law and Islamic law (Sharia). It includes the Court of Cassation in Tunisia, which consists of three civil and one criminal divisions. Tunisia, Sousse and Sfax have courts of appeal. There are 13 courts of first instance in the country. There are cantonal courts in 51 districts. The legal capacity of citizens comes when they reach the age of 20.

Administratively, the country is divided into 23 provinces (vilayets): Ariana, Beja, Ben-Arus, Bizerte, El-Kef, Gabes, Gafsa, Jendouba, Za-guan, Kairouan, Kasserine, Kebili, Mahdia, Medenine, Monastir, Nabeul, Sfax, Sidi Bou Zid, Siliana, Sousse, Tataouine, Touzar, Tunisia. The provinces are divided into delegations. The provinces are governed by governors appointed by the president on the proposal of the minister of the interior; in delegations, muatamads (delegates) are appointed by the minister of interior; in sheikhats, sheikhs (headmen). The governors have advisory bodies – councils consisting of 10-30 members. In communes with a municipal structure, there are municipal councils elected for 5 years.

The party composition of the parliament: Democratic Constitutional Association (DKO) – 148, Movement of Democrats-Socialists (DDS) – 13, Democratic Unionist Union (DYuS) – 7, Popular Unity Party (PNU) – 7, Renewal Movement – 5, Social Liberal Party (SLP) – 2. Total – 182 deputies.

The armed forces of Tunisia consist of the army, navy, air force, paramilitaries and the National Guard. Conscription into the Armed Forces is carried out from the age of 20 years, the term of service is 12 months. Military spending – $356 million (1.5% of GDP) (1999).

Regular armed forces number 35 thousand people, incl. Land 27 thousand, Navy 4.5 thousand, Air Force 3.5 thousand; National Guard 12 thousand; gendarmerie – 2 thousand people. (1999).

Tunisia has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR on July 11, 1956).

Economy of Tunisia

The economy of Tunisia includes the agricultural sector, mining, energy, tourism, manufacturing, transport, communications and services. GDP $64.5 billion ($600 per capita) (2001 est.). The share of sectors of the economy in the production of GDP: agriculture – 13%, industry – 33%, services – 54% (2000, estimate).

The economically active population is 2.69 million people. (2002, estimate).

In 1995-99 the average annual economic growth was 5-6%, in 2000-02 it was 5.4%. Inflation 2.7% (2001).

At the same time, the country maintains a high level of unemployment (according to official data, 15.6% of the economically active population), 6% of the population live below the poverty line.

State budget (2001, billion dollars): revenues – 5.7, expenditures – 6.3, including 1.5 capital expenditures.

Agricultural land in Tunisia is approx. 2/3 of the area of the country. The main crops are wheat, barley, corn, oats and sorghum. Fruits, grapes, olives, oranges and dates are grown in large quantities, which are also exported.

Fishing employs 60 thousand people. Its main center is Sfax, where the state has made major investments in the industry in recent years, including funds for the modernization of the fishing fleet, the renewal of approx. 30 fishing ports and research.

Tunisia has the most developed mining, manufacturing and energy industries. In 1998, the industry gave approx. 25% of GDP, it employed approx. 1/4 of the population.

For a long time, oil was the main source of Tunisia’s export earnings (in 1999, about 250 thousand tons of crude oil was produced in the country). From con. 1980s this role has shifted to textiles and food.

Tunisia ranks fourth in the world in terms of phosphate production (8 million tons were mined in 1999). Electricity production in 2000 was 10.3 billion kWh. The Miskar field provides more than 90% of all gas production (335 million m3 in 1999).

The textile and leather industries play a major role in production and export. In 1998, proceeds from the export of textile products amounted to 2950 million dinars, i.e. 45% of all export earnings.

The next most important industries are the production of steel, building materials, mechanical and electromechanical equipment, chemicals, paper and wood. Since the 1980s car assembly production is developing with the participation of European and American companies. Since 1992, plans have been implemented to create and develop a special high-tech offshore zone in Tunisia.

Particular attention is paid to the chemical industry. The main direction is the processing of phosphate rock into phosphate fertilizers and phosphoric acid. Paints, glue, detergents are also produced.

The length of roads is 23.1 thousand km (1997); 18.226 thousand km of roads are covered with asphalt or concrete. The total length of railways is 2170 km. There are 30 airports in the country, incl. 7 international. Tunisia has 7 main seaports. In total, Tunisia owns 16 sea transport vessels with a displacement of St. 1000 tons, and the entire merchant fleet (according to registration at the end of 1998) is 78 ships with a displacement of 193.5 thousand tons. In Tunisia, 797 km of pipelines for crude oil, 86 km for petroleum products and 742 km of gas pipelines were put into operation.

In order to bring the number of telephones in the country to 1 million, large investments were planned in the development of telephone communications. In 1998, the first global standard system for mobile phones was launched. In con. In 1998, the country’s telephone system had 734,000 subscribers.

Foreign trade (2001, billion US dollars): export – 6.6; import – 8.9. The main export commodities are textiles, manufactured goods, phosphates and chemicals, foodstuffs; imports – machinery, hydrocarbons, chemicals, foodstuffs.

Main export partners: France (28%), Italy (21%), Germany (14%), Belgium (6%), Libya (4%); imports: France (30%), Italy (21%), Germany (11%), Spain (4%) (2000).

Tourism income – 1950 million dinars (1999). The number of foreign tourists visiting Tunisia increased from 3.3 million in 1989 to 4.72 million in 1998. Approx. 2/3 of the tourists came from Europe, the rest – from the Maghreb countries.

Tunisia has 29 radio stations, 2.6 million radios (1998); 26 television stations (76 repeaters); 920 thousand TV sets (1997); 4 daily newspapers are published in Arabic and French with a total circulation of approx. 200 thousand copies, 16 periodicals. The Tunis Afrique Press news agency operates. 14 publishing houses are engaged in the release of various kinds of printed products.

Tunisia Politics

Population and History of New Zealand

Population and History of New Zealand

Population of New Zealand

The population is growing slowly (annual increase – 1.1%). 3/4 of the population is concentrated on the North Island with its more favorable climate and comfortable landscape, St. 85% – in cities, but mostly in their own homes with small plots. 75% of the population are Euro-New Zealanders (the local name is Shekha, mostly descendants of immigrants from the British Isles), 14% are Maori, 6% are Polynesians (immigrants from Samoa, the Cook Islands, who have special historically determined ties with New Zealand), and also Asians (Chinese, Vietnamese, Indians from Fiji). Due to the difference in the birth rate of ethnic groups and migration flows, the share of the European population is gradually falling. There is an outflow of Euro-New Zealanders, mainly to Australia, and an influx of people from Asia and Polynesia. New Zealand and Auckland are the country and city with the largest Polynesian population (expected to double by 2030) in the world. The majority of the population speaks English. After the approval in 1987 of the Maori language (Polynesian, close to the languages ​​of the inhabitants of the Cook Islands, Tahiti and Hawaiian Islands) as the second official language (can be used in various official cases, in particular in legal proceedings), efforts are being made to distribute it as an everyday language (it is free only 10 thousand Maori speak and about 150 thousand more speak it to varying degrees). Competently 99% of the adult population. Life expectancy (for Maori, 6-9 years less): men – 75 years, women – 81 years. Infant mortality 6 pers. per 1000 newborns.

1/3 of the population does not profess any religion. The vast majority of the rest are Christians. Among the large Protestant communities are Anglicans (24% of believers), Presbyterians (18%), Methodists (5%). Many Catholics (15%). The rest of the believers are divided into many small (1-2% of believers) Christian, Muslim, Buddhist and other (from Mormons to Ratan-Maori) communities.

History of New Zealand

According to localcollegeexplorer, the settlement of the country by the predecessors of the Maori – immigrants from Eastern Polynesia – began more than 1 thousand years ago in several waves. To the beginning 13th c. they mastered the North and South Islands, creating and developing a rich culture. The Maori name for New Zealand is Aotearoa (Land of the Long White Cloud). The first European to discover New Zealand was the Dutch navigator A. Tasman (1642), who first called it State Land (“Staten Landt”), and later New Zealand (after the name of the largest island in Denmark). In 1769, J. Cook visited it and announced British claims to the possession of this territory. In the beginning. 19th century the first Christian missionaries appeared here. Over the course of several decades, a variety of relationships were established between Europeans and the Maori coastal tribes. In 1835, the Confederation of Chiefs of the United Tribes of New Zealand declared the country’s independence. In turn, in January 1840 the governor of the British colony of New South Wales (Australia) declared British sovereignty over New Zealand. And already on February 6 (now the main public holiday), the Treaty of Waitangi was concluded on the relationship between the British crown, European settlers and the leaders of the Maori tribes. Under the Treaty of Waitangi, territorial rights and ownership of natural resources were assigned to the Maori, but the government of the country passed to the British crown. New Zealand became a British colony. However, the contradictions between the Maori leaders, the Maori and the numerically increasing European settlers continued. From 1843, the first armed skirmishes began between them. In 1856 New Zealand became a self-governing colony. During the “gold rush” (1860s), the resettlement of Europeans to New Zealand became especially massive, clashes between them and the Maori (the “war of independence”) escalated. There were also wars between the Maori tribes. As a result, to the con. 19th century the number of Maori decreased to 40 thousand people. compared to about 90 thousand people. before the mass immigration of Europeans. All R. 1880s under the influence of the king of the Maori people and religious figures, the wars against the Europeans stopped. The revival of the Maori began, their interaction with European culture began to develop, which also developed. So, it was in New Zealand in 1893 for the first time in the world that women received the right to vote. In 1901, New Zealand had the right to join the Australian Union formed by the then British Australian colonies, but did not take advantage of this, and in 1907 received the status of a dominion. During the 1st World War, New Zealand troops participated (previously in the Boer War) in the fighting in the Pacific and especially in Europe (along with Australian troops). In memory of the heroism of the New Zealand troops, ANZAC Day (Australian-New Zealand Expeditionary Force in Europe) was established, which is also celebrated in Australia. In 1931, under the Statute of Westminster (an act of the British Parliament that secured the independence of the dominions), the country received complete independence in internal and external affairs while maintaining formal ties with the British crown (the corresponding law of the New Zealand Parliament appeared only in 1947). New Zealand units took an active part in World War II (in Europe, Africa, Asia and the Pacific). In 1945 New Zealand became one of the founding states of the United Nations. The problems of relations between the “tkeha” and the Maori, especially regarding the “traditional Maori lands”, remain a serious domestic political problem. In 1975, the Waitangi Tribunal was established, which considers Maori claims on issues regulated by this treaty.

History of New Zealand

About Comoros

About Comoros

According to extrareference, the Comoros are located at the northern entrance to the strait near Mozambique (Africa). This place is strategically important – the islands have always been in the center of attention of the peoples who inhabited this region. Even at the time of the birth of mankind, it is believed that the first people appeared on the islands. The family ties of the ancient island population with representatives of the Polynesian modern cultures are confirmed by numerous archaeological finds. This emphasizes the strong trade ties and the skill of the ancient sailors that were established between the inhabitants of Comoros and the ancient civilizations of Asia. The islands are known throughout the world for their unique and vibrant nature. The natural appearance and uniqueness of these islands are contained in numerous lava fields and chaos of rocks, which are framed by thickets of vegetation of relict forms. The flora and fauna are very rich here with their beauty and many species of plants and animals. The islands are home to 60 plant species and 37 animal species that are not found anywhere else on the planet. But in the waters of the ocean in the coastal zone of Comoros, some of the most ancient forms of life on Earth became known. Comoros is still one of the most exotic areas of the planet. And the preservation of the natural beauty of the islands is facilitated by the fact that they are little visited and underdeveloped in terms of tourism from all the islands that are part of this region. Comoros is still one of the most exotic areas on the planet. And the preservation of the natural beauty of the islands is facilitated by the fact that they are little visited and underdeveloped in terms of tourism from all the islands that are part of this region. Comoros is still one of the most exotic areas on the planet. And the preservation of the natural beauty of the islands is facilitated by the fact that they are little visited and underdeveloped in terms of tourism from all the islands that are part of this region.

Geography of Comoros

On the archipelago of 4 large and a number of small islands, there is a state called the Union of the Comoros (Komoros). The islands are located in the west of the Indian Ocean at the entrance from the north to the Mozambique Channel between the coast of Mozambique (a country on the African mainland) and the island of Madagascar. If you look at the coordinates of the location, then this is approximately 10-12 degrees. south of the equator and less than two hundred miles from the African coast in the East.




The total area of all 4 islands is 2,034 sq. km.


Comoros is home to 700,000 people.


The Comorian franc is the main currency of the country (KMF).


Arabic and French are the official and main languages in Comoros.


To travel to the Comoros, all citizens of Russia require a visa.

Weather in Comoros

In the Comoros, the climate is humid and hot. On average, the temperatures of the warmest and coldest months range from +24 to +27 °C. The average annual precipitation depends on the position of the slopes (leeward or windward) and varies from 1100 to 3000 mm. The best time to travel is from May to October.

Currency exchange

The currency is exchanged at the rate of 100 KMF = $0.184. Exchange transactions can be made at exchange offices or banks.


Electrical network with a frequency of 50 Hz and a voltage of 220 V.

Religion in Comoros

The state religion is Islam, which has 98% of Muslims, and a minority of Catholics, their 2%.


Comoros has no mutual agreements on health protection with the countries of Europe. For the most part, medical facilities on the islands are private. Payment for their services is made on the spot in cash. Even emergency medical services will have to be paid on the spot. Strong recommendation: to be the owner of international health insurance, which has coverage in case of need for evacuation by air from the territory of the islands.

About Comoros

Sights of Austria

Sights of Austria

According to Ethnicityology, the main attraction of Austria is, of course, Vienna. Over the years, countless interesting places and entire areas have accumulated here. Vienna can be called one big attraction. The main tourist spot in the city is Stephansdom, which can be safely called a world-famous cultural heritage. This building is not afraid of competition. Stephansdom is a church, so the best time to visit it is during worship. On weekdays, the service starts at 07.00, and on weekends at 10.00. In addition, services are held on major holidays, it is at this time that the church is amazingly decorated. Many scientific and cultural figures devoted their works (books, studies, paintings, etc.) to such a seemingly simple building. The appearance of the cathedral is amazing, it seems to consist of hundreds of thousands of the smallest details, which make it the architectural treasury of Austria and the symbol of Vienna. The building has two towers, tourists can climb the south tower by stairs, and the north one is equipped with a special elevator. It is believed that everyone who has visited Vienna must visit this place. It is also interesting to visit the High Market Square. This is one of the most ancient parts of Vienna. Archaeologists, under the bridge of this place, discovered the remains of the Roman camp of Windbonne. After excavations, it turned out that there was a whole settlement here. In the 14th and 15th centuries, there were court buildings and a pillar of justice on this site, and sentences were announced from the balcony. The last execution at this place took place in 1703. Then, in the middle of the century, merchants who sold fish were noisy here. The so-called “Ring” is a few buildings (university, the burgtheater, the Vienna Opera, the stock exchange and the town hall), which form a kind of ring along with the embankment. Here are some of the most beautiful buildings in the city, as well as wonderful parks that attract many tourists. It is hard to believe, but some 150 years ago the center of the capital was surrounded by a wall, and only in 1857 the emperor ordered the fortification to be demolished and a boulevard built around the center. The construction of the “Ring” was completed only in 1865, two huge alleys 6.5 km long and 57 meters wide stretched along numerous buildings, and between the buildings there are beautiful parks for recreation. At the moment, this place is practically no different from what it was here at the time of completion of its construction. You can see all its sights on the tram, which travels along the entire Ringstrasse. Another famous city in Austria is the birthplace of Mozart – Salzburg. The main city attraction is the cathedral, which was built in the 13th century, as well as the cave, which is located in the south of the city. If skiing is your main goal, then this place will not disappoint you.

National cuisine of Austria

Austrian cuisine has its own established traditions, but some areas still have their own culinary customs. The variety of national cuisine is very large and Austrian cuisine is considered one of the most diverse in Europe. Meanwhile, most often the local cuisine is called not Austrian, but Viennese, which highlights the importance of the capital in its formation. The Austrian morning usually starts with a cup of coffee or milk and bread with jam or butter. In hotels and hotels, in addition to coffee, you can choose cold meat, cheese or a hot egg dish. In the provinces, breakfast can be more hearty with the inclusion of various soups, sausages, potatoes, etc. In Austria, a variety of sausages are very popular. They are usually part of a meal and are served with mustard and garnished with potatoes or salad. The main meat dish is the Viennese schnitzel, which is a large piece of veal that is fried in breadcrumbs. Due to the fact that this dish is fried very quickly, much attention is paid to its quality. When it comes to local drinks, many people consider Austria to be a country of beer. In a sense, this is true, the quality of beer produced here is practically no different from any European beer. The culture of its consumption is also well developed. The best beers are: Ottakringer, Gosser, Stiegl, etc. In addition to local beer, you can buy Czech and German beer in most bars.


In almost every city in Austria, public transport consists of buses, trams and, in some cities, trolleybuses. Vienna transport is represented by metro, trams and commuter trains. Buying a one-time pass costs 1.5 euros, this pass can be used in any transport, you can also buy a day pass – 5 euros and for three days – 12 euros. You can call a taxi by phone or hire taxi drivers standing around the clock at airports and hotels. Catching a taxi on the street is useless. Currency exchange On weekdays, banks are open from 08.00 to 17.30 with lunch breaks, and at airports and train stations, banks usually work until 20.00-22.30. You can quickly exchange money in automatic exchangers gutted throughout the country, but the commission in them is higher than when exchanging at a bank.

Sights of Austria

Tours to Montenegro and Andorra

Tours to Montenegro and Andorra

Tours to Montenegro

Cozy Montenegro is a quality beach holiday on the Adriatic, Orthodox monasteries and medieval sights, lakes and national parks, the charming capital of Podgorica and the resort of Budva. A small country surrounded by majestic mountains – by the way, not black at all, but covered with greenery – has everything a tourist needs for complete happiness.

In 1991, Montenegro was proclaimed a country of pure, untouched and protected nature. A picturesque mountain landscape, a salubrious Mediterranean climate, excellent beaches are the visiting card of the country. Surrounded by the clearest sea, caressed by the sun, Montenegro is one of the last oases in Europe, where you can hide from the hustle and bustle of modern civilization.

According to Bridgat, all those attracted by the described beauties are ready to accommodate the numerous resort towns, towns and villages with which the entire coast is dotted. Budva, Kotor, Sveti Stefan, Bar, Herceg Novi, Becici and many others – hotels, resorts and villas here are never empty in the warm season. In the capital of Montenegro – Podgorica, you will also find a lot of interesting things.

It is surprising that for all their popularity, local resort towns have not lost their originality and each of them is interesting in its own way.

Here you can fish and catch the wind in your sails, you can swim in the crystal clear turquoise waters of the Adriatic or go on an excursion to get acquainted with the cultural and historical heritage of the country and see wonderful architectural monuments or go on a pilgrimage tour and touch the Orthodox shrines, which are so Montenegro is rich.

Tours to Andorra

More recently, this small country, located between France and Spain, was little known among travelers. However, today tours to Andorra are in demand by lovers of active and, at the same time, romantic travel.

Holidays in Andorra are a great opportunity to spend your holidays in high-class ski resorts, as well as improve your health in hotels with thermal springs and with the most affordable spa treatments. Clean, as if ringing, mountain air, many hotels with a high level of service, restaurants with traditional, almost homemade cuisine will make your stay comfortable.

The tour operator in Andorra recommends individual tours to this amazing country to everyone who respects excellent shopping: only in this state there is more than one store for every indigenous person!

Visiting this small country in the heart of the ancient Pyrenees, with its unique climatic zones and attractive historical and cultural attractions, travelers from Moscow and other regions will be able to make sure that Andorra can surprise with its color and delight with new experiences and luxury shopping.


Tours in Penang, Malaysia

Tours in Penang, Malaysia

Tour starts from the historic site – Fort Cornwallis. Francis Light landed here in 1786. Originally wooden, in 1804-05 it was rebuilt and replaced with stone buildings. And today the fort majestically rises above the sea, as if protecting the island from enemy attacks. Near the fort is City Hall, built in the late 19th century.

Next, you will follow the one built in 1821. Here you will find old photographs, ancient maps and other relics related to Penang’s past. Nearby is the Church of St. George, which was built in 1818. The main attraction of the cathedral is the painted dome dedicated to the memory of Francis Light.

Next you will see 2 mosques: the mosque of Captain Keling and the mosque of Achin Street. The Captain Keling Mosque is named after an Indian merchant and was built by the local ruler Mohouddin in the early 19th century. The Achin Street Mosque was built on land donated to the local ruler by Syed Aid of Aceh.

The duration of the tour is 4 hours, the walking part is 1 km.

Penang is famous for its Buddhist and Hindu temples.

At the Buddhist temple Wat Chayamangkalaram, built by a Thai architect, you can see the world’s third largest reclining Buddha statue, which is 33 meters long.

The famous Kek Lok Si temple is considered one of the largest temples in Southeast Asia and is a mixture of Chinese, Burmese and Thai architectural styles. Above the temple, built in 1890, rises a seven-tiered pagoda 30 meters long called Ban Po Tar.

The Temple of the Goddess of Mercy is considered the oldest temple in Penang. It was erected in 1800 and is a classic example of Chinese architecture of that time.

The snake temple was built in honor of the Buddhist monk Chor Su Kong. Poisonous snakes lie quietly around the altar and other objects in the temple, drugged by the smell of incense, and do not attack people. Vipers can be picked up, photographed for memory.

Sri Marriamman Temple was built in 1883 and is famous for its numerous statues of Indian deities, the most valuable of which is the statue of the god Subramaniam, decorated with gold, silver and precious stones.

Tour duration – 4-5 hours, temples should be entered without shoes

Discover Penang, the “Pearl of the Orient” – from its sandy beaches to picturesque villages and nostalgic George Town. The capital combines the best aspects of east and west, which are reflected in a charming collection of ancient exquisite buildings, each of which bears the stamp of the influence of different countries and their rich history. Attractions include: Batu Ferringhi (passing through), Teluk Bahang (passing through), Fisherman’s Village, Fruit Market (passing through), Malay Village, Serpent Temple, Penang Bridge (passing through) and George Town (passing through). If time permits, a visit to a local grocery outlet may be included. All entrance tickets are included in the price. Beginning at 9:00, average duration – 4 hours.

The Penang Hill Funicular, opened in 1923, has been providing service to Penang Hill for 88 years. The most recent renovation of the funicular has increased the number of passengers carried and the speed of the train.
Then you will visit one of the largest temples in Southeast Asia, Kek Lok Si Temple and the nearby turtle pond.
Attractions include Kek Lok Si Temple (including the inclined elevator to the statue of the Goddess of Mercy) and Turtle Pond, Penang Hill (including the funicular ride to the top of the mountain). All entrance tickets are included in the price. Beginning at 9:00, average duration – 4 hours.

On this day you can enjoy a romantic cycle rickshaw ride and a leisurely stroll through Georgetown. Look at the harmony in which a people with such a diverse culture can live.
Attractions include rickshaw ride to Cornwallis Fort (external view), Weld (Chew Pier), Khu Kong Si, Harmony Street, Little India (Mahamariamman Temple), Pinang Peranakan Mansion Museum and E&O Hotel. The price includes all entrance fees, cycle rickshaw ride and English afternoon tea.

Beginning at 9:00, average duration – 4 hours.

GEORGE TOWN NIGHT TOUR Tonight, experience
George Town like you never imagined it and dine at Penang’s one and only restaurant with breathtaking views of George Town’s night landscapes.
Attractions include Bayview Georgetown revolving restaurant and Penang Road cycle rickshaw ride. A cycle rickshaw ride and dinner are included in the price.

Check-out time – 18:00 (from beach hotels), 18:30 (from city hotels); average duration – 4 hours.

You have the opportunity to see the animals in all their natural grandeur. The zoo covers an area of ​​13.6 hectares, covered with rivers, lakes and lush vegetation. And it is also home to more than 180 animal species with a total of 1300 inhabitants, including: tigers, lions, elephants, hippos, giraffes, orangutans and others.

The price includes all entrance fees, round trip transfers and lunch.

Beginning at 9:00, average duration – 8 hours.

Penang, Malaysia

Colorado for Tourists

Colorado for Tourists

According to Acronymmonster, Colorado has numerous attractions to offer its visitors that will make the hearts beat faster. If you want, you can walk in the footsteps of the gigantic dinosaurs in the state of the century, visit hot springs, explore the state with the nostalgic train, experience historical places, ghost towns, casinos and amusement parks, ski and immerse yourself in the unique nature of the state.

On the trail of the dinosaurs through Colorado

Colorado has a rich cultural heritage that was shaped by the Indians and the conquest of the west by the whites. The state’s oldest historical sites, however, date back to millions of years ago. Because once the largest land animals of all time roamed the area of ​​today’s Colorado and there are numerous opportunities to discover traces of Allosaurus, Apatosaurus, Stegosaurus, Diplodocus and many other dinosaurs from this time.

The Dinosaur National Monument

The known Dinosaur monument is located in northwest Colorado in the southeastern foothills of the Uinta Mountains. The eastern part of the National Monument is in Colorado, the world-famous dinosaur quarry with around 1,500 dinosaur fossils in the rock face of the Dinosaur Quarry Exhibit Hall is in Utah. Dinosaur National Park with the Canyon Visitor Center in Colorado is perfect for experiencing the wonderful nature of the state. Vacationers can go bird watching, camping, swimming, hiking, canoeing, rafting, fishing and much more. Just a few miles from Denver is Dinosaur Ridge, home to one of the world’s most remarkable collections of natural dinosaur tracks and fossils.

On the trail of cowboys and Indians through the Wild West

Colorado is, without exception, a fantastic destination for those who have always wanted to experience the Wild West and learn more about times gone by. There are still mining sites and many abandoned ghost towns in Gilpin County (Apex, Nevadaville and Russell Gulch), among others.

For those interested in Indians, the Mesa Verde National Park, the Hovenweep National Monument and the Anasazi Heritage Center in the southwest are worthwhile places to go. But also galleries, festivals, museums and places like that Ute Indian Museum and the Koshare Indian Museum as well as the panorama road “Trail of the Ancients” are worth a visit.

Also very nice are the Lariat Loop Scenic and Historic Byway, which runs through Denvers Mountain Park. During the drive you can visit Buffalo Bill’s grave and museum, the Hiwan Homestead Museum, which Colorado Railroad Museum and visit the famous mountain park “Red Rocks”.

Numerous historical fortresses from the time of the conquest of the West, such as Bent’s Old Fort on the Santa Fe Trail, the forts Garland and Uncompahgre and the Museum of Northwest Colorado with one of the best cowboy collections in the country round off the attractions for those interested in the Wild West Century state from.

The Silverton Heritage Pass also grants access to the three main mining attractions in Silverton. It includes tours of the Mayflower Gold Mill and the Old 100 Mine.

With the nostalgic train through Colorado

In Colorado, numerous historic railways from the 1970s and 1980s run on the railways that are now operated as museum railways.

Including the:

  • Durrango and Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad in the San Juan Mountains
  • Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railroad on the Coloradian-New Mexican border
  • Georgetown Loop Railroad in Georgetown

The most beautiful routes

  • Narrow-gauge railway line between Cripple Creek and Victor: The seven-kilometer journey on the narrow-gauge railway leads past former gold rushes and through the historic town of Victor.
  • Cumbres & Tolec train journey: The 103-kilometer route between Antonito in Colorado and Chama in New Mexico is considered the longest and highest narrow-gauge train route in North America. The open sightseeing car is a fantastic way to enjoy the beautiful landscape of the century-old state.
  • Narrow gauge railway line between Durango & Silverton: This beautiful train journey in an originally restored passenger car from 1880 takes you past abandoned mines, pristine forests and the wild Animas River and stops in the old gold rush town of Silverton, among other places. Gold and silver used to be transported on the historic route.
  • Georgetown Loop Historic Gold Rush Railway Park: The historic narrow gauge railway between Georgetown and the Silver Plume Depot is one of the main attractions in Georgetown. The train from 1884 takes you from one place to another in around an hour and a quarter. If you want, you can also take part in a mine tour.
  • Southern Railroad, Leadville, Colorado: Leadville brings Colorado mining and railroad history to life. And that with a breathtaking view of the Arkansas River Valley.
  • Manitou and Pikes Peak Rack Railway: The rack railway to the 4,300 meter high Pikes Peak is the highest rack railway in the world and offers a great view. The operation is currently closed, but the railway is to be reopened with new technology in 2021.
  • Royal Gorge Scenic Railway: The small funicular with its open carriages offers a great view of the mountains of Sangre de Cristo and the region around Royal Gorge.
  • Royal Gorge Route Railroad: A railway from the 50s takes you through one of the most spectacular canyons in the USA and with a magnificent view.

Ranch vacation in Colorado

And if that’s not enough, you can experience the spirit of the old wild west on a ranch vacation in the land of cowboys and Indians. If you want, you can ride on tourist ranches over pastures and into the terrain, herd and round up cattle, practice using the lasso and take part in equestrian competitions, nights out and family rodeos. The offers range from pure work farms to real luxury resorts.

Many of the ranches, many of which are located in the great plains in the east but also in the mountains of the Rocky Mountains, also offer additional activities such as a special children’s program, mountain biking, hiking, swimming or even hot air balloon rides.

Cultural Monuments and Landmarks in Colorado

Colorado has a rich cultural heritage and numerous historical artifacts. In total there are two National Historic Sites in the century state (Bent’s Old Fort at La Junta and Sand Creek Massacre), four National Historic Trails (California Trail, Old Spanish Trail, Pony Express Trail, Santa Fe Trail), 15 National Historic Landmarks as well as a total of 1,551 structures and sites that are part of the National Register of Historic Places are registered.

Also well worth seeing is the wooden carousel in Kit Carson County with its 46 hand-carved wooden animal figures. It is the only one of its kind that still has the original color on the animals and backdrops.

A nationally significant collection of decorative art from the 20th century is in the Kirkland Museum of Fine and Decorative Art to find. For those interested in art, a visit to Steamboat Springs and the Denver Art Museum, which houses a major exhibition of Indian craftsmanship. The Red Rocks Amphitheater near Denver, where many greats in the music industry such as the Beatles, U2 and Bruno Mars have performed, is also unique.

National parks and natural landmarks in Colorado

Colorado is home to more than 960 species of animals, and there are plenty of opportunities to hike, climb, camp, ride, or mountain bike. White water sports such as kayaking, paddling or rafting can be enjoyed in the state’s rivers.

Thousands of kilometers of well-preserved hiking trails run through the mountains, forests and plains of this century-old state, and the beautiful national parks in particular are a must for nature lovers visiting Colorado.

List of national parks in Colorado

There are four national parks in Colorado:

  • Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park
  • Great Sand Dunes National Park
  • Mesa Verde National Park
  • Rocky Mountain National Park

List of national monuments in Colorado

There are eight national monuments in the state of the century:

  • Browns Canyon National Monument
  • Canyons of the Ancients National Monument
  • Chimney Rock National Monument
  • Colorado National Monument
  • Dinosaur National Monument
  • Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument
  • Hovenweep National Monument
  • Yucca House National Monument

List of national forests in Colorado

11 national forests invite you to explore the state:

  • Arapaho National Forest
  • Grand Mesa National Forest
  • Gunnison National Forest
  • Pike National Forest
  • Rio Grande National Forest
  • Roosevelt National Forest
  • Routt National Forest
  • San Isabel National Forest
  • San Juan National Forest
  • Uncompahgre National Forest
  • White River National Forest

The NPS also assigns a total of fifteen for Colorado National Natural Landmarks and with the Curecanti National Recreation Area a National Recreation Area.

Skiing in Colorado

The Rocky Mountains are by far the best-known paradise for winter sports enthusiasts in the USA and at 15,783 hectares offer the largest area of ​​ski slopes in North America. The powder snow there is just as legendary as the record-breaking snowfall and the many wonderful mountain resorts that invite you to an unforgettable winter holiday in the state.

List of ski resorts in Colorado

There are numerous well-known ski areas in the century-old state that are popular with tourists and locals alike:

  • Arapahoe Basin
  • Aspen Highlands
  • Aspen Mountain
  • Beaver Creek Resort
  • Breckenridge Ski Resort
  • Buttermilk
  • Copper Mountain
  • Crested Butte
  • Durango Mountain Resort
  • Eldora
  • Howelsen
  • Keystone
  • Loveland Ski Area
  • monarch
  • Powderhorn
  • Silverton
  • Ski Cooper
  • Snowmass
  • Solvista
  • Steamboat
  • Sunlight
  • Telluride
  • Vail
  • Winter park

Colorado for Tourists

Visa to Morocco

Visa to Morocco

For the quarantine period, entry to Morocco for citizens of Ukraine is closed until August 30, 2021 . At the moment, only family visas are accepted by the Moroccan consulate, other types of visas are on request.

According to A2zgov, to visit the country, citizens of Ukraine need to apply for a visa to Morocco. Obtaining an entry permit is a complex procedure that requires qualified training, work experience and knowledge of the nuances when submitting documents to the Consulate.

Attention! From 03/20/2019, obtaining passports with a visa at the consulate of Morocco is possible only with the personal presence of the applicant!


Visa support in Morocco
Type of visa and validity period Visa type Consideration period Cost
Promotion! Discount
for two passports!
Morocco single entry visa
Length of stay up to 30 days
When booking a tour
Tourism 10 – 14 working days 60 USD
Morocco single entry visa
Length of stay up to 30 days
10 – 14 working days 100 USD
Morocco single entry visa
Length of stay up to 90 days
Morocco visa validity corridor – 180 days
10 – 14 working days 100 USD
Multivisa Morocco
Length of stay up to 90 days each entryMorocco visa validity corridor – 180 days
10 – 14 working days 120 USD

Submission of documents for obtaining a visa at the Embassy of Morocco: Monday and Wednesday by appointment.

The cost of obtaining a visa to Morocco includes:

  • Visa advice
  • Preparation of a complete package of documents.
  • Filling in the visa form.
  • Registration at the Consulate for submission of documents.
  • Submission of documents to the Embassy of Morocco in Kyiv or escort for submission (if necessary, personal submission).

Preparation of documents in 1 day, additionally paid in the amount of 20 USD

List of documents required for a visa to Morocco:

  • Moroccan visa application form signed by the tourist;
  • 2 photos on a white background, size 3 x 4; 80% of the face; limitation period not more than 6 months;
  • Foreign passport in the original – valid for at least 90 days from the date of return from the planned trip. Copies of all visa pages. If you have a second valid passport, you must also provide the original and copies of all pages with stamps and visas;
  • Copies of the Ukrainian passport of all pages with marks;
  • Copy of identification code.
  • Certificate of employment on company letterhead with the seal and signature of the director and chief accountant, indicating the position, salary for the last 6 months, date of employment, confirming the preservation of the workplace and salary for the duration of the trip;
  • Bank statement on the state of the card account;
  • Original certificate of non-conviction ;
  • Confirmation of accommodation at the hotel for the entire period of stay or an invitation from the host in the original with an APOSTILLE;
  • A purchased or booked round-trip ticket;
  • Insurance policy.
  • For children: birth certificate, if the child is traveling with one of the parents or accompanied by a trustee – Notarized permission to export the child.


A visa to Morocco for Ukrainians is opened only if there is a clean spread of the pages of the passport.

The consular section of the Embassy of Morocco may delay visa documents without notice, as well as require any additional documents to be submitted, at their discretion.

Embassy of the Kingdom of Morocco in Ukraine in Kiev
st. Ivan Fedorov, 12, Kyiv 03150

Working hours: Monday – Friday from 09:00 to 16:00

Submission of documents: Monday, Wednesday from 11:00 to 11:30

Visa to Morocco

Catholic University of Pernambuco

Catholic University of Pernambuco

Catholic University of Pernambuco. It is a higher education institution created on September 27, 1951 and recognized by the Federal Government through Decree 30,417 of January 18, 1952. Its origin dates back to the first Catholic Higher School in the region, the Manuel da Nóbrega Faculty of Philosophy, Science and Letters, founded in 1943 by the Northeast Jesuit Province. The institution currently offers 36 undergraduate and graduate courses, with Law being the degree with the most students enrolled and Economic Sciences being the oldest degree (1943).

Historical review

The Catholic University of Pernambuco grew out of the Manuel da Nóbrega Faculty of Philosophy, Science and Letters, founded in 1943, by the Northeast Jesuit Province. It is the largest educational complex of the Jesuit order in Brazil. It has approximately 15,000 students.

The International Federation of Catholic Universities (FIUC) elected on July 27, 2012, the last day of the 24th FIUC General Assembly — held in São Bernardo do Campo (São Paulo) —, the rector of the Catholic University of Pernambuco (UNICAP), father Pedro Rubens Ferreira Oliveira, as president of the FIUC for the triennium 2012 – 2014.

The IFCU is made up of nearly 200 Catholic universities and higher education institutions from around the world, which follow the provisions of a permanent secretariat in charge of executing the guidelines and policies, as established by the General Assembly and the administrative bodies.

Recognized by UNESCO, in the field of education, science and culture, and by Pope Pius XII, FIUC is the oldest association of Catholic universities in the world. Every three years, the Federation holds a General Assembly to discuss the most important issues and elect the executive and administrative body. The last event was held in Brazil, between July 23 and 27, 2012, in the city of São Paulo. The penultimate edition took place in November 2009 in Rome (Italy). It is the third time that FIUC is held in Brazil (in 1960: at PUC-RJ; and in1978, at the PUC-RS).

It is made up of ten buildings on its Buena Vista campus. It has about ten nuclei of legal practices (NPJ) scattered throughout Grande Recife. It has Unicap Jr. – junior company of the university. In addition to the Clinic-School of Psychology and Speech Therapy and the Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Clinic, which came to be confused as the MEC as a clinic with a university hospital structure, due to the resources of the clinic, a reference in the North/Northeast.

The institution has the largest and most modern library in the North-Northeast, the Padre Aloísio Mosca de Carvalho SJ Central Library. It still works on its university campus in Soledad/Buena Vista, in the old Colegio Nóbrega, the Liceo de Artes y Oficios de Pernambuco, its application school that offers Basic and Professional Education.

There is also an Archeology Museum, a reference in Pernambuco, which will have a new headquarters in the Palacio de la Soledad, former seat of the government of the Confederation of Ecuador and which today forms the campus of Unicap, housing the IPHAN and the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fatima.

It has a building in the Plaza de la República, in the most important neighborhood of Recife. The Liceo de Artes y Oficios used to be in the building and it should become a cultural center.

He had ten of his courses listed among the best in the country, according to the Student Guide, from Editora Abril in 2007. Unicap received 33 stars of quality certification. A national recognition for the work of the institution in the field of education.

The institution has more than 220 research projects carried out together with Facepe and CNPQ. One of those projects “Sustainable development of the municipality of Río Hermoso (PE)” was noted as one of the five best in the Sustainability award (Editora Abril/Banco Real), being the only representative of the North-Northeast chosen among the more than 300 works registered from all over the country. In addition, it collaborates in programs with other Pernambuco universities.

In 2008 the university was appointed by the Ministry of Education as the best private university in Pernambuco. In an institutional evaluation, on a scale of 1 to 5, Unicap received grade 4 and was noted as one of the best universities in Brazil, by the MEC.

It is the biggest winner of the JC Recall Award for Brands – Education category, conquering for 7 consecutive years the title of higher education institutions most agreed upon by Pernambucans, the award is promoted by the Periódico del Comercio, the largest newspaper in the North-Northeast).


High School of Arts and Crafts of Pernambuco Basic Education

  • Elementary Education II.
  • Secondary education.

Technical Teaching

  • Technical accounting.
  • Administration Technician.
  • Technician in Architectural Drawing.

Degrees Technological Courses

  • Tourism Management.
  • Event management.
  • Digital Games.
  • Port Management.
  • Hospital Management.

Center for Legal Sciences

Center for Social Sciences

  • Business Administration.
  • Accounting sciences.
  • Economic Sciences.
  • Publicity and propaganda.
  • Public relations.
  • Social service.

Center for Biological Sciences and Health

  • Biological Sciences (Bachelor’s degree).
  • Biological Sciences (Bacharelado).
  • speech therapy
  • Occupational Therapy.

Science and Technology Center

  • Architecture and Urbanism.
  • Computer Science.
  • Environmental engineering.
  • Civil Engineering.
  • Chemical engineering.
  • Physics (Bachelor’s degree).
  • Mathematics (Bachelor’s degree).
  • Information System – Emphasis on Telematics.
  • Chemistry (Bachelor’s degree).
  • Industrial Chemistry.

Center for Theology and Human Sciences

  • Philosophy (Bachelor’s degree).
  • Philosophy (Bacharelado).
  • History (Bachelor’s degree).
  • Letters (Bachelor’s Degree – Portuguese Language).
  • Letters (Bachelor’s Degree – Portuguese and Spanish Languages).
  • Letters (Bachelor’s Degree – Portuguese and English Languages).
  • Pedagogy (Bachelor’s degree).
  • Theology (Bacharelado).

Postgraduate Specialization UNICAP has the following specialization courses:

  • Art and Education.
  • Contemporary Architecture and Urbanism: Methodology and Analysis Techniques.
  • Politic science.
  • Religious Sciences.
  • Political Communication.
  • Human rights.
  • Civil Procedural Law.
  • Special education.
  • Childhood Education.
  • Teaching of Mathematics.
  • Oil and Gas Engineering.
  • Film Studies.
  • Contemporary Philosophy.
  • Intensive Physiotherapy.
  • Trauma and orthopedic physiotherapy.
  • Pediatric Physiotherapy.
  • Educational Management.
  • Management of Social Programs and Projects.
  • History of Philosophy.
  • Afro-Brazilian History and Culture.
  • History and Journalism.
  • History of the Northeast of Brazil.
  • Portuguese language.
  • Brazilian Literature and Interculturality.
  • Strategic Logistics.
  • Business Logistics.
  • Research and Data Analysis.
  • Psychology in Organizations.
  • Computer Network.
  • International Relations in the Age of Globalization.
  • Assisted Technology.
  • Sports Administration.
  • Political Science: Theory and Practice in Brazil.
  • Pedagogical Coordination.
  • Historical Heritage: Preservation and Education.
  • Criminal Sciences.
  • Technology Project Management.
  • Strategic People Management.
  • Human sexuality.
  • Social Service in the Health area.
  • Mental Health, Alcohol and Drugs: Practices and Knowledge.
  • Public Health in Primary Care.

MBA The MBA courses are held in the Executive Space, created in 1994 by the Catholic University of Pernambuco, with the aim of offering powder-graduation courses, “workshops” and high-level seminars, aimed at the professional development of technicians, entrepreneurs and state executives. The Executive Space is an environment designed to carry out training, recycling and updating actions for professionals. Composed of air-conditioned classrooms, equipped with microcomputers, projection cannons, televisions, media readers and overhead projectors. It also has a teleconference room and an auditorium.

  • Finance and Audit.
  • Business management.
  • Event Planning and Management.
  • Health Management.
  • Investment in Stocks and Capital Markets.
  • Cooperative Management.
  • Planning and Environmental Management.
  • Oil and Gas Law.


  • Language Sciences.
  • Religious Sciences.
  • Development of Environmental Processes.
  • Civil Engineering.
  • Clinical psychology.


  • Clinical psychology.
  • Biotechnology – Unicap is an advanced biotechnology doctorate campus, being a partner institution of RENORBIO’s doctorate, together with UFRPE.

Catholic University of Pernambuco

National University of the Northwest of the Province of Buenos Aires (Argentina)

National University of the Northwest of the Province of Buenos Aires (Argentina)

National University of the Northwest of the Province of Buenos Aires (UNNOBA). Public University of Argentina, created in 2002 as a modern educational institution aimed at guaranteeing equal opportunities and free access to higher education. With headquarters and Rectorate in Junín, it also has headquarters in Pergamino. Organized under the bipartite structural scheme of Schools and Departments.


It was created on December 16, 2002 by Decree of the National Executive Power No. 2,617, and its creation was ratified by Law No. 25,824 of November 19, 2003. It has its headquarters in the city of Junín, where the seat of its central authorities is located. and a headquarters in the city of Parchment. It is organized with a structure of Schools and Departments.

The concretion of the institutional and academic project of UNNOBA has as its antecedent the organization of two Regional University Centers, the Junín Regional University Center (CURJ), and the Pergamino Regional University Center (CRUP), which developed university higher education activities since 1990 and 1991 respectively.

In 2003 the organization stage began and in 2005 the dictation of its own academic offer. In 2007 the representatives to the University Assembly and the Superior Council were elected and on April 26 of that year the first Rector was elected by the University Assembly. At the end of 2008, the organization of the Schools began. The normalization of the same materialized during the month of October of the year 2010.

On March 11, 2011, the University Assembly elected Dr. Guillermo Tamarit as Rector for the period 2011/2015, which began on June 9, 2011.

Academic venues and structure

The university, whose academic headquarters are located in the cities of Junín and Pergamino, is organized under the bipartite structural scheme of Schools and Departments. The Schools of Agricultural, Natural and Environmental Sciences, Social and Human Sciences, Economic and Legal Sciences and Technology; They are the teaching units where the different careers of the university are taught. Teaching, which includes the dictation of undergraduate and technical courses, constitutes the academic offer of a national, public and free university conceived with a strong regional anchor.

Junin Headquarters

UNNOBA has its headquarters in the city of Junín. The Rectorate is located there and the main authorities have their seat. 80% of the activities are carried out in that city, where the center of the educational project is located. In 2014, 2 out of 3 UNNOBA students chose to study in Junín.

In part of its infrastructure, the activities of the Junín Regional University Center (CURJ) were developed. Other buildings and properties were added and built later.

Parchment Headquarters

The UNNOBA headquarters in the city of Pergamino has an infrastructure made up in part of buildings and surfaces where activities of the Pergamino Regional University Center (CRUP) were carried out. Other buildings and properties were added later. In 2014, 35% of students chose to study at this venue.


The Research Area integrates, together with the Academic Area, the main hierarchical structure on which the operating structure of UNNOBA is developed, regarding the production of knowledge, widening and transcending institutional borders. Both areas have different rates of development, requiring much longer times to form and consolidate groups and lines of research.

National Institute of Agricultural Technology

On April 30, 2009, UNNOBA signed an agreement with the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) for the creation of the Integrated Unit, an initiative that will enable the creation of a scientific-technological complex aimed at strengthening agricultural production and contributing to development. regional.

The School of Agrarian, Natural and Environmental Sciences will be held at the Pergamino Agricultural Experimental Station belonging to INTA’s Buenos Aires Regional Center, and in the academic area of ​​UNNOBA’s Pergamino headquarters, located 4.5 km from EEA Pergamino.

National Institute of Human Viral Diseases=

Agreement with the National Institute of Human Viral Diseases “Dr. Julio I. Maiztegui” (INEVH) of Pergamino. It is one of the centers in the network of the National Administration of Laboratories and Health Institutes, dependent on the Ministry of Health of Argentina. It had a historic role in the study of Argentine hemorrhagic fever during the 1960s and 1970s, and its work on hantavirus, dengue, yellow fever and other arboviruses has positioned it as a national and regional center of reference in laboratory diagnosis in these illnesses.

Higher Experimental Institute of Food Technology

Research agreements with the Experimental Higher Institute of Food Technology (ISETA) of July 9, the Abraham Piñeyro Interzonal Hospital in Junín, the San José de Pergamino Interzonal Hospital, the Faculty of Agronomy of the University of Buenos Aires, the Research Commission (CIC) and the Center for Research in Basic and Applied Genetics (CIGEBA) of the National University of La Plata.

International relations

The institution has an International Relations Service that reports to the Directorate of Institutional University Relations, which promotes links and cooperation with universities, research centers and international organizations dedicated to higher education, teaching, research, the promotion of culture and other activities related to university extension.

National University of the Northwest of the Province of Buenos Aires (Argentina)

The Dead End of Italian Life Part 3

The Dead End of Italian Life Part 3

There is still a feudal nobility, partly of ancient origin, especially in the south, even more of recent origin, for the purchase of fiefdoms, for princely diplomas, especially in northern and central Italy. It is a Spanish nobility, sumptuous, all taken by the desire to excel in public even if in private it feels the pang of misery, far from offices or from the care of heritage and from any interest, “asleep in the pleasures of a happy life”, as the Vico. By now it also withdraws from the militia and loses what had been its main function. All in all, a class that is running out and crumbling: debts, partial alienation of the fiefdoms and therefore splitting of the fiefdoms themselves, ruinous judicial disputes between the feudatories with the communities or with the royal or ducal or grand-ducal chamber, confiscation of fiefdoms, etc. Always continued to manufacture some of this feudal nobility; but the more it grows in number, the more it is devalued in terms of quality. Next to, or further down, there is an urban patriciate, born from the mercantile activities, professions, legates, etc., of free or more recently formed cities. Although there were patricians invested with fiefdoms and feudatories admitted to the patriciate and ambitious to enter it by virtue of the authority it procured in city affairs, both classes also kept themselves distinct and in a position of antagonism. The aristocracy, large and small, prevailed in court offices and in the administration of communities: indeed it almost monopolized the administrations, and constituted a closed circle, with a tendency to die out like all closed circles. The bourgeoisie of business, commerce, of the bank, of the textile or metallurgical industries. Elsewhere it is argued, albeit with a more restricted Italian or regional market.

According to Thefreegeography, urban life has lost its old fervor everywhere. There are no more wars between city and city: but everywhere, the bell tower is standing more than ever: rivalry, pride of precedence, the effort of the minor ones to adapt to the major ones in terms of titles, quarrels for the distribution of the tax globally assigned to the province or to the kingdom, for military quarters, etc. And sometimes it seems that the ambition of cities is exhausted in obtaining a distinction, which is as a title of nobility for private families. And like the cities, so the minor constituted bodies, the merchant and artisan guilds, the brotherhoods, etc. The tendency of all organisms and groups to close in on themselves is always alive: indeed, in the stagnation of so many activities, of the vital lymphs, it manifests itself more visibly. Every city, feudal or royal, it has or wants to have its own physiognomy, by virtue of privileges solicited for itself. The common dependence almost seems to be an incentive to particularism. The 100 baronies are also strangers to each other. The few bourgeoisie is divided into hostile groups, even within the same city, divided and subdivided into a myriad of guilds competing with each other in the mercantile and productive classes. Between aristocracy and bourgeoisie, the bridges are almost broken, with great contempt for this and its activities. Between aristocracy and bourgeoisie on one side, plebs on the other, a very deep well. And even the plebs, in the very sphere of the same state, do not have equally connections and awareness of unity. The rural one is divided, as divided the fiefdoms. There is nothing in common between the rural plebs and those of the cities that have a favorable regime: and the economy of the former is not a little subordinated to the needs of the latter, that is, to the need for cheap bread. A compact mass of plebs is only in Naples, which came here from every part of the Kingdom but soon unified in its Neapolitan character and well identified and detached from the very province from which it came. In short, a fragmentary society, more perhaps than before, due to the action of governments who prefer to dissolve rather than strengthen the organic nuclei, and financially speculate on the love of distinguishing titles, due to the weaker pace of Italian life , of the diminished wealth, of the diminished work, of the immobilization of many capitals in luxury works, of the deviation towards purely feneratized investments, poor in social effects, sterile or almost from a political point of view.

In short, the signs of stagnation, more visible and certain than those of progress. The bad effects of all those events that have greatly changed the face of Europe since the end of the 15th century are fully felt: discovery of new countries outside the circle of action of Italian cities and states, displacement of old traffic routes , the formation of new centers of economic life in competition with the previous ones, foreign domination and, moreover, of a nation in decline. And let us also think, if we like, of a relaxation of the old energies and the old spirit of initiative, which once gave half of Italy a fast pace of life, a rapid circulation of social elements, their unity despite the heated contrasts. Or rather: those external circumstances had produced,

However, it can be admitted that the Italian of the seventeenth century, the Italian of the Spanish domination and of the Counter-Reformation, the average Italian living in Italy, has less of this energy and spirit of initiative, less creative force. This is also visible in the whole of intellectual activity, as well as in political and economic activity. The great poetry and the great art and the vigorous speculation of the previous age have fallen. Political thought and historiography have not kept the promises of the time of the politicians and historians of the ‘100. In the physical and natural sciences themselves, the first impetus was followed by a certain languor, the tendency to limit oneself to mere experimentalism and pure observation, cataloging, collection of scientific facts and materials. This gives us reason for the lesser appreciation that began to be made, outside of Italy, of Italian science and culture, although the influence of Italian physical and natural studies in Europe is considerable, there is a great echo of the studies and discoveries in the field of physiology and medicine and astronomy even between the 17th and 18th centuries. The homage he continued to give to Italy was more to its past than to its present. The Italian abroad had, after all, a shorter stature than in the previous age, although the intelligence and dexterity and versatility typical of his lineage continued to manifest in him, which reached a high degree in the Renaissance age. Of course, the judgment on Italians tends to get worse abroad. We speak of Italy as the country of Machiavellianism, in the interpretation that Machiavelli gave especially the Protestant countries, but also Catholic countries where they wanted to react to influences of Italian culture. The Italy of brigandage also appears, the Italy of dolce far niente, Italy all pomp and festivals and carnival. This negative judgment is undue, who looks at so many serious manifestations of Italian life even then, who looks at the substance of Italian life itself. And Milton, having returned to England after a few months’ residence in Florence, Rome, Naples, Venice (1638), proclaimed to his fellow citizens that he had always believed on his own, but now having known from direct experience, that Italy was not already, as they believed, an asylum for troublemakers but a hotel of humanity and civil knowledge. But that negative judgment on the Italy of knowledge and on moral Italy reflected, albeit distorting them either by too superficial observation and intelligence of Italian things, or by a nationalistic spirit.

The Dead End of Italian Life 3

The Dead End of Italian Life Part 2

The Dead End of Italian Life Part 2

In short, almost all those states and even those dynasties, from the most to the least, are in decline, both absolutely and with regard to the times and the path made by others; also those who, in the phase of the first formation, had carried out a serious and beneficial action of government, fulfilled the necessary tasks, perfected the administration, etc. are also in decline. Everywhere, relaxation of activity and energy. And everyone knows how in this time vigilance and resistance in the face of the Church and her prerogatives were not a little relaxed; in the face of the endless phalanx of religious orders, monasteries, brotherhoods, people dedicated to real or fictitious clerical life, all claiming “freedom”, that is, exemption from any burden; in front of the big dead man reconstituted as perhaps not even in the 9th and 10th centuries, even though the reasons which at the time had allowed her to carry out a social action that were not infertile had almost disappeared. Everyone knows that, disarmed of the big political functions, the barony, where it was still powerful and treacherous, as in the kingdom of Naples, then lacked almost every ability to restrain the spirit of oppression and robbery towards the vassals, prune the forest of minute privileges which were the consideration for fidelity, to bring the cities and lands they still held back into the direct administration of the state. Indeed, just as the custom of selling offices, titles, privileges spread, so did fiefdoms of cities and lands. In the mid-1600s, almost all the cities of the South were in fiefdoms. Everyone knows that the fiscal system of the principles worsened more or less everywhere, in relation to the growing needs of a policy which was often imposed by extrinsic circumstances, and to the increase of privileged groups and relative decrease in taxable income, and to the disruption of the assets of princely families, to the pomp of the courts. The irregularity and arbitrariness of the fiscal burdens also increased, even though the prince’s advantage did not increase due to the very imperfect methods of collection, to be almost all duties and gabelles contracted out or granted as a guarantee to creditors: what made the tribute. Finally, everyone knows how the communities were ruined, impoverished by redemptions, often stripped of public goods by the barons, scarce of fiscal resources for the exemptions of the richest, laden with debts, deserted by the inhabitants; how brigandage flourished or flourished in the State of the Church, in certain parts of Tuscany, in Abruzzo, in Campania, in Calabria. The awareness of these evils in governments was not always lacking. And not even any good intentions to cure them: ferocious justice against bandits, laws to protect communities from baronial usurpations, and to restore self-administration to them, etc. But who took care of its observance? Governments were once again entangled in the web of special interests: a net which they themselves disrupted with one hand, reconstituted with the other, as an expedient of government. The tasks or interference and interventions of the state have grown more than the tools of action have been perfected: hence the arbitrary, oppressive nature of the action itself and, at the same time, its scarce effectiveness. It can also be added: those Italian states increasingly inadequate to the times, by default organic or created every day more by the new state life of Europe. Or, because they were too small and prevented from growing, they morally collapsed and became corrupted by necessity; or, being, like the dominion of Spain, the dominion of a decaying nation and foreign dominion, they too were aimed, like the papal one, more outside than inside, they too were solicitous of interests that too transcended the provinces Italians subject to them. And it is doubtful that we can identify or, at least, the Neapolitans and Sicilians could and were willing to identify the defense of the Spanish monarchy, the defense of the dynastic interests of the Habsburgs, with the defense of their possessions and honor and freedom. Hence the failure of any moral foundation of that government in Italy; the concrete awareness that it was foreign to Italy.

According to Remzfamily, those states were also resentful of the general conditions of the Italian economy. Which was going through a phase that here is of real and definitive decline, there it is stagnation with more or less temporary characteristics, elsewhere it presents itself as a tiring crisis of transformation, as an effort to adapt the economy to new and less favorable general conditions . The ocean trade had not just supplanted the Mediterranean trade. Italian traders and industrialists felt the impoverishment of the Turkish market: without counting the competition of others, since Greeks, Levantines, Jews of Spanish origin, transplanted to the Levant, had become very active. The wars of religion, especially of the Thirty Years, were impoverishing Germany, which was responsible for not a small part of the trade of northern Italy, with the damage especially of Venice which saw its position deteriorate even further compared to Genoa, closer to the new traffic routes and to the towns of the new wealth. Different circumstances, but equal in effect: the industrial progress of England and that of France, which entered, after the beginning of the century. XV and after the restoration of the monarchical force, in the mercantile phase, with encouragement of all kinds to the old and new peasant industries. Thus a large part of the French clientele, and also of other countries close to France and of the peninsula itself, was taken away from the Lombard and Venetian industries. The Italian colonies in the Netherlands are in full decline, indeed dissolving, and only the various activities of individuals remain certain. Lyon, Marseille, Paris are no longer Italian banking centers. The Genoese themselves are withdrawing from Spain and many of them prefer investments in the Italian mountains or public debts, especially in Rome. Also in Italy, a banking crisis, which between the 16th and 17th centuries sent a huge number of credit institutions to the air in Florence, Venice, Genoa and elsewhere. Therefore, dispersion of capital, mistrust, tendency to hoard, stagnation rather than lack of money, very difficult credit conditions, usury. Therefore, the more sluggish life of the bourgeoisie, the slower rise of social elements to take the place of those who have disappeared, the lowering of the credit and prestige and self-awareness of the bourgeoisie, the trading activity not worthy of the noble man, the classes tending to accentuate detachment and isolation from each other.

The Dead End of Italian Life 2

The Dead End of Italian Life Part 1

The Dead End of Italian Life Part 1

We are at a standstill, in the history of the Italian states, like a river that stagnates in the middle of its course. The Spanish monarchy is worn out as a great world empire and as an Italian power, despite the props it still had in Italy. Those in Italy who abhorred wars, those who saw in the great king essentially the Catholic king, bulwark of religion, stood for the preservation of Spain. The tiny surviving states that felt threatened by the larger ones, the opponents of the Savoy, relied on Spain. The nobility, in general, Spanishized. Even the Neapolitan and Sicilian plebs invoked the protection of the distant king, on whose lands the sun never set. Those who feared the French, for the “volubility, insatiability, lightness of that nation”, as Pope Urban VIII himself said, who also solidarized with the French against the Habsburgs, was attached to the Spaniards. Indeed, the reborn French invasion in the first half of the century revived some branches of the Spanish crown in Italy: Venice itself approached it after the 1930s. But these were static supports, without development and without tomorrow. They were old conservation interests, they were aspirations to quiet do not move . Anyway, not Spain’s own strength. This decline of Spain, as military and financial resources, as prestige and credit, did not escape the contemporary Italians, who drew fears or hopes from it. The wars of Piedmont had deeply wounded it, even without major defeats and losses. The great Spanish machine was deteriorating, the disproportion between the financial resources diminishing, and the great politics to which Spain felt obliged by its traditions of power and prestige, resulted in increasing taxation and exploitation of the subjects, without the consideration. useful features. In short, that government had become a bad government, oppressive and, at the same time, slothful and impotent.

Like Spain, according to Mysteryaround, the independent states of the peninsula were in various crises. Not only the small states of the Po valley, the Farnese one of Parma and Piacenza, the Este one of Modena, the Gonzaga one of Mantua and Monferrato, living every day more of anachronistic life, in the clash of large states, they tiny states, without their own weapons , now without money to hire, without authority to make good use of the mercenaries, with no concrete goals on which to really bet. Not only, I say, the small states; but also the relatively large ones. The duchy of Piedmont, ruled by a woman, torn by dynastic discord and civil war, mastered by the French almost like a century before, stopped on the path of civil progress and Italian reputation on which Emanuele Filiberto had put it and Carlo Emanuele. The republic of Venice is better and worse. Yes, he defends his last Levant possessions with his nails and teeth; in this defense he shows energy, pride, patriotism and military vigor. And it is known how, in the long war in Candia, his admirals found their old aggressive spirit almost in front of Constantinople. However, this activity was maintained with increasing effort and inadequacy for the purposes it aimed at: therefore little less than sterile. All of Europe began to appear on those seas and there was no reason to keep those distant possessions, born and raised for the purposes of trade and navigation. In any case, tired in the East, Venice was no longer able to follow the events of the peninsula,

Worse is for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany which with Francesco I has already lost not a little of what it had gained with Cosimo I, and with Cosimo II what it had gained a little with the energetic Ferdinando I. Ferdinando II (1626-70) he tried to restore some order: but he sold the warships to the king of France and canceled the navy, that is, any possibility of making any policy in the Mediterranean. Worse with the State of the Church, which has, yes, confiscated Ferrara and then Urbino, but every day sees its organic defects worsen, due to its character as a mere instrument or of family interests or universal and transcendent interests that it had assumed. . The administration also lacks that energy that some great popes had explained in the 1500s under the assault of either Venetian or French or Spanish threats or in the ardor of the Counter-Reformation. The papacy as such is again falling from that high position it had enjoyed then. Once the Protestant danger has been curbed, many lost positions have been regained, that sense of mortal threat which had tightened so much of catholicity around its head, with a renewed spirit of dedication, and almost given birth to a new medieval theocracy, we are now at the beginning. of a new descent. With the advance of the seventeenth century, that kind of political-religious internationality of the Catholic world – and also of the Protestant one – which was formed in the midst of the religious wars and of which the pope was the natural leader, ends. Now, Political cadres distinct from religious cadres are reconstituted, believers return citizens and subjects, absolutism is strengthened at the expense of the Church and the papacy as well. The values ​​of the faith take second place or are clearly distinguished from the others, when we see not only a Richelieu and a Mazarin, but also an Urban VIII, who also in their states fought the Huguenots and pursued heretics, allied with Lutherans or indulged politically to them. We can see the passage to another age that will be of purely political and economic struggles, as already the century. XV and XVI, the religious parenthesis closed. Now, all this has a negative effect on the moral position of the papacy; and the moral position of the papacy is reflected in the efficiency of the temporal prince and on the state of the Church. Of which, already at the end of the 16th century, the Venetian speaker Paruta had sketched a very obscure picture. In the seventeenth century, it worsened in terms of internal order, economic prosperity and military capacity. Rome is always a great political center: but of intrigue rather than of conclusive industriousness. Agents of Italian and foreign princes who seek kinship with papal families, trustees of Neapolitan barons, secret informants of every large and small court, adventurers, smoke sellers, etc., are based in Rome.

The Dead End of Italian Life 1

Italy Romanesque and Gothic Arts Part 8

Italy Romanesque and Gothic Arts Part 8

According to Iamhigher, Pietro Cavallini from Rome achieved heroic grace and objective beauty with the relief due to a refined chiaroscuro, with a broad and dignified gesture, with the composition no longer merely frontal. Cimabue, Florentine, more daring, more dramatic, impressed the human passion more deeply: the  Crucifixion that he painted in Assisi looks like a struggle of giants, carried by a wind of despair. And he was intolerant of any linear scheme: his face of St. Francis has broken lines and planes, no longer obedient to a tradition, pervaded by impressionism. Even when in his Madonnas he is in search of grace, the monumental and the heroic prevail. Younger, Duccio di Buoninsegna from Siena is closer to Byzantine art, less popular, more refined, and possesses all the charms of color. Inspired by the sky, the images of him arise like lilies, delicate, harmonious, created with the ingenuity of a child, even when they are enveloped in all the riches of the East. With the contrast of tones he manages to create very solid volumes in the images; yet their grace is so great that it makes them appear ghosts.

Beyond the individual personalities, one feels in the painting of the late thirteenth century a greatness, a detachment from the earth, a language that seems of God, an accent of the absolute, for which the concept of the sublime becomes necessary. So that when Giotto appears immediately after, we feel that he is more ours, richer in artistic possibilities, more varied, but, at the same time, that the first greatness has disappeared, like a lost paradise. No more radiant lights, but few colors, sober richness more chiaroscuro, more relief, more form; one sees less, and since everything is limited, precise, solid, one understands more. No longer shy, aware of its central function in the world, the human figure attracts all the artist’s attention, finds a new architecture in itself, builds the scene itself. His poetry is no longer that of a liturgical hymn: is Dante’s poetry. As in Dante, the ideal power of the past is preserved in Giotto, while the doors are opened in search of reality. He is a conscious integrator of idealism and realism: his idealism allows him to feel reality with an immediacy that is not found later; and his realism allows him to bring God to earth, and to make him walk among men, instead of confining him to the top of the apses, as he used to before. Its shape is not only plastic, but also all accentuated by constructive lines; its color is new, bold, intense, but it has value above all as a way of accentuating the shape. Of his pupils, the only one who has carried out the tendencies of the master to free himself from formal limits is Maso, who paints by hints with surprising magic.

In Siena, while Giotto was making such an upheaval, people continued to dream. We abandoned ourselves to color, to wavy lines, to objective graces, to the magnificence of the oriental courts. But the color became more lively than before, the wavy lines more varied and moving, the more human graces, the more probable magnificences; and if, as in Petrarch, Simone Martini’s Lauras are in paradise, in that paradise one is softly reclining, and to get there one has not traveled the harsh path of Giotto.

Ambrogio Lorenzetti starts from the Sienese tradition of refined color, beautiful lines, a youthful feminine image, and reaches a new plastic power and a suggestion of luministic color agreement. Even in his dramatic compositions, the sense of objective beauty is so full that it becomes a calming catharsis. More impulsive, Pietro Lorenzetti possesses the qualities of his brother Ambrogio, except for the height of the dream, and reaches an intensity of dramatic expression, unknown to all, except Giovanni Pisano. The relationship between painting and feeling was then so immediate that even Simone Martini’s idyllic line could become an exceptional instrument of drama, under Barna’s brush. Then the world gets smaller. The Sienese continue to dream through colors that have become bright by habit, within lines more and more beautiful in their undulation, but sometimes calligraphic. The Rimini people, who were the first, outside of Tuscany, to feel Giotto’s art, try to infuse Byzantine warmth into Giotto’s schemes. The Modenese, the Bolognese, the Milanese, the Padovani always find new and ingenious agreements between the Florentine and Sienese traditions. The Venetians, more loyal to the Byzantine tradition, attempted a solution of the relationship between the Byzantine and the Gothic tastes, without Sienese influence, and yet in a way somewhat parallel to that of Siena. In Florence, Andrea Orcagna and, following Florence, in Pisa, Antonio Veneziano and Francesco Traini are interested in reality with that unscrupulousness that is Boccaccio’s. Divinity has already disappeared from their psychological content, and nevertheless remains in the ideal of form,

In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries the miniature flourished, which in Bologna boasted the work of Oderisi da Gubbio and Franco Bolognese; the wood carving with the Sienese statues of the Annunciation, and the ivory one with Giovanni Pisano and the Embriaci in Venice. In the goldsmith’s art, Siena, mother of elegance, counts Ugolino di Vieri, famous author of the corporal of Orvieto; Pistoia remembers Leonardo di ser Giovanni, who had a capital part in the altar robbed of the statuettes by Vanni Fucci in the “sacristy of beautiful furnishings”, and then began the dossal of San Giovanni in Florence. In the art of iron, Siena gave admirable essays, among others those of Conte di Lello in the gates or grates of Orvieto. In the enamels, Venice imitated the Byzantines, especially in the Pala d’oro, and Assisi applied them to the stained glass windows of San Francesco, laughing like flowery meadows, and he glazed the terracotta heads on a blue background, within a row of rhombuses, in the gallery of the lower church, near the Circles monument. The silk drapes were woven, in imitation of those of the East, in the Palermo workshops set up by Ruggiero II.

The bronze was fused in the seals, of which a large collection of matrices is in Rome, in the Palazzo di Venezia, and the gold in the coins, of which the Augustals of Frederick II were examples, worthy of ancient times, and, at the end of the fourteenth century, the half shield of the Carraresi Francesco I and Francesco Novello, who in Padua, the first seat of Humanism, renewed the Roman imperial coins of Commodus and Septimius Severus.

Italy Romanesque and Gothic Arts 8

Italy Romanesque and Gothic Arts Part 7

Italy Romanesque and Gothic Arts Part 7

According to Holidaysort, Arnolfo had in Rome a numerous series of admirers in the Cosmati, who slavishly repeated the learned forms. Instead, in Pisa itself, in Florence and Siena, the art of Giovanni Pisano found free continuation.

Andrea Pisano, the first obscure goldsmith, who soon became famous for the commission he had in 1330 of the first door of the Baptistery of Florence, when he was already old, shows in the bronze bas-reliefs of the door, representing the history of the Baptist, that he had fully assimilated the Gothic style, to be the master of the movement; and it tends to make the story simpler and clearer, reducing the crowd, which filled Giovanni’s bas-reliefs, to a few clearly defined groups, taking care, more than its predecessors, the unity, the connection between the scenes. The proportion of the figures, within the spaces closed by jagged frames of lobes and angles, is correct, in perfect balance; the shapes, elegant and refined in modeling, are turned with goldsmith’s art despite their size: San Giovannino child in the desert, Salomè, with short curly hair and flowing tunic like that of Fra Angelico’s angels, they remain among the most exquisite examples of grace in fourteenth-century sculpture. No sculptor preceded Andrea Pisano in this fundamental reform of the composition; but a painter, Giotto. Proof of this is the beginning of marble bas-reliefs that Giotto himself made for the bell tower of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence, among which theThe art of navigation , with figures of boatmen bent over the oars, eyes fixed on the expanse of the waters, the  Theatrica  with the charioteer studied by the ancient and with panting horses, Agriculture  with the effort of the men who guide the plow and oxen pulling with great force on the hard earth.

It was therefore Andrea Pisano who said the new word in sculpture after that of Giovanni. And he was continued by Andrea Orcagna of Florence (1328-1368), architect, sculptor, painter, poet, who made Andrea’s fomie graver, more constructive, deeper, in the tabernacle of Orsanmichele in Florence (1359), where the realism of the following century is already present. He does not pile up the figures, on the contrary he seems to be afraid of pressing them into the narrow spaces; affirms his tendency to simplify the compositions, to amplify the forms, giving fullness to the faces, breadth to the mantles. The mimicry of the figures is more lively than that of Andrea Pisano: the lips and hands become speaking in the relief with the announcement of death to the Virgin ; the look of the  Solertia, who points his finger to his lips as a sign of silence, is open and lively in contrast to the deep, humble, fearful one of  Virginity . Orcagna is not a restless spirit who always tries new things; he is a hardworking, practical and hardworking teacher. In representing a solemn scene, such as that of the Assumption, he remembered that he was not only a sculptor, but also a mosaicist, to obtain the most vivid and dazzling effects with the background of blue enamel scattered with stars. And with the virtue of an architect he arranged bas-reliefs and mosaics in the tabernacle, admirable for the harmony of the parts, for the noble elegance of the whole, for the majesty assumed by the Gothic style. The angels venerate Mary, playing, singing in ecstasy; and above the pillars of the lantern, along the friezes, on the cusps, the prophets, the patriarchs and the blessed sing praises. Between the glitter of the mosaics, the brightness of the marbles and the splendor of the gold the sacred song rises. The stars twinkle along the twisted columns, in the brocades, in the stoles, in the fringes; the firmament shines on the canopy.

Outside of Florence, Gothicism continues to reign in sculpture, intent on refining the typical forms of Giovanni Pisano. Nino, son of Andrea, limits himself to studying the graceful smile of his Madonnas. He is the main auctioneer of the Pisan style in sculpture, for the diffusion that his statuettes of the Madonna had and also for the construction, in Venice, of the monument to Doge Marco Cornaro.

Giovanni di Balduccio, another Pisan, brought models to the masters of Campione and Como with the monuments of Sarzana and Genoa, and with the ark of Sant’Eustorgio in Milan, from which the other of Sant’Agostino in Pavia derives.

While Giovanni’s Pisan followers conquered the north, his Sienese followers conquered the south of Italy. Tino di Camaino senese works in Pisa, Siena, Florence, Naples, finding his best expression in the bas-reliefs with the life of St. Catherine in St. Clare of this city, where the naive grace of the recommendation makes one forget the superficial structure plastic; Lorenzo Maitani, among the subtle embroidery of the circumvented clusters of vine leaves, carries fragile bas-reliefs from the Old and New Testaments on the front of the Orvieto cathedral; Goro di Gregorio in Messina, Agostino and Agnolo di Ventura, Gano and many others spread the Pisan style throughout Italy when it was already reformed in Florence.

Through the work of Veronese marble workers, and above all of the Venetians Iacobello and Pier Paolo delle Masegne, the second half of the fourteenth century reveals a new, rough and uncomfortable activity, but a sincere researcher of reality; and in Lombardy, through the work of Giovannino de ‘Grassi, painter and illuminator, rather than sculptor, sculpture also intensifies the realistic character, and tends to lead the tortuosity of Gothic ornamentation to paroxysm. Many works dating back to the beginning of the fifteenth century are linked to these fourteenth-century forms, in S. Petronio in Bologna, in the Doge’s Palace in Venice, in the cathedral of Milan, in Naples with the Baboccio, in Florence itself with the retards.

A little later than architecture and sculpture, since the first half of the thirteenth century, Italian painting, which was popular and not courtly painting, presents itself to us with a particular grandeur. The  S. _ Francis by Bonaventura Berlinghieri, who dates back to 1235, has its own perfection. Rigid, hieratic, tormented by asceticism, the image towers over the cases of the saint’s life, painted on the sides: thus the divine overhangs the relativity of human life. And it is no coincidence that what is perhaps the oldest pictorial masterpiece in Italy speaks in the name of St. Francis. Religious life in Italy reached a creative height in the thirteenth century that has never returned. The names of St. Francis and St. Thomas, the very participation of St. Dominic in Italian life, are the most obvious indicators of that religiosity. We felt God, we thought God, we acted in the name of God. God participated in every economic, political, moral, intellectual, artistic act of the life of Italy. The passions, so intense as to leave us astonished, seemed inspired by God, whether they led to battles or directed the brushes. The models might have been Byzantine, but those works that looked like copies, full of a new content of popular religiosity, were independent of the models as works of art. Each one found, beyond the models, his own God.

Italy Romanesque and Gothic Arts 7

Italy Romanesque and Gothic Arts Part 6

Italy Romanesque and Gothic Arts Part 6

In sculpture, Pisa reigns. While the Pisan Baptistery is garlanded with statues and jagged marble cusps, the Camposanto welcomes the remains of men into the land transported from Calvary, the cathedral raises its superb forehead near the bows tower. The sculptors run from Pisa to Lucca to decorate the beautiful San Martino; they run to Perugia to sculpt the fountain where the voices of virtues, liberal arts, the Bible and history resound among the jets; the prophets, the sibyls, Plato and Aristotle rush to Siena to erect the prophets, the sibyls, Plato, and Aristotle, who, in ecstasy or in the fury of inspiration, announce the coming of the Word or the eternal truth to the faithful. Italy was conquered with chisels by Nicola d’Apulia and his school.

According to Globalsciencellc, Nicola (born in the early 1200s and died around 1280) marks the transition period between the Romanesque and the modern ages. Educated by the artists who worked for Frederick II in Puglia, he brings to Tuscany, Lucca, Prato, Pisa, Siena, Umbria, Perugia, the great classical art of the Apulian ambois and castles, and applies it to depict entire cycles of traditional Christian scenes. The pulpit of Pisa, more than all the other works, in which the collaboration of the followers takes over, gives us the knowledge of the art of Nicola d’Apulia, Roman for amplitude of forms, for classic drapery, for the great quiet of the orderly and massive compositions, still subject, like Romanesque sculpture, to the slavery of architecture. The forms, with their imposing structure,

In the art of Nicola’s son, Giovanni (circa 1250-circa 1320), the effects of movement succeed those of august composure; sculpture emancipates itself from the slavery of architectural plans; the gothic whirlwind overwhelms the agitated crowd of statues. Not Nicola d’Apulia, but Giovanni opens the new era of Italian sculpture. Already in Nicola the tendency to enrich the sculptural effect is announced progressively. In the pulpit of the cathedral of Pisa, the decoration is entirely subordinate to the architectural structure: the reliefs in leveled masses, despite the powerful construction of the form, are inserted in a methodical order within the rectangular mirrors of the polygonal parapet, and bundles of columns, three to three, they strengthen each vertex; the imperatorial figures of virtues reinforce the pillars of the arches, and the trefoil arches retain the full center. The first appearance of the pointed arch is in the pulpit of Siena, where Giovanni works for the first time next to his father, performing three bas-reliefs: the Crucifixion , the  Elected , the  Reprobate, in which new life erupts with sudden rebellion. The angels of John, in a corner of the pulpit, stormy, with cheeks swollen like those of the winds, launch the blasts of an advent of new art in the Gothic temple. Profound difference between the art of the two masters, which appears even more evident in the spring of Perugia, where from the polygonal compact and smooth tub, strengthened at the top by heavy bundles of columns, marked, in its massive grandeur, in the style of Nicola, lever the second, agile and broken; and from the second, with a faster leap, the bronze basin: smooth flower corolla into which the magnificent knot of nymphs and griffins plunges; nothing more than the art of Nicola, in this living flower born from the ardent imagination of Giovanni.

The Gothic triumphs with the pulpit of Pistoia in the lanceolate acuteness of the arches, in the cry of the statues, which no longer sit in the chair on the capitals of the columns, nor do they slowly recline within the corner of the pendentives, but give the idea of ​​agitation from below. Faci for the enthusiasm of the movements, the rapid volute of the heads raised above the bodies, gathered in long tunics with sliding bundles of folds. Finally, in the pulpit of Pisa, destroyed by a fire, now rebuilt in the cathedral, the sculptural vegetation rises and descends along the increasingly broken walls, tightening, suffocating, hiding the skeleton of the building. A people of statues form the pedestals of the pulpit; the lions roar out among those forests of convulsive, frail figures, dominated by nerves, burned with fever: the double crowns of leaves on the capitals rotate in the wind in convulsions of flame; and the images of the bas-reliefs, dry, restless, passionate, erupt from the parapet, free in space, overwhelming the architecture; Nicola’s smooth and compact rock creaks, crumbles, breaks down into fantastic shapes. The sculptural forms free themselves from architectural slavery; they conquer space, reflecting, in the painful and feverish contortions, the fatigue of the struggle that led them to liberation.

The concept of independence of sculpture from architecture, greater in Giovanni’s Gothic than in French Gothic, informs the free sculptural vegetation that nestles between the edges of the facade of the cathedral of Siena: lions and dragons, and trampling horses, pushed out of the marble walls, cutting the wind that upsets the bristly manes. Next to that people of unleashed monsters, a people of seers – prophets, sibyls, ancient philosophers – dominate the crowd, shouting to the wind the truths of science and faith.

Not only Giovanni belonged to Nicola’s school. In addition to the mediocre Fra Guglielmo da Pisa, executor of part of the ark of S. Domenico in Bologna and of a pulpit in Pistoia, the noble spreader of the art of Nicola in Rome, Perugia, Florence, Arnolfo di Cambio ( 1232-1301), more faithful than Giovanni to the master, further away from Gothic impulses, tending to refine the forms of Nicola d’Apulia with Tuscan grace. He enriches his works with mosaic decoration, used in Rome by the Cosmati; it brings to art a profoundly Tuscan sense of measure, crystalline regularity of form in full Gothic period, virtuosity of marble processing, love of minute and subtle proportions, of marble sharpness. In the ciborium of Santa Cecilia in Rome, the Italian tendency to regulate the impetus of vertical lines by means of the brake of horizontal dividers, the Italian tendency to squaring, which characterizes our Gothic style in the face of the Gothic style of France, finds its full expression. Giovanni’s feverish life stops in the statuettes that adorn Arnolfo’s food and sepulchres, small and precious, with thinly stretched drapes, inert, almost fossilized bodies. Abstract, petrified and vague are the physiognomies of Arnolfian faces, with silent protruding eyes, without gaze; outlined with rare elegance the thin paper folds of the garments; stares at her small, ribbon-like hands. Refined marble worker, Arnolfo does not care to transfuse life into sculptures, satisfied with formal elegance, with the nobility of frozen forms, of subtle and profound measure.

Italy Romanesque and Gothic Arts 6

Italy Romanesque and Gothic Arts Part 5

Italy Romanesque and Gothic Arts Part 5

The Cistercian monks brought their Burgundian-Gothic style to the abbeys of Fossanova (1197-1208), of Casamari (1217), of S. Galgano (1218-1310), of S. Martino near Viterbo (from 1215), of S. Maria d’Arborea (founded in 1208), of the three Chiaravalle, near Milan, Piacenza and Iesi. Examples of Gothic architecture from Île-deFrance can be found in Sant’Andrea di Vercelli, and in the buildings of Frederick II in Puglia and Sicily, while examples of architecture from southern France were imported by Charles I of Anjou in his kingdom of the two Sicilies, in Lucera, Naples, etc.

Gothic architecture, imported into Italy, fails to dispel the habits of Romanesque construction even when, as in the century. XIV, the fashion of the Gothic line had also invaded sculpture and painting. More measured than the French Gothic, which finds its expression in the daring of the vertical line, in the mystical upward rush, in the cry to God of the spiers pinned to the sky, the Italian Gothic avoids the extreme lightness obtained by the predominance of voids, the unrelated rows of spiers: the indigenous tendency to squaring maintains dominance, so that, more than in the architectural framework, the impulse of Gothic art on Italian art is expressed in the fantastic richness of the decoration.

According to Localtimezone, the facade of the cathedral of Siena, covered by a sumptuous heavy carpet of marble lace, with the pediment flanked by cusps like burning candelabra at the sides of an altar, with the arches and open galleries, remembrance of Romanesque churches, maintains, in the clear organism , prototype at the cathedral of Orvieto, Tuscany, Italian physiognomy. And while in the French cathedrals, the statues, stretched within the thin sheath of the garments, are channeled along the architectural profiles, with rigorous order intended to increase the hieratic impression of verticality, in the cathedral of Siena they rush with impetus out of the frames, animating the he building with the beloved Italic game of shadows created by the paroxysm of movements, free like those of the foliage that twists and licks the edges of the frames with flames. Disappears, this freedom typical of Giovanni Pisano’s art, in the cathedral of Orvieto, where the great lines of the Sienese prototype are preserved, but the surface, extended and flat, is covered, for Lorenzo Maitani, with a light sculptural embroidery, almost miniaturistic, which it does not give accents to the architecture; the pinnacles, perdu or the chiaroscuro play of multiple niches, stretch out, thin and united, as formed by superimposed bundles of rods. Arnolf’s tendency to surface turning, to marble smoothness, seems here timidly to introduce itself alongside the shapes of the Sienese cathedral. And, as always in our architecture, the gothic impetus of the pinnacles, the rise of the lines, is curbed by the intervention of the horizontal. When, in Pisa, S. Maria della Spina was adorned, an exception in Tuscan art, of a rich series of cusps elevated on the high pediments, they are not, like the Gothic spiers, true quills, but small cibori, lace canopies that four short columns hold suspended above the heads of the Virgin and the saints. And those spiers are laboriously grafted onto the always classic frame of the building.

The classic character in Arnolfian buildings is even more pronounced, despite the pointed arches and Gothic points, due to the crystalline structure that derives from the perfect sense of proportion, the marble smoothness of the surface, the logical order in which the statues are distributed in the their thin shells, from the geometry of the Cosmatesque ornament. In the cathedral of Florence, Arnolfo, to accentuate the national character of Italian Gothic architecture, plans to raise the dome, the grand crown of the building, a symbol of majesty and power, a link between Romanesque and Renaissance architecture. divine that dominates men from above, the resonant center of the temple. The elegant, marble Arnolfo, at the beginning of the fourteenth century, is already, in many respects, the man of the Renaissance:

On the other hand, the cathedral of Milan is of a completely foreign style, and precisely Germanic, a stylistic and chronological exception, since it began at the end of the century. XIV, just when Renaissance architecture was about to rise in Tuscany.

Gothic, in the decorations of the windows and doors, but of a purely Italian character, is the construction of the various municipal buildings in the major Italian centers, such as the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, the Palazzo della Signoria in Siena, the Palazzo Ducale in Venice, the Loggia dei Mercanti in Verona. The habit of decorating civil constructions with gothic spirals that were completely square, that is, far from the fundamental mystical spirit of gothic art, continued and developed above all in Venice, until towards the end of the fifteenth century, and produced a special development of the gothic style. flowery, which still constitutes the greatest architectural attraction of that city: the masterpiece of this lagoon architecture is the so-called Cà d’Oro.

Italy Romanesque and Gothic Arts 4